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1

Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a review article about the Citrus Canker, an introduced plant disease. The article contains detailed background and overview and includes information on (1) Citrus Canker strain diversity, identification, diagnosis and characterization; (2) the symptoms and infection Process; (3) the epidemiology; (4) the management for prevention and control of Citrus Canker; (5) and the social, political, and legal ramifications of regulatory policy.

Tim R. Gottwald (USDA;); James H. Graham (University of Florida;); Tim S. Schubert (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;)

2002-08-12

2

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.  

PubMed

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

2014-01-28

3

Over-expression of the Arabidopsis NPR1 gene in citrus increases resistance to citrus canker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is a serious leaf and fruit spotting disease affecting many important citrus cultivars including grapefruit and certain\\u000a sweet oranges. Currently, efficacious and economical disease control measures for highly susceptible citrus cultivars are\\u000a lacking. Development of commercial cultivars with greater field resistance to citrus canker is the optimum strategy

Xudong Zhang; Marta I. Francis; William O. Dawson; James H. Graham; Vladimir Orbovi?; Eric W. Triplett; Zhonglin Mou

2010-01-01

4

Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, currently featured on the home page of the American Phytopathological Society, contains a research report regarding the Asiatic citrus canker that has had devastating effects on Florida's citrus industry. The report, in a journal article format, thoroughly relates the natural history and current status of the disease, as well as detailing the methods and results of the (primarily genetic) experiments conducted in this study. One of the most appealing features of this Web site is the quality of the photos within the report. These photos can be viewed separately from the report in a slide show. While navigating this site is relatively straightforward, the lack of a table of contents can make finding your place in the body of the text somewhat confusing.

2002-01-01

5

Effect of citrus leaf-miner damage, mechanical damage and inoculum concentration on severity of symptoms of Asiatic citrus canker in Tahiti lime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citriculture in São Paulo State, Brazil, is threatened by Asiatic citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri). The introduction of the Asian citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella [CLM]) has resulted in an increase in the number of disease foci and has changed the spatial pattern of citrus canker symptomatic trees from strong aggregation to intermediate aggregation and random patterns. We evaluated

R. S. C. Christiano; M. Dalla Pria; W. C. Jesus Junior; J. R. P. Parra; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin Filho

2007-01-01

6

Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. Results We have sequenced the genomes of strains B and C to draft status. We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. In addition to pthA, already known to be present in all three citrus canker strains, two additional effector genes, xopE3 and xopAI, are also present in all three strains and are both located on the same putative genomic island. These two effector genes, along with one other effector-like gene in the same region, are thus good candidates for being pathogenicity factors on citrus. Numerous gene content differences also exist between the three cankers strains, which can be correlated with their different virulence and host range. Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. Conclusion We have uncovered numerous commonalities and differences in gene content between the genomes of the pathogenic agents causing citrus canker A, B, and C and other Xanthomonas genomes. Molecular genetics can now be employed to determine the role of these genes in plant-microbe interactions. The gained knowledge will be instrumental for improving citrus canker control. PMID:20388224

2010-01-01

7

Modelling the progress of Asiatic citrus canker on Tahiti lime in relation to temperature and leaf wetness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of temperature (15°C, 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C and 42°C) and leaf wetness duration (0, 4, 8 12, 16,\\u000a 20 and 24 h) on infection and development of Asiatic citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) on Tahiti lime plant was examined in growth chambers. No disease developed at 42°C and zero hours of leaf wetness. Periods\\u000a of leaf

R. S. C. Christiano; M. Dalla Pria; W. C. Jesus Junior; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin Filho

2009-01-01

8

DNA Polymorphisms and Biocontrol of Bacillus Antagonistic to Citrus Bacterial Canker with Indication of the Interference of Phyllosphere Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a devastating disease resulting in significant crop losses in various citrus cultivars worldwide. A biocontrol agent has not been recommended for this disease. To explore the potential of bacilli native to Taiwan to control this disease, Bacillus species with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various phytopathogens were isolated from plant potting mixes, organic compost and the rhizosphere soil. Seven strains TKS1-1, OF3-16, SP4-17, HSP1, WG6-14, TLB7-7, and WP8-12 showing superior antagonistic activity were chosen for biopesticide development. The genetic identity based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all seven native strains were close relatives of the B. subtilis group and appeared to be discrete from the B. cereus group. DNA polymorphisms in strains WG6-14, SP4-17, TKS1-1, and WP8-12, as revealed by repetitive sequence-based PCR with the BOXA1R primers were similar to each other, but different from those of the respective Bacillus type strains. However, molecular typing of the strains using either tDNA-intergenic spacer regions or 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer regions was unable to differentiate the strains at the species level. Strains TKS1-1 and WG6-14 attenuated symptom development of citrus bacterial canker, which was found to be correlated with a reduction in colonization and biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri on leaf surfaces. The application of a Bacillus strain TKS1-1 endospore formulation to the leaf surfaces of citrus reduced the incidence of citrus bacterial canker and could prevent development of the disease. PMID:22848728

Huang, Tzu-Pi; Tzeng, Dean Der-Syh; Wong, Amy C. L.; Chen, Chun-Han; Lu, Kuan-Min; Lee, Ya-Huei; Huang, Wen-Di; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Tzeng, Kuo-Ching

2012-01-01

9

Rapid and sensitive detection of Citrus Bacterial Canker by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with simple visual evaluation methods  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) is a major, highly contagious disease of citrus plants present in many countries in Asia, Africa and America, but not in the Mediterranean area. There are three types of Citrus Bacterial Canker, named A, B, and C that have different genotypes and posses variation in host range within citrus species. The causative agent for type A CBC is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, while Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii, strain B causes type B CBC and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes CBC type C. The early and accurate identification of those bacteria is essential for the protection of the citrus industry. Detection methods based on bacterial isolation, antibodies or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed previously; however, these approaches may be time consuming, laborious and, in the case of PCR, it requires expensive laboratory equipment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique, is sensitive, specific, fast and requires no specialized laboratory equipment. Results A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC-LAMP) was developed and evaluated. DNA samples were obtained from infected plants or cultured bacteria. A typical ladder-like pattern on gel electrophoresis was observed in all positive samples in contrast to the negative controls. In addition, amplification products were detected by visual inspection using SYBRGreen and using a lateral flow dipstick, eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated in different conditions and using several sample sources which included purified DNA, bacterium culture and infected plant tissue. The sensitivity of the CBC-LAMP was 10 fg of pure Xcc DNA, 5 CFU in culture samples and 18 CFU in samples of infected plant tissue. No cross reaction was observed with DNA of other phytopathogenic bacteria. The assay was capable of detecting CBC-causing strains from several geographical origins and pathotypes. Conclusions The CBC-LAMP technique is a simple, fast, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker. This method can be useful in the phytosanitary programs of the citrus industry worldwide. PMID:20565886

2010-01-01

10

Detached leaf inoculation of germplasm for rapid screening of resistance to citrus canker and citrus bacterial spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detached leaf protocol for rapid screening of germplasm for resistance to citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) and citrus bacterial spot (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Xac) was developed to evaluate limited quantities of leaf material. Bacterial inocula of Xcc or Xac at 104, 105, or 108 cfu ml?1 were injection-infiltrated into the abaxial surface of disinfested, immature leaves of susceptible

Marta I. Francis; Alma Peña; James H. Graham

2010-01-01

11

Citrus MAF1, a repressor of RNA polymerase III, binds the Xanthomonas citri canker elicitor PthA4 and suppresses citrus canker development.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas species pathogens act as transcription factors in plant cells; however, how TAL effectors activate host transcription is unknown. We found previously that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, known as PthAs, bind the carboxyl-terminal domain of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibit the activity of CsCYP, a cyclophilin associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the citrus RNA Pol II that functions as a negative regulator of cell growth. Here, we show that PthA4 specifically interacted with the sweet orange MAF1 (CsMAF1) protein, an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) repressor that controls ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human. CsMAF1 bound the human RNA Pol III and rescued the yeast maf1 mutant by repressing tRNA(His) transcription. The expression of PthA4 in the maf1 mutant slightly restored tRNA(His) synthesis, indicating that PthA4 counteracts CsMAF1 activity. In addition, we show that sweet orange RNA interference plants with reduced CsMAF1 levels displayed a dramatic increase in tRNA transcription and a marked phenotype of cell proliferation during canker formation. Conversely, CsMAF1 overexpression was detrimental to seedling growth, inhibited tRNA synthesis, and attenuated canker development. Furthermore, we found that PthA4 is required to elicit cankers in sweet orange leaves and that depletion of CsMAF1 in X. citri-infected tissues correlates with the development of hyperplastic lesions and the presence of PthA4. Considering that CsMAF1 and CsCYP function as canker suppressors in sweet orange, our data indicate that TAL effectors from X. citri target negative regulators of RNA Pol II and Pol III to coordinately increase the transcription of host genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:23898043

Soprano, Adriana Santos; Abe, Valeria Yukari; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2013-09-01

12

Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797

Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.

2013-01-01

13

Nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex: keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia.  

PubMed

This article addresses nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex, namely keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia. Keratoma is an uncommon cause of lameness, which may be surgically removed. White line disease, a keratolytic process on the solar surface of the hoof, is treated with therapeutic farriery and resection of the hoof wall when appropriate. Equine canker is an infectious process that results in development of a chronic hypertrophy of the horn-producing tissues. Neoplasia involving the equine foot is rare, and melanoma is the most common type of neoplasm reported. PMID:22981198

Redding, W Rich; O'Grady, Stephen E

2012-08-01

14

Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of\\u000a pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte.\\u000a Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the

Adrián Alberto Vojnov; Alexandre Morais do Amaral; John Maxwell Dow; Atilio Pedro Castagnaro; Marìa Rosa Marano

2010-01-01

15

Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule for Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut (TCD) will be effective  

E-print Network

Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut ­ Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule, and recently added Tennessee may not come into Indiana without an inspection at the point of origin by a state before they are to come into Indiana. The primary concern is Tennessee as it is the most likely source

16

Oak tree canker disease supports arthropod diversity in a natural ecosystem.  

PubMed

Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

2014-03-01

17

Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

2014-01-01

18

A New Canker Disease of Apple, Pear, and Plum Rootstocks Caused by Diaporthe ambigua in South Africa  

E-print Network

A New Canker Disease of Apple, Pear, and Plum Rootstocks Caused by Diaporthe ambigua in South., Wingfield. B. D.. Wingfield. M. 1., and Calitz. F. J. 1996. A new canker disease of apple. pear, and plum was found to be the c:J.useof a newly recognized disease of apple. pear, and plum rootstocks in South Africa

19

TPCP: Pitch canker PITCH CANKER  

E-print Network

to commercial forestry in South Africa today. In the past seven years, Fusarium subglutinans f.sp. pini or FSP was first recorded in South Africa in 1991, where it was found causing a root disease of Pinus patula severe and extensive root disease of pine seedlings in nurseries. Dead top associated with stem canker

20

Prediction of Long-Term Canker Disease Damage from the Responses of Juvenile Poplar Clones to Inoculation with Septoria musiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weiland, J. E., Stanosz, J. C., and Stanosz, G. R. 2003. Prediction of long-term canker disease damage from the responses of juvenile poplar clones to inoculation with Septoria musiva. Plant Dis. 87:1507-1514. Stem cankers caused by Septoria musiva severely limit production of susceptible hybrid poplars in eastern North America. A field experiment was conducted to determine whether short-term responses of

JoAnne C. Stanosz; Glen R. Stanosz

21

Canker Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... the base of your gums or under your tongue. Canker sores are different from fever blisters, which usually are on the outside of your lips or the corners of your mouth. Canker sores are also called aphthous ulcers. Anyone can get canker sores, but women and ...

22

A Test of the Validity of Screening Poplar Clones for Long-Term Canker Disease Damage by Responses to Inoculation with Septoria Musiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Septoria musiva (S. musiva) causes a stem canker dis- ease that severely damages susceptible hybrid poplars in Eastern North America. An earlier field trial demonstrated the potential for short-term responses of poplar stems to inoculation with S. musiva to be predictive of long-term canker disease damage. In the summer of 2000, addition- al poplar clones primarily selected by a

J. E. Weiland; J. C. Stanosz; G. R. Stanosz

23

New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia  

E-print Network

New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia M. Van Wyk a serious canker- stain disease on coffee as well as other fruit trees. Large collections of these isolates. The aim of this study was to compare representatives of these two groups of isolates from coffee, citrus

24

Canker Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... You can get them on or under the tongue and on the inside of the cheeks and lips — the parts of the mouth that can move. They usually pop up alone, but sometimes they show up in small clusters. Signs It's a Canker Sore Your mouth might tingle or burn before a canker sore appears. Soon, a small ...

25

Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host.  

PubMed

In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte. Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the vascular system of the host, either in the phloem (Candidatus Liberibacter) or xylem (X. fastidiosa) causing variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing diseases, respectively. Candidatus Liberibacter can be found within host cells and is thus unique as an intracellular phytopathogenic bacterium. Genome sequence comparisons have identified groups of species-specific genes that may be associated with the particular lifestyle, mode of transmission or symptoms produced by each phytopathogen. In addition, components that are conserved amongst bacteria may have diverse regulatory actions underpinning the different bacterial lifestyles; one example is the divergent role of the Rpf/DSF cell-cell signalling system in X. citri and X. fastidiosa. Biofilm plays a key role in epiphytic fitness and canker development in X. citri and in the symptoms produced by X. fastidiosa. Bacterial aggregation may be associated with vascular occlusion of the xylem vessels and symptomatology of variegated chlorosis. PMID:20449739

Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Dow, John Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Marano, Marìa Rosa

2010-06-01

26

Canker sore  

MedlinePLUS

Aphthous ulcer; Ulcer - aphthous ... Canker sores are a common form of mouth ulcer . They may occur with viral infections. In some ... spots or bump that develops into an open ulcer White or yellow center Small size (most often ...

27

7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.  

...any local citrus canker eradication program office in Florida, or from the USDA Citrus Canker Eradication Program, 6901 West Sunrise Boulevard, Plantation, FL 33313. The completed application should be accompanied by a copy of the public...

2014-01-01

28

Progeny differences of hinoki ( Chamaecyparis obtusa ) and sawara ( C. pisifera ) against resinous stem canker disease and spatial distribution of damage (disease severity) in a progeny test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and severity of resinous stem canker disease were investigated in hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and sawara (C. pisifera) at a progeny test located in Yamatsuri Town, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Symptoms of the disease were observed in 307 trees\\u000a out of 933 investigated trees (32.9%). The damage was more severe on lower slopes than on upper slopes, indicating that micro-environmental

Makoto Takahashi; Minoru Mukouda; Kenji Nishimura

1998-01-01

29

Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious ?-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments. PMID:23441969

Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj

2013-07-01

30

Involvement of microRNA-Mediated Gene Expression Regulation in the Pathological Development of Stem Canker Disease in Populus trichocarpa  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of short (21–23 nucleotides), non-coding RNA molecule, mediate repressive gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level, and play an important role in defense and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In the present study, Affymetrix® miRNA Array, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for miRNAs and their targets, and miRNA promoter analysis were used to validate the gene expression patterns of miRNAs in Populus trichocarpa plantlets induced with the poplar stem canker pathogen, Botryosphaeria dothidea. Twelve miRNAs (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR168, miR172, miR319, miR398, miR408, miR1448, and miR1450) were upregulated in the stem bark of P. trichocarpa, but no downregulated miRNAs were found. Based on analysis of the miRNAs and their targets, a potential co-regulatory network was developed to describe post-transcriptional regulation in the pathological development of poplar stem canker. There was highly complex cross-talk between diverse miRNA pathway responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The results suggest that miR156 is probably an integral component of the miRNA response to all environmental stresses in plants. Cis-regulatory elements were binding sites for the transcription factors (TFs) on DNA. Promoter analysis revealed that TC-rich repeats and a W1-box motif were both tightly related disease response motifs in Populus. Promoter analysis and target analysis of miRNAs also revealed that some TFs regulate their activation/repression. Furthermore, a feedback regulatory network in the pathological development of poplar stem canker is provided. The results confirm that miRNA pathways regulate gene expression during the pathological development of plant disease, and provide new insights into understanding the onset and development of poplar stem canker. PMID:23028709

Zhao, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Su, Xiao-Hua

2012-01-01

31

Injected Treatments for Management of Madrone Canker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) has been experiencing a decline in the Puget Sound area, primarily as a result of a canker disease caused by the fungus Fusicoccum arbuti. Cultural methods such as prevention of stress and wounding are recommended to control canker diseases on trees. In addition to these, injected treatments can be used to protect valuable Pacific madrone trees

Marianne Elliott; Robert L. Edmonds

2008-01-01

32

Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.  

PubMed

The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production. PMID:24617532

Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

2014-07-01

33

Some new diseases of Citrus in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis-(LINN.) OSBECK locally known as malta orange; mandarin and tangerines (C. reticulata BLANCO var. mandarin and var. tangerine); lemon (C. limon (LINN.)BURM. f.); Grapefruit (C. paradisi MACFAYDEN); Shaddock (C. decumana MURR.) vern. Chokotra; lime (C. auranti\\/olia SWIGLE); sour or bitter orange (C. aurantium LIN1;. sub. sp. amara LINN.) Sweet lime (C. auranti\\/olia SWtNGLE (= C. limetta RlSSO)

Abdul Hamid Khan

1959-01-01

34

Canker Sore (Aphthous Ulcer)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Canker Sore (Aphthous Ulcer) Information for adults A A A This image displays white-to-yellow lesions typical of apthous ulcers. Overview Canker sores (aphthous ulcers), ...

35

Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.  

PubMed

Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic. PMID:24601984

Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

2014-09-01

36

Canker Sores (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... canker sores. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), an ingredient in many toothpastes and mouthwashes, has been linked to canker sores and is thought to prolong the healing time of the sores. Even emotional stress could be a factor. One study of college students showed that they had more canker sores during ...

37

Genetics of anthracnose panel canker disease resistance and its relationship with yield and growth characters in half-sib progenies of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell-Arg) anthracnose panel canker disease resistance, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., and growth and yield characters were assessed at three years old in the nursery, in 18 half-sib progenies. There were highly significant (P < 0.01) genetic differences among progenies for most characters. The genetic component of variance accounted for

Paulo de Souza Gonçalves; Edson Luiz Furtado; Ondino Cleante Bataglia; Altino Aldo Ortolani; André May; Giselle Olmos Belletti

1999-01-01

38

Population Structure of Geosmithia morbida, the Causal Agent of Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut Trees in the United States  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease of Juglans (walnut) and Pterocarya (wingnut). The disease was first reported in the western United States (USA) on several Juglans species, but has been found more recently in the eastern USA in the native range of the highly susceptible Juglans nigra. We performed a comprehensive population genetic study of 209 G. morbida isolates collected from Juglans and Pterocarya from 17 geographic regions distributed across 12 U.S. states. The study was based on sequence typing of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms from three genomic regions and genotyping with ten microsatellite primer pairs. Using multilocus sequence-typing data, 197 G. morbida isolates were placed into one of 57 haplotypes. In some instances, multiple haplotypes were recovered from isolates collected on the same tree. Twenty-four of the haplotypes (42%) were recovered from more than one isolate; the two most frequently occurring haplotypes (H02 and H03) represented 36% of all isolates. These two haplotypes were abundant in California, but were not recovered from Arizona or New Mexico. G. morbida population structure was best explained by four genetically distinct groups that clustered into three geographic regions. Most of the haplotypes isolated from the native range of J. major (Arizona and New Mexico) were found in those states only or present in distinct genetic clusters. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or genetic recombination in any population. The scattered distribution of the genetic clusters indicated that G. morbida was likely disseminated to different regions at several times and from several sources. The large number of haplotypes observed and the genetic complexity of G. morbida indicate that it evolved in association with at least one Juglans spp. and the walnut twig beetle long before the first reports of the disease. PMID:25393300

Graves, Andrew D.; Hartel, Colleen; Pscheidt, Jay W.; Tonos, Jadelys; Broders, Kirk; Cranshaw, Whitney; Seybold, Steven J.; Tisserat, Ned

2014-01-01

39

A canker of Limonium sp. caused by Phomopsis limonii sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stem canker disease of a Limonium hybrid ‘Chorus Magenta’ was identified at several sites throughout the North Island of New Zealand. First symptoms included leaves of diseased plants turning yellow, often on one side of the leaf blades. Cankers developed blue?black discoloration, and dark fruiting bodies of a fungus were located below the epidermis of cankers on dying plants.

I. C. Harvey; E. R. Morgan; G. K. Burge

2000-01-01

40

First outbreak of pitch canker in a South African pine plantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker, was first reported in South Africa in 1990 on Pinus patula seedlings in a nursery. Subsequent to this outbreak the pathogen has spread throughout South African pine nurseries causing\\u000a a serious root and collar rot disease of various Pinus spp. The stem canker disease on plantation trees that typifies pitch canker in

T. A. Coutinho; E. T. Steenkamp; K. Mongwaketsi; M. Wilmot; M. J. Wingfield

2007-01-01

41

Implications of Climate Change for Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), a Disease Vector of Citrus in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasing temperatures, elevated CO2 levels, and changes in rainfall patterns are predicted to impact plants and insects, both harmful and beneficial. Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Aphididae), commonly known as the brown citrus aphid (BrCA), is a cosmopolitan pest of citrus and a\\u000a highly efficient vector of citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Both the pest and the disease pose a serious threat

Jawwad A. Qureshi

42

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2012-01-01

43

Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.  

PubMed

Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects. PMID:24904081

Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

2014-07-01

44

Citrus Genomics  

PubMed Central

Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

2008-01-01

45

Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in Citrus Disrupts Signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Thereby Its Virulence.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants. PMID:25099341

Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

2014-11-01

46

Huanglongbing, a Systemic Disease, Restructures the Bacterial Community Associated with Citrus Roots?  

PubMed Central

To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P ? 0.01) of 237.13 versus 42.14 for the uninfected and infected clone libraries, respectively. Similarly, the Shannon index of the uninfected clone library (4.46) was significantly higher than that of the infected clone library (2.61). Comparison of the uninfected clone library with the infected clone library using LIBSHUFF statistics showed a significant difference (P ? 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the bacterial community changes not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. The relative proportions of different groups of bacteria changed significantly after infection with the pathogen. These data indicate that infection of citrus by “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots. PMID:20382817

Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

2010-01-01

47

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

48

Increased risk of pitch canker to Australasia under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitch canker is a varied and complex disease of Pinus species. Despite the establishment of this disease in many countries, it has been difficult to predict how Fusarium circinatum would behave if introduced into Australia or New Zealand. To understand the potential risk this pathogen poses to the forest\\u000a industries in Australasia, the process-oriented niche modelling program CLIMEX was used

Rebecca J. Ganley; Michael S. Watt; Darren J. Kriticos; Anna J. M. Hopkins; Lucy K. Manning

2011-01-01

49

Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Black Spot1 K.-R. Chung, N. A. Peres and L. W. Timmer2  

E-print Network

PP 213 Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Black Spot1 K.-R. Chung, N. A. Peres and L. W. Timmer2 1 Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date Alfred, Florida; Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University

Jawitz, James W.

50

Canker Sores (Aphthous Stomatitis or Recurrent Mouth Ulcers)  

MedlinePLUS

Canker Sores (Aphthous Stomatitis or Recurrent Mouth Ulcers) What Is It? Symptoms Diagnosis Expected Duration Prevention Treatment When To Call a Professional Prognosis Additional Info What Is It? Canker sores are ...

51

76 FR 81359 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...301 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0029] European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated...regulations by expanding the regulated area for European larch canker to include additional areas...prevent human- assisted transmission of European larch canker from infested areas to...

2011-12-28

52

Figure 1. Rapidly wilting black walnut in the final stage of thousand cankers  

E-print Network

in the area of "Lone Mountain", New Mexico (Lincoln County). In the 1992 catalog of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles gallery. Figure 3. Distribution of the walnut twig beetle. In green are states and the California county 1998. Pest Alert Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut Within the past decade

53

Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis (formerly Cryphonectria cubensis) is best known for the important canker disease that it causes on Eucalyptus species. This fungus is also a pathogen of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), which is native to Indonesia, and like Eucalyptus, is a member of Myrtaceae. Furthermore, C. cubensis has been found on Miconia spp. native to South America and residing in

Marieka GRYZENHOUT; Carlos A. RODAS; Julio MENA PORTALES; Paul CLEGG; Brenda D. WINGFIELD; Michael J. WINGFIELD

2006-01-01

54

Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.  

PubMed

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

2014-08-01

55

Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus  

PubMed Central

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

56

Over the past 50 years, citrus growers have faced exotic pests and diseases predicted to cause the collapse of the Florida citrus  

E-print Network

, the possibility of pesticide applications affecting bees in citrus is past. For 2008, IFAS Extension programs of pesticides that are "bee-friendly" is underway. The goal is to find at least one product that could be used impossible to control. One problem with controlling psyllids is the coincidence of pesticide appli- cations

Jawitz, James W.

57

Geographic variation in severity of phoma stem canker and Leptosphaeria maculans\\/ L. biglobosa populations on UK winter oilseed rape ( Brassica napus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoma stem canker, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa, is the most important disease of oilseed rape in Europe. Differences between L. maculans and L. biglobosa in their life-cycles enable the two species to co-exist on oilseed rape crops over a cropping season. This review considers\\u000a the factors affecting geographic variation in the severity of phoma stem canker epidemics

Jenna F. Stonard; Akinwunmi O. Latunde-Dada; Yong-Ju Huang; Jonathan S. West; Neal Evans; Bruce D. L. Fitt

2010-01-01

58

Producing And Marketing Texas Citrus.  

E-print Network

, Texas WILLIAM G. HART, Research Leader, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agri cultural Research Service, Weslaco, Texas 3. TEXAS CITRUS - DISEASES JOSE M. AMADOR, Area Plant Pathologist, Texas Agricultural Extension Ser vice, Weslaco, Texas 4. TEXAS..., Texas WILLIAM G. HART, Research Leader, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agri cultural Research Service, Weslaco, Texas 3. TEXAS CITRUS - DISEASES JOSE M. AMADOR, Area Plant Pathologist, Texas Agricultural Extension Ser vice, Weslaco, Texas 4. TEXAS...

Lyons, Calvin G. Jr; Maxwell, Norman P.; Dean, Herbert; Deer, James A.; Hart, William G.; Amador, Jose M.; Powell, Gordon

1978-01-01

59

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on bacterial canker of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in managing bacterial canker disease of tomato was studied in the present work. Tomato seeds were treated with PGPR strains viz., Bacillus pumilus INR7, Bacillus pumilus SE34, Bacillus pumilus T4, Bacillus subtilis GBO3, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Brevibacillus brevis IPC11 were subjected for seed germination and seedling vigor. Among the PGPR strains tested, only

N Girish; S Umesha

2005-01-01

60

Fusarium circinatum and pitch canker of Pinus in Colombia E. T. Steenkamp & C. A. Rodas & M. Kvas &  

E-print Network

trees in plantations. Symptoms on seedlings included collar and root disease while shoot dieback and resinous stem cankers were found on trees in plantations. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Pinus species in Haiti (Hepting and Roth 1953), Japan (Kobayashi and Muramoto 1989), Korea (Woo et al

61

Citrus Leprosis Virus Vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Citrus in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms\\u000a of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation,\\u000a and death of the twigs or

J. C. V. Rodrigues; E. W. Kitajima; C. C. Childers; C. M. Chagas

2003-01-01

62

Dieback and sooty canker of Ficus trees in Egypt and its control.  

PubMed

This study was designed to throw lights on dieback and canker disease on urban trees of Ficus sp. in Egypt, its causal pathogens and disease control. Diseased samples were collected from five locations. Pathogenicity test was done on one year old of three different healthy seedlings of Ficus trees (Ficus benghalensis, Ficu snitida and Ficus hawaii). Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis sp. were consistently isolated from infected tissues and were pathogenic. The fungicides Antracol Combi and Topsin M 70 provided effective control of the infection. Accordingly, protecting ficus trees from diseases threating is considered a major goal to attain their benefits. PMID:24897790

Abo Rehab, M E A; Rashed, M F; Ammar, M I; El-Morsy, S A

2014-02-01

63

Suppression of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella , with an attract-and-kill formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a worldwide pest ofcitrus crops and is responsible for proliferation ofcitrus bacterial canker,Xanthomonas axonopodis (Hasse) pv. citri (Gamma Proteobacteria: Xanthomonadaceae). We developed and evaluated an attracticide formulation, termed MalEx, for control of P. citrella. MalEx is a viscous paste with UV-protective properties that is dispensed as 50-ll droplets using custom-made calibrated

Lukasz L. Stelinski; D. Czokajlo

2010-01-01

64

Inheritance of resistance to southern stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f.s. meridionalis) in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.  

E-print Network

encoun- tered among children. Thesis format follows Crop Science style. Recently, soybean production in the southeastern United States was threatened by stem canker, a dangerous disease caused by the fungus Diaporrhe pItaseolorum (Cke & Elh) f. s.... meridionalis (Athow & Caldwell) (2, 3). This fungus is capable of infecting and killing plants prior to completion of the seed-filling stage. Plants are usually infected during the early vegetative stages, but disease symptoms do not ap- pear until later...

Ngeleka, Kadima

2012-06-07

65

Cloning and characterization of receptor kinase class disease resistance gene candidates in Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice gene Xa21 represents a unique class of plant disease resistance ( R) genes with distinct protein structure and broad-spectrum specificity; few sequences or genes of this class have been cloned and characterized in other plant species. Degenerate primers were designed from the conserved motifs in the kinase domains of Xa21 and tomato Pto, and used in PCR amplification

Z. Deng; F. G. Gmitter

2003-01-01

66

Enhancement of the citrus immune system provides effective resistance against Alternaria brown spot disease.  

PubMed

In addition to basal defense mechanisms, plants are able to develop enhanced defense mechanisms such as induced resistance (IR) upon appropriate stimulation. We recently described the means by which several carboxylic acids protect Arabidopsis and tomato plants against fungi. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hexanoic acid (Hx) in the control of Alternaria brown spot (ABS) disease via enhancement of the immune system of Fortune mandarin. The application of 1mM Hx in irrigation water to 2-year-old Fortune plants clearly reduced the incidence of the disease and led to smaller lesions. We observed that several of the most important mechanisms involved in induced resistance were affected by Hx application. Our results demonstrate enhanced callose deposition in infected plants treated with Hx, which suggests an Hx priming mechanism. Plants treated with the callose inhibitor 2-DDG were more susceptible to the fungus. Moreover, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene expression was rapidly and significantly upregulated in treated plants. However, treatment with Hx decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected plants. Hormonal and gene analyses revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was activated due to a greater accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and JA along with a rapid accumulation of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Furthermore, we observed a more rapid accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), which could act as a positive regulator of callose deposition. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that both enhanced physical barriers and the JA signaling pathway are involved in hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to Alternaria alternata. PMID:23260526

Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Vicedo, Begonya; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

2013-01-15

67

Neuroprotective effects of citrus flavonoids.  

PubMed

Recent attention has been given to the influence of dietary factors on health and mental well-being. Oxidative stress is associated with many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Dietary flavonoids exert cardioprotective, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective effects. The biological activities of flavonoids have been attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and signaling properties. A clear understanding of the mechanisms of action, as either antioxidants or signaling molecules, is crucial for the application of flavonoids as interventions in neurodegeneration and as brain foods. Citrus flavonoids exert little adverse effect and have low or no cytotoxicity to healthy, normal cells. The main citrus flavonoids can also traverse the blood-brain barrier; hence, they are promising candidates for intervention in neurodegeneration and as constituents in brain foods. In this review, we discuss the bioactivity, multiple neuroprotection mechanisms, and antioxidant and signaling properties of citrus flavonoids. Receptor-mediated neuroprotective actions and parallel signaling pathways are also explored. Finally, the induction of cellular defense proteins against oxidative stress and neurotoxicity by hesperetin, a main and widespread citrus flavonoid, are also discussed. It is suggested that citrus fruits, which are rich in abundant sources of hesperetin and other flavonoids, are promising for the development of general food-based neuroprotection and brain foods. PMID:22224368

Hwang, Sam-Long; Shih, Ping-Hsiao; Yen, Gow-Chin

2012-02-01

68

PHENOTYPIC AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE pv. SYRINGAE THE CAUSAL AGENT OF BACTERIAL CANKER OF STONE FRUIT TREES IN KURDISTAN PROVINCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Since 2005, a disease similar to bacterial canker of stone fruit trees was observed in some areas of Kurdis- tan province, Iran. A total of 12 bacterial isolates were obtained from infected tissues of apricot and peach trees. According to biochemical, physiological and whole cell protein patterns, isolates were identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Some molecular properties of

G. Karimi-Kurdistani; B. Harighi

2008-01-01

69

Citrus Grove Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

1980-01-01

70

Cryphonectria canker on Tibouchina in South Africa Henrietta MYBURG1  

E-print Network

Cryphonectria canker on Tibouchina in South Africa Henrietta MYBURG1 , Marieka GRYZENHOUT2 , Ronald, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa. 2 Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa. 3 Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute

71

Genome-Wide Mutagenesis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Reveals Novel Genetic Determinants and Regulation Mechanisms of Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker disease, a major threat to citrus production worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that the formation of biofilms on citrus leaves plays an important role in the epiphytic survival of this pathogen prior to the development of canker disease. However, the process of Xac biofilm formation is poorly understood. Here, we report a genome-scale

Jinyun Li; Nian Wang

2011-01-01

72

Genetic transformation in citrus.  

PubMed

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Kacar, Yildiz Aka; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

2013-01-01

73

Genetic Transformation in Citrus  

PubMed Central

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

2013-01-01

74

Fusicoccum arbuti sp. nov. causing cankers on pacific madrone in western North America with notes on Fusicoccum dimidiatum, the correct name for Scytalidium dimidiatum and Nattrassia mangiferae.  

PubMed

Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is a broadleaf evergreen tree native to western North America that has been in decline for the past 30 years. A fungus has been isolated and was verified as the cause of cankers on dying trees. It was determined to belong in the genus Fusicoccum, an asexual state of Botryosphaeria. This genus in both its sexual and asexual states commonly causes canker diseases of deciduous woody plants. Using morphological and molecular data the fungus causing cankers on Pacific madrone is characterized, described and illustrated as a new species of Fusicoccum, F. arbuti D.F. Farr & M. Elliott sp. nov. No sexual state is known for F. arbuti. Evidence from the literature, cultures and specimens suggests that F. arbuti, often mistakenly identified as Nattrassia mangiferae, has been causing madrone canker since at least 1968. Authentic isolates of Nattrassia mangiferae as the synanamorph Scytalidium dimidiatum were sequenced and determined to be different from Fusicoccum arbuti and to belong in Botryosphaeria/Fusicoccum. In addition to molecular sequence data, the morphology of the pycnidial and arthric conidial states of Nattrassia mangiferae/ Scytalidium dimidiatum resembles that of Fusicoccum. Therefore the correct name for Nattrassia mangiferae and its numerous synonyms (Dothiorella mangiferae, Torula dimidata, Scytilidium dimidiatum, Fusicoccum eucalypti, Hendersonula toruloidea, H. cypria, Exosporina fawcetii, H. agathidia, and S. lignicola) is Fusicoccum dimidiatum (Penz.) D.F. Farr, comb. nov. PMID:16392261

Farr, David F; Elliott, Marianne; Rossman, Amy Y; Edmonds, Robert L

2005-01-01

75

Citrus Waste Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

2007-01-30

76

Delimiting cryptic pathogen species causing apple Valsa canker with multilocus data  

PubMed Central

Fungal diseases are posing tremendous threats to global economy and food safety. Among them, Valsa canker, caused by fungi of Valsa and their Cytospora anamorphs, has been a serious threat to fruit and forest trees and is one of the most destructive diseases of apple in East Asia, particularly. Accurate and robust delimitation of pathogen species is not only essential for the development of effective disease control programs, but also will advance our understanding of the emergence of plant diseases. However, species delimitation is especially difficult in Valsa because of the high variability of morphological traits and in many cases the lack of the teleomorph. In this study, we delimitated species boundary for pathogens causing apple Valsa canker with a multifaceted approach. Based on three independent loci, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), ?-tubulin (Btu), and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?), we inferred gene trees with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, estimated species tree with Bayesian multispecies coalescent approaches, and validated species tree with Bayesian species delimitation. Through divergence time estimation and ancestral host reconstruction, we tested the possible underlying mechanisms for fungal speciation and host-range change. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri, which diverged about 5 million years ago, much later than the divergence of their preferred hosts, excluding a scenario of fungi–host co-speciation. The marked different thermal preferences and contrasting pathogenicity in cross-inoculation suggest ecological divergences between the two species. Apple was the most likely ancestral host for both V. mali and V. pyri. Host-range expansion led to the occurrence of V. pyri on both pear and apple. Our results also represent an example in which ITS data might underestimate species diversity. PMID:24834333

Wang, Xuli; Zang, Rui; Yin, Zhiyuan; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

2014-01-01

77

Sodium sulphite yields improved DNA of higher stability for PCR detection of Citrus yellow mosaic virus from citrus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), a non-enveloped bacilliform DNA virus causes a severe mosaic disease in sweet oranges in India. CYMV is weakly immunogenic, thus serodiagnosis is not a preferred method for its detection. As an alternative a rapid and reliable detection protocol by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. However, high levels of polyphenolics and tannins in citrus leaves

V. K. Baranwal; S. Majumder; Y. S. Ahlawat; R. P. Singh

2003-01-01

78

Phenology of asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in punjab pakistan.  

PubMed

The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:25198345

Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

2014-10-01

79

Current epidemiological understanding of citrus Huanglongbing .  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive citrus pathosystem worldwide. Previously known primarily from Asia and Africa, it was introduced into the Western Hemisphere in 2004. All infected commercial citrus industries continue to decline owing to inadequate current control methods. HLB increase and regional spatial spread, related to vector populations, are rapid compared with other arboreal pathosystems. Disease dynamics result from multiple simultaneous spatial processes, suggesting that psyllid vector transmission is a continuum from local area to very long distance. Evolutionarily, HLB appears to have originated as an insect endosymbiont that has moved into plants. Lack of exposure of citrus to the pathogen prior to approximately 100 years ago did not provide sufficient time for development of resistance. A prolonged incubation period and regional dispersal make eradication nonviable. Multiple asymptomatic infections per symptomatic tree, incomplete systemic distribution within trees, and prolonged incubation period make detection difficult and greatly complicate disease control. PMID:20415578

Gottwald, Tim R

2010-01-01

80

Summer heat and low soil organic matter influence severity of hazelnut Cytospora canker.  

PubMed

Cytospora canker, caused by the fungus Cytospora corylicola, is present in hazelnut production areas worldwide. The disease is widespread throughout the main production areas of Italy. The causal agent is considered to be a secondary invader of damaged tissue that attacks mainly stressed plants. However, little is known of disease severity and stress factors that predispose plants to infection. In particular, the role of pedoclimatic factors was investigated. Direct survey indicated that disease severity varied across several study sites. Geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation between disease severity index and summer heat (r = 0.80 and 0.91 for July and August, respectively) and strong negative correlation between disease severity index and soil organic matter (r = -0.78). A moderate positive correlation between disease severity index and magnesium/potassium ratio (r = 0.58) and moderate negative correlations between disease severity index and total soil nitrogen (r = -0.53), thermal shock (r = -0.46), and rainfall (r = -0.53) were determined. No significant correlation between disease severity index and soil aluminum (r = -0.35), soil pH (r = -0.01), and plant age (r = -0.38) was found. PMID:24168042

Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Varvaro, Leonardo

2014-04-01

81

Invasive Plants, Species and Conditions Fact Sheets: Cheatgrass Brome, Bamboo Reed, Butternut Canker, Dutch Elm, Chestnut Blight, Asian Cycad Scale, Crazy Ant, Red Fox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive plants, species and conditions which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The plants, species and conditions described here are cheatgrass brome, bamboo reed, butternut canker, dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, Asian cycad scale, crazy ant and red fox. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

2013-06-12

82

Comparative proteomic analysis reveals that T3SS, Tfp, and xanthan gum are key factors in initial stages of Citrus sinensis infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

The bacteria Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker. The disease symptoms are characterized by localized host cell hyperplasia followed by tissue necrosis at the infected area. An arsenal of bacterial pathogenicity- and virulence-related proteins is expressed to ensure a successful infection process. At the post-genomic stage of Xac, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the proteins that are displayed differentially over time when the pathogen attacks the host plant. Protein extracts were prepared from infectious Xac grown in inducing medium (XAM1) for 24 h or from host citrus plants for 3 or 5 days after infection, detached times to evaluate the adaptation and virulence of the pathogen. The protein extracts were proteolyzed, and the peptides derived from tryptic digestion were investigated using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Changes in the protein expression profile were compared with the Xac genome and the proteome recently described under non-infectious conditions. An analysis of the proteome of Xac under infectious conditions revealed proteins directly involved in virulence such as the type III secretion system (T3SS) and effector proteins (T3SS-e), the type IV pilus (Tfp), and xanthan gum biosynthesis. Moreover, four new mutants related to proteins detected in the proteome and with different functions exhibited reduced virulence relative to the wild-type proteins. The results of the proteome analysis of infectious Xac define the processes of adaptation to the host and demonstrate the induction of the virulence factors of Xac involved in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24676796

Facincani, Agda P; Moreira, Leandro M; Soares, Márcia R; Ferreira, Cristiano B; Ferreira, Rafael M; Ferro, Maria I T; Ferro, Jesus A; Gozzo, Fabio C; de Oliveira, Julio C F

2014-03-01

83

Citrus food containing a cyclodextrin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A citrus food, which is prepared by incorporating 0.005 to 1.0 weight percent of cyclodextrin into natural citrus fruit in the course of the production of said food, thereby removing or reducing the bitterness as well as in preventing the formation of cloudiness in the citrus food.

1982-06-01

84

75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the detection of citrus greening in Argentina and Jamaica after the October 6, 2009...Toddalia, Triphasia, and Vepris from Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil...greening and CVC are known to exist in Argentina and Brazil. Some citrus species...

2010-04-06

85

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...citrus psyllid in which an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been detected...which citrus greening or an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been...

2011-01-01

86

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...citrus psyllid in which an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been detected...which citrus greening or an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been...

2014-01-01

87

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...citrus psyllid in which an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been detected...which citrus greening or an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been...

2013-01-01

88

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...citrus psyllid in which an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been detected...which citrus greening or an established population of Asian citrus psyllids has been...

2012-01-01

89

All five host-range variants of Xanthomonas citri carry one pthA homolog with 17.5 repeats that determines pathogenicity on citrus, but none determine host-range variation.  

PubMed

Citrus canker disease is caused by five groups of Xanthomonas citri strains that are distinguished primarily by host range: three from Asia (A, A*, and A(w)) and two that form a phylogenetically distinct clade and originated in South America (B and C). Every X. citri strain carries multiple DNA fragments that hybridize with pthA, which is essential for the pathogenicity of wide-host-range X. citri group A strain 3213. DNA fragments that hybridized with pthA were cloned from a representative strain from all five groups. Each strain carried one and only one pthA homolog that functionally complemented a knockout mutation of pthA in 3213. Every complementing homolog was of identical size to pthA and carried 17.5 nearly identical, direct tandem repeats, including three new genes from narrow-host-range groups C (pthC), A(w) (pthAW), and A* (pthA*). Every noncomplementing paralog was of a different size; one of these was sequenced from group A* (pthA*-2) and was found to have an intact promoter and full-length reading frame but with 15.5 repeats. None of the complementing homologs nor any of the noncomplementing paralogs conferred avirulence to 3213 on grapefruit or suppressed avirulence of a group A* strain on grapefruit. A knockout mutation of pthC in a group C strain resulted in loss of pathogenicity on lime, but the strain was unaffected in ability to elicit an HR on grapefruit. This pthC- mutant was fully complemented by pthA, pthB, or pthC. Analysis of the predicted amino-acid sequences of all functional pthA homologs and nonfunctional paralogs indicated that the specific sequence of the 17th repeat may be essential for pathogenicity of X. citri on citrus. PMID:17722697

Al-Saadi, Abdulwahid; Reddy, Joseph D; Duan, Yong P; Brunings, Asha M; Yuan, Qiaoping; Gabriel, Dean W

2007-08-01

90

Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia.  

PubMed

The pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis (formerly Cryphonectria cubensis) is best known for the important canker disease that it causes on Eucalyptus species. This fungus is also a pathogen of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), which is native to Indonesia, and like Eucalyptus, is a member of Myrtaceae. Furthermore, C. cubensis has been found on Miconia spp. native to South America and residing in Melastomataceae. Recent surveys have yielded C. cubensis isolates from new hosts, characterized in this study based on DNA sequences for the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions. These hosts include native Clidemia sericea and Rhynchanthera mexicana (Melastomataceae) in Mexico, and non-native Lagerstroemia indica (Pride of India, Lythraceae) in Cuba. Isolates from these hosts and areas group in the sub-clade of C. cubensis accommodating the South American collections of the fungus. This sub-clade also includes isolates recently collected from Eucalyptus in Cuba, which are used to epitypify C. cubensis. New host records from Southeast Asia include exotic Tibouchina urvilleana from Singapore and Thailand and native Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Consistent with their areas of occurrence isolates from the latter collections group in the Asian sub-clade of C. cubensis. DNA sequence comparisons of isolates from Tibouchina lepidota in Colombia revealed that they represent a new sub-clade within the greater Chrysoporthe clade. Isolates in this clade are described as Chrysoporthe inopina sp. nov., based on distinctive morphological differences. PMID:16876702

Gryzenhout, Marieka; Rodas, Carlos A; Portales, Julio Mena; Clegg, Paul; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

2006-07-01

91

Modeling huanglongbing transmission within a citrus tree  

PubMed Central

The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), associated with an uncultured bacterial pathogen, is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. A mathematical model of the transmission of HLB between its psyllid vector and citrus host has been developed to characterize the dynamics of the vector and disease development, focusing on the spread of the pathogen from flush to flush (a newly developing cluster of very young leaves on the expanding terminal end of a shoot) within a tree. This approach differs from that of prior models for vector-transmitted plant diseases where the entire plant is the unit of analysis. Dynamics of vector and host populations are simulated realistically as the flush population approaches complete infection. Model analysis indicates that vector activity is essential for initial infection but is not necessary for continued infection because infection can occur from flush to flush through internal movement in the tree. Flush production, within-tree spread, and latent period are the most important parameters influencing HLB development. The model shows that the effect of spraying of psyllids depends on time of initial spraying, frequency, and efficacy of the insecticides. Similarly, effects of removal of symptomatic flush depend on the frequency of removal and the time of initiation of this practice since the start of the epidemic. Within-tree resistance to spread, possibly affected by inherent or induced resistance, is a major factor affecting epidemic development, supporting the notion that alternate routes of transmission besides that by the vector can be important for epidemic development. PMID:22783015

Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.; Halbert, Susan E.; Morris, J. Glenn; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2012-01-01

92

Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Agriculture handbook  

SciTech Connect

The handbook provides basic information needed to identify the common diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Hosts, distribution, disease cycles, and identifying characteristics are described for more than 150 diseases, including cankers, diebacks, galls, rusts, needle diseases, root diseases, mistletoes, and rots. Diseases in which abiotic factors are involved are also described. For some groups of diseases, a descriptive key to field identification is included.

Scharpf, R.F.

1993-06-01

93

Sintomatología e Histopatología del Amarillamiento Letal de la Lima Persa Citrus latifolia Tanaka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological alterations in citrus plants affected by exocortis, xyloporosis, psorosis, and tristeza diseases have been previously studied by various researchers; however, those associated with lethal yellowing (LY) are unknown. Therefore, in this study such alterations were determined from roots of persa lime (Citrus latifolia). Secondary and terciary roots with a diameter of 0.5 cm were collected from two asymptomatic trees

Daniel Leobardo Ochoa-Martínez; Elizabeth Cárdenas-Soriano

94

Citrus flavonoids and the prevention of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). While more current research has begun to focus on the effects of specific polyphenol compounds found in fruits and vegetables, mechanistic insights have been hampered by the multiple simultaneous effects these compounds may have on the disease process. In this article, we review the basic research studies that have evaluated the effects of citrus flavonoids to: improve dyslipidemia, normalize glucose homeostasis, prevent oxidative stress, and attenuate inflammation, which collectively have the ability to enhance metabolic health and improve CVD risk. PMID:23030447

Mulvihill, Erin E; Huff, Murray W

2012-12-01

95

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for bacterial enumeration and allelic discrimination to differentiate xanthomonas strains on citrus.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was developed for identification and enumeration of bacteria in citrus plant samples infected with Xanthomonas axonopodis pvs. citri and citrumelo, the cause of citrus bacterial canker (CBC) and citrus bacterial spot (CBS), respectively. Three sets of primers based on the pathogenicity gene (pth) in X. axonopodis pv. citri, a ribosomal gene in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo, and the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (lrp) in both pathovars were combined with TaqMan probes and applied for specific strain detection and quantification. Calibration curves for bacterial abundance in plant samples obtained with the three primer-probe combinations were congruent with colony counts on plates of semiselective medium in most of the cases. However, apparent overestimation of bacterial cells by QRT-PCR indicated the presence of nonculturable or nonviable cells in some samples. In addition to quantification, the lrp primers and probes permitted differentiation by allelic discrimination of Xanthomonas strains infecting citrus tissues. This technique is based on the utilization of two probes that detect a single nucleotide difference in the target sequence between different strains and was validated with a collection of cultured Xanthomonas strains as well as tissue with CBC and CBS lesions. Allelic discrimination is demonstrated to be a more specific and sensitive protocol than previously developed PCR-based methods for strain identification and quantification. PMID:18943365

Cubero, J; Graham, J H

2005-11-01

96

Ability of a Leptosphaeria maculans isolate to form stem cankers on Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea ) segregates as a single locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian isolates of the blackleg fungusLeptosphaeria maculans, that form cankers on two Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) varieties (Stoke and Zaria) are described. This ability to form cankers on var. Stoke segregates as a single locus in both F1 and backcross progeny from a cross between twoL. maculans isolates.

Chang-Yong Chen; Kim M. Plummer; Barbara J. Howlett

1996-01-01

97

Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other

Vivian S da Silva; Cláudio S Shida; Fabiana B Rodrigues; Diógenes CD Ribeiro; Alessandra A de Souza; Helvécio D Coletta-Filho; Marcos A Machado; Luiz R Nunes; Regina Costa de Oliveira

2007-01-01

98

Distribution and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus in São Paulo State, Brasil, in leaves of an affected sweet orange tree as determined by PCR.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, irrevocably decline. In the absence of curative procedures, control of HLB is difficult and only based on prevention. Even though not available in culture, the HLB bacterium could be shown to be Gram-negative and to represent a new candidate genus, Candidatus Liberibacter, in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three Candidatus (Ca.) L. species occur: Ca. L. africanus in Africa, Ca. L. asiaticus in Asia, SSP, and Florida, and Ca. L. americanus in SSP. The liberibacters occur exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. On affected trees, HLB symptoms are often seen on certain branches only, suggesting an uneven distribution of the Liberibacter. Occurrence of Ca. L. americanus, the major HLB agent in SSP, has been examined in 822 leaf samples from an affected sweet orange tree by two conventional PCR techniques and a newly developed real time (RTi) PCR, also used for quantification of the Liberibacter in the leaves. Even though RTi-PCR was able to detect as few as 10 liberibacters per gram of leaf tissue (l/g), no liberibacters could be detected in any of the many leaf samples from a symptomless branch, while in blotchy mottle leaves from symptomatic branches of the same tree, the Liberibacter titer reached values as high as 10(7)l/g. These results demonstrate the uneven distribution of the Liberibacter in HLB-affected trees. PMID:18400468

Teixeira, Diva C; Saillard, Colette; Couture, Carole; Martins, Elaine C; Wulff, Nelson A; Eveillard-Jagoueix, Sandrine; Yamamoto, Pedro T; Ayres, Antonio J; Bové, Joseph M

2008-06-01

99

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases. PMID:23717303

Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.

2013-01-01

100

Research Note Susceptibility of South African native conifers to the pitch canker pathogen,  

E-print Network

Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 occurs on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii). It causes pitch canker of mature trees and root and collar in South Africa (Wingfield et al., 2002). The South African forestry industry contributes significantly

101

The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Holocryphia eucalypti on Eucalyptus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holocryphia eucalypti is an opportunistic canker pathogen of Eucalyptus and Corymbia spp. (Myrtaceae, Myrtales) in Australia and South Africa. It is also known in Australia on Tibouchina trees (Melastomataceae, Myrtales). Using DNA sequence comparisons and morphological characterisation, we show for the first\\u000a time that H. eucalypti is present in New Zealand on Eucalyptus spp.

M. GryzenhoutA; M. VermeulenB; M. DickC; M. J. WingfieldA

2010-01-01

102

Report of Progress with Citrus Fruits at the Beeville Sub-Station, Bee County.  

E-print Network

more easily gathered, and the expense of spraying is lessened; the effects of the wind against tree and fruit is better resisted. Grape Fruit at the Beeville Station. INSECTS AND DISEASES. The citrus, like other trees and plants, have their insect... more easily gathered, and the expense of spraying is lessened; the effects of the wind against tree and fruit is better resisted. Grape Fruit at the Beeville Station. INSECTS AND DISEASES. The citrus, like other trees and plants, have their insect...

Waschka, S. A.

1909-01-01

103

Intentional coverage gaps reduce cost of mating disruption for Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus.  

PubMed

The leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a global pest of citrus and contributes to the incidence and severity of citrus bacterial canker. SPLAT CLM (ISCA Technologies, Riverside, CA) is an emulsified wax that provides sustained release of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal, the major component of P. citrella sex pheromone. Trials in commercial orchards demonstrated that SPLAT CLM applied to plots of varying width resulted in disruption of trap catch of male P. citrella within treated rows and across untreated rows adjacent to treated rows. SPLAT CLM applied to plots of constant width (10 rows) disrupted trap catch across an untreated gap as the square of the width of the gap. Similarly, the ability of the pheromone source in treated rows to disrupt trap catch across untreated gaps of constant size declined as the square of the width of adjacent treated areas. A coverage pattern of 4 rows skipped for every 10 treated rows resulted in a 4% reduction of trap shutdown, and reduced the product and application costs by 29%. Mining incidence by P. citrella in treated rows was reduced by 53% compared with untreated areas. Intentional coverage gaps can significantly reduce the cost of mating disruption. Commercial lures for P. citrella used in this study were highly potent with respect to attracting males. Each lure was approximately 10(3) times as attractive as an individual P. citrella female. Disruption of trap catch using commercial lures may underestimate actual mating disruption achieved in the field. PMID:24772554

Lapointe, S L; Stelinski, L L; Keathley, C P; Mafra-Neto, A

2014-04-01

104

Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks, functional enrichment analysis and gene expression information provide opportunities to infer gene function in citrus. We present a publicly accessible tool, Network Inference for Citrus Co-Expression (NICCE, http://citrus.adelaide.edu.au/nicce/home.aspx), for the gene co-expression analysis in citrus. PMID:25023870

2014-01-01

105

7 CFR 301.75-16 - Payments for the recovery of lost production income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the result of the removal of commercial citrus trees to control citrus canker. (a) Eligibility...the result of the removal of commercial citrus trees to control citrus canker if the trees were removed pursuant to a public order...

2011-01-01

106

The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing

Javier Terol; Guillermo Soler; Manuel Talon; Manuel Cercos

2010-01-01

107

Effect of Lime on Criconemella xenoplax and Bacterial Canker in Two California Orchards 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a peach orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.9, preplant application of 0, 13.2, 18.2, 27.3, or 54.2 kg lime\\/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.8-7.3) but did not affect numbers of Criconemella xenoplax or tree circumference. Liming also failed to reduce the incidence of bacterial canker, which affected 17% of the trees by

T. UNDERWOOD; B. A. JAFFEE; P. VERDEGAAL; M. V. K. NORTON; W. K. ASAI; A. E. MULDOON; M. V. MCKENRY; H. FERRIS

1994-01-01

108

Preventive and Curative Biological Treatments for Control of Botrytis cinerea Stem Canker of Greenhouse Tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of biological treatments with PlantShield®, Prestop®, Quadra 136, RootShield®, and S33 (Rhodosporidium diobovatum) and chemical treatment with Decree® applied as a preventive or curative sprays on stem canker caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants grown in sawdust were studied under near-commercial greenhouse conditions. Prestop® and Decree®, applied as preventive or curative sprays, PlantShield® applied as curative spray,

R. S. Utkhede; S. Mathur

2006-01-01

109

Natural products for cancer-targeted therapy: citrus flavonoids as potent chemopreventive agents.  

PubMed

Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction. Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product to be developed as not only the source of co-chemotherapeutic agents, but also phyto-estrogens. Therefore, further study needs to be conducted to explore the potential of citrus fruits in overcoming cancer. PMID:22524801

Meiyanto, Edy; Hermawan, Adam; Anindyajati

2012-01-01

110

Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.  

PubMed

The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. PMID:24306677

Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

2014-04-01

111

First Report of Nectria galligena Causing European Canker of Apple Trees in Ontario. A. R. Biggs, Agriculture Canada Research Station, Vineland Station, Ontario LOR 2EO. Plant  

E-print Network

First Report of Nectria galligena Causing European Canker of Apple Trees in Ontario. A. R. Biggs for publication 19 July 1985. European canker of apple (Malus domestics Borkh. 'MacIntosh') caused by Nectria includes the apple-growing region of central Ontario. Reference: Booth, C. Commonw. Mycol. Inst. Pap. 73

Biggs, Alan R.

112

Inheritance and heritability of resistance to citrus leprosis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The genetic inheritance of resistance to leprosis, the most important viral disease of citrus in Brazil, was characterized through the phenotypic assessment of 143 hybrids resulting from crosses between tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata) and sweet orange 'Pêra' (C. sinensis), considered to be resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively. All plants were grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia) and inoculated with Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type through the infestation with viruliferous mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 10 replicates. Incidence and severity of the disease in leaves and stems as well as plant growth parameters (plant height and stem diameter) were recorded for 3 years after the infestation with the viruliferous mites. The average values of all variables were analyzed using principal component analysis, discriminant factorial analysis, estimation of the clonal repeatability coefficients, and frequency of the distributions of the average values for each measured variable. The principal component analysis resulted in the identification of at least two groups with resistance and susceptibility to leprosis, respectively. About 99% of all hybrids were correctly classified according to the discriminant factorial analysis. The broad-sense heritability coefficients for characteristics associated with incidence and severity of leprosis ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. The data suggest that the inheritance of resistance to leprosis may be controlled by only a few genes. PMID:18943497

Bastianel, Marinês; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Cristofani, Mariângela; Filho, Oliveiro Guerreiro; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Rodrigues, Vandeclei; Astúa-Monge, Gustavo; Machado, Marcos Antônio

2006-10-01

113

Effect of Lime on Criconemella xenoplax and Bacterial Canker in Two California Orchards.  

PubMed

In a peach orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.9, preplant application of 0, 13.2, 18.2, 27.3, or 54.2 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.8-7.3) but did not affect numbers of Criconemella xenoplax or tree circumference. Liming also failed to reduce the incidence of bacterial canker, which affected 17% of the trees by the sixth year after planting. Four years after planting, numbers of C. xenoplax exceeded 400/100 cm(3) soil, regardless of treatment. Trees with higher densities of C. xenoplax had a higher incidence of canker. The nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was not detected until the fourth year. Thereafter, the incidence of H. rhossiliensis and percentage C. xenoplax parasitized by H. rhossiliensis increased, but the increases lagged behind increases in numbers of nematodes. In an almond orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.6, preplant application of 0, 6.4, 12.8, or 25.0 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.7-7.1). Numbers of C. xenoplax remained low (<20/100 cm(3) soil), whereas numbers of Paratylenchus sp. increased to high levels (>500/100 cm(3) soil), regardless of treatment. Low levels (<20/100 cm(3) soil) of H. rhossiliensis -parasitized Paratylenchus sp. were detected. No bacterial canker occurred, but tree circumference was greater after 6 years if soil pH was intermediate (6.0-7.0). PMID:19279934

Underwood, T; Jaffee, B A; Verdegaal, P; Norton, M V; Asai, W K; Muldoon, A E; McKenry, M V; Ferris, H

1994-12-01

114

Effect of Lime on Criconemella xenoplax and Bacterial Canker in Two California Orchards  

PubMed Central

In a peach orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.9, preplant application of 0, 13.2, 18.2, 27.3, or 54.2 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.8-7.3) but did not affect numbers of Criconemella xenoplax or tree circumference. Liming also failed to reduce the incidence of bacterial canker, which affected 17% of the trees by the sixth year after planting. Four years after planting, numbers of C. xenoplax exceeded 400/100 cm³ soil, regardless of treatment. Trees with higher densities of C. xenoplax had a higher incidence of canker. The nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was not detected until the fourth year. Thereafter, the incidence of H. rhossiliensis and percentage C. xenoplax parasitized by H. rhossiliensis increased, but the increases lagged behind increases in numbers of nematodes. In an almond orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.6, preplant application of 0, 6.4, 12.8, or 25.0 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.7-7.1). Numbers of C. xenoplax remained low (<20/100 cm³ soil), whereas numbers of Paratylenchus sp. increased to high levels (>500/100 cm³ soil), regardless of treatment. Low levels (<20/100 cm³ soil) of H. rhossiliensis -parasitized Paratylenchus sp. were detected. No bacterial canker occurred, but tree circumference was greater after 6 years if soil pH was intermediate (6.0-7.0). PMID:19279934

Underwood, T.; Jaffee, B. A.; Verdegaal, P.; Norton, M. V. K.; Asai, W. K.; Muldoon, A. E.; McKenry, M. V.; Ferris, H.

1994-01-01

115

Quantification of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus Trees by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease of sweet orange cultivars in Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays constitute the principal diagnostic method for detection of these bacteria. In this work, we established a real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay to quantify X. fastidiosa in naturally and artificially infected citrus. The X. fastidiosa cell number detected in the leaves increased according to the age of the leaf, and bacteria were not detected in the upper midrib section in young leaves, indicating temporal and spatial distribution patterns of bacteria, respectively. In addition, the X. fastidiosa cell number quantified in leaves of 'Pera' orange and 'Murcott' tangor reflected the susceptible and resistant status of these citrus cultivars. None of the 12 endophytic citrus bacteria or the four strains of X. fastidiosa nonpathogenic to citrus that were tested showed an increase in the fluorescence signal during QPCR. In contrast, all 10 CVC-causing strains exhibited an increase in fluorescence signal, thus indicating the specificity of this QPCR assay. Our QPCR provides a powerful tool for studies of different aspects of the Xylella-citrus interactions, and can be incorporated into breeding programs in order to select CVC-resistant plants more quickly. PMID:18944214

Oliveira, Antonio C; Vallim, Marcelo A; Semighini, Camile P; Araújo, Welington L; Goldman, Gustavo H; Machado, Marcos A

2002-10-01

116

Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. PMID:25205398

Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

2014-12-01

117

Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

118

Effects of biological and chemical treatments on Botrytis stem canker and fruit yield of tomato under greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to identify, by in vitro dual culture tests, potential biological control agents producing antibiotics and to evaluate selected biological and chemical agents for control of stem canker caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in yellow cedar sawdust in a research greenhouse. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis and one each of Enterobacter agglomerans and

R. Utkhede; C. Bogdanoff; J. McNevin

2001-01-01

119

Plasmid-DNA Based Probes and Procedure for Rapid and Specific Detection of Xanthomonas Campestris pv. Citri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Citrus bacterial canker disease (CBCD) is a serious disease of citrus, and the causal pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (X.c. citri) is the subject of international quarantine. Although eradicated from the United States at great cost in the first...

J. S. Hartung, O. P. Pruvost

1992-01-01

120

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries Table A3. Citrus, melon, berries: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

121

Prevalence of pigeonpea diseases and associated crop losses in Asia, Africa and the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys were carried out to determine the prevalence of pigeonpea diseases in the major pigeonpea growing areas of Asia, Africa and the Americas between 1975 and 1980. In India, surveys in eleven states revealed that wilt, sterility mosaic, Phytophthora blight, Macrophomina stem canker and yellow mosaic were economically important diseases. Other diseases were of minor importance. Disease problems in Bangladesh,

J. Kannaiyan; Y. L. Nene; M. V. Reddy; J. G. Ryan; T. N. Raju

1984-01-01

122

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2012-01-01

123

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2011-01-01

124

Canker Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... Journal Newsletters Latest News 2015 AAOM Call for Abstract Submissions AAOM Offers Clinical Practice Statements Upcoming Events 2014 Fall Meeting - Duluth, GA AAOM/AAOMP 2015 Annual Meeting 2016 ...

125

Identification of Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Since 2008, a global outbreak of P. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in New Zealand. The economic impact and the development of resistance in P. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars against antibiotics and copper sprays have led to a search for alternative management strategies. We isolated 275 phages, 258 of which were active against P. syringae pv. actinidiae. Extensive host range testing on P. syringae pv. actinidiae, other pseudomonads, and bacteria isolated from kiwifruit orchards showed that most phages have a narrow host range. Twenty-four were analyzed by electron microscopy, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and restriction digestion. Their suitability for biocontrol was tested by assessing stability and the absence of lysogeny and transduction. A detailed host range was performed, phage-resistant bacteria were isolated, and resistance to other phages was examined. The phages belonged to the Caudovirales and were analyzed based on morphology and genome size, which showed them to be representatives of Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae. Twenty-one Myoviridae members have similar morphologies and genome sizes yet differ in restriction patterns, host range, and resistance, indicating a closely related group. Nine of these Myoviridae members were sequenced, and each was unique. The most closely related sequenced phages were a group infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized by phages JG004 and PAK_P1. In summary, this study reports the isolation and characterization of P. syringae pv. actinidiae phages and provides a framework for the intelligent formulation of phage biocontrol agents against kiwifruit bacterial canker. PMID:24487530

Frampton, Rebekah A.; Taylor, Corinda; Holguín Moreno, Angela V.; Visnovsky, Sandra B.; Petty, Nicola K.; Pitman, Andrew R.

2014-01-01

126

Identification of bacteriophages for biocontrol of the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Since 2008, a global outbreak of P. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in New Zealand. The economic impact and the development of resistance in P. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars against antibiotics and copper sprays have led to a search for alternative management strategies. We isolated 275 phages, 258 of which were active against P. syringae pv. actinidiae. Extensive host range testing on P. syringae pv. actinidiae, other pseudomonads, and bacteria isolated from kiwifruit orchards showed that most phages have a narrow host range. Twenty-four were analyzed by electron microscopy, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and restriction digestion. Their suitability for biocontrol was tested by assessing stability and the absence of lysogeny and transduction. A detailed host range was performed, phage-resistant bacteria were isolated, and resistance to other phages was examined. The phages belonged to the Caudovirales and were analyzed based on morphology and genome size, which showed them to be representatives of Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae. Twenty-one Myoviridae members have similar morphologies and genome sizes yet differ in restriction patterns, host range, and resistance, indicating a closely related group. Nine of these Myoviridae members were sequenced, and each was unique. The most closely related sequenced phages were a group infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized by phages JG004 and PAK_P1. In summary, this study reports the isolation and characterization of P. syringae pv. actinidiae phages and provides a framework for the intelligent formulation of phage biocontrol agents against kiwifruit bacterial canker. PMID:24487530

Frampton, Rebekah A; Taylor, Corinda; Holguín Moreno, Angela V; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Petty, Nicola K; Pitman, Andrew R; Fineran, Peter C

2014-04-01

127

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L.; Shelby, Kent S.; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R.; Shatters, Robert G.; Hall, David G.; Davis, Paul H.; Hunter, Wayne B.

2014-01-01

128

July/August 2007 ListProc Newsletter Feeding Winter Bees Seedless Citrus  

E-print Network

______________________________________________________________________________ ListProc Newsletter Feeding Winter Bees Seedless Citrus Disease Resistance in HB New Bee Diets of the list and your first and last names followed on the next line by hyphens. Viruses and Bees Although trying to cover everything about honey bee viruses would require writing a book, the publications are out

Ferrara, Katherine W.

129

Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis) and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata) differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST) collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known to affect fruit quality were represented in the unigene set. Overall, the similarity analyses indicated that the sequences of the genes belonging to these varieties and rootstocks were essentially identical, suggesting that the differential behaviour of these species cannot be attributed to major sequence divergences. This Citrus EST assembly contributes both crucial information to discover genes of agronomical interest and tools for genetic and genomic analyses, such as the development of new markers and microarrays. PMID:17254327

Terol, Javier; Conesa, Ana; Colmenero, Jose M; Cercos, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Agusti, Javier; Alos, Enriqueta; Andres, Fernando; Soler, Guillermo; Brumos, Javier; Iglesias, Domingo J; Gotz, Stefan; Legaz, Francisco; Argout, Xavier; Courtois, Brigitte; Ollitrault, Patrick; Dossat, Carole; Wincker, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael; Talon, Manuel

2007-01-01

130

Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: new findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Significantly, much of the activity of Citrus flavonoids appears to impact blood and microvascular endothelial cells, and it is not surprising that the two main areas of research on the biological actions of Citrus flavonoids have been inflammation and cancer. Epidemiological and animal studies point to a possible protective effect of flavonoids against cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Although flavonoids have been studied for about 50 years, the cellular mechanisms involved in their biological action are still not completely known. Many of the pharmacological properties of Citrus flavonoids can be linked to the abilities of these compounds to inhibit enzymes involved in cell activation. Attempts to control cancer involve a variety of means, including the use of suppressing, blocking, and transforming agents. Suppressing agents prevent the formation of new cancers from procarcinogens, and blocking agents prevent carcinogenic compounds from reaching critical initiation sites, while transformation agents act to facilitate the metabolism of carcinogenic components into less toxic materials or prevent their biological actions. Flavonoids can act as all three types of agent. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular flavonoid intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In coronary heart disease, the protective effects of flavonoids include mainly antithrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-oxidant, and vasorelaxant. It is suggested that flavonoids decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by three major actions: improving coronary vasodilatation, decreasing the ability of platelets in the blood to clot, and preventing low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidizing. The anti-inflammatory properties of the Citrus flavonoids have also been studied. Several key studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids are due to its inhibition of the synthesis and biological activities of different pro-inflammatory mediators, mainly the arachidonic acid derivatives, prostaglandins E 2, F 2, and thromboxane A 2. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids can play a key role in their activity against several degenerative diseases and particularly brain diseases. The most abundant Citrus flavonoids are flavanones, such as hesperidin, naringin, or neohesperidin. However, generally, the flavones, such as diosmin, apigenin, or luteolin, exhibit higher biological activity, even though they occur in much lower concentrations. Diosmin and rutin have a demonstrated activity as a venotonic agent and are present in several pharmaceutical products. Apigenin and their glucosides have been shown a good anti-inflammatory activity without the side effects of other anti-inflammatory products. In this paper, we discuss the relation between each structural factor of Citrus flavonoids and the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activity of Citrus flavonoids and their role in degenerative diseases. PMID:18593176

Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J

2008-08-13

131

Pseudomonas syringae pv. avii (pv. nov.), the Causal Agent of Bacterial Canker of Wild Cherries ( Prunus avium ) in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial strains isolated from cankers of wild cherry trees (Prunus avium) in France were characterized using numerical taxonomy of biochemical tests, DNA–DNA hybridization, repeat sequence primed-PCR (rep-PCR) based on REP, ERIC and BOX sequences, heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) as well as pathogenicity on wild cherry trees and other species of Prunus. They were compared to

M. Ménard; L. Sutra; J. Luisetti; J. P. Prunier; L. Gardan

2003-01-01

132

Biology and management of Asian citrus psyllid, vector of the huanglongbing pathogens.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the most important pest of citrus worldwide because it serves as a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter" species (Alphaproteobacteria) that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). All commercially cultivated citrus is susceptible and varieties tolerant to disease expression are not yet available. Onset of disease occurs following a long latent period after inoculation, and thus the pathogen can spread widely prior to detection. Detection of the pathogen in Brazil in 2004 and Florida in 2005 catalyzed a significant increase in research on D. citri biology. Chemical control is the primary management strategy currently employed, but recently documented decreases in susceptibility of D. citri to several insecticides illustrate the need for more sustainable tools. Herein, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of D. citri biology and behavior, pathogen transmission biology, biological control, and chemical control with respect to "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus." Our goal is to point toward integrated and biologically relevant management of this pathosystem. PMID:23317046

Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Stansly, Philip A

2013-01-01

133

Isolation and characterization of an Isaria fumosorosea isolate infecting the Asian citrus psyllid in Florida.  

PubMed

A fungal pathogen that killed adult Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Asian citrus psyllid) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida citrus groves during the fall of 2005 was identified and characterized. Investigation of this pathogen is important because D. citri vectors citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing), which was reported in Florida in 2005. The morphological and genetic data generated herein support identification of the fungus as Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Ifr) (=Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) from the Asian citrus psyllid (Ifr AsCP). Koch's postulates were fulfilled after the fungus was isolated in vitro and transmitted to healthy psyllids, which then exhibited a diseased-phenotype similar to that observed in the field. Both in vitro growth characteristics and two Ifr AsCP-specific molecular markers discriminated the psyllid pathogen from another local Ifr isolate, Ifr 97 Apopka. These molecular markers will be useful to track the dynamics of this disease in D. citri populations. The potential for utilizing Ifr to complement existing psyllid pest management strategies is discussed. PMID:18433768

Meyer, Jason M; Hoy, Marjorie A; Boucias, Drion G

2008-09-01

134

Highly polymorphic markers reveal the establishment of an invasive lineage of the citrus bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri in its area of origin.  

PubMed

Investigating the population biology of plant pathogens in their native areas is essential to understand the factors that shape their population structure and favour their spread. Monomorphic pathogens dispatch extremely low genetic diversity in invaded areas, and native areas constitute a major reservoir for future emerging strains. One of these, the gammaproteobacterium Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, causes Asiatic canker and is a considerable threat to citrus worldwide. We studied its population genetic structure by genotyping 555 strains from 12 Vietnam provinces at 14 tandem repeat loci and insertion sequences. Discriminant analysis of principal components identified six clusters. Five of them were composed of endemic strains distributed heterogeneously across sampled provinces. A sixth cluster, VN6, displayed a much lower diversity and a clonal expansion structure, suggesting recent epidemic spread. No differences in aggressiveness on citrus or resistance to bactericides were detected between VN6 and other strains. VN6 likely represents a case of bioinvasion following introduction in a native area likely through contaminated plant propagative material. Highly polymorphic markers are useful for revealing migration patterns of recently introduced populations of a monomorphic bacterial plant pathogen. PMID:24373118

Vernière, Christian; Bui Thi Ngoc, Lan; Jarne, Philippe; Ravigné, Virginie; Guérin, Fabien; Gagnevin, Lionel; Le Mai, Nhat; Chau, Nguyen M; Pruvost, Olivier

2014-07-01

135

The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of citrus leaf rugose and citrus variegation ilarviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete sequence data for the RNA 3 of both citrus leaf rugose (CiLRV) and citrus variegation (CVV) ilarviruses have been determined. The RNAs are 2289 nt (CiLRV) and 2309 nt (CVV) in length and both contain the typical Bromoviridae arrangement of two open reading frames (ORFs) which, when translated, code for proteins that correspond to the M r 32 000

S. W. Scott; X. Ge

1995-01-01

136

Citrus flavanones: what is their role in cardiovascular protection?  

PubMed

Flavanones, including hesperidin and naringin, are polyphenolic compounds highly and almost exclusively present in citrus. Epidemiological studies reported an inverse relationship between their intake and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical and experimental data further showed their antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties, which could explain their antiatherogenic action in animal models. Although flavanones may be promising compounds that are particularly active in cardiovascular disease prevention, clinical data are still scarce and most in vitro data have been obtained under nonphysiologically relevant conditions. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible for flavanone action are not fully elucidated. Therefore, further research is needed to better evaluate and understand the protective effects of flavanones in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22574825

Chanet, Audrey; Milenkovic, Dragan; Manach, Claudine; Mazur, Andrzej; Morand, Christine

2012-09-12

137

Isolation and characterization of beneficial bacteria associated with citrus roots in Florida.  

PubMed

Cultivable diversity of bacteria associated with citrus was investigated as part of a larger study to understand the roles of beneficial bacteria and utilize them to increase the productive capacity and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Citrus roots from Huanglongbing (HLB) diseased symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus were used in this study. A total of 227 and 125 morphologically distinct colonies were isolated and characterized from HLB asymptomatic and symptomatic trees, respectively. We observed that the frequency of bacterial isolates possessing various plant beneficial properties was significantly higher in the asymptomatic samples. A total of 39 bacterial isolates showing a minimum of five beneficial traits related to mineral nutrition [phosphate (P) solubilization, siderophore production, nitrogen (N) fixation], development [indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis], health [production of antibiotic and lytic enzymes (chitinase)], induction of systemic resistance [salicylic acid (SA) production], stress relief [production of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase] and production of quorum sensing [N-acyl homoserine lactones] signals were characterized. A bioassay using ethidium monoazide (EMA)-qPCR was developed to select bacteria antagonistic to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Using the modified EMA-qPCR assay, we found six bacterial isolates showing maximum similarity to Paenibacillus validus, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas putida, Microbacterium oleivorans, and Serratia plymutica could significantly reduce the population of viable Ca. L. asiaticus in HLB symptomatic leaf samples. In conclusion, we have isolated and characterized multiple beneficial bacterial strains from citrus roots which have the potential to enhance plant growth and suppress diseases. PMID:21360139

Trivedi, Pankaj; Spann, Timothy; Wang, Nian

2011-08-01

138

Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. The synephrine concentration has been determined in the juices of Citrus unshiu mandarins harvested from 10 different groves located in a major growing region in California. For comparison, the physicochemical properties

Klaus Dragull; Andrew P. Breksa III; Brian Cain

2008-01-01

139

Acinetobacter qingfengensis sp. nov., isolated from canker bark of Populus x euramericana.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, 2BJ1(T) and 2C-3-1, were isolated from canker bark of Populus × euramericana collected from different locations in Puyang City, Henan Province, China. The two strains were characterized using nutritional and physiological testing and DNA sequence analysis. They were found to produce acid from d-glucose. Haemolysis was not observed on agar medium supplemented with sheep erythrocytes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and gyrB gene sequences revealed that the strains formed a distinct cluster with 100?% bootstrap support within the genus Acinetobacter in all phylogenetic trees. The phenotypic characteristics most useful for the differentiation of the two strains from other species of the genus Acinetobacter were their ability to grow at 41 °C and to assimilate malonate, phenylacetate and trigonelline. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the two strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter qingfengensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2BJ1(T) (?=?CFCC 10890(T)?=?KCTC 32225(T)). PMID:24363297

Li, Yong; He, Wei; Wang, Tao; Piao, Chun-gen; Guo, Li-min; Chang, Ju-pu; Guo, Min-Wei; Xie, Shou-jiang

2014-03-01

140

Electron microscopic investigations and indexing studies of psorosis and citrus ringspot virus of citrus / by Margaret Atchison Barkley  

E-print Network

ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS AND INDEXING STUDIES OF PSOROSIS AND CITRUS RINGSPOT VIRUS OF CITRUS A Thesis by MARGARET ATCHISON BARKLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Horticulture ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS AND INDEXING STUDIES OF PSOROSIS AND CITRUS RINGSPOT VIRUS OF CITRUS A Thesis by MARGARET ATCHISON BARKLEY Approved as to style and content...

Barkley, Margaret Atchison

2012-06-07

141

Effective Antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

142

Effective Antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

Powell, Charles A.; Doud, Melissa S.; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

143

Metabolite signature of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infection in two citrus varieties.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus Greening Disease, is caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) and is a serious threat to the citrus industry. To understand the effect of CLas infection on the citrus metabolome, juice from healthy (n = 18), HLB-asymptomatic (n = 18), and HLB-symptomatic Hamlin (n = 18), as well as from healthy (n = 18) and HLB-symptomatic (n = 18) Valencia sweet oranges (from southern and eastern Florida) were evaluated using (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Differences in the concentration of several metabolites including phenylalanine, histidine, limonin, and synephrine between control or asymptomatic fruit and symptomatic fruit were observed regardless of the citrus variety or location. There were no clear differences between the metabolite profiles of Hamlin fruits classified by PCR as asymptomatic and control, suggesting that some of the control fruit may have been infected. Taken together, these data indicate that infection due to CLas presents a strong metabolic response that is observed across different cultivars and regions, suggesting the potential for generation of metabolite-based biomarkers of CLas infection. PMID:24959841

Chin, Elizabeth L; Mishchuk, Darya O; Breksa, Andrew P; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2014-07-16

144

Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.  

PubMed

The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

2014-08-01

145

Odorants for Surveillance and Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)  

PubMed Central

Background The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB), a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. Results In this study, we performed single-unit electrophysiology to identify odorants that are strong activators, inhibitors, and prolonged activators of ACP odorant receptor neurons (ORNs). We identified a suite of odorants that activated the ORNs with high specificity and sensitivity, which may be useful in eliciting behavior such as attraction. In separate experiments, we also identified odorants that evoked prolonged ORN responses and antagonistic odorants able to suppress neuronal responses to activators, both of which can be useful in lowering attraction to hosts. In field trials, we tested the electrophysiologically identified activating odorants and identified a 3-odor blend that enhances trap catches by ?230%. Conclusion These findings provide a set of odorants that can be used to develop affordable and safe odor-based surveillance and masking strategies for this dangerous pest insect. PMID:25347318

Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Forster, Lisa; Guda, Tom; Ray, Anandasankar

2014-01-01

146

Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing  

SciTech Connect

The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host plants (5,27,40). Tatineni and colleagues discovered that the HLB bacteria were unevenly distributed in phloem of bark tissue, vascular tissue of the leaf midrib, roots, and different floral and fruit parts (43). Unsuccessful attempts in culturing the pathogen are notably hampering efforts to understand its biology and pathogenesis mechanism. Using a modified Koch's Postulates approach, Jagoueix and colleagues were able to re-infect periwinkle plants from a mixed microbial community harvested from HLB diseased plants (25). Emergence of the disease in otherwise healthy plants led to the conclusion that HLB was associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp. based on its 16S rDNA sequence (18,25). Currently, three species of the pathogen are recognized from trees with HLB disease based on 16S rDNA sequence: Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. Liberibacter africanus (Laf), and Ca. Liberibacter americanus (Lam); Las is the most prevalent species among HLB diseased trees (5,12,18,25,44). Las is naturally transmitted to citrus by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can be artificially transmitted by grafting from citrus to citrus and dodder (Cuscuta campestris) to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi) (5). Based on current research regarding the associations of Liberibacter in planta there is not enough evidence to implicate Liberibacter as the definitive causal agent of HLB disease due to its resistance to cultivation in vitro. It is possible that HLB disease may be the result of complex etiology where Liberibacter interacts with other endophytic bacteria. However, there is not enough evidence regarding its association(s) in planta to make this conclusion, nor is it known whether associated microbial communities play a role in expression of pathogenic traits. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that other bacteria besides Ca. Liberibacter spp. are associated with citrus greening disease. The differences between the relative abundance, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial communitie

Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

2009-03-01

147

Sodium sulphite yields improved DNA of higher stability for PCR detection of Citrus yellow mosaic virus from citrus leaves.  

PubMed

Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), a non-enveloped bacilliform DNA virus causes a severe mosaic disease in sweet oranges in India. CYMV is weakly immunogenic, thus serodiagnosis is not a preferred method for its detection. As an alternative a rapid and reliable detection protocol by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. However, high levels of polyphenolics and tannins in citrus leaves generally interfered with obtaining good quality DNA, and thus affected the reliable detection of virus by PCR. Consequently, we evaluated the addition of sodium sulphite to a DNA extraction protocol used previously and compared the two methods with a commercially available plant DNeasy Kit (Qiagen). The addition of sodium sulphite improved the yield, quality and stability of DNA. The CYMV DNA was not only amplified at lower template DNA concentration, but also provided better DNA yields. In addition, the sodium sulphite extracted DNA survived at various temperatures much longer than those extracted without addition of sodium sulphite or with the commercial kit. The amplified product of CYMV DNA was cloned, sequenced and found to have 89% sequence identity with the only other sequenced Indian isolate of CYMV. PMID:12951224

Baranwal, V K; Majumder, S; Ahlawat, Y S; Singh, R P

2003-09-01

148

Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.  

PubMed

Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and ?-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that ?-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344

Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

2012-03-14

149

7 CFR 301.75-16 - Payments for the recovery of lost production income.  

...any local citrus canker eradication program office in Florida, or from the USDA Citrus Canker Eradication Program, 6901 West Sunrise Boulevard, Plantation, FL 33313. The completed application should be accompanied by a copy of the public...

2014-01-01

150

Use of Ozone in the Citrus Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ozone for postharvest sanitation and decay control of fruits, vegetables and their products during handling, processing and storage has been investigated for commercial applications. Due to their significant contribution to world trade and human nutrition, citrus fruits are thought to be important commodities. Decay can be observed in these products because of microbial activity and ethylene accumulation

Hakan Karaca

2010-01-01

151

Antimicrobial volatile organic compounds affect morphogenesis-related enzymes in Guignardia citricarpa, causal agent of citrus black spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although non-volatile substances toxic to plant pathogenic microorganisms have been extensively studied over the years, few studies have focused on microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VOCs produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CR-1, used in fermentative processes for fuel ethanol production, are able to inhibit the vegetative development of the fungus Guignardiacitricarpa, causal agent of the disease citrus

Mauricio Batista Fialho; Luiz Fernando Romanholo Ferreira; Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2010-01-01

152

Antimicrobial volatile organic compounds affect morphogenesis-related enzymes in Guignardia citricarpa, causal agent of citrus black spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although non-volatile substances toxic to plant pathogenic microorganisms have been extensively studied over the years, few studies have focused on microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VOCs produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CR-1, used in fermentative processes for fuel ethanol production, are able to inhibit the vegetative development of the fungus Guignardiacitricarpa, causal agent of the disease citrus

Mauricio Batista Fialho; Luiz Fernando Romanholo Ferreira; Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2011-01-01

153

7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301...and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated as commercial citrus-producing areas:...

2014-01-01

154

Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and sustainability of citrus-producing agro-ecosystems. PMID:21796220

Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

2012-01-01

155

Protective effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens against infections of Citrus aurantium seedlings by Phoma tracheiphila.  

PubMed

Isolate TEB1 an antagonistic endophytic bacterium, obtained from citrus leaves and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rDNA sequencing, was used for the biological control of mal secco disease of Citrus aurantium seedlings caused by the mitosporic fungus Phoma tracheiphila. The isolate TEB1 exhibited a good in vitro activity against P. tracheiphila in dual cultures as well as with the well diffusion method. C. aurantium seedlings watered with a suspension of TEB1 cells showed a reduction of 53.61 and 48.63% in disease severity and incidence, respectively. A PCR test with specific primers was performed 365 days after inoculation and P. tracheiphila was detected along the whole stem in inoculated control plant while no amplification product was obtained in TEB1 treated seedlings. Molecular analysis of TEB1 revealed a positive amplification of fenD and ituC genes responsible of the biosynthesis of fengycin and iturin lipopeptides, respectively. Moreover, observations by optical microscope showed that TEB1 reduced by 55% the germination of P. tracheiphila conidia and exhibited a marked effect on mycelia structure. Data suggest that lipopeptides produced by the bacterium interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of the fungus causing pore formation. TEB1 appears a potential candidate for the biological control of citrus mal secco disease. PMID:23990072

Kalai-Grami, L; Ben Slimane, I; Mnari-Hattab, M; Rezgui, S; Aouani, M A; Hajlaoui, M R; Limam, F

2014-02-01

156

Prophage-Mediated Dynamics of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Populations, the Destructive Bacterial Pathogens of Citrus Huanglongbing  

PubMed Central

Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development. PMID:24349235

Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A.; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping

2013-01-01

157

Transmission of different isolates of Spiroplasma citri to carrot and citrus by Circulifer tenellus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).  

PubMed

Carrot purple leaf disease was first reported in 2006 in the state of Washington and was associated with Spiroplasma citri. The disease also was reported in California in 2008. The objectives of this work were to fulfill Koch's postulates and to determine 1) whether the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Baker) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), transmits carrot [Daucus carota L. subsp. Sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang] isolates of S. citri; and 2) whether carrot and citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]-derived spiroplasmas are pathogenic to both plant species. C. tenellus adults received a 24-h acquisition access period to a diet containing carrot-derived S. citri. After 30 d, insects were transferred to healthy carrot seedlings (five per plant). Negative controls were carrot and periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] plants exposed to diet-only-fed insects, and positive controls were periwinkle plants exposed to insects fed on spiroplasma-supplemented diet. Purple carrot leaves and small, chlorotic periwinkle leaves were evident 10-45 d after exposure. Spiroplasmas were reisolated only from symptomatic plants, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed their identity as S. citri. No symptoms occurred, and no spiroplasma-specific PCR amplifications or spiroplasma cultures were obtained from plants exposed to diet only-fed insects. Carrot-derived S. citri was transmitted to 15 and 50% of carrot and periwinkle plants exposed, respectively. Insects exposed to S. citri isolates from carrot or citrus transmitted the pathogen to both their host of origin and to the other plant host (carrot or citrus), showing no isolate-host specificity. Our findings confirm that carrot is a host of S. citri. Although carrot is not a preferred host of C. tenellus, it is likely that inoculative leafhoppers feed on carrot during seasonal migration. PMID:19736751

Mello, A F S; Wayadande, A C; Yokomi, R K; Fletcher, J

2009-08-01

158

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree Valsa mali var. mali.  

PubMed

Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), which is the causative agent of Valsa canker of apple tree, causes heavy damage to apple production in eastern Asia. In this article, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) of Vmm and expression of gfp (green fluorescent protein) in this fungus. The transformation system was optimized to a transformation efficiency of approximately 150 transformants/10(6) conidia, and a library containing over 4,000 transformants was generated. The tested transformants were mitotically stable. One hundred percent hph (hygromycin B phosphotransferase) integration into Vmm was identified by PCR and five single-copy integration of T-DNA was detected in the eighteen transformants by Southern blot. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ATMT of Vmm. Furthermore, this library has been used to identify genes involved in the virulence of the pathogen, and the transformation system may also be useful to the transformation of other species of the genus Valsa. PMID:24554343

Hu, Yang; Dai, Qingqing; Liu, Yangyang; Yang, Zhe; Song, Na; Gao, Xiaoning; Voegele, Ralf Thomas; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

2014-06-01

159

The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced\\u000a diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric\\u000a fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood.\\u000a Although the different species

E. Katz; M. Fon; Y. J. Lee; B. S. Phinney; A. Sadka; E. Blumwald

2007-01-01

160

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

161

Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oils of Some Iranian Citrus Peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been efforts to overcome the problem in treatment of cancer using medicinal plants. It has been shown that Citrus essential oil of contains different terpens with antitumor activities. In this study we sought to determine the cytotoxicity of essential oils of Iranian Citrus limon (L.), C. medica (L.), C. sinsensis (L.) peels on cancer cell lines. Essential oils

Ramesh Monajemi; Shahrbanoo Oryan; Ali Haeri-Roohani; Alireza Ghannadi; Abbas Jafariane

162

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character

Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

163

Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had

G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun

164

Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB in Florida citrus. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female D. citri to their cuticular extracts. In olfactometer assays, more male D. citri were attracted to one, five, or 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units than blank controls. The results were confirmed in field studies in which clear or yellow traps baited with 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units attracted proportionately more males than clear traps baited with male cuticular extract or unbaited traps. Analyses of cuticular constituents of male and female D. citri revealed differences between the sexes in chemical composition of their cuticular extracts. Laboratory bioassays with synthetic chemicals identified from cuticular extracts indicated that dodecanoic acid attracted more males than clean air. Traps baited with dodecanoic acid did not increase total catch of D. citri as compared with blank traps at the dosages tested; however, the sex ratio of psyllid catch was male biased on traps baited with the highest lure loading dosage tested (10.0 mg). PMID:23955888

Mann, Rajinder S; Rouseff, Russell L; Smoot, Jack; Rao, Nandikeswara; Meyer, Wendy L; Lapointe, Stephen L; Robbins, Paul S; Cha, Dong; Linn, Charles E; Webster, Francis X; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2013-06-01

165

[Population fluctuation of sharpshooters vectors of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. in commercial citrus groves in northwestern Paraná State].  

PubMed

The citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), an important disease of citrus in Brazil, is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. and transmitted by xylem-feeding sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). This study evaluated the fluctuation of populations of species of sharpshooters belonging to the tribes Cicadellini and Proconiini, from subfamily Cicadelinae, in a commercial sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] grove, located in the Northwest Region of Paraná State, Brazil, in four varieties: Valência, Natal, Pêra, and Folha Murcha. Sharpshooters population was monitored using yellow stick traps sampled at 15 day-intervals, in 24 traps, from November of 1999 to March of 2004. The most abundant species were Dilobopterus costalimai Young (tribe Cicadellini) and Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli (tribe Proconiini). Both species were detected during the complete period studied, which is important because they have great potential for transmitting CVC. Thus, since more than a sharpshooter species were detected, more efforts are recommended to monitor and control these insects in citrus groves, aiming to reduce the dissemination of CVC. PMID:17607459

Nunes, William M C; Molina, Rúbia de O; de Albuquerque, Fernando A; Corazza-Nunes, Maria J; Zanutto, Carlos A; Machado, Marcos A

2007-01-01

166

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Quercetagetin, an Active Component of Immature Citrus unshiu, in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Citrus fruit contain various flavonoids that have multiple biological activities. However, the content of these flavonoids are changed during maturation and immature Citrus is known to contain larger amounts than mature. Chemokines are significant mediators for cell migration, while thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well known as the typical inflammatory chemokines in atopic dermatitis (AD), a pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease. We reported recently that the EtOH extract of immature Citrus unshiu inhibits TARC and MDC production. Therefore, we investigated the activity of flavonoids contained in immature Citrus on TARC and MDC levels. As a result, among the various flavonoids, quercetagetin has stronger inhibitory effects on the protein and mRNA expression of TARC and MDC than other flavonoids. Quercetagetin particularly has better activity on TARC and MDC level than quercetin. In HPLC analysis, the standard peak of quercetagetin matches the peaks of extract of immature C. unshiu. This suggests that quercetagetin is an anti-inflammatory component in immature C. unshiu. PMID:24009872

Kang, Gyeoung-Jin; Han, Sang-Chul; Ock, Jong-Woo; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Yoo, Eun-Sook

2013-01-01

167

Factors affecting pine pitch canker modelled on MichaelisMenten kinetics1  

E-print Network

circinata Nirenberg and O'Donnell) (Nirenberg and O'Donnell 1998), is a seri- ous disease of pine trees. The disease has been reported from the southeastern United States (Hepting and Roth 1946), Haiti (Hepting

168

Protective Effect of Coriolus versicolor Cultivated in Citrus Extract Against Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma SK-N-MC Cells.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical and a messenger molecule in many physiological functions. However, excessive NO is believed to be a mediator of neurotoxicity. The medicinal plant Coriolus versicolor is known to possess anti-tumor and immune-potentiating activities. In this study, we investigated whether Coriolus versicolor possesses a protective effect against NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. We utilized 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and caspase-3 enzyme activity assay in SK-N-MC cells. MTT assay showed that SNP treatment significantly reduces the viability of cells, and the viabilities of cells pre-treated with the aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in citrus extract (CVE(citrus)) was increased. However, aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in synthetic medium (CVE(synthetic)) showed no protective effect and aqueous citrus extract (CE) had a little protective effect. The cell treated with SNP exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose showed reduced apoptotic features. The cells pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose inhibited p53 and Bax expressions and caspase-3 enzyme activity up-regulated by SNP. We showed that CVE(citrus) exerts a protective effect against SNP-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells. Our study suggests that CVE(citrus) has therapeutic value in the treatment of a variety of NO-induced brain diseases. PMID:22110367

Kim, Byung-Chul; Kim, Youn-Sub; Lee, Jin-Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Yong-Il; Kim, Chang-Ju

2011-06-01

169

Quantitative Association of Bark Beetles with Pitch Canker Fungus and Effects of Verbenone on Their Semiochemical Communication in Monterey Pine Forests in Northern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between 11 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) with the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and OÕDonnell, was determined by crushing beetles on selective medium and histone H3 gene sequencing. Pityophthorus pubescens (Marsham) (25.00%), Hylurgops palliatus (Gyllenhal) (11.96%), Ips sexden- tatus (Borner) (8.57%), Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood (7.89%), Hylastes attenuatus Erichson (7.40%), and

Pedro Romón; Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia; Ken Gibson; B. Staffan Lindgren; Arturo Goldarazena

2007-01-01

170

Screening citrus rootstocks for alkalinity tolerance  

E-print Network

, . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 xIV Appendix Table Page G 6. Above-ground fresh weight after 1 5 weeks for 18 citrus rootstocks grown in sand culture and watered with a half strength macronutrient Hoagland's solution at 3 pH levels. 137 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION..., and 8. 5) to induce Fe- deficiency chlorosis. The pH 6. 0 was obtained by adjusting the solution using 110 pl of 1. 0 N NaOH, while pH 7. 5 and 8. 5 were obtained by adding 0. 068 and 0. 148 g K2CO3 per liter solution, respectively (Appendix C...

Sudahono

2012-06-07

171

Transcriptional and Microscopic Analyses of Citrus Stem and Root Responses to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. PMID:24058486

Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian

2013-01-01

172

Citrus flavonoid naringenin inhibits TLR2 expression in adipocytes.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were recently shown to be involved in obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Thus, the appropriate regulation of TLR expression or activation is an important strategy for improving obesity-related diseases. In this report, we show that naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits TLR2 expression during adipocyte differentiation. This effect is mediated in part through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation. In addition, naringenin suppresses TLR2 expression induced by the co-culture of differentiated adipocytes and macrophages and also inhibits tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced TLR2 expression by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-?B and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, naringenin decreases TLR2 expression in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice. These results are correlated with the improvement of hyperglycemia and the suppression of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-? and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Taken together, these data suggest that naringenin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, presumably by inhibiting TLR2 expression in adipocytes. Our findings suggest a molecular mechanism by which naringenin exerts beneficial effects against obesity-related diseases. PMID:23333096

Yoshida, Hiroki; Watanabe, Wataru; Oomagari, Hiroyuki; Tsuruta, Eisuke; Shida, Mikiko; Kurokawa, Masahiko

2013-07-01

173

Microclimate patterns on the leeside of single-row tree windbreaks during different weather conditions in Florida farms: implications for improved crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida citrus and vegetable crops generate billions of dollars in revenue every year. However, wind, freezing temperatures,\\u000a hurricanes, and diseases negatively impact production. Windbreaks located perpendicular to the prevailing wind can increase\\u000a farm production simply by reducing wind and modifying microclimate. Windbreaks can also help in managing pathogens such as\\u000a citrus canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri). To study the modification

Bijay TamangMichael; Michael G. Andreu; Donald L. Rockwood

2010-01-01

174

Water relations of rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri Lush.) citrus seedlings infected with Fusarium solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rough lemon citrus seedlings were inoculated withFusarium solani and evaluated for changes in water relations of leaves, stems, and roots. Inoculated seedlings had decreased leaf stomatal\\u000a conductance, lower leaf water potential, lower water content, and higher leaf osmotic values compared to healthy plants. Visible\\u000a wilt symptoms occurred as early as 24 h after inoculation. Transpiration and root conductivity were lower

S. Nemec; J. Syversten; Y. Levy

1986-01-01

175

Journal of Hazardous Materials 189 (2011) 710718 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

, increased amounts of Cu- containing fungicides have been used to fight against canker and other diseases in citrus [3]. Soil contamination by Cu causes soil degradation, phytotoxicity, and enhanced Cu transport can significantly inhibit the activities of microorganisms, enzymes, and earthworms [5]. Mehlich 3

Ma, Lena

176

Citrus residues isolates improve astaxanthin production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.  

PubMed

The wild strain and two astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strains, W618 and GNG274, of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were analyzed in order to assess their ability to grow and synthesize astaxanthin in a minimal medium containing (per liter): 2 g KH2PO4, 0.5 g MgSO4, 2 g KNO3, and 1 g yeast extract, and supplemented with citrus residues isolates as a carbon source (citrus medium). The selected strain W618 was evaluated under various contents of citrus juice. At the content of 20% (v/v), the highest astaxanthin production reached 22.63 mg L(-1), which was two-fold more than that observed in yeast malt medium. Addition of 8% (v/v) n-hexadecane to the citrus medium was found to be optimal, increasing the astaxanthin yield by 21.7%. PMID:21138061

Wu, Wei; Lu, Mingbo; Yu, Longjiang

2010-01-01

177

PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Citrus Seeds and Seed Oils from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical characteristics of the seeds and seed oils of four citrus species, Mitha (Citrus limetta), Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), Mussami (Citrus sinensis), and Kinnow (Citrus reticulata) were investigated. The hexane-extracted oil content of citrus seeds ranged from 27.0 to 36.5%. The protein, fiber and ash\\u000a contents were found to be 3.9–9.6%, 5.0–8.5%, and 4.6–5.6%, respectively. The extracted oils exhibited an

Farooq Anwar; Rehana Naseer; M. I. Bhanger; Samia Ashraf; Farah Naz Talpur; Felix Adekunle Aladedunye

2008-01-01

178

Properties of a Cationic Peroxidase from Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the\\u000a juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes\\u000a from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose,

Saleh A. Mohamed; Mohamed O. El-Badry; Ehab A. Drees; Afaf S. Fahmy

2008-01-01

179

Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups  

PubMed Central

Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

Harper, S. J.

2013-01-01

180

Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrates with high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates in which 24% and 35% dried citrus pulp were included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and saturation of meat after blooming (P<0.01). Regardless of the level of supplementation, dietary dried citrus pulp strongly reduced meat lipid oxidation over 6 days of aerobic storage (P<0.001), while colour parameters did not change noticeably over storage and their variation rate was not affected by the diet. In conclusion, replacing cereals with dried citrus pulp in concentrate-based diets might represent a feasible strategy to naturally improve meat oxidative stability and to promote the exploitation of this by-product. PMID:24440744

Inserra, L; Priolo, A; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Bognanno, M; Gravador, R; Luciano, G

2014-04-01

181

Effects of the nematicide 1,3-dichloropropene on weed populations and stem canker disease severity in potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) has been used in the UK for the control of potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera pallida (Stone) and Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber), but its potential herbicidal activity has not been extensively investigated in this country. Field and glasshouse studies were therefore conducted to evaluate the potential of 1,3-D for the control of weeds in potatoes, and

Patrick P. J. Haydock; Thomas Deliopoulos; Ken Evans; Stephen T. Minnis

2010-01-01

182

734 Plant Disease / Vol. 90 No. 6 Distribution of Chrysoporthe Canker Pathogens on Eucalyptus and Syzygium spp.  

E-print Network

). Although isolates from South- east Asia, East Africa, and Australia (Southeast Asian group) group of the world (12,21). Comparisons of DNA sequence data based on multiple gene regions have shown that C African isolates; an- other includes isolates from Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Australia; and a third

183

Characterization of the microbial community structure in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics in the field  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is a worldwide devastating disease of citrus. There are no effective control measures for this newly emerging but century-old disease. Previously, we reported a combination of Penicillin G and Streptomycin was effective in eliminating or suppressing the associated bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). Results Here we report the bacterial composition and community structure in HLB-affected citrus plants during a growing season and while being treated with antibiotic combinations PS (Penicillin G and Streptomycin) and KO (Kasugamycin and Oxytetracycline) using the Phylochip™ G3 array. Both antibiotic treatments resulted in significantly lower Las bacterial titers (Pr<0.05) and hybridization scores. Of the 50,000+ available operational taxonomic units (OTUs) on PhyloChip™ G3, 7,028 known OTUs were present in citrus leaf midribs. These OTUs were from 58 phyla, of which five contained 100 or more OTUs, Proteobacteria (44.1%), Firmicutes (23.5%), Actinobacteria (12.4%), Bacteroidetes (6.6%) and Cyanobacteria (3.2%). In the antibiotic treated samples, the number of OTUs decreased to a total of 5,599. The over-all bacterial diversity decreased with the antibiotic treatments, as did the abundance of 11 OTUs within Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. Within the Proteobacteria, ten OTUs representing the class ?-proteobacteria increased in abundance after four months of treatment, when the Las bacterium was at its lowest level in the HLB-affected citrus field plants. Conclusions Our data revealed that Proteobacteria was constantly the dominant bacterial phylum recovered from citrus leaf midribs, with the ?-proteobacterial and the ?-proteobacterial classes vying for prevalence. In addition, the level of bacterial diversity found in the leaf midribs of field citrus was greater than previously described. Bacterial cells in close proximity may be able to modify their microenvironment, making the composition of the microbial community an important factor in the ability of Las to cause HLB progression. A low Las level was seen as an annual fluctuation, part of the bacterial population dynamics, and as a response to the antibiotic treatments. PMID:23701743

2013-01-01

184

Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.  

PubMed

Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

2014-07-01

185

The antiallergic mechanisms of Citrus sunki and bamboo salt (K-ALL) in an allergic rhinitis model.  

PubMed

The antiallergic effects of traditional medicines have long been studied. Traditional Korean medicine, Citrus sunki and bamboo salt, has been used for the treatment of allergic diseases in Korea. K-ALL, composed of Citrus sunki and bamboo salt, is a newly prepared prescription for allergic patients. To develop the new antiallergic agent, we examined the effects of K-ALL through in vivo and in vitro models. K-ALL and naringin (an active compound of K-ALL) significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. This inhibitory effect of K-ALL on histamine release was higher than effects from other known histamine inhibitors such as bamboo salt, Citrus sunki or disodium cromoglycate. K-ALL significantly inhibited systemic anaphylactic shock induced by the compound 48/80 and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced by the IgE. K-ALL also inhibited production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 on HMC-1 cells (a human mast cell line). In the ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis animal model, rub scores, histamine, IgE, inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cell counts were all reduced by the oral or nasal administration of K-ALL (pre and posttreatment). These results indicate the great potential of K-ALL as an active immune modulator for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. PMID:24131540

Oh, Hyun-A; Kim, Myong-Jo; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

2014-01-01

186

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2011-01-01

187

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2012-01-01

188

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

...false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section...75-15 Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability...of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be eligible to...

2014-01-01

189

Reducing chilling injury and decay of stored citrus fruit by hot water dips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hot water dips (53 °C, 2–3 min) on chilling injury (CI) and decay of various citrus fruits was compared with the effect of curing (36 °C, 72 h). Experiments were conducted with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., cv. Marsh), lemon (Citrus limon. Burm., cv. Eureka), oroblanco (C. grandis Osb. × C. paradisi, cv. Oroblanco, syn. Sweety) and kumquat

V. Rodov; S. Ben-Yehoshua; R. Albagli; D. Q. Fang

1995-01-01

190

Land cover classification and economic assessment of citrus groves using remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus industry has the second largest impact on Florida's economy, following tourism. Estimation of citrus area coverage and annual forecasts of Florida's citrus production are currently dependent on labor-intensive interpretation of aerial photographs. Remotely sensed data from satellites has been widely applied in agricultural yield estimation and cropland management. Satellite data can potentially be obtained throughout the year, making

Rahul J. Shrivastava; Jennifer L. Gebelein

2007-01-01

191

Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (entantiomers of ?- and ?-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.).

Antonios Michaelakis; Dimitrios Papachristos; Athanasios Kimbaris; George Koliopoulos; Athanasios Giatropoulos; Moschos G. Polissiou

2009-01-01

192

Physiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5-chloro-3-  

E-print Network

and Bleecker 2004) and orchid (Van Doorn 2002), although Abbreviations ­ AT, aristolochic acid; FDF, fruitPhysiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5), a plant growth regulator that selectively promotes abscission in mature citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis

Burns, Jacqueline K.

193

Citrus Flavonoids in Fruit and Traditional Chinese Medicinal Food Ingredients in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in

Yanhua Lu; Chongwei Zhang; Peter Bucheli; Dongzhi Wei

2006-01-01

194

Factors affecting captures of male citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, in pheromone-baited traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillar- iidae), is an important world-wide pest of citrus. Larval mining within leaf flush impacts yield and predisposes trees to infection by citrus can- ker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The present series of studies sought to identify factors affecting male P. citrella catch in pheromone-baited traps with the intent of developing effective monitoring.

L. L. Stelinski; M. E. Rogers

2008-01-01

195

Citrus Tree Abiotic and Biotic Stress and Implication of Simulation and Modeling Tools in Tree Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant abiotic and biotic stress is related to unfavorable and environmental constraints. As a warm climate tree fruit crop, citrus (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) is adapted to a wide variety of soil types and growth conditions. However, when waterlogging, soil acidity and root weevil infestation occur simultaneously, citrus roots can be injured from anaerobic disturbance, oxygen deprivation and root injury,

Hong Li

196

Citrus essential oil of Nigeria. Part V: Volatile constituents of sweet orange leaf oil (Citrus sinensis).  

PubMed

The volatile oils extracted from leaves of eight cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck were comprehensively analysed by a combination of GC and GC-MS. Fifty four constituents accounting for 82.3-98.2% were identified. Sabinene (20.9-49.1%), delta-3-carene (0.3-14.3%), (E)-beta-ocimene (4.4-12.6%), linalool (3.7-11.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1.7-12.5%) were the major constituents that are common to all the volatile oils. In addition, a cluster analysis was carried out and indicated at least four different chemotypes for the C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:21815430

Kasali, Adeleke A; Lawal, Oladipupo A; Eshilokun, Adeolu O; Olaniyan, Abayomi A; Opoku, Andy R; Setzer, William N

2011-06-01

197

Resistance of citrus genotypes to Phyllocnitis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).  

PubMed

The development and reproduction of the citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, were evaluated in six citrus genotypes in order to identify genotypes with resistance traits that could be applied in a program for the development of citrus varieties resistant to the citrus leafminer. Tests were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14h photophase). Seedlings of each genotype tested were infested with eggs obtained from a stock colony of CLM maintained on 'Cravo' lemon (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck), and the duration and survival of the eggs, larval and pupal stages, pupal size and weight, fecundity and longevity of adults, and sex ratio were evaluated. No influence was observed on the duration and survival of eggs, larvae and pupae of P. citrella. However, pupae obtained in the hybrid C x R(4) were significantly smaller and lighter than pupae from the remaining treatments. Adult females from the hybrids C x R(4) and C x R(315) were the least fecund. However, the lowest value for the corrected reproductive potential (CRP) was recorded in the hybrid C x R(315), suggesting that this genotype is the least favorable for the development and reproduction of CLM. On the other hand, the highest CRP value obtained in the 'Rugoso' lemon confirms the susceptibility of this genotype, indicating it as the most suitable for CLM. PMID:21952967

Santos, M S; Vendramim, J D; Lourenção, A L; Pitta, R M; Martins, E S

2011-01-01

198

Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by ?-aminobutyric acid in citrus.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (?-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri. PMID:23590847

Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2013-10-01

199

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

E-print Network

and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene devastating effects on fruit production. Citation: Martinelli F, Uratsu SL, Albrecht U, Reagan RL, Phu ML, et

D'Souza, Raissa

200

Anticancer Activities of Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Related to Angiogenesis and Others  

PubMed Central

Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids.

Wang, Liwen; Wang, Jinhan; Fang, Lianying; Zheng, Zuliang; Zhi, Dexian; Wang, Suying; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhao, Hui

2014-01-01

201

Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.  

PubMed

Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit. PMID:19748198

González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C

2010-01-20

202

The impact of climate change on disease constraints on production of oilseed rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather data generated for different parts of the UK under five climate change scenarios (baseline, 2020s low CO2 emissions, 2020s high emissions, 2050s low emissions, 2050s high emissions) were inputted into weather-based models for predicting\\u000a oilseed rape yields and yield losses from the two most important diseases, phoma stem canker and light leaf spot. An economic\\u000a analysis of the predictions

Neal Evans; Michael H. Butterworth; Andreas Baierl; Mikhail A. Semenov; Jon S. West; Andrew Barnes; Dominic Moran; Bruce D. L. Fitt

2010-01-01

203

Weedy hosts and prevalence of potential leafhopper vectors (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) of a phytoplasma (16SrIX group) associated with Huanglongbing symptoms in citrus groves.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in São Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stål), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stål)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards. PMID:22606800

Marques, R N; Teixeira, D C; Yamamoto, P T; Lopes, J R S

2012-04-01

204

Variation in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.  

PubMed

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Fruit peels infected with C. gloeosporioides and the peels of healthy fruit were analysed for flavonoids, using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, to evaluate variations in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. Seventeen flavonoids were characterised from the fruit peels. The flavonoids were validated using structurally related standards and quantified. Among the 17 flavonoids, the concentration of component 3 was the highest and that of component 10 was the lowest. During 8 days after inoculation, the concentration of the seven flavonoids 1-3, 5, 6, 13, and 14 increased gradually up to day 8. Flavonoid 4 was detected from day 7. The seven minor flavonoid components, 8-12, 15, and 16 increased to day 5 and then decreased. However, flavonoids level variations were not significantly different from that of the non-infected fruits during the experimental period. The monitoring suggested that the constitutively formed seven polymethoxyflavones (8-12, 15, and 16) may act as phytoanticipins in the defence mechanism against the fungus, and that hespertin 7-O-glucoside (4), produced de novo on day 6 after infection, may function as a phytoalexin. PMID:24262558

Jeong, Sung Woo; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Park, Semin; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Gon-Sup; Jin, Jong Sung; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Huh, Moo Ryong; Lee, Ji Eun; Song, Yi; Shin, Sung Chul

2014-04-01

205

Viability of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' prolonged by addition of citrus juice to culture medium.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Infection with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding 'Ca. L. asiaticus' biology and pathogenesis is essential to develop a treatment. However, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cannot currently be successfully cultured, limiting its study. To gain insight into the conditions conducive for growth of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in vitro, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inoculum obtained from seed of fruit from infected pomelo trees (Citrus maxima 'Mato Buntan') was added to different media, and cell viability was monitored for up to 2 months using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with ethidium monoazide. Media tested included one-third King's B (K), K with 50% juice from the infected fruit, K with 50% commercially available grapefruit juice, and 100% commercially available grapefruit juice. Results show that juice-containing media dramatically prolong viability compared with K in experiments reproduced during 2 years using different juice sources. Furthermore, biofilm formed at the air-liquid interface of juice cultures contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cells, though next-generation sequencing indicated that other bacterial genera were predominant. Chemical characterization of the media was conducted to discuss possible factors sustaining 'Ca. L. asiaticus' viability in vitro, which will contribute to future development of a culture medium for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:23883155

Parker, Jennifer K; Wisotsky, Sarah R; Johnson, Evan G; Hijaz, Faraj M; Killiny, Nabil; Hilf, Mark E; De La Fuente, Leonardo

2014-01-01

206

Tick-borne disease surveillance in Florida includes confirmed and probable cases of Ehrlichia chaffeensis or human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), Anaplasma  

E-print Network

in Citrus County, Manatee County, and Pinellas Country were reported. Exposure was in county of residence), Manatee (1), Pinellas (1), Putnam (1), Seminole (1), St. Lucie (1), and Volusia (1) counties. Florida counties reporting these Lyme disease cases include: Citrus (1), Hillsborough (2), Manatee (1), Pinellas (1

Watson, Craig A.

207

Subcritical Water Extraction of Nutraceutical Compounds from Citrus Pomaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water (SCW) extraction of citrus pomaces (CPs) was carried out, and antioxidant activity and nutraceutical compound levels of the SCW extracts were evaluated in detail. At first, CP samples were subjected to the SCW extraction under various conditions focusing on the extraction temperature and time. Consequently, the highest total phenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power were found

Jong-Wan Kim; Tatsuya Nagaoka; Yasuyuki Ishida; Tatsuya Hasegawa; Kuniyuki Kitagawa; Seung-Cheol Lee

2009-01-01

208

OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION AND WORK PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS HARVEST LABOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The project assesses the effect of photochemical oxidants on the work performance of twelve individual citrus pickers in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California. A model of the picker's decision problem is constructed in which oxidants influence the individual's picking ...

209

RESEARCH ARTICLE Impact of water stress on citrus yield  

E-print Network

October 2011 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2011 Abstract Water shortage is becoming a severe problemRESEARCH ARTICLE Impact of water stress on citrus yield Iván García-Tejero & Victor Hugo Durán in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, reducing the avail- ability of agricultural land and water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

GROWTH REGULA TORS AND FRUIT SET OF CITRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike apples or pecans, most citrus does not require cross pollination with a different, compatible variety to produce adequate crops. Some varieties undergo normal pollination, fertilization, and subsequent seed development. The process of fertilization and pollination is covered elsewhere in this short course. However, other varieties produce fruit without sexual fertilization, a process termed \\

F. S. DAVIES

211

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

212

ANTHELMINTIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PEELS OF CITRUS SINENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of the present investigation was to determine the anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether extract of the peels of Citrus sinensis. Anthelmintic activity of this extract was evaluated on Indian adult earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, and exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis), and evoked responses to pin-prick, and the effects were comparable with that

A. T. Rajarajan; V. G. Vijayasree; W. Kenichi; S. Vijaya Kumar; G. Narasimman; S. Sadish

2009-01-01

213

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2010-04-01

214

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2013-04-01

215

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2011-04-01

216

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2014-04-01

217

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...Red No. 2 shall be used only for coloring the skins of oranges that...

2012-04-01

218

Potential perchlorate exposure from Citrus sp. irrigated with contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus produced in the southwestern United States is often irrigated with perchlorate-contaminated water. This irrigation water includes Colorado River water which is contaminated with perchlorate from a manufacturing plant previously located near the Las Vegas Wash, and ground water from wells in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of California which are affected by a perchlorate plume associated with an aerospace

C. A. Sanchez; R. I. Krieger; N. R. Khandaker; L. Valentin-Blasini; B. C. Blount

2006-01-01

219

Limettin and furocoumarins in beverages containing citrus juices or extracts.  

PubMed

Phototoxic and photo-genotoxic furocoumarins occur, e.g., in citrus species, parsnip, parsley, celery, and figs. They exhibit phototoxic and photo-genotoxic properties in combination with UV radiation, while less is known about the phototoxicity of the coumarin derivative limettin mainly found in limes and lemons. Risk assessment of dietary furocoumarins is based on a threshold approach and on estimates of 1.2-1.45 mg for the average daily exposure for adults via the diet in several countries. In these estimates, the major contribution to overall daily exposure has been attributed to citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages, in spite of a lack of analytical data for those products. Therefore, we analyzed a number of furocoumarins in a variety of citrus-containing beverages and included limettin in the pattern of analyzed constituents. Our findings provide strong evidence that grapefruit juice and not citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages is the major source of furocoumarin exposure in a Western diet. Based on these findings it can be assumed that the average dietary exposure to furocoumarins is about 3-fold lower than previously estimated, i.e. in the range of 548 and 2237 microg/day for the average and high consumer, respectively. The coumarin derivative limettin was mainly found in lime products. PMID:19770019

Gorgus, E; Lohr, C; Raquet, N; Guth, S; Schrenk, D

2010-01-01

220

Effects of different citrus varieties on the developmental behaviour of Citrus Butterfly Papilio demoleus in lower Sindh, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of ten different varieties of citrus plantation by butterfly Papilio demoleus and its effects on its larval and postlarval development were studied at Tando Mohammad Khan, Lower Sindh. Different type of food showed significant effects on growth rate, food utilization and reproductive potential of this pest. It was revealed that the growth index value was highest being 13.84

Arshad Munir; Nikliat Yasmin; M. Ather Rafi

221

Evaluation of thermodynamics and effect of chemical treatments on sorption potential of Citrus waste biomass for removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this study is to assess the sorption potential of Citrus waste biomasses, i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Citrus limetta and Citrus paradisi having optimum sorption capacity for anionic reactive dyes. Citrus sinensis biosorbent showing maximum sorption capacity was selected (qe 13.99, 15.21, 14.80 and 27.41mg\\/g for Reactive yellow 42, Reactive red 45, Reactive blue 19 and Reactive

Mahwish Asgher; Haq Nawaz Bhatti

222

Effectiveness of gene silencing induced by viral vectors based on Citrus leaf blotch virus is different in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants.  

PubMed

Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective technology for gene function analysis in plants. We assessed the VIGS effectiveness in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants of different Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV)-based vectors, using insets of the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene. While in N. benthamiana the silencing phenotype was induced only by the construct carrying a 58-nt pds hairpin, in citrus plants all the constructs induced the silencing phenotype. Differences in the generation of secondary small interfering RNAs in both species are believed to be responsible for differential host-species effects. The ability of CLBV-based vectors to silence different endogenous citrus genes was further confirmed. Since CLBV-based vectors are known to be stable and induce VIGS in successive flushes for several months, these vectors provide an important genomic tool and it is expected that they will be useful to analyze gene function by reverse genetics in the long-lived citrus plants. PMID:25010281

Agüero, Jesus; Vives, María del Carmen; Velázquez, Karelia; Pina, José Antonio; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, Jose

2014-07-01

223

Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies. PMID:20609277

Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

2011-02-01

224

Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

Not Available

1980-06-15

225

Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.  

PubMed

Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

2014-11-01

226

Allelochemicals and their transformations in the Ageratum conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercropping Ageratum conyzoides in citrus orchards may effectively suppress weeds and control other pests. Investigations showed that the inhibition of major\\u000a weeds and soil pathogenic fungi in citrus orchards was significantly correlated with the allelochemicals released into the\\u000a soil by intercropped A. conyzoides. Three flavones, ageratochromene, and its two dimers were isolated and identified from the A. conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soil.

Chuihua Kong; Wenju Liang; Fei Hu; Xiaohua Xu; Peng Wang; Yong Jiang; Baoshan Xing

2004-01-01

227

Report on Experiments with Citrus Fruits at the Beeville Sub-station.  

E-print Network

!TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN No. 148. MAY, 1912. Report on Experiments With Citrus Fruits at The Bee- ville Sub-station A. T. POTTS, Superintendent Beeville Sub-station AUSTIN PRINTING COMPANY AUSTIN. TEXAS TEXAS... in Original Bulletin] SATSUBIA ORANGE. A Three-Year-old Tree. .REPORT ON EXPERIMENTS WITH CITRUS FRUITS AT THE BEEVILLE SUB-STATION. The object of this bulletin is to give a brief resume of the experi- ments with citrus fruits which have been conducted...

Potts, A. T. (Arthur Tillman)

1912-01-01

228

Evaluation of the Biolog Substrate Utilization System To Identify and Assess Metabolic Variation among Strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Citri  

PubMed Central

Metabolic fingerprints of 148 strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri originating from 24 countries and associated with various forms of citrus bacterial canker disease (CBCD) were obtained by using the Biolog substrate utilization system. Metabolic profiles were used to attempt strain identification. Only 6.8% of the studied strains were correctly identified when the commercial Microlog 2N data base was used alone. When the data base was supplemented with data from 54 strains of X. campestris pv. citri (40 CBCD-A strains, 8 CBCD-B strains, and 6 CBCD-C strains) and data from 43 strains of X. campestris associated with citrus bacterial spot disease, the percentage of correct identifications was 70%. Thus, it is recommended that users supplement the commercial data base with additional data prior to using the program for identification purposes. The utilization of Tween 40 in conjunction with other tests can help to differentiate strains associated with CBCD and citrus bacterial spot disease. These results confirmed the separation of X. campestris pv. citri into different subgroups (strains associated with Asiatic citrus canker [CBCD-A], cancrosis B [CBCD-B], and Mexican lime canker [CBCD-C]). The utilization of l-fucose, d-galactose, and alaninamide can be used as markers to differentiate strains associated with these groups. A single strain associated with bacteriosis of Mexican lime in Mexico (CBCD-D) was closely similar to CBCD-B strains. PMID:16348849

Verniere, C.; Pruvost, O.; Civerolo, E. L.; Gambin, O.; Jacquemoud-Collet, J. P.; Luisetti, J.

1993-01-01

229

Characteristic volatile components of Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka).  

PubMed

The volatile components of both peel and juice of Japanese citrus, Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using SAFE (Solvent Assisted Flavor Evaporation) technique after solvent extraction. In this study, wine lactone, rose oxide, (2E)-4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, mintsulfide, and indole were newly identified from Kabosu. AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis) of the oxygenated fraction of the peel extract showed high FD (Flavor Dilution) factors for linalool, (2E)-4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, octanal, (4Z)-decenal, beta-citronellol, geraniol, and wine lactone, while wine lactone, linalool, eugenol, geraniol, and (2E)-4,5-epoxy-2-decenal from the juice extract. The enantiomeric distribution of linalool, cis-rose oxide, beta-citronellol, and wine lactone were also determined using a multidimensional chiral GC/MS. PMID:21485282

Tomiyama, Kenichi; Aoki, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Takeshi; Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Kasahara, Yoko; Kawakami, Yukihiro

2011-03-01

230

Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves infected with CaLam or CaLas. Conclusions Many gene transcripts and biological processes are significantly altered upon CaLam infection. Some of them had been identified in response to CaLas infection, while others had not been previously reported. These data will be useful for selecting target genes for genetic engineering to control HLB. PMID:23586643

2013-01-01

231

The Chemical Composition of Citrus Hystrix DC (Swangi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Swangi (Citrus hystrix DC) were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (?)-Citronellal was characterized as the main component (81%) of the leaf oil. It was also found as the main component of the twig oil (78.64%), and a major component of the peel oil (23.64%) in combination with ?-pinene (25.93%)

Akiyoshi Sato; Kenichi Asano; Toshiya Sato

1990-01-01

232

Carotenoids synthesized in citrus callus of different genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight carotenoids, such as phytoene, ?-carotene, violaxanthin, etc., synthesized in citrus callus of 31 genotypes were identified\\u000a and determined. Though varied with genotypes, the carotenoids composition of callus derived from a certain genotype was stable,\\u000a while carotenoids contents altered between sub-cultures. Some specific carotenoids were produced in calluses of limited genotypes:\\u000a ?-citraurin was only synthesized in calluses of Nianju tangerine

Juan Xu; Baozhen Liu; Xi Liu; Huijun Gao; Xiuxin Deng

2011-01-01

233

Limettin and furocoumarins in beverages containing citrus juices or extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phototoxic and photo-genotoxic furocoumarins occur, e.g., in citrus species, parsnip, parsley, celery, and figs. They exhibit phototoxic and photo-genotoxic properties in combination with UV radiation, while less is known about the phototoxicity of the coumarin derivative limettin mainly found in limes and lemons. Risk assessment of dietary furocoumarins is based on a threshold approach and on estimates of 1.2–1.45mg for

E. Gorgus; C. Lohr; N. Raquet; S. Guth; D. Schrenk

2010-01-01

234

Benefits of low-frequency irrigation in citrus orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus is a crop of major economic importance in Spain, cultivated during the dry season when irrigation is essential to guarantee\\u000a yields of high quality. As water resources are progressively more insufficient, more effective water management in agriculture\\u000a is crucial. Deficit irrigation in many agricultural crops has frequently proved to be an efficient tool for improving water-use\\u000a efficiency. We hypothesise

Iván García-Tejero; Víctor Hugo Durán-Zuazo; José Luis Muriel-Fernández; Gonzalo Martínez-García; Juan Antonio Jiménez-Bocanegra

235

Effects of naringin, a flavanone glycoside in grapefruits and citrus fruits, on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in the adult brain  

PubMed Central

Recently, we have demonstrated the ability of naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of grapefruits and citrus fruits, to prevent neurodegeneration in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Intraperitoneal injection of naringin protected the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection by increasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreasing the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in dopaminergic neurons and microglia, respectively. These results suggest that naringin can impart to the adult dopaminergic neurons the ability to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor against Parkinson's disease with anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we would like to describe an important perspective on its possibility as a therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25317167

Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

2014-01-01

236

The tenderisation of shin beef using a citrus juice marinade.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic) and a citrus juice marinade as tenderising agents in shin beef muscle was investigated. At 0.2 M, citric acid was more effective as a tenderising agent than acetic or lactic acid. Immersion of shin beef strips in citric acid (0-0.05 M) showed that a significant tenderising effect was obtained above a concentration of 0.013 M. When shin beef strips were immersed in the citrus juice marinade (31% orange juice, 31% lemon juice, 38% distilled water) mean pH decreased from 5.7 to 3.1 and mean sample weight increased by ?65%. The mean Warner-Bratzler shear force value decreased from 178 to 44 N cm(-2) following marination while mean sensory analysis scores for tenderness and juiciness increased following marination. A mean total collagen content of 1.4 g/100 g was recorded in shin beef of which 9% was soluble in unmarinated samples and 29% was soluble in marinated samples. The results indicated that the tenderisation of beef samples using a citrus juice marinade could be attributed to marinade uptake by muscle proteins and also to solubilisation of collagen. PMID:22062175

Burke, R M; Monahan, F J

2003-02-01

237

Morphological and molecular characterization of a Hirsutella species infecting the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease, which recently was detected in Florida. Mycosed adult D. citri were collected at four sites in central Florida between September 2005 and February 2006. Observation of the cadavers using scanning electron microscopy revealed that the pathogen had branched synnemata supporting monophiladic conidiogenous cells. A high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to amplify the 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes of the pathogen for phylogenetic analysis. The morphological and genetic data indicated that the pathogen was a novel isolate related to Hirsutella citriformis Speare. PCR assays using isolate-specific primers designed from the unique putative intron region of the beta-tubulin sequence distinguished the psyllid pathogen from five related Hirsutella species. The pathogen was maintained in vivo by exposing healthy D. citri to the synnemata borne on field-collected cadavers. Infected psyllids had an abundance of septate hyphal bodies in their hemolymph and exhibited behavioral symptoms of disease. In vitro cultures of the pathogen were slow-growing and produced synnemata similar to those found on mycosed D. citri. In laboratory bioassays, high levels of mortality were observed in D. citri that were exposed to the conidia-bearing synnemata produced in vivo and in vitro. PMID:17382959

Meyer, Jason M; Hoy, Marjorie A; Boucias, Drion G

2007-06-01

238

Ecological Modelling 117 (1999) 261267 Modeling bird mortality associated with the M/V Citrus oil spill  

E-print Network

/V Citrus oil spill in February 1996. Most of the islands beaches were searched on an irregular schedule estimated number of birds impacted by the M/V Citrus spill 1930. Given that oiled birds occurred in places probability; Oil spill; Persistence rate 1. Introduction On 17 February 1996 the freighter M/V Citrus collided

Rockwell, Robert F.

239

Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome of Citrus Plants in Response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-Infection and Antibiotic Treatments  

PubMed Central

The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants were characterized in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) by Phylochip-based metagenomics. The results revealed that 7,407 of over 50,000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 53 phyla were detected in citrus leaf midribs using the PhyloChip™ G3 array, of which five phyla were dominant, Proteobacteria (38.7%), Firmicutes (29.0%), Actinobacteria (16.1%), Bacteroidetes (6.2%) and Cyanobacteria (2.3%). The OTU62806, representing ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, was present with a high titer in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Gm at 100 mg/L and in the water-treated control (CK1). However, the Las bacterium was not detected in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Amp at 1.0 g/L or in plants graft-inoculated with Las-free scions (CK2). The PhyloChip array demonstrated that more OTUs, at a higher abundance, were detected in the Gm-treated plants than in the other treatment and the controls. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 23 OTUs from the Achromobacter spp. and 12 OTUs from the Methylobacterium spp. were more abundant in CK2 and CK1, respectively. Ten abundant OTUs from the Stenotrophomonas spp. were detected only in the Amp-treatment. These results provide new insights into microbial communities that may be associated with the progression of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the potential effects of antibiotics on the disease and microbial ecology. PMID:24250784

Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A.; Benyon, Lesley S.; Zhou, Hui; Duan, Yongping

2013-01-01

240

Pharmacokinetics of the citrus flavanone aglycones hesperetin and naringenin after single oral administration in human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective:Hesperetin and naringenin, the aglycones of the flavanone glycosides hesperidin and naringin, occur naturally in citrus fruits. They exert interesting pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, blood lipid and cholesterol lowering and are considered to contribute to health benefits in humans. However, no information is available on the pharmacokinetics of the citrus flavanones hesperetin and naringenin after their

F I Kanaze; M I Bounartzi; M Georgarakis; I Niopas

2007-01-01

241

Citrus long-horned beetle Anoplophora chinensis Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Citrus long-horned beetle Anoplophora chinensis Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The citrus long

242

Evaluation of the Genetic Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Populations from Different Citrus sinensis Varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa was isolated from sweet orange plants (Citrus sinensis) grown in two orchards in the northwest region of the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo. One orchard was part of a germ plasm field plot used for studies of citrus variegated chlorosis resistance, while the other was an orchard of C. sinensis cv. Pera clones. These two collections of strains

Helvecio Della Coletta-Filho; Marcos Antonio Machado

2002-01-01

243

EXAMINATION OF FLORAL NECTAR OF CITRUS, COTTON, AND ARIZONA DESERT PLANTS FOR MICROBES  

E-print Network

EXAMINATION OF FLORAL NECTAR OF CITRUS, COTTON, AND ARIZONA DESERT PLANTS FOR MICROBES Martha microbiological media. No microbes were isolated from nectar of any cotton flowers. Of 23 samples of citrus nectar no microbes, although nectar from saguaro cactus contained a few bacteria (gram-negative rods, gram

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Larval Cryptothelea gloverii (Lepidoptera: Psycidae), an arthropod predator and herbivore on Florida citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orange bagworm (OBW), Cryptothelea gloverii (Packard) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was previously reported feeding on citrus fruit and foliage and preying upon the camphor scale Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Coccidae). In this study using laboratory assays, OBW preyed upon citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and consumed eggs and adults of both P. oleivora and Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari:

Raul T. Villanueva; Jose C. V. Rodrigues; Carl C. Childers

2005-01-01

245

SOIL AND DIAPREPES ABBREVIATUS ROOT WEEVIL SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN A POORLY DRAINED CITRUS GROVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and water variability in space and time could be important for management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). We con- ducted a study of soil, tree, and root weevil relationships in a poorly drained grove of Hamlin orange on Swingle citrumelo rootstock (Pon- cirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. X Citrus paradisi Macfad.) in central Florida in 2002. We

Hong Li; James P. Syvertsen; Robin J. Stuart; Clay W. McCoy; Arnold W. Schumann; William S. Castle

2004-01-01

246

Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities from Citrus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus has long been regarded as a food and also as a medicinal plant. Fruits of four species of citrus which are commonly available in Malaysia, namely C. hystrix (wild lime), C. aurantifolia (common lime), C. microcarpa (musk lime) and C. sinensis (orange), were chosen to investigate their total phenolic, flavonoid and hesperidine contents. Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also

Mohammed Fadlinizal; Abd Ghafar; K. Nagendra Prasad; Kong Kin Weng; Amin Ismail

247

What is it? The citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Forster), is a non-native pest  

E-print Network

beetles have been intercepted in the UK at nurseries, bonsai importers and in private gardens on trees palmatum (Japanese maple). An outbreak of citrus longhorn beetle was detected in Lombardy, Italy in 2000. The tunnel and exit hole left within a young Japanese maple tree that had been infested by a citrus longhorn

248

Citrus Compounds Inhibit Inflammation and Obesity-Related Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary polyphenols are important potential chemopreventive natural agents. Other agents, such as citrus compounds, are also candidates for cancer chemopreventives. They act on multiple key elements in signal transduction pathways related to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and obesity. This short review article provides our findings of preclinical studies on potential chemopreventive activities of dietary citrus compounds, auraptene, collinin, and

Takuji Tanaka; Yumiko Yasui; Rikako Ishigamori-Suzuki; Takeru Oyama

2008-01-01

249

Fruit spot of sweet lime ( Citrus limetta ) caused by Septoria sp. in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, a severe fruit spot of sweet lime (Citrus limetta) was observed in Piura and Lambayeque provinces in northern Peru. Affected fruits showed large oval and sunken lesions, often\\u000a surrounded by chlorotic haloes. Septoria sp. was isolated from affected fruits. Sweet lime isolates showed larger pycnidia and pycnidiospores than those of Septoria spp. previously described on citrus. In addition,

Luis A. Álvarez-Bernaola; Javier Javier-Alva; Antonio Vicent; Maela León; José García-Jiménez

2007-01-01

250

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run...Application. A grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower...

2014-01-01

251

Effect of Putrescine and Paclobutrazol on Growth, Physiochemical Parameters, and Nutrient Acquisition of Salt-sensitive Citrus Rootstock Karna khatta ( Citrus karna Raf . ) under NaCl Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is a serious problem in arid and semiarid areas and citrus trees are classified as salt-sensitive. Because putrescine\\u000a (Put) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) are known to act as plant protectants under environmental stresses, we examined the effect of\\u000a Put and PBZ on the physiochemical parameters of the salt-susceptible citrus rootstock Karna khatta under NaCl stress. PBZ was applied at 0,

Dew Kumari Sharma; A. K. Dubey; Manish Srivastav; A. K. Singh; R. K. Sairam; R. N. Pandey; Anil Dahuja; Charanjeet Kaur

252

Extraction process optimization of polyphenols from Indian Citrus sinensis – as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. It has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. In this context, Mangifera indica (Mango), Syzygium cumini (Jambul), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Manilkara zapota (Sapodilla) seeds were evaluated for their antiglyation activity. Attempts were made to isolate the polyphenols in the seeds that have recorded the maximum activity. Methods Different extraction methods (shake flask, centrifugation and pressurized hot water) using various extractants (organic solvents, hot water and pressurized hot water) were adopted to investigate the in vitro antiglycation activity. Central composite (CCD) design based Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was espoused to optimize the extraction process of polyphenols from the fruit seeds that have recorded poor antiglycation activity. The PTLC analysis was performed to isolate the polyphenols (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and LC-PDA-MS analysis was done for structure prediction. Results Pressurized hot water extraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus (87.52%) and Citrus sinensis seeds (74.79%) was found to possess high and low antiglycation activity, respectively. The RSM mediated optimization process adopted for the Citrus sinensis seeds have revealed that 1:15 solvent ratio (hexane to heptane), 6 minutes and 1:20 solid to liquid ratio as the optimal conditions for the extraction of polyphenols with a maximum antiglycation activity (89.79%). The LC-PDA-MS analysis of preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) eluates of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed has showed the presence of compounds like quercetin (301.2), 4-hydroxy phenyl acetic acid (149.0), rhamnosyl-di-hexosyl quercetin sulphate (857.6), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (428.2), rutin (613.4), diosmetin (298.1) and luteolin (283.0). Conclusion The Artocarpus heterophyllus was observed to possess a significant antiglycation activity and the activity of Citrus sinensis was improved after the optimization process, which proved that both the seeds may be used as a traditional medicine in the management of chronic diabetes mellitus. PMID:24397983

2014-01-01

253

Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging  

PubMed Central

Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay) and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC). Short-term (48 h) co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL). CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF) while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction. PMID:24763109

Buachan, Paiwan; Chularojmontri, Linda; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K.

2014-01-01

254

Microscopical observation of inhibition-behaviors against Diaporthe citri by pre-treated with Pseudomonas putida strain THJ609-3 on the leaves of citrus plants.  

PubMed

Citrus melanose is one of the most important diseases in orchards cultivating citrus in the world. Although the disease does not cause yield loss, the profitability of the infected fruits is often reduced in the fresh-market, resulting in economic loss. In this study, disease reduction was proven by pre-treatment with Pseudomonas putida strain THJ609-3. In order to illustrate mechanism of the disease reduction by the bacterial strain, the infection behaviors of Diaporthe citri and necrosis deposit of plant tissue were observed using a fluorescence microscope. On the leaves pre-treated with the strain THJ609-3, germination rates of D. citri conidia were significantly decreased compared to those of the untreated control. Scanning electron microscopical observations showed that bacterial cells were attached to the surface of fungal hyphae. Furthermore, morphological change of germ tubes of the conidia was detected. These results suggest that the disease reduction may be caused by the direct antifungal activity of the bacterial strain on the leaf surfaces. PMID:25269607

Ko, Yun Jung; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Ki Deok; Jeun, Yong Chull

2014-10-01

255

Melitidin: a flavanone glycoside from Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa'.  

PubMed

Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' is a traditional Chinese medicine, used as an antitussive. In this research, melitidin, a flavanone glycoside, was isolated from this species for the first time by using chromatographic methods. The structure was confirmed through comprehensive analyses of its ultraviolet, infrared, 1H and 13C NMR, HMBC and HMQC spectroscopic and high-resolution mass spectrometric data. Meliditin showed a good antitussive effect on cough induced by citric acid in Guinea pig, suggesting that it was a contributor to the antitussive effect of C. grandis 'Tomentosa'. PMID:23738451

Zou, Wei; Wang, Yonggang; Liu, Haibin; Luo, Yulong; Chen, Si; Su, Weiwei

2013-04-01

256

Operative strategies of HLB's scouts of a citrus property within the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

This research aimed to study the activity of the HLB's scouts, workers whose function is to identify symptomatic plants, in order to understand the physical constraints, cognitive and organizational involved in accomplishing the task, characterizing the operative approach used to identify diseased plants, and to elucidate what aspects hinder the identification of symptoms. The method adopted for the research was the Ergonomic Analysis of Work--EAW [6]. The results, after validation with the operators and management, allowed understanding the complex relationships between the physical, cognitive and organizational aspects present on activity. Major difficulties were observed mainly in relation to the disposal of the scouts on the platforms and in relation to working hours, at the beginning and end of the journey. Important findings have highlighted strategies, unknown by the organization, used by scouts to locate candidates' trees to the fine analysis of investigation of symptoms. In conclusion, the analysis enable to understand the constraints and find technical and organizational solutions to the survey work on citrus groves as well as it showed signs and symptoms not investigated yet or rarely considered by researchers involved on searches aimed at increasing the ability to diagnose the disease in the field. PMID:22317241

Gonçalves, Glaucia Helena; Menegon, Nilton Luiz

2012-01-01

257

[Eat a citrus fruit, stay healthy--a case report of scurvy].  

PubMed

Scurvy is a disease that results from a vitamin C deficient diet. Since vitamin C is available in many food products, and especially in citrus fruits, the disease is rare in developed countries. Clinical manifestations of scurvy include general weakness, cutaneous and gum bleeding, pain in the lower limbs and inability to stand and walk (pseudo paralysis). The diagnosis of scurvy requires a high level of clinical suspicion, typical radiographic features and low Levels of vitamin C in the plasma. We report a case of a 7-year-old patient with a medical history of hydrocephalus, failure to thrive and severe psychomotor retardation due to complications of prematurity. On admission she had gum bleeding, severe anemia, pain in the lower limbs and refused to stand and walk. According to her parents, her diet was restricted, without vegetables or fruit consumption. Our investigation ruled out coagulopathy, malignancy and infection. Serum vitamin C levels were low and radiographic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of scurvy. The patient improved rapidly after the initiation of vitamin C supplements. Despite being rare, scurvy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bleeding and pain in the lower limbs, especially in a malnourished patient. PMID:22991858

Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Greenberg, David

2012-06-01

258

7 CFR 301.91-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES European Larch Canker Quarantine and Regulations...been or may hereafter be delegated. European larch canker. The plant disease known as European larch canker, Lachnellula willkommi...

2010-01-01

259

Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.  

PubMed

The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

2014-07-01

260

Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.  

PubMed

Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35°C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products. PMID:24534507

Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-04-01

261

Straw Mulching Reduces the Harmful Effects of Extreme Hydrological and Temperature Conditions in Citrus Orchards  

PubMed Central

Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions. PMID:24489844

Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

262

Identification of boron-deficiency-responsive microRNAs in Citrus sinensis roots by Illumina sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Boron (B)-deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in nutrient deficiencies. However, little is known on B-deficiency-responsive miRNAs in plants. In this study, we first identified miRNAs and their expression pattern in B-deficient Citrus sinensis roots by Illumina sequencing in order to identify miRNAs that might be involved in the tolerance of plants to B-deficiency. Results We isolated 52 (40 known and 12 novel) up-regulated and 82 (72 known and 10 novel) down-regulated miRNAs from B-deficient roots, demonstrating remarkable metabolic flexibility of roots, which might contribute to the tolerance of plants to B-deficiency. A model for the possible roles of miRNAs in the tolerance of roots to B-deficiency was proposed. miRNAs might regulate the adaptations of roots to B-deficiency through following several aspects: (a) inactivating reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and scavenging through up-regulating miR474 and down-regulating miR782 and miR843; (b) increasing lateral root number by lowering miR5023 expression and maintaining a certain phenotype favorable for B-deficiency-tolerance by increasing miR394 expression; (c) enhancing cell transport by decreasing the transcripts of miR830, miR5266 and miR3465; (d) improving osmoprotection (miR474) and regulating other metabolic reactions (miR5023 and miR821). Other miRNAs such as miR472 and miR2118 in roots increased in response to B-deficiency, thus decreasing the expression of their target genes, which are involved in disease resistance, and hence, the disease resistance of roots. Conclusions Our work demonstrates the possible roles of miRNAs and related mechanisms in the response of plant roots to B-deficiency. PMID:24885979

2014-01-01

263

Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2014-01-01

264

Xylella fastidiosa disturbs nitrogen metabolism and causes a stress response in sweet orange Citrus sinensis cv. Pera.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a fastidious bacterium that grows exclusively in the xylem of several important crop species, including grape and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) causing Pierce disease and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), respectively. The aim of this work was to study the nitrogen metabolism of a highly susceptible variety of sweet orange cv. 'Pêra' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) infected with Xf. Plants were artificially infected and maintained in the greenhouse until they have developed clear disease symptoms. The content of nitrogen compounds and enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism and proteases in the xylem sap and leaves of diseased (DP) and uninfected healthy (HP) plants was studied. The activity of nitrate reductase in leaves did not change in DP, however, the activity of glutamine synthetase was significantly higher in these leaves. Although amino acid concentration was slightly higher in the xylem sap of DP, the level dropped drastically in the leaves. The protein contents were lower in the sap and in leaves of DP. DP and HP showed the same amino acid profiles, but different proportions were observed among them, mainly for asparagine, glutamine, and arginine. The polyamine putrescine was found in high concentrations only in DP. Protease activity was higher in leaves of DP while, in the xylem sap, activity was detected only in DP. Bidimensional electrophoresis showed a marked change in the protein pattern in DP. Five differentially expressed proteins were identified (2 from HP and 3 from DP), but none showed similarity with the genomic (translated) and proteomic database of Xf, but do show similarity with the proteins thaumatin, mucin, peroxidase, ABC-transporter, and strictosidine synthase. These results showed that significant changes take place in the nitrogen metabolism of DP, probably as a response to the alterations in the absorption, assimilation and distribution of N in the plant. PMID:17609534

Purcino, Rúbia P; Medina, Camilo Lázaro; Martins de Souza, Daniel; Winck, Flávia Vischi; Machado, Eduardo Caruso; Novello, José Camilo; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Mazzafera, Paulo

2007-01-01

265

Production Systems and Processing Effect on Phytochemicals in Citrus Fruits and Their Analytical and Isolation Methods  

E-print Network

in gram level quantity. In the third study, the levels of phytochemicals in organically and conventionally grown lemons and their storage at market simulated conditions were determined. Results suggest that organically produced citrus fruits have higher...

Uckoo, Ram 1980-

2012-12-13

266

7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas...

2012-01-01

267

7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas...

2011-01-01

268

7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...This district shall have two grower members and alternates. (c) Citrus District Three shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Soto, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2012-01-01

269

Effect of pesticides on spiders occurring on apple and citrus in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments in an apple orchard and in a citrus grove were carried out to evaluate the effect of four commercial pesticides\\u000a in common use in Israel against apple and citrus pests, on the spider populations inhabiting the trees. The spider populations\\u000a on apple were markedly suppressed by the pesticides, the order of toxicity being Talstar (biphenate) >Mavrik (fluvalinate)\\u000a >

F. Mansour

1987-01-01

270

Isolation and Molecular Characterization of a Putative Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene from Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbate peroxidase is the key enzyme in detoxifying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species from chloroplast and cytosol. A cDNA encoding a putative citrus ascorbate peroxidase, APXcit was isolated from mature ‘Dancy’ tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) juice vesicles using differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The full-length APXcit sequence was composed of 1,082 bp nucleotides, including an open

Madhurababu Kunta; Hilda S. Del Rio; M. Skaria; E. S. Louzada

2010-01-01

271

Oranges and lemons: clues to the taxonomy of Citrus from molecular markers.  

PubMed

Go into any grocery store and one is confronted with an array of Citrus fruit: oranges, grapefruit, mandarins (tangerines), lemons and limes. This is rich bounty for the shopper, but taxonomists are perplexed as to how to classify the various kinds of Citrus that have existed since antiquity. Now, thanks to new genetic and molecular biological techniques, the relationships between these fruit are being unraveled and show that there are probably only three true species. PMID:11525837

Moore, G A

2001-09-01

272

Citrus waste recovery: a new environmentally friendly procedure to obtain animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus juice centrifugation pulp is the semi-solid product obtained from the industrial centrifugation of juices, to obtain a clear juice. This waste causes many economic and environmental problems because of its fermentability.In this paper we describe a method which makes it possible to obtain animal feed from citrus juice centrifugation pulp. To this end, alkaline and\\/or enzymatic treatments were carried

Maria Marcella Tripodo; Francesco Lanuzza; Giuseppe Micali; Rosa Coppolino; Fortunata Nucita

2004-01-01

273

Ethylene-induced differential gene expression during abscission of citrus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to identify and classify genes involved in the process of leaf abscis- sion in Clementina de Nules (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan.). A 7 K unigene citrus cDNA microarray containing 12 K spots was used to characterize the transcriptome of the ethylene-induced abscission pro- cess in laminar abscission zone-enriched tissues and the petiole

Javier Agusti ´; Paz Merelo; Manuel Cercos; Francisco R. Tadeo; Manuel Talon

2008-01-01

274

The use of solid petroleum fuel blocks for cold protection in Texas citrus orchards  

E-print Network

THE USE OF SOLID PETROLEUM FUEL BLOCKS FOR COLD PROTECTION IN TEXAS CITRUS ORCHARDS A Thesis By MORRIS ADRIAN BAILEY, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas Afd6 University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1966 Major Subject: Horticulture THE USE OF SOLID PETROLEUM FUEL BLOCKS FOR COLD PROTECTION IN TEXAS CITRUS ORCHARDS A Thesis By MORRIS ADRIAN BAILEY, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (C 'rm of Committee) (Head...

Bailey, Morris Adrian

2012-06-07

275

Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of decay. In both species the weight loss was not affected by the treatments. These results show that a good control of postharvest decay could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining the effect of a GRAS compound such as AAC with curing. Conversely the results obtained, by applying this control method to the orange variety were not so promising. Further researches are needed to shed light on the different behaviour between the two species. PMID:20222556

Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

2009-01-01

276

The Inhibitory Effect of Premature Citrus unshiu Extract on Atopic Dermatitis In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory skin disease that is associated with Th2 cellmediated allergy. The process that leads to infiltration of inflammatory cells into an AD lesion is remarkably dependent on various chemokines, especially TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17) and MDC (macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22). Serum levels of these chemokines are over-expressed in AD patients. Citrus unshiu, which is known as Satsuma mandarin, has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammation, and anti-microviral activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of EtOH extract of premature C. unshiu on AD. We did this using a DNCB-induced AD mouse model. We also tried to confirm an inhibitory effect for premature C. unshiu on the expression of inflammatory chemokines in IFN-? and TNF-? stimulated HaCaT human keratinocytes. We found that extract of premature C. unshiu reduced DNCB-induced symptoms such as hyperkeratosis, increased skin thickness, and infiltrated mast cells, in our AD-like animal model. The extract decreased levels of IFN-? and IL-4 in ConA-stimulated splenocytes isolated from DNCB-treated mice. Also, extract of premature C. unshiu inhibited mRNA expression and protein production of TARC and MDC through the inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that C. unshiu has anti-atopic activity by regulating inflammatory chemokines such as TARC and MDC. PMID:24278569

Kang, Gyeoung-Jin; Han, Sang-Chul; Yi, Eun-Jou; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2011-01-01

277

Historical review of citrus flavor research during the past 100 years.  

PubMed

Citrus juices are a complex mixture of flavor and taste components. Historically, the contributions of taste components such as sugar (sweet) and acid (sour) components were understood before impactful aroma volatiles because they existed at higher concentrations and could be measured with the technologies of the 1920s and 1930s. The advent of gas chromatography in the 1950s allowed citrus researchers to separate and tentatively identify the major citrus volatiles. Additional volatiles were identified when mass spectrometry was coupled to capillary GC. Unfortunately, the major citrus volatiles were not major influences of citrus flavor. The major aroma impact compounds were found at trace concentrations. With the advent of increasingly more sensitive instrumental techniques, juice sample size shrank from 2025 L in the 1920s to 10 mL today and detection limits fell from percent to micrograms per liter. Currently gas chromatography-olfactometry is the technique of choice to identify which volatiles in citrus juices possess aroma activity, determine their relative aroma strength, and characterize their aroma quality but does not indicate how they interact together or with the juice matrix. Flavor equations based primarily on nonvolatiles and other physical measurements have been largely unsuccessful. The most successful flavor prediction equations that employ instrumental concentration values are based on a combination of aroma active volatiles and degrees Brix (sugar) values. PMID:19719125

Rouseff, Russell L; Ruiz Perez-Cacho, Pilar; Jabalpurwala, Fatima

2009-09-23

278

Evaluation of phloxine B as a possible control agent against citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

We evaluated the toxicity of phloxine B photoactive dye combined with a cane molasses bait against citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton). Laboratory bioassays conducted under artificial light showed that thrips mortality followed a log-dose probit-response model with an estimated LC50 of 0.0079% dye. Diluted cane molasses plus 0.01% phloxine B then was used as a standard for comparison of eight additional baits, including three formulations of concentrated citrus peel liquor (CCPL1-3). Citrus thrips mortality ranked highest to lowest with CCPL1 and CCPL3 > CCPL2, Mo-Bait and cane molasses > concentrated beet molasses, concentrated cane molasses, hemicellulose extract, and whey. Several commercial surfactants were tested to see if their addition to the standard increased efficacy. Hyper-Active, Kinetic, and Tween 60 at 1% and Cohort, Hyper-Active, Kinetic, and Silwet at 0.25% when added to the standard, reduced citrus thrips mortality, whereas Tween 60 and Dyne-Amic at 0.25% had no effect. Cane molasses with one or 5% phloxine B dye and CCPL1 with 1% dye were sprayed on citrus trees and allowed to weather in the field. Laboratory bioassays conducted after leaves had weathered for up to 8 d indicated that bait-dye toxicity was persistent. Possible use of the bait-dye mixture in commercial control of citrus thrips is discussed. PMID:12852598

Tollerup, K; Morse, J G

2003-06-01

279

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saidani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

280

An Effective and Low-Cost Culture Medium for Isolation and Growth of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus and Coffee Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffered charcoal–yeast extract medium (BCYE) has been used for isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from citrus (Citrus sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica) plants affected by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and coffee leaf scorch (CLS). BCYE is composed of ACES (2-[2-amino-2oxoethyl)\\u000a amino]-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer, activated charcoal, yeast extract, L-cysteine, ferric pyrophosphate, and agar. ACES buffer\\u000a is costly and not always commercially available

S. A. Lopes; S. C. Z. Torres

2006-01-01

281

The functional evaluation of waste yuzu (Citrus junos) seeds.  

PubMed

We have succeeded in extracting a large amount of expensive limonoids and the high total antioxidant capability yuzu seed oil from waste yuzu seed by simple methods. Yuzu seeds contain higher amounts of fat-soluble limonoid aglycone (330.6 mg g(-1) of dry seed), water-soluble limonoid glycoside (452.0 mg g(-1) of dry seed), and oil (40 mg g(-1) of green seed) than other citrus fruits. The antioxidant activities of yuzu seed aglycone, glycoside, and seed oil were evaluated in vitro. The potential antioxidant activity in oil solution, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, and hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity effects of the seed extracts were also investigated. The antioxidant activity of yuzu seed oil was two times that of grapefruit seed oil, which has high activity. Yuzu glycoside produced the same high antioxidant activity as Luo Han Guo glycoside. PMID:24336775

Minamisawa, Mayumi; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Uzawa, Atsushi

2014-02-01

282

Molecular mechanisms of citrus flavanones on hepatic gluconeogenesis.  

PubMed

It is well known that hyperglycaemia is the initiating cause of tissue damage associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and that enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis may account for the increase in blood glucose levels. The purpose of this work was to investigate the possible actions and mechanisms of three related citrus flavanones, namely hesperidin, hesperetin and naringenin, on hepatic gluconeogenesis and related parameters using isolated perfused rat liver. Hesperetin and naringenin (but not hesperidin) inhibited gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate, alanine and dihydroxyacetone. The inhibitory effects of these flavanones on gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate (hesperetin IC50 75.6 ?M; naringenin IC50 85.5 ?M) as well as from alanine were considerably more pronounced than those from dihydroxyacetone. The main cause of gluconeogenesis inhibition is the reduction of pyruvate carboxylation by hesperetin (IC50 134.2 ?M) and naringenin (IC50 143.5 ?M) via inhibition of pyruvate transport into the mitochondria. Secondary causes are likely inhibition of energy metabolism, diversion of glucose 6-phosphate for glucuronidation reactions and oxidation of NADH by flavanone phenoxyl radicals. The influence of the structural differences between hesperetin and naringenin on their metabolic effects was negligible. Analytical evidence indicated that the presence of a rutinoside moiety in hesperidin noticeably decreases its metabolic effects, confirming that hesperetin and naringenin interact with intracellular enzymes and mitochondrial or cellular membranes better than hesperidin. Thus, the inhibition of the gluconeogenic pathway by citrus flavanones, which was similar to that of the drug metformin, may represent an attractive novel treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24239748

Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Bracht, Adelar; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Constantin, Jorgete

2014-01-01

283

Microbial, chemical and physical aspects of citrus waste composting.  

PubMed

Citrus waste supplemented with calcium hydroxide and with a C/N ratio of 24:1, pH of 6.3 and moisture content of 60% was composted by piling under shelter. With regular turning over of the pile and replenishment of moisture, the thermic phase lasted for 65-70 days and composting was completed after 3 months. Compost thus prepared had an air-filled porosity of 14%, water-holding capacity of 590 ml l(-1), bulk density of 1.05 g cm(-3) and conductivity of 480 mS m(-1). Phosphorus content (in mg l(-1)) was 15, potassium 1,170, calcium 362, magnesium 121, sodium 32, chloride 143, boron 0.31, and water-soluble nitrogen and organic matter 126 and 4788, respectively. Total carbon amounted to 8.85% and total nitrogen to 1.26% of the dry weight, giving a C/N ratio of 7. Mature compost showed some, but acceptable, levels of phytotoxicity. Raw citrus waste was predominantly colonised by mesophilic yeasts. Thermophilous microorganisms present during the thermic phase mainly comprised the bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus and, to a lesser extent, fungi such as Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Emericella nidulans, Penicillium diversum, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor pusillus, Talaromyces thermophilus and Thermomyces lanuginosus. Bacteria prevalent in the final product included B. licheniformis, B. macerans, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. luteola and Serratia marcescens, whereas fungi isolated most frequently comprised Aspergillus puniceus, A. ustus, E. nidulans. Paecilomyces lilacinus, T lanuginosus, yeasts and a basidiomycetous species, probably Coprinus lagopus. PMID:11708757

van Heerden, I; Cronjé, C; Swart, S H; Kotzé, J M

2002-01-01

284

Cloning and molecular analysis of cDNAs encoding three sucrose phosphate synthase isoforms from a citrus fruit ( Citrus unshiu Marc.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three partial cDNA clones (pSPS1, pSPS2 and pSPS3) encoding sucrose phosphate synthases (SPS) were isolated by Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR using first-strand cDNA prepared from the leaf or fruit of citrus (Citrus unshiu Marc.). The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the three clones showed significant similarities to SPS previously isolated in other plants. A full-length, cDNA clone, CitSPS1, was

A. Komatsu; Y. Takanokura; T. Akihama; M. Omura

1996-01-01

285

Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan) to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping  

PubMed Central

Background During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated their polymorphism related to the type (di or trinucleotide) or their position in the coding sequences. Results Among 11000 unigenes from a Clementine EST library, we have found at least one microsatellite sequence (repeated units size ranged from 2 to 6 nucleotides) in 1500 unigenes (13.6%). More than 95% of these SSRs were di or trinucleotides. If trinucleotide microsatellites were encountered trough all part of EST sequences, dinucleotide microsatellites were preferentially (50%) concentrated in the 5' 100th nucleotides. We assessed the polymorphism of 41 EST-SSR, by PCR amplification droved with flanking primers among ten Citrus species plus 3 from other genera. More than 90% of EST-SSR markers were polymorphic. Furthermore, dinucleotide microsatellite markers were more polymorphic than trinucleotide ones, probably related to their distribution that was more often located in the 5' UnTranslated Region (UTR). We obtained a good agreement of diversity relationships between the citrus species and relatives assessed with EST-SSR markers with the established taxonomy and phylogeny. To end, the heterozygosity of each genotype and all dual combinations were studied to evaluate the percentage of mappable markers. Higher values (> 45%) were observed for putative Citrus inter-specific hybrids (lime lemon, or sour orange) than for Citrus basic true species (mandarin, pummelo and citron) (<30%). Most favorable combinations for genome mapping were observed in those involving interspecific hybrid genotypes. Those gave higher levels of mappable markers (>70%) with a significant proportion suitable for synteny analysis. Conclusion Fourty one new EST-SSR markers were produced and were available for citrus genetic studies. Whatever the position of the SSR in the ESTs the EST-SSR markers we developed are powerful to investigate genetic diversity and genome mapping in citrus. PMID:18558001

Luro, Francois L; Costantino, Gilles; Terol, Javier; Argout, Xavier; Allario, Thierry; Wincker, Patrick; Talon, Manuel; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael

2008-01-01

286

Publication 3441 Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.citrus.html UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program  

E-print Network

/08)................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Precautions for Using Petroleum Oil Sprays (6/13) ................................................................................................................................. 13 General Properties of Fungicides Used in Citrus (4

Ishida, Yuko

287

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments  

PubMed Central

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

Rodrigo, Maria J.; Alquezar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

2013-01-01

288

Essential Oils and Antioxidants Derived From Citrus By-Products in Food Protection and Medicine: An Introduction and Review of Recent Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief overview of the general production, market value, and uses of citrus by-products, this literature review will focus on the most highly refined “pharmaceutical grade” citrus oils and antioxidants that have been derived from peels or other fruit parts. Citrus oils have been used as a part of the perfume industry and in the practice of alternative medicine

Amy Hardin; Philip G. Crandall; Tony Stankus

2010-01-01

289

AISLAMIENTO E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE HONGOS PATÓGENOS DE NARANJA Citrus sinensis L. OSBECK CULTIVADA EN BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MÉXICO ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI FROM ORANGE Citrus sinensis L. OSBECK CULTURED IN BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric fruits constitute an important commodity in Mexico. However, because of significant post-harvest loses (up to 40%), the citrus industry in Mexico requires optimization. The presence of pathogenic fungi affecting root system, stem, leaves and fruits, represent a risk for ulterior development of post-harvest rotting. In this work, several varieties of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Valencia Temprana, Valencia Tardía

J. L. Ochoa; L. G. Hernández-Montiel; H. Latisnere-Barragán; J. L. León de La Luz; C. P. Larralde-Corona

2007-01-01

290

PLANT DISEASES IN SOUTH CAROLINA  

E-print Network

Maple) FUNGI Botryosphaeria sp. -- Botryosphaeria canker Acer platanoides (Norway Maple) FUNGI root rot ACERACEAE Acer japonicum (Japanese Maple) FUNGI Botryodiplodia sp. -- Botryodiplodia dieback spot Phytophthora sp. -- Phytophthora root rot Pythium sp. -- Pythium root rot Acer negundo (Box Elder

Duchowski, Andrew T.

291

Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC) decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. Results To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats) analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9), one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22) and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18) of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. Conclusion The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus. PMID:19698121

2009-01-01

292

Relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils on P. digitatum and P. italicum growth. The hydrodistilled essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis cvv. “Washington navel”, “Sanguinello”, “Tarocco”, “Moro”, “Valencia late”, and “Ovale”), bitter (sour) orange (C. aurantium), mandarin (C. deliciosa cv. “Avana”), grapefruit (C. paradisi cvv. “Marsh seedless” and “Red Blush”), citrange (C. sinensis

Duccio R. L Caccioni; Monica Guizzardi; Daniela M Biondi; Agatino Renda; Giuseppe Ruberto

1998-01-01

293

Effects of Reclaimed Municipal Waste Water on Horticultural Characteristics, Fruit Quality, and Soil and Leaf Mineral Concentration of Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Conserv II is a municipal reclaimed water project operated by the city of Orlando and Orange county, FL. The Water Conserv II project has been supplying high-quality reclaimed water for irrigation of citrus orchards, nurseries, greenhouse operations, golf courses, and residential landscapes in Orange and Lake counties since 1986. Selected commercial citrus orchards in the WaterConserv II service area

Kelly T. Morgan; T. Adair Wheaton; Larry R. Parsons; William S. Castle

294

Efficacy of Three Citrus Oil Formulations Against Solenopsis invieta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), the Red Imported Fire Anti,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas to assess efficacy of raw citrus peel extract (orange oil) and a commercial citrus oil formulation for control of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. A recipe containing orange oil (equal parts orange oil, cattlemen's molasses, and compost tea at 47 mL L-' water), orange oil premixed with water to

James T. Vogt; Vhomas G. Shelt; Michael E. Merchant; Scott A. Russell; Marla J. Tanle; Arthur G. Appe

295

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Nobiletin on Phorbol Ester-induced Skin Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Tumor Promotion in Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intake of citrus fruits has been suggested as a way to prevent the development of some types of human cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) is closely associated with the processes of epithelial carcinogenesis. We attempted a search for NO generation inhibitors in Citrus unshiu. The active constit- uent was traced by an activity-guiding separation. NO and superoxide (O2 2 )

Akira Murakami; Yoshimasa Nakamura; Koji Torikai; Takuji Tanaka; Teruaki Koshiba; Koichi Koshimizu; Shigeru Kuwahara; Yasuo Takahashi; Kazunori Ogawa; Masamichi Yano; Harukuni Tokuda; Hoyoku Nishino; Yoshihiro Mimaki; Yutaka Sashida; Susumu Kitanaka; Hajime Ohigashi

2000-01-01

296

Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)  

SciTech Connect

These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)

Hoy, M.A.; Jeyaprakash, A. [Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110620, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620 (United States); Clarke-Harris, D. [Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI), 2 Belmopan Close, UWI Mona Campus, Kingston 7 (Jamaica)

2007-03-15

297

Recent introduction and recombination in Colletotrichum acutatum populations associated with citrus postbloom fruit drop epidemics in São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Citrus crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, have been severely affected by postbloom fruit drop disease (PFD), which is caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. This disease leads to the drop of up to 100% of young fruits. Previous studies have assumed that this pathogen exhibits a clonal reproductive mode, although no population genetic studies have been conducted so far. Thus, the genetic structure of six C. acutatum populations from sweet orange orchards showing PFD symptoms was determined using nine microsatellite markers, enabling inference on predominant mode of reproduction. C. acutatum populations exhibit a nearly panmictic genetic structure and a high degree of admixture, indicating either ongoing contemporary gene flow at a regional scale or a recent introduction from a common source, since this pathogen was introduced in Brazil only very recently. Sharing haplotypes among orchards separated by 400 km suggests the natural dispersal of fungal propagules, with the possible involvement of pollinators. A significant population expansion was detected, which was consistent with an increase in host density associated with crop expansion toward new areas across the state. Findings of moderate to high levels of haplotypic diversity and gametic equilibrium suggest that recombination might play an important role in these pathogen populations, possibly via parasexual reproduction or a cryptic sexual cycle. This study provides additional tools for epidemiological studies of C. acutatum to improve prevention and management strategies for this disease. PMID:24423403

Ciampi-Guillardi, Maisa; Baldauf, Cristina; Souza, Anete Pereira; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Amorim, Lilian

2014-07-01

298

Disease Risk Factors and Disease Progress in Coast Live Oak and Tanoak Affected by  

E-print Network

ramorum Canker (Sudden Oak Death)1 Tedmund J. Swiecki2 and Elizabeth Bernhardt2 Abstract This paper and from 12 percent to 23 percent in tanoak. About 58 percent of coast live oak and 47 percent of tanoak-GTR-196 384 canker in coast live oak. The presence of unweathered, brown bark in bark furrows was the only

Standiford, Richard B.

299

Citrus flavanones enhance carotenoid uptake by intestinal Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The health benefit of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables could be attributed to the presence of a large diversity of phytochemicals, including carotenoids. Bioactivities of carotenoids greatly depend on their bioavailability that could be modulated by the presence of other dietary constituents. Because citrus juices contain diverse antioxidant phytochemicals, the effects of flavonoids and ascorbic acid on intestinal carotenoid uptake were investigated. Experiments were conducted by using a Caco-2 cell monolayer exposed to micelles enriched in ?-cryptoxanthin (b-CX, 5 ?M) and ?-carotene (b-C, 5 ?M) in the presence of hesperetin (HES, 250 ?M), hesperidin (HES-G, 250 ?M), naringenin (NGN, 250 ?M), acid ascorbic (AA, 50 ?M) and iron. At 5 h or 24 h incubation, HES-G and HES significantly increased b-CX and b-C uptake by 1.7- and 1.6-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Interestingly, AA was shown to eliminate the enhancing effect of HES-G by decreasing significantly the cellular uptake of carotenoids from 48.2 to 39.8% after 5 h incubation (p < 0.05). Iron decreased the carotenoid uptake, while HES-G in the presence of iron restored it, suggesting that the enhancing effect of HES-G on carotenoid uptake could be attributed to its iron-chelating activity. PMID:24060987

Claudie, Dhuique-mayer; Alexandrine, During; Bertrand, Caporiccio; Franck, Tourniaire; Marie-Josephe, Amiot

2013-11-01

300

Production of biofuels, limonene and pectin from citrus wastes.  

PubMed

Production of ethanol, biogas, pectin and limonene from citrus wastes (CWs) by an integrated process was investigated. CWs were hydrolyzed by dilute-acid process in a pilot plant reactor equipped with an explosive drainage. Hydrolysis variables including temperature and residence time were optimized by applying a central composite rotatable experimental design (CCRD). The best sugar yield (0.41g/g of the total dry CWs) was obtained by dilute-acid hydrolysis at 150 degrees C and 6min residence time. At this condition, high solubilization of pectin present in the CWs was obtained, and 77.6% of total pectin content of CWs could be recovered by solvent recovery. Degree of esterification and ash content of produced pectin were 63.7% and 4.23%, respectively. In addition, the limonene of the CWs was effectively removed through flashing of the hydrolyzates into an expansion tank. The sugars present in the hydrolyzates were converted to ethanol using baker's yeast, while an ethanol yield of 0.43g/g of the fermentable sugars was obtained. Then, the stillage and the remaining solid materials of the hydrolyzed CWs were anaerobically digested to obtain biogas. In summary, one ton of CWs with 20% dry weight resulted in 39.64l ethanol, 45m(3) methane, 8.9l limonene, and 38.8kg pectin. PMID:20149643

Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Forgács, Gergely; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2010-06-01

301

Cardiovascular toxicity of Citrus aurantium in exercised rats.  

PubMed

When safety concerns forced the removal of ephedra from the market, other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium or bitter orange (BO) were used as replacements. A major component of the BO extract is synephrine, a chemical that is structurally similar to ephedrine. Because ephedrine has cardiovascular effects that may be exacerbated during physical exercise, the purpose of this study was to determine whether extracts containing synephrine produced adverse effects on the cardiovascular system in exercising rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with 10 or 50 mg of synephrine/kg body weight from one of two different extracts; caffeine was added to some doses. The rats ran on a treadmill for 30 min/day, 3 days/week. Heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and QT interval were monitored. Both doses of both extracts significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure for up to 8 h after dosing. Effects on heart rate and body temperature appeared to be due primarily to the effects of caffeine. These data suggest that the combination of synephrine, caffeine, and exercise can have significant effects on blood pressure and do not appear to be effective in decreasing food consumption or body weight. PMID:23397375

Hansen, Deborah K; George, Nysia I; White, Gene E; Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Pellicore, Linda S; Fabricant, Daniel

2013-09-01

302

Toxic Effect of Citrus Peel Constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Immature Stages.  

PubMed

The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus. PMID:25237738

Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia Del Valle; Vera, Teresa

2014-10-15

303

Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae). Materials and Methods Boiling was used for aqueous extraction. Acute toxicity study was performed in mice. Antidepressant activity was studied using locomotor activity test, modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Three doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract of leaves were selected for testing. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as the standard drugs. Results Aqueous extract of Citrus maxima leaves significantly reduced immobility time in both TST and FST. In locomotor activity testing it showed psychostimulant effect. Extract increased the climbing behavior in FST, which is similar to effect observed with imipramine. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that antidepressant like effect of Citrus maxima seems to be mediated by an increase in norepinephrine level in synapses. PMID:23492865

Potdar, Vikram H; Kibile, Swati J

2011-01-01

304

Characterization of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) grown in Bhutan and Indonesia using high-throughput sequencing.  

PubMed

Lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle] is a Citrus species that is a popular ingredient in many cuisines. Some citrus plants are known to originate in the area ranging from northeastern India to southwestern China. In the current study, we characterized and compared limes grown in Bhutan (n = 5 accessions) and Indonesia (n = 3 accessions). The limes were separated into two groups based on their morphology. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) separated the eight accessions into two clusters. One cluster contained four accessions from Bhutan, whereas the other cluster contained one accession from Bhutan and the three accessions from Indonesia. This genetic classification supported the morphological classification of limes. The analysis suggests that the properties associated with asexual reproduction, and somatic homologous recombination, have contributed to the genetic diversification of limes. PMID:24781859

Penjor, Tshering; Mimura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Masashi; Nagano, Yukio

2014-01-01

305

Evaluation of mating disruption for control of lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus.  

PubMed

Three large-scale mating disruption (MD) trials were conducted from 2001 to 2004 in an organic citrus orchard in inland southeastern Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the MD dispenser Isomate LBAM Plus in controlling lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in citrus. At the application rate of 364-728 dispensers per ha, the dispensers reduced pheromone trapping of E. postvittana to almost undetectable levels for approximately 6 mo in the treated area. During this period, most sentinel females in the treated area failed to mate. Infestation by E. postvittana in the treated area was reduced by >50%. If distributed in citrus orchards in late winter (August), the dispensers can be expected to remain effective until next February in southeastern Australia, covering the period when most fruit scarring caused by its larvae occurs. PMID:16686141

Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

2006-04-01

306

Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant and anticancer properties of citrus wastes generated during bioethanol production.  

PubMed

In the bioethanol production process employing citrus peels, a large amount of enzymatic hydrolyzed residues is generated as waste material. The bioactive compounds, and antioxidant and anticancer activities of these residues were investigated in the present study. Hydrolyzed citrus residues exhibited similar antioxidant activity as the unhydrolyzed control, which was positively correlated to the contents of total phenols, flavonoids and total carotenoid. Some flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, hesperetin and neohesperidin) and two high value co-products (D-limonene and galacturonic acid) were detected only in hydrolyzed residues. In addition, hydrolyzed residues showed antiproliferative activity and sub-G1 arrest in human melanoma A375 and colon cancer HCT116 cells. These results provide an alternative use for hydrolyzed citrus residues in the functional food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24868862

Im, Soon Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Min Young

2014-04-01

307

TPCP: Cryphonectria canker of Eucalyptus CRYPHONECTRIA CANKER OF  

E-print Network

of the fungus can easily be seen using a simple hand lens.. These trees often die as competition in BIOLOGY such as Zululand, and warmer parts of the Eastern and Northern Transvaal. Death of young coppice. clones

308

Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of ?-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans-citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24682420

Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kuramochi, Kouji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

2014-06-01

309

Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants  

PubMed Central

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L.; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Vuurde, Jim W. L.; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-01-01

310

Differences in Stylet Sheath Occurrence and the Fibrous Ring (Sclerenchyma) between xCitroncirus Plants Relatively Resistant or Susceptible to Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (UN-3881) or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459) to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing) sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem) in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker) compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881) than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459) accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector. PMID:25343712

Ammar, El-Desouky; Richardson, Matthew L.; Abdo, Zaid; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

2014-01-01

311

Peucedanum japonicum and Citrus unshiu essential oils inhibit the growth of antibiotic-resistant skin pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the chemical compositions and the anti-bacterial activities of hydrodistilled essential oils of the whole parts\\u000a ofPeucedanum japonicum and the immature fruits ofCitrus unshiu were investigated. The chemical constituents of theP. Japonicum (PJE) andCitrus unshiu (CuE) essential oils were further analyzed by GC-MS and their major components were ?-pinene (66.07%) and limonene (77.93%),\\u000a respectively. The antibacterial activities of

Eun-Jin Yang; Sang-Suk Kim; Tae-Heon Oh; Gwanpil Song; Kil-Nam Kim; Ji-Young Kim; Nam Ho Lee; Chang-Gu Hyun

2009-01-01

312

Modified citrus pectin anti-metastatic properties: one bullet, multiple targets.  

PubMed

In this minireview, we examine the ability of modified citrus pectin (MCP), a complex water soluble indigestible polysaccharide obtained from the peel and pulp of citrus fruits and modified by means of high pH and temperature treatment, to affect numerous rate-limiting steps in cancer metastasis. The anti-adhesive properties of MCP as well as its potential for increasing apoptotic responses of tumor cells to chemotherapy by inhibiting galectin-3 anti-apoptotic function are discussed in the light of a potential use of this carbohydrate-based substance in the treatment of multiple human malignancies. PMID:19061992

Glinsky, Vladislav V; Raz, Avraham

2009-09-28

313

Cost of Handling Texas Citrus, Fresh and Processed, 1946-47.  

E-print Network

than the cost of grapefruit juice. These costs per case of 121404's were: grapefruit juice, $1.08; orange juice, $1.00, and blended juice, 96 cents. This variation in the average total cost per case is caused mainly by the difference in the number... by the number of firms. COST OF HANDLING TEXAS CITRUS 19 Table 9. Relation of volume to cost of processing, warehousing and selling Texas citrus, 1946-47 Kind of product Grapefruit juice Grapefruit segments Type of container 121404 24/2 Volume * Under 100...

Samuels, J. K. (James Kenneth); Fugett, Kenneth A.

1949-01-01

314

Identification and characterization of microRNAs from citrus expressed sequence tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of single-stranded noncoding RNAs with general size of 21–24 nucleotides, which negatively\\u000a regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by repressing gene translation or degrading targeted mRNAs. Despite the important\\u000a functions of miRNAs in plants, little is known about miRNAs in citrus. Here we present a study of bioinformatics identification\\u000a of microRNA precursors in citrus by comparing known

Xiao-Meng Wu; Mei-Ya Liu; Qiang Xu; Wen-Wu Guo

2011-01-01

315

Identification and characterization of 27 conserved microRNAs in citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding small RNAs. Considering the conservation of many miRNA genes in different\\u000a plant genomes, the identification of miRNAs from non-model organisms is both practicable and instrumental in addressing miRNA-guided\\u000a gene regulation. Citrus is an important staple fruit tree, and publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) database for\\u000a citrus are increasing. However, until now, little

Changnian Song; Jinggui Fang; Xiaoying Li; Hong Liu; C. Thomas Chao

2009-01-01

316

Chemical characterization of Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia and the effect of some isolated compounds on the growth of Xylella fastidiosa.  

PubMed

Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia produces a considerable number of compounds that are not common in both plants developed from germination of seeds. The chemical profile of scion and rootstock differ notably for absence in the form of flavonoids and coumarins containing C5 prenyl groups attached to the carbon atoms of aromatic and heterocyclic systems or to oxygen. Only linear pyranocoumarins xanthyletin and xanthoxyletin were found in scion. This observation indicates that the prenylated compounds once biosynthesized in the roots could have been translocated to other organs. Xylella fastidiosa colonizes the xylem of plants causing diseases on several economically important crops such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). A number of flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivative, anacardic acid, triterpenes, and limonoids were tested for in vitro activity on the growth of Xylella fastidiosa. Azadirachtin A was the most active. Hesperidin, which occurs in great amounts in cells of the mesophyll of the affected leaves with CVC, showed a moderate activity suggesting that it can act as a good barrier for small-size colonies from X. fastidiosa. PMID:18683948

Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Abdelnur, Patrícia Verardi; Garcia, Cleverson Fernando; Belini, Adriana; Severino, Vanessa G Pasqualotto; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; de Carvalho, Sérgio A; de Souza, Alessandra A; Machado, Marcos A

2008-09-10

317

Water Potential Components in Growing Citrus Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

Growing navel orange fruits (Citrus sinensis) 5.4 to 5.7 centimeters in diameter were used as a model system to determine the effects of transpiration and carbohydrate translocation on water and osmotic potentials in fruit tissues. Evidence supported the hypothesis that osmotic potential in the vesicles would be affected little by changes in transpiration or carbohydrate translocation because the vesicles are anatomically isolated from the transpiration stream and are at the end of the carbohydrate translocation pathway. In the mesocarp tissue, which contains a vascular network, osmotic potential decreased during the daytime when environmental conditions favored transpiration and increased at night. Exocarp water potential followed a similar pattern. Girdling of the stem above the fruits 5 days before sampling caused an increase of osmotic potential in the mesocarp but had no effect on exocarp water potential. Neither diurnal changes in transpiration nor girdling of the stem affected the osmotic potential of the vesicles. Osmotic potentials in all tissues of the fruit were in the range of ?10 to ?15 bars. Measurements of osmotic potential at 16 locations along a longitudinal plant through the fruit axis showed that osmotic potential increased from the stem to the stylar end, but it decreased from the pericarp tissues to the vesicles. As exocarp water potential decreased during a 20-day period after watering, osmotic potential decreased in the vesicles and exocarp. Turgor pressure, calculated as the difference between water and osmotic potentials, decreased with water potential in the vesicles but not in the exocarp. The lack of decrease of turgor pressure in the exocarp may result from a measurement error caused by pectins or from osmotic adjustment related to carbohydrate accumulation at low water potentials. PMID:16657407

Kaufmann, Merrill R.

1970-01-01

318

Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.  

PubMed Central

Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

Michaud, J.P.

2003-01-01

319

Simultaneous determination of Ephedra sinica and Citrus aurantium var. amara alkaloids by ion-pair chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang) preparations have recently gained a lot of attention because of serious side effects associated with their prolonged consumption. Citrus aurantium var. amara is now used as an alternative, despite the fact that similar side effects are suspected. We have developed and validated the first analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of all major alkaloids from both

M. Ganzera; C. Lanser; H. Stuppner

2005-01-01

320

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

321

Infectivity of the multiple nucleoprotein and RNA components of citrus leaf rugose virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleoprotein components of citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV) were separated by two cycles of density gradient centrifugation and designated, from slowest to most rapidly sedimenting, TZ, MZ, and BZ. Only the BZ component was infectious, but the addition of either TZ or MZ to BZ preparations increased infectivity. Ribonuclease, but not DNase, abolished infectivity of CLRV nucleic acid preparations.

D. GONSALVES; S. M. GARNSEY; Accepted June

1974-01-01

322

The citrus flavonoids hesperetin and naringenin block the lipolytic actions of TNF-? in mouse adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese adipose tissue is characterized by an excessive production of inflammatory adipokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). TNF-? stimulates free fatty acid (FFA) secretion through adipocyte lipolysis, and increased plasma levels of FFA promote insulin resistance. In this report, we show that hesperetin and naringenin, two citrus flavonoids, inhibit TNF-?-stimulated FFA secretion from mouse adipocytes. These flavonoids block the TNF-?-induced

Hiroki Yoshida; Norito Takamura; Tsuyoshi Shuto; Kenji Ogata; Jin Tokunaga; Keiichi Kawai; Hirofumi Kai

2010-01-01

323

Agricultural externalities and environmental regulation: evaluating good practice in citrus production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic activity takes place in a scenario characterized by an increasing number of environmental regulations aimed at bringing under control the emission of contaminating wastes. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of transforming a code of good practice in nitrogen fertilization on Spanish citrus fruit farms into an environmental regulation of compulsory fulfilment. Using data envelopment techniques, we calculate

Andrés J. Picazo-Tadeo; Ernest Reig-Martínez

2006-01-01

324

Agriculture externalities and environmental regulation. Evaluating good practices in citrus fruit production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we evaluate the cost of making a code of good practices in nitrogen fertili- sation of Spanish citrus fruit farms compulsory. Using data envelopment techniques, we calculate unrestricted and environmentally-regulated short run maximum profits, which are used to compute an index of the cost of regulation. Our results suggest that the cost of shifting from a merely

Andrés J. Picazo; Ernest Reig

325

A nonribosomal peptide synthetase mediates siderophore production and virulence in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata.  

PubMed

Alternaria species produce and excrete dimethyl coprogen siderophores to acquire iron. The Alternaria alternata gene AaNPS6, encoding a polypeptide analogous to fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was found to be required for the production of siderophores and virulence on citrus. Siderophores purified from culture filtrates of the wild-type strain did not induce any phytotoxicity on the leaves of citrus. Fungal strains lacking AaNPS6 produced little or no detectable extracellular siderophores and displayed an increased sensitivity to H?O?, superoxide-generating compounds (KO? and menadione) and iron depletion. ?nps6 mutants were also defective for the production of melanin and conidia. The introduction of a wild-type AaNPS6 under the control of its endogenous promoter to a ?nps6 null mutant at least partially restored siderophore production and virulence to citrus, demonstrating a functional link between iron uptake and fungal pathogenesis. Elevated sensitivity to H?O?, seen for the ?nps6 null strain could be relieved by exogenous application of ferric iron. The expression of the AaNPS6 gene was highly up-regulated under low-iron conditions and apparently controlled by the redox-responsive yeast transcriptional regulator YAP1. Hence, the maintenance of iron homeostasis via siderophore-mediated iron uptake also plays an important role in resistance to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results demonstrate further the critical role of ROS detoxification for the pathogenicity of A.?alternata in citrus. PMID:23438010

Chen, Li-Hung; Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2013-06-01

326

Economic Impacts of the Florida Citrus Industry in Alan Hodges, Mohammad Rahmani, and David Mulkey2  

E-print Network

research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function Introduction The citrus industry remains a major part of Florida's agricultural and natural resource economy on the state's economy based on production values for the 2003-2004 crop year. Estimates are presented

Florida, University of

327

AVIAN NEST-SITE SELECTION AND NESTING SUCCESS IN TWO FLORIDA CITRUS GROVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

we studied nesting success and nest-site selection of Common Ground- Doves (Columbina passerina), Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglotfos), Brown Thrash- ers (Toxoszoma rufum), and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis curdinulis) in two Florida citrus groves in spring 1989. Predation resulted in the loss of more than half of all nests. Fish Crows (Corvus osszyrugus) and rat snakes (Elaphe obsoletu) seemed to be the

MARY CROWE MITCHELL; LOUIS B. BEST; JAMES F

1996-01-01

328

Mass trapping or matting disruption: are they alternative tactics for the management of citrus flower moth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus flower moth (CFM), Prays citri, is a key-pest of lemon orchards in the Oeste region of Portugal. The management of CFM is actually dependent on chemical control. Up to 12 insecticide treatments may be carried out against CFM each year. Phosphamidon is the only active ingredient registered in Portugal to control this pest and it shall be withdrawn

Silva EB; Franco JC

329

Removal of Anionic Dyes from Water using Citrus limonum (Lemon) Peel: Equilibrium Studies and Kinetic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Citrus limonum (lemon) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of two anionic dyes, Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration, and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacities of lemon peel adsorbent for

Amit Bhatnagar; Eva Kumar; A. K. Minocha; Byong-Hun Jeon; Hocheol Song; Yong-Chan Seo

2009-01-01

330

Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata  

PubMed Central

The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content. PMID:24994795

Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D.; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João Lucio

2014-01-01

331

ORIGINAL PAPER Benefits of low-frequency irrigation in citrus orchards  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Benefits of low-frequency irrigation in citrus orchards Iván García-Tejero & Víctor when irrigation is essential to guarantee yields of high quality. As water resources are progressively more insufficient, more effec- tive water management in agriculture is crucial. Deficit irrigation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Influence of Mitochondria Origin on Fruit Quality in a Citrus Cybrid  

E-print Network

on fruit quality was studied during the mature period. Levels of organic acids were slightly higher somatic hybrid; cybrid; sugars; organic acids; carotenoids; fruit quality INTRODUCTION NutritionalInfluence of Mitochondria Origin on Fruit Quality in a Citrus Cybrid JEAN-BAPTISTE BASSENE, LILIANE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

Effect of Iron Deficiency on Gas Exchange and Catalase and Peroxidase Activity in Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on catalase and peroxidase activity, net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), plant water relations, and specific leaf weight, were studied under greenhouse conditions in two sweet orange (C. sinensis) cultivars grafted on sour orange (Citrus aurantium) and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi × P. trifoliata). Iron deficiency caused by the absence of Fe in the Hoagland nutrient

Vassilios Chouliaras; Ioannis Therios; Athanassios Molassiotis; Angelos Patakas; Gregorios Diamantidis

2005-01-01

334

Cytogenetics of Rutaceae. V. High chromosomal variability in Citrus species revealed by CMA\\/DAPI staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CMA\\/DAPI chromosome banding pattern of six Citrus species was analysed. All of them showed a large amount of heterochromatin and heterozygosity. Most of the heterochromatin was CMA+\\/DAPI? and was located mainly in the terminal region of the long arms. Each individual was heterozygous for at least one chromosome pair and each species presented a different banding pattern. The greatest

M Guerra

1993-01-01

335

Sorption of basic dye from aqueous solution by pomelo ( Citrus grandis) peel in a batch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low-cost, locally available sorbent, pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel (PP), was tested for its ability to remove basic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous on PP were studied in a batch process. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated

B. H. Hameed; D. K. Mahmoud; A. L. Ahmad

2008-01-01

336

Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana for management of citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in California blueberries.  

PubMed

Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus and mango fruits. This insect has broadened its host range to become a significant pest of commercial blueberries grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California. We evaluated Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) for control of citrus thrips in blueberries grown under two watering regimes (drip irrigation with and without overhead sprinklers) and using two fungal formulations (commercially available spores in suspension vs. colonized seed) over two sampling periods, that is, for two 3-d periods after treatment. We found significant differences in thrips densities as a function of water regime treatment and fungal formulation. Thrips levels were reduced significantly with both fungal treatments at 3 d after treatment, but at 6 d, only results with colonized seed differed from the control treatment. These data suggest entomopathogenic fungi might be useful for control of citrus thrips on blueberries in particular situations (in organic production or as a resistance management tool) but that traditional pesticides will likely remain the preferred management option. PMID:24224239

Zahn, Deane K; Haviland, David R; Stanghellini, M E; Morsel, Joseph G

2013-10-01

337

Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited ?- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed. Results A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide. Conclusions Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida were not clearly understood, the less-pervasive groups may have been introduced directly from Asia or via Brazil. Notably, the recent outbreak of HLB in Florida probably occurred through multiple introductions. Microsatellite markers developed in this study provide adequate discriminatory power for the identification and differentiation of closely-related isolates, as well as for genetic studies of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:22433492

2012-01-01

338

In vitro/in vivo effect of Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.) juice on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors in rabbits.  

PubMed

The genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae includes many species e.g. Citrus indica, Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus limon, among which Citrus limon L. Burm. f. has been reported to have highest antimicrobial activity. It is used as antidote against certain venom, due to its platelet inhibitory effect and also reported to have hypocholesterolemic effect. However its anticoagulant and thrombolytic effect were not been investigated, hence a prospective in-vitro/in-vivo study was designed to determine the effect of Citrus limon on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors. In-vitro tests revealed highly significant increase in thrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time by Citrus limon, whereas fibrinogen concentration was significantly reduced in comparison to control, however prothrombin time was not affected significantly. In-vivo testing of Citrus limon was done at three different doses i.e. 0.2ml/kg, 0.4ml/kg and 0.6ml/kg in healthy rabbits. Significant changes were observed in hematological parameters such as erythrocytes, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Bleeding time and thrombin time was significantly prolonged and there was increase in protein C and thrombin antithrombin complex levels. These results may be due to inactivation of thrombin because it significantly decreases fibrinogen concentration and inhibit platelet aggregation. Citrus limon showed maximal anticoagulant effect at 0.4ml/kg, which suggest that Citrus limon possesses an anti-thrombin component and could prevent thrombosis playing a cardio protective role. PMID:25015459

Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mirza, Talat; Mustansir, Tazeen; Ahmed, Mansoor

2014-07-01

339

Use of organic acids and salts to control postharvest diseases of lemon fruits in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest diseases caused by Geotricum candidum (sour rot), Penicillium digitatum (green mould), and P. italicum (blue mould) are the most important negative factors affecting handling and marketing of citrus fruits in Egypt. The effect of organic acids (ascorbic, benzoic, citric and sorbic) as well as organic salts (potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate) were evaluated on the growth of causal agents

Nehal S. El-Mougy; Nadia G. El-Gamal; F. Abd-El-Kareem

2008-01-01

340

Effect of citrus polyphenol- and curcumin-supplemented diet on inflammatory state in obese cats.  

PubMed

Among obesity-associated disorders, low-grade inflammation has been described. The putative therapeutic properties of citrus and curcumin polyphenols could be associated with their anti-inflammatory properties. Two diets supplemented either with hesperidin (0.05 %) and naringin (0.1 %) from citrus extract or with highly bioavailable curcumin from Curcuma longa extract (0.09 %) were fed to eight obese cats for two 8-week periods (cross-over study design) while maintaining animals in an obese state. Plasma acute-phase protein (APP; ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A and haptoglobin) levels were assessed before and at the end of each test period. TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, transforming growth factor-?, interferon (IFN)-? mRNA levels were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by real-time PCR. Compared with pre-study values, supplementation with citrus polyphenols resulted in lower plasma AGP and haptoglobin concentrations, while that with curcumin resulted in lower plasma AGP concentration. There were no differences between the supplementations. TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, transforming growth factor-?, mRNA levels remained unaffected by either dietary supplementation. In contrast, IFN-? and IL-2 mRNA levels were lower at the end of the citrus and the curcumin supplementation, respectively. There were no differences between the supplementations. The present study results show a slight effect of citrus and curcumin supplementation on inflammatory markers expressed by PBMC, and a decreased concentration of APP, which are mainly expressed by the liver. This would confirm that hesperidin and naringin or highly bioavailable curcumin extract have beneficial effects, targeted in the liver and could improve the obesity-related inflammatory state. PMID:22005428

Leray, Véronique; Freuchet, Benjamin; Le Bloc'h, Jérôme; Jeusette, Isabelle; Torre, Celina; Nguyen, Patrick

2011-10-01

341

Penicillium digitatum Suppresses Production of Hydrogen Peroxide in Host Tissue During Infection of Citrus Fruit.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT During the infection of citrus fruit by Penicillium digitatum there is little evidence of a host defense response. This suggests that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. The current study demonstrates that P. digitatum suppresses a defense-related hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) burst in host tissue. In contrast, the nonhost pathogen, Penicillium expansum, triggers production of a significant amount of H(2)O(2) in citrus fruit exocarp. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that P. digitatum suppressed an elevation in H(2)O(2) up to 42 h after inoculation. Nevertheless, H(2)O(2) levels around wounds inoculated with P. expansum increased by 63-fold above the control. P. digitatum continued to suppress H(2)O(2) production in citrus fruit exocarp up to 66 h postinoculation and H(2)O(2) levels were actually threefold below that of noninoculated controls. In contrast, the H(2)O(2) level was still about 11-fold above the control value in wound sites inoculated with P. expansum. Studies on the effect of organic acids (as pH modulators) on the response of citrus fruit to compatible and noncompatible pathogens indicated that pathogenicity was enhanced only when host-tissue acidification was accompanied by the suppression of H(2)O(2). Additionally, pathogenicity of both P. digitatum and P. expansum on citrus fruit was significantly enhanced by the H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzyme catalase. Based on our study and previous reports regarding the potential involvement of citric acid and catalase in green mold pathogenesis, we suggest that these compounds are strongly associated with the virulence of P. digitatum. PMID:18943520

Macarisin, D; Cohen, L; Eick, A; Rafael, G; Belausov, E; Wisniewski, M; Droby, S

2007-11-01

342

Comparative analysis of surface wax in mature fruits between Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) from the perspective of crystal morphology, chemical composition and key gene expression.  

PubMed

Surface wax of mature Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) was analysed by crystal morphology, chemical composition, and gene expression levels. The epicuticular and total waxes of both citrus cultivars were mostly composed of aldehydes, alkanes, fatty acids and primary alcohols. The epicuticular wax accounted for 80% of the total wax in the Newhall fruits and was higher than that in the Satsuma fruits. Scanning electron microscopy showed that larger and more wax platelets were deposited on the surface of Newhall fruits than on the Satsuma fruits. Moreover, the expression levels of genes involved in the wax formation were consistent with the biochemical and crystal morphological analyses. These diversities of fruit wax between the two cultivars may contribute to the differences of fruit postharvest storage properties, which can provide important information for the production of synthetic wax for citrus fruits. PMID:24491718

Wang, Jinqiu; Hao, Haohao; Liu, Runsheng; Ma, Qiaoli; Xu, Juan; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

2014-06-15

343

Comparison of photosynthesis and antioxidant performance of several Citrus and Fortunella species (Rutaceae) under natural chilling stress  

E-print Network

1 Comparison of photosynthesis and antioxidant performance of several Citrus and Fortunella species stress caused by seasonal climatic changes was evaluated on adult trees by measuring net photosynthesis (Pnet), stomatal conductance (Gs), maximum photosynthesis (Pmax) and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

Endogenous free polyamines and their role in fruit set of low and high parthenocarpic ability citrus cultivars.  

PubMed

Endogenous free polyamines (PAs), putrescine, spermidine and spermine, from developing fruitlets of Citrus species (Citrus unshiu Marc. and Citrus clementina Hort ex Tanaka) which differ in their parthenocarpic ability, and from uniflowered leafy and leafless inflorescences differing in their ability to set, have been determined by dansylation and separation of dansyl derivatives by HPLC. No significant differences in PAs content were observed between species or between leafy and leafless inflorescences which, nevertheless, significantly differed in fruit set. However, significant differences in their content were found in developing fruitlets, depending on the preceding flowering intensity of the tree and on the fruitlet load. These results suggest that, in Citrus, PAs may act as a nitrogen source rather than a regulator of fruit set. PMID:16146310

Arias, Mercedes; Carbonell, Juan; Agustí, Manuel

2005-08-01

345

Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)  

SciTech Connect

Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Saha, Surya [Cornell University] [Cornell University

2012-06-01

346

Comparison of the minor coat protein gene sequences of aphid-transmissible and -nontransmissible isolates of Citrus tristeza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences for the minor coat protein (CPm) gene and its deduced amino acid sequences for two aphid-transmissible\\u000a and two nontransmissible isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from symptomless orchard trees of Miyagawa satsuma [Citrus unshiu (Macf.) Marc.] on trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliate (L.) Raf.] and declining Washington navel [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees on sour orange (C. aurantium

Ali Barzegar; Heshmat Rahimian; Haleh Hashemi Sohi

2010-01-01

347

Detection of Citrus Leaf Blotch Virus Using Digoxigenin-Labeled cDNA Probes and RT–PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) was detected by dot-blot hybridization (DBH), and tissue print hybridization (TPH) and by one-step RT–PCR in citrus plants growing both in the greenhouse and in the field. DBH with digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probes allowed CLBV detection in dsRNA-rich and total RNA preparations equivalent to 5 and 0.1?mg of infected tissue, respectively. DBH gave intense signals with

Luis Galipienso; M Carmen Vives; Luis Navarro; Pedro Moreno; José Guerri

2004-01-01

348

Joint effects of citrus peel use and black tea intake on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Differences in tea drinking habits and\\/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Moreover, we

Iman A Hakim; Robin B Harris

2001-01-01

349

A survey of genes differentially expressed during long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance in citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term storage at low, non-freezing, temperature (1.5 °C) induces chilling injury in fruit of Fortune mandarin ( Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tanaka × Citrus reticulata, Blanco), manifested as pitting and brown depressed areas that may end up with local cell death. Pre-conditioning of fruit for 3 days at 37 °C prevented chilling injury. The use of suppression subtractive hybridization permitted the isolation of

MaríaTeresa Sanchez-Ballesta; Yolanda Lluch; MaríaJosé Gosalbes; Lorenzo Zacarias; Antonio Granell; MaríaTeresa Lafuente

2003-01-01

350

Inhibition of Human Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis in Nude Mice by Oral Intake of Modified Citrus Pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of dietary components in cancer progression and metastasis is an emerging field of clinical importance. Many stages of cancer progression involve car- bohydrate-mediated recognition processes. We therefore studied the effects of high pH- and temperature-modified citrus pectin (MCP), a nondigestible, water-soluble polysac- charide fiber derived from citrus fruit that specifically in- hibits the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3, on

Pratima Nangia-Makker; Victor Hogan; Yuichiro Honjo; Sara Baccarini; Larry Tait; Robert Bresalier; Avraham Raz

351

Comparison of endoplasmic reticulum targeted and non-targeted cytoplasmic GFP as a selectable marker in citrus protoplast transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve transformation efficiency in citrus two green fluorescent protein (GFP) constructions, an endoplasmic reticulum targeted (GFP-ER) and cytoplasmic targeted (Cy-GFP), were used to study expression and stability of GFP in transgenic plants. Results from citrus protoplast-GFP transformation showed that GFP-ER had brighter fluorescence than the Cy-GFP. Although both of these constructs gave transient expression at the protoplast

Ahmad A. Omar; Jude W. Grosser

2008-01-01

352

Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

2013-02-01

353

Analysis of the NAC transcription factor gene family in citrus reveals a novel member involved in multiple abiotic stress responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NAC (NAM, ATAF1, -2, and CUC2) gene family encodes a large family of plant-specific transcription factors that play diverse roles\\u000a in plant development and stress regulation. In this study, we performed a survey of citrus NAC transcription factors in the\\u000a HarvEST: Citrus database, in which 45 NAC domain-containing proteins were identified and phylogenetically classified into\\u000a 13 different subfamilies. The

Tahise M. de Oliveira; Luciana C. Cidade; Abelmon S. Gesteira; Maurício A. Coelho Filho; Walter S. Soares Filho; Marcio G. C. Costa

354

The citrus flavonone hesperetin prevents letrozole-induced bone loss in a mouse model of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Aromatase is a key enzyme in estrogen synthesis, and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been developed for treating estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Because of its nondiscriminatory inhibition of estrogen synthesis, patients treated with AIs also contract diseases typically associated with estrogen deficiency, such as bone deterioration. Our laboratory found that the citrus flavonone hesperetin could inhibit aromatase, and the selective estrogen receptor modulator nature of flavonoid might counteract the undesirable effect of AIs. In the present study, we employed an established postmenopausal model for breast carcinogenesis to examine the drug interaction between hesperetin and letrozole, one of the AIs. Athymic mice were ovariectomized and transplanted with aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells (MCF-7aro). Hesperetin was administered in the diet at 5000 ppm, and letrozole was injected sc at different doses. Results showed that either hesperetin or letrozole could reduce plasma estrogen level and inhibit tumor growth. Most importantly, the letrozole-induced bone loss measured as bone volume fraction was reversed by hesperetin without compromising on the deterrence of MCF-7aro tumor growth. Taken together, the present study suggested that hesperetin could be a potential cotherapeutic agent to AI. PMID:23238426

Li, Fengjuan; Chow, Simon; Cheung, Wing-hoi; Chan, Franky L; Chen, Shiuan; Leung, Lai K

2013-06-01

355

Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.  

PubMed

The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells. PMID:21304622

Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

2010-01-01

356

The Destructive Citrus Pathogen, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Encodes a Functional Flagellin Characteristic of a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) is presently the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. As an intracellular plant pathogen and insect symbiont, the HLB bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), retains the entire flagellum-encoding gene cluster in its significantly reduced genome. Las encodes a flagellin and hook-associated protein (Fla) of 452 amino acids that contains a conserved 22 amino acid domain (flg22) at positions 29 to 50 in the N-terminus. The phenotypic alteration in motility of a Sinorhizobium meliloti mutant lacking the fla genes was partially restored by constitutive expression of FlaLas. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in planta revealed that FlaLas induced cell death and callose deposition in Nicotiana benthamiana, and that the transcription of BAK1 and SGT1, which are associated with plant innate immunity, was upregulated. Amino acid substitution experiments revealed that residues 38 (serine) and 39 (aspartate) of FlaLas were essential for callose induction. The synthetic flg22Las peptide could not induce plant cell death but retained the ability to induce callose deposition at a concentration of 20 µM or above. This demonstrated that the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) activity of flg22 in Las was weaker than those in other well-studied plant pathogenic bacteria. These results indicate that FlaLas acts as a PAMP and may play an important role in triggering host plant resistance to the HLB bacteria. PMID:23029520

Zou, Huasong; Gowda, Siddarame; Zhou, Lijuan; Hajeri, Subhas; Chen, Gongyou; Duan, Yongping

2012-01-01

357

The YAP1 homolog-mediated oxidative stress tolerance is crucial for pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata in citrus.  

PubMed

Citrus brown spot disease is caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. Its pathogenic capability has been thought to depend exclusively on the production of host-selective ACT toxin. However, circumvention of plant defenses is also likely to be important for the disease process. To investigate the fungal response to host-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), we cloned and characterized the AaAP1 gene of A. alternata, which encodes a polypeptide resembling yeast YAP1-like transcriptional activators implicated in cellular responses to stress. Expression of the AaAP1 gene in a wild-type strain was primarily induced by H(2)O(2) or ROS-generating oxidants. Using a loss-of-function mutation in the AaAP1 gene, we demonstrated an essential requirement for oxidative tolerance during the host invasion step. Mutants lacking AaAP1 showed increased sensitivity to H(2)O(2) and loss of fungal pathogenicity. The DeltaAaAP1 null mutant did not cause any visible necrotic lesions on wounded or unwounded leaves of citrus cv. Minneola. Compared with the wild type, the null mutant displayed lower catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities. All mutant phenotypes were restored to the wild type in fungal strains expressing a functional copy of AaAP1. Upon exposure to H(2)O(2), the AaAP1::sGFP (synthetic green fluorescent protein) fusion protein became localized in the nucleus. Inoculation of the mutant with NADPH oxidase inhibitors partially restored fungal pathogenicity. Our results highlight the global regulatory role of a YAP1 homolog in response to oxidative stress in A. alternata and provide insights into the critical role of ROS detoxification in the pathogenicity of A. alternata. PMID:19589070

Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2009-08-01

358

A label-free differential quantitative mass spectrometry method for the characterization and identification of protein changes during citrus fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown commodity fruit crops. In this study a label-free LC-MS/MS based shot-gun proteomics approach was taken to explore three main stages of citrus fruit development. These approaches were used to identify and evaluate changes occurring in juice sac cells in various metabolic pathways affecting citrus fruit development and quality. Results Protein changes in citrus juice sac cells were identified and quantified using label-free shotgun methodologies. Two alternative methods, differential mass-spectrometry (dMS) and spectral counting (SC) were used to analyze protein changes occurring during earlier and late stages of fruit development. Both methods were compared in order to develop a proteomics workflow that could be used in a non-model plant lacking a sequenced genome. In order to resolve the bioinformatics limitations of EST databases from species that lack a full sequenced genome, we established iCitrus. iCitrus is a comprehensive sequence database created by merging three major sources of sequences (HarvEST:citrus, NCBI/citrus/unigenes, NCBI/citrus/proteins) and improving the annotation of existing unigenes. iCitrus provided a useful bioinformatics tool for the high-throughput identification of citrus proteins. We have identified approximately 1500 citrus proteins expressed in fruit juice sac cells and quantified the changes of their expression during fruit development. Our results showed that both dMS and SC provided significant information on protein changes, with dMS providing a higher accuracy. Conclusion Our data supports the notion of the complementary use of dMS and SC for label-free comparative proteomics, broadening the identification spectrum and strengthening the identification of trends in protein expression changes during the particular processes being compared. PMID:21162737

2010-01-01

359

Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predacious mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a pest of citrus worldwide, and a major pest of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) in Alabama. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of three commercially available predacious mite species (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt), and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), as biological control agents of P.

Yingfang Xiao; Henry Y. Fadamiro

2010-01-01

360

Identification of transcription factors potentially involved in the juvenile to adult phase transition in Citrus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The juvenile to adult transition (JAT) in higher plants is required for them to reach reproductive competence. However, it is a poorly understood process in woody plants, where only a few genes have been definitely identified as being involved in this transition. This work aims at increasing our understanding of the mechanisms regulating the JAT in citrus. Methods Juvenile and adult plants from Pineapple sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) were used to screen for differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) using a 1·15K microarray developed on the basis of the CitrusTF database. Murcott tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and Duncan grapefruit (C. paradisi) were incorporated into the quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR validation in order to select those genes whose phase-specific regulation was common to the four species. Key Results A browsable web database has been created with information about the structural and functional annotation related to 1152 unigenes of putative citrus TFs (CTFs). This database constitutes a valuable resource for research on transcriptional regulation and comparative genomics. Moreover, a microarray has been developed and used that contains these putative CTFs, in order to identify eight genes that showed differential expression in juvenile and adult meristems of four different species of citrus. Those genes have been characterized, and their expression pattern in vegetative and reproductive tissues has been analysed. Four of them are MADS-box genes, a family of TFs involved in developmental processes, whereas another one resembles MADS-box genes but lacks the MADS box itself. The other three showed high partial sequence similarity restricted to specific Arabidopsis protein domains but negligible outside those domains. Conclusions The work presented here indicates that the JAT in citrus could be controlled by mechanisms that are in part common to those of Arabidopsis, but also somehow different, since specific factors without Arabidopsis orthologues have also been characterized. The potential involvement of the genes in the JAT is discussed. PMID:24052558

Castillo, Mari-Cruz; Forment, Javier; Gadea, Jose; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Juarez, Jose; Navarro, Luis; Ancillo, Gema

2013-01-01

361

A reference genetic map of C. clementina hort. ex Tan.; citrus evolution inferences from comparative mapping  

PubMed Central

Background Most modern citrus cultivars have an interspecific origin. As a foundational step towards deciphering the interspecific genome structures, a reference whole genome sequence was produced by the International Citrus Genome Consortium from a haploid derived from Clementine mandarin. The availability of a saturated genetic map of Clementine was identified as an essential prerequisite to assist the whole genome sequence assembly. Clementine is believed to be a ‘Mediterranean’ mandarin × sweet orange hybrid, and sweet orange likely arose from interspecific hybridizations between mandarin and pummelo gene pools. The primary goals of the present study were to establish a Clementine reference map using codominant markers, and to perform comparative mapping of pummelo, sweet orange, and Clementine. Results Five parental genetic maps were established from three segregating populations, which were genotyped with Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) and Insertion-Deletion (Indel) markers. An initial medium density reference map (961 markers for 1084.1 cM) of the Clementine was established by combining male and female Clementine segregation data. This Clementine map was compared with two pummelo maps and a sweet orange map. The linear order of markers was highly conserved in the different species. However, significant differences in map size were observed, which suggests a variation in the recombination rates. Skewed segregations were much higher in the male than female Clementine mapping data. The mapping data confirmed that Clementine arose from hybridization between ‘Mediterranean’ mandarin and sweet orange. The results identified nine recombination break points for the sweet orange gamete that contributed to the Clementine genome. Conclusions A reference genetic map of citrus, used to facilitate the chromosome assembly of the first citrus reference genome sequence, was established. The high conservation of marker order observed at the interspecific level should allow reasonable inferences of most citrus genome sequences by mapping next-generation sequencing (NGS) data in the reference genome sequence. The genome of the haploid Clementine used to establish the citrus reference genome sequence appears to have been inherited primarily from the ‘Mediterranean’ mandarin. The high frequency of skewed allelic segregations in the male Clementine data underline the probable extent of deviation from Mendelian segregation for characters controlled by heterozygous loci in male parents. PMID:23126659

2012-01-01

362

Vitamin C and the role of citrus juices as functional food.  

PubMed

The literature on the content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) in citrus juices in relation to industrial practices is reviewed. The role of vitamin C from citrus juices in human diet is also reviewed. Citrus fruits and juices are rich in several types of bioactive compounds. Their antioxidant activity and related benefits derive not only from vitamin C but also from other phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids. During juice processing, temperature and oxygen are the main factors responsible for vitamin C losses. Non-thermal processed juices retain higher levels of vitamin C, but economic factors apparently delay the use of such methods in the citrus industry. Regarding packing material, vitamin C in fruit juice is quite stable when stored in metal or glass containers, whereas juice stored in plastic bottles has a much shorter shelf-life. The limiting step for vitamin C absorption in humans is transcellular active transport across the intestinal wall where AA may be oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), which is easily transported across the cell membrane and immediately reduced back to AA by two major pathways. AA bioavailability in the presence of flavonoids has yielded controversial results. Whereas flavonoids seem to inhibit intestinal absorption of AA, some studies have shown that AA in citrus extract was more available than synthetic ascorbic acid alone. DHAA is reported to possess equivalent biological activity to AA, so recent studies often consider the vitamin C activity in the diet as the sum of AA plus DHAA. However, this claimed equivalence should be carefully reexamined. Humans are one of the few species lacking the enzyme (L-gulonolactone oxidase, GLO) to convert glucose to vitamin C. It has been suggested that this is due to a mutation that provided a survival advantage to early primates, since GLO produces toxic H2O2. Furthermore, the high concentration of AA (and DHAA) in neural tissues could have been the key factor that caused primates (vertebrates with relative big brain) to lose the capacity to synthesize vitamin C. Oxidative damage has many pathological implications in human health, and AA may play a central role in maintaining the metabolic antioxidant response. The abundance of citrus juices in the Mediterranean diet may provide the main dietary source for natural vitamin C. PMID:19445318

Martí, Nuria; Mena, Pedro; Cánovas, Jose Antonio; Micol, Vicente; Saura, Domingo

2009-05-01

363

The structure of ant communities and their impact on soil-pupating pests in citrus orchards in the Grahamstown area of the Eastern Cape.  

E-print Network

??Two ant species, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius) and Anoplolepis custodiens (Smith) reach pest status in citrus orchards through precipitating outbreaks of homopterous pests. However, predacious ants,… (more)

Bownes, Angela

2002-01-01

364

Increase and Patterns of Spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus Infections in Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic in the Presence of the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was monitored for 4 years by monoclonal antibody probes via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in four citrus orchards in northern Costa Rica and four orchards in the Dominican Republic following the introduction of the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida. The Gompertz nonlinear model was selected as the most appropriate in most cases to describe temporal increase of CTV. Ordinary runs analysis for association of CTV-positive trees failed to show a spatial relationship of virus status among immediately adjacent trees within or across rows. The beta-binomial index of dispersion for various quadrat sizes suggested aggregations of CTV-positive trees for all plots within the quadrat sizes tested. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of proximity patterns suggested that aggregation often existed among quadrats of various sizes up to four lag distances; however, significant lag positions discontinuous from the main proximity pattern were rare. Some asymmetry was also detected for some spatial autocorrelation proximity patterns. These results were interpreted to mean that, although CTV-positive trees did not often influence immediately adjacent trees, virus transmission was common within a local area of influence that extended two to eight trees in all directions. Where asymmetry was indicated, this area of influence was somewhat elliptical. The spatial and temporal analyses gave some insight into possible underlying processes of CTV spread in the presence of T. citricida and suggested CTV spread was predominantly to trees within a local area. Patterns of longer-distance spread were not detected within the confines of the plot sizes tested. Longer-distance spread probably exists, but may well be of a complexity beyond the detection ability of the spatial analysis methods employed, or perhaps is on a scale larger than the dimensions of the plots studied. PMID:18944934

Gottwald, T R; Garnsey, S M; Borbón, J

1998-07-01

365

Reflux and Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... citrus and tomato-containing products, chocolate, mint, spicy foods, carbonated beverages, caffeine, and alcohol. This ... Departments Find Programs & Services Make a Donation Find a Location View Events ...

366

Non-Host Defense Response in a Novel Arabidopsis-Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathosystem  

PubMed Central

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. Progress of breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties is modest due to limited resistant germplasm resources and lack of candidate genes for genetic manipulation. The objective of this study is to establish a novel heterologous pathosystem between Xcc and the well-established model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for defense mechanism dissection and resistance gene identification. Our results indicate that Xcc bacteria neither grow nor decline in Arabidopsis, but induce multiple defense responses including callose deposition, reactive oxygen species and salicylic aicd (SA) production, and defense gene expression, indicating that Xcc activates non-host resistance in Arabidopsis. Moreover, Xcc-induced defense gene expression is suppressed or attenuated in several well-characterized SA signaling mutants including eds1, pad4, eds5, sid2, and npr1. Interestingly, resistance to Xcc is compromised only in eds1, pad4, and eds5, but not in sid2 and npr1. However, combining sid2 and npr1 in the sid2npr1 double mutant compromises resistance to Xcc, suggesting genetic interactions likely exist between SID2 and NPR1 in the non-host resistance against Xcc in Arabidopsis. These results demonstrate that the SA signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating non-host defense against Xcc in Arabidopsis and suggest that the SA signaling pathway genes may hold great potential for breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties through modern gene transfer technology. PMID:22299054

An, Chuanfu; Mou, Zhonglin

2012-01-01

367

Overall migration and kinetics of release of antioxidant compounds from citrus extract-based active packaging.  

PubMed

Overall migration (OM) tests were conducted on an antioxidant active packaging prepared by coating plasma pretreated and untreated polyethylene terepthalate (PET) trays with a citrus extract. The release of antioxidant compounds into food simulants was measured to permit their subtraction from OM values in line with active packaging legislation. The results demonstrated the compliance of the packaging with the limit for OM for plastic material in contact with food. The validity of the procedure for OM in aqueous food simulants was questioned, with the loss of volatile compounds during evaporation of the simulant resulting in an underestimation of total compounds released. The study showed a total release of 75% of the citrus extract coating into water and 25% into oil, which decreased to 45 and 12.5%, respectively, following plasma pretreatment of the trays. PMID:24274366

Contini, Claudia; Valzacchi, Sandro; O'Sullivan, Michael; Simoneau, Catherine; Dowling, Denis P; Monahan, Frank J

2013-12-11

368

Cancer chemoprevention by citrus pulp and juices containing high amounts of ?-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin.  

PubMed

?-Cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid, and hesperidin, a flavonoid, possess inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis in several tissues. We recently have prepared a pulp (CHRP) and citrus juices (MJ2 and MJ5) from a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.) juice (MJ). They contain high amounts of ?-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. We have demonstrated that CHRP and/or MJs inhibit chemically induced rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung tumorigenesis. Gavage with CHRP resulted in an increase of activities of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, colon, and tongue rats'. CHRP and MJs were also able to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in the target tissues. This paper describes the findings of our in vivo preclinical experiments to develop a strategy for cancer chemoprevention of colon, tongue, and lung neoplasms by use of CHRP and MJs. PMID:22174562

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tanaka, Mayu; Kuno, Toshiya

2012-01-01

369

Fruit volatile profiles of two citrus hybrids are dramatically different from those of their parents.  

PubMed

Volatile compounds released from the fruit of two hybrid Citrus genotypes (FxCh90 and FxCh77) were compared to those from their parental varieties, Fortune mandarin and Chandler pummelo. A series of 113 compounds were identified, including 31 esters, 23 aldehydes, 20 alcohols, 17 monoterpenoids, and other compounds. The differences in the volatile profile among these four genotypes were essentially quantitative. The most striking result was that the volatile profile of the hybrids was not intermediate between their parents and completely differed from that of Chandler, but came closer to Fortune. This was because 56 of the 113 volatile compounds in the hybrids showed significantly higher or lower levels than in any of the parents. Such transgressive behavior in these hybrids was not observed for other fruit quality traits, such as acidity or soluble solid content. The combination of volatile profiling and chemometrics can be used to select new Citrus genotypes with a distinct volatile profile. PMID:25335473

Rambla, José Luis; González-Mas, M Carmen; Pons, Clara; Bernet, Guillermo P; Asins, Maria José; Granell, Antonio

2014-11-19

370

Sex pheromone of the citrus flower moth Prays nephelomima: pheromone identification, field trapping trials, and phenology.  

PubMed

Analysis of sex pheromone gland extract of the citrus flower moth, Prays nephelomima (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection, revealed one electrophysiologically active compound. Structural analysis using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and dimethyldisulfide derivatization identified this as the monounsaturated aldehyde (Z)-7-tetradecenal. Field trials in commercial citrus orchards on the North Island of New Zealand showed that (Z)-7-tetradecenal was highly attractive to male P. nephelomima. Phenology data, collected over 19 months in three commercial orchards, from traps baited with the sex pheromone at a lure loading of 300 microg on a red rubber septum, indicated that male moths may be present throughout the year, with numbers peaking in late summer and autumn. PMID:16222798

Gibb, A R; Jamieson, L E; Suckling, D M; Ramankutty, P; Stevens, P S

2005-07-01

371

Determination of thiabendazole residues in citrus fruits using a Multicommuted fluorescence-based optosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a method based on the combination of a multi-commuted flow system and solid-surface fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed and validated for the determination of thiabendazole residues in citrus fruits. The flow system was designed using three-way solenoid valves, controlled by Java-written home-made software, for independent automated manipulation of solutions. The native fluorescence signal of thiabendazole (using C18

Juan F. García-Reyes; Eulogio J. Llorent-Martínez; Pilar Ortega-Barrales; Antonio Molina-Díaz

2006-01-01

372

Metabolism and transport of the citrus flavonoid hesperetin in Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolism and transport from intestinal cells back into the lumen by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is believed to limit the bioavailability of flavonoids. We studied metabolism and transport of the citrus flavonoid hesperetin, the aglycone of hesperidin, using a two-compartment transwell Caco-2 cell monolayer system, simulating the intestinal barrier. The role of apically located ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (MDR1\\/ABCB1), multidrug resistance

W. Brand; Wel van der P. A. I; M. J. Rein; D. Barron; G. Williamson; Bladeren van P. J; I. M. C. M. Rietjens

2008-01-01

373

Regulation of stress-induced phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase expression in citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recent findings in our laboratory showed that in citrus cells, salt treatment induced the accumulation of mRNA and a protein\\u000a corresponding to phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), an enzyme active in the cellular antioxidant system.\\u000a The protein and its encoding gene, csa, were isolated and characterized, and the expected enzymatic activity was demonstrated (G. Ben-Hayyim et?al., 1993, Plant\\u000a Sci.

Orna Avsian-Kretchmer; Yuval Eshdat; Yardena Gueta-Dahan; Gozal Ben-Hayyim

1999-01-01

374

Gibberellins in Citrus sinensis : A comparison between seeded and seedless varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gibberellin (GA) content of the reproductive organs ofCitrus sinensis (L.) Osb., cv. Bianca Comuna and the seedless variety, Salustiana, were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a (GC\\/MS) at different stages of development. Gibberellins A1, A20, and A29 were identified in the reproductive buds of both cultivars 21 days prior to anthesis and in fruits 35 days after anthesis\\u000a by

Manuel Talón; Peter Hedden; Eduardo Primo-Millo

1990-01-01

375

Comparison of citrus coumarins on carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes in Nrf2 knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring coumarins possess anti-carcinogenic activities in part by inducing carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and\\/or NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). Our goal was to determine whether citrus coumarins induce hepatic GST and\\/or NQO1 via activation of Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE). First, HepG2 cells stably transfected with the ARE and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter were treated

Misty Prince; Yan Li; Asper Childers; Ken Itoh; Masayuki Yamamoto; Heather E. Kleiner

2009-01-01

376

Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation.\\u000a The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial\\u000a aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase\\u000a causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that

Asfaw Degu; Bayissa Hatew; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Ludmila Shlizerman; Naftali Zur; Ehud Katz; Alisdair R. Fernie; Eduardo Blumwald; Avi Sadka

2011-01-01

377

Salt and oxidative stress: similar and specific responses and their relation to salt tolerance in Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Salt damage to plants has been attributed to a combination of several factors including mainly osmotic stress and the accumulation\\u000a of toxic ions. Recent findings in our laboratory showed that phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), an\\u000a enzyme active in the cellular antioxidant system, was induced by salt in citrus cells and mainly in roots of plants. Following\\u000a this observation

Yardena Gueta-Dahan; Zohara Yaniv; Barbara A. Zilinskas; Gozal Ben-Hayyim

1997-01-01

378

Actividad larvicida de la toronja, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae) sobre dos vectores del dengue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvicidal activity of the grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was tested against mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which represent potentials vectors of dengue fever. The CL50 of the essential oil of the grapefruit were 47,3 ppm and 85,1 ppm for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. The analysis of the oil by GC-MS, showed different components knowns as insecticides, which could

Jorge Morales-Saldaña; Nélida Gómez; José Rovira; Manuel Abrahams

379

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.  

PubMed

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

2010-04-01

380

Protection Roles of Tea-Citrus Garden on Slopes (N Iran)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effects of vegetation on the stability of slopes using the finite element method. Parametric studies were performed to assess the sensitivity of the stability of a slope to the variation in the key vegetation and soil parameters. Results show that vegetation plays an important role in stabilizing shallow-seated failure of slopes and significantly affects stability. As Iran has a long history of landslides, this research deals with the effect of scrubs on slope stability, in particular, the economic interest such as tea and Citrus. It is well understood that vegetation influences slope stability mechanical effects. The shear strength of the soil is increased through the mechanical effects of the plant root matrix system. The density of the roots within the soil mass and the root tensile strength contribute to the ability of the soils to resist shear stress. The effects of soil suction and root reinforcement has been quantified as an increase in apparent soil cohesion. The study was carried out in Roudsar Township in Gilan State of Iran. In this area of 20 ha were considered suitable for the purposes of this study. A large part of the area had slopes of steep gradients on which tea-citrus garden was present. Soil samples were taken from an area of approximately 25 ha large for testing in the laboratory. Direct shear tests were carried out on soil samples and the Factor Of Safety (FOS) calculated. Results showed that the FOS was increased in soils with tea and citrus roots present. The global slope FOS was then determined using Bishop=s method. In this case study minimum FOS assumed 1.3, which corresponds to tea-citrus vegetation with 40-60% crown cover, a soil internal friction angle of 16° and a slope angle of 21 degree.

Habibi Bibalani, Ghassem; Joodi, Lila; Shibaei, Naeimeh; Bazhrang, Zia

381

Apoptosis-mediated proliferation inhibition of human colon cancer cells by volatile principles of Citrus aurantifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of Citrus aurantifolia were subjected to hydro-distillation using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain volatile oil. Chemical composition of volatile oil was analysed by GC–MS. Twenty-two compounds representing more than 89.5% of the volatile oil were identified. d-limonene (30.13%) and d-dihydrocarvone (30.47%) were found to be the major compounds in the lime volatile oil. This oil showed 78% inhibition of

Jaiprakash R. Patil; G. K. Jayaprakasha; K. N. Chidambara Murthy; Shane E. Tichy; Mahadev B. Chetti; Bhimanagouda S. Patil

2009-01-01

382

Resistance to hexythiazox in Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazilian citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to collect baseline information for implementing an acaricide resistance management program\\u000a of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) to hexythiazox in Brazilian citrus groves. The egg susceptibility of B. phoenicis to hexythiazox was measured by a direct contact bioassay. The estimated LC50 for the S strain was 0.89 mg hexythiazox L?1 of water (95%FL 0.75–1.03). After hexythiazox

Fernando Joly Campos; Celso Omoto

2002-01-01

383

Antioxidant enzymatic activity is linked to waterlogging stress tolerance in citrus.  

PubMed

Soil flooding constitutes a seasonal factor that negatively affects plant performance and crop yields. In this work, the relationship between oxidative damage and flooding sensitivity was addressed in three citrus genotypes with different abilities to tolerate waterlogging. We examined leaf visible damage, oxidative damage in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, leaf proline concentration, leaf and root ascorbate and glutathione contents and the antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.8.1.7). No differences in the extent of oxidative damage relative to controls were found among genotypes. However, a different ability to delay the apparition of oxidative damage was associated to a higher tolerance to waterlogging. This ability was linked to an enhanced activated oxygen species' scavenging capacity in terms of an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and higher content in polar antioxidant compounds. Therefore, the existence of a direct relationship between stress sensitivity and the early accumulation of MDA is proposed. In addition, data indicate that the protective role of proline has to be considered minimal as its accumulation was inversely correlated with tolerance to the stress. The positive antioxidant response in Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) and Citrumelo CPB 4475 (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi L. Macf.) might be responsible for a higher tolerance to flooding stress, whereas in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. Ex Tan.), the early accumulation of MDA seems to be associated to an impaired ability for H2O2 scavenging. PMID:18333999

Arbona, Vicent; Hossain, Zahed; López-Climent, María F; Pérez-Clemente, Rosa M; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

2008-04-01

384

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A THERMOSTABLE SOLUBLE PEROXIDASE FROM CITRUS MEDICA LEAF  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soluble and thermostable peroxidase enzyme (POD) was extracted from the leaf of Citrus medica. The enzyme was purified 15.10 fold with a total yield of 28.6% by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme came as a single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) PAGE.

Ruckminee Mall; Gaurav Naik; Usha Mina; Sarad Kumar Mishra

2012-01-01

385

Regeneration of transgenic citrus plants from the trimmed shoot\\/root region of etiolated seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation and high efficient regeneration of transgenic plants from the trimmed etiolated shoot\\/root region (TESRR) of\\u000a Anliucheng sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] seedling was reported. A visual green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene was introduced to evaluate transformation\\u000a efficiency by using the explants from TESRR and epicotyls. The transformation protocol was: infection 20 min, co-culture 3\\u000a d, selection culture

D. L. Li; B. Tan; Y. X. Duan; W. W. Guo

2009-01-01

386

Genetic transformation of lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swing.): factors affecting transformation and regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously developed procedures for the efficient production of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) transgenic plants using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and shoot tip grafting in vitro regeneration system. We now report on the optimization of the cocultivation,\\u000a regeneration and selection conditions for efficient and reliable production of

L. Peña; M. Cervera; J. Juárez; A. Navarro; J. A. Pina; L. Navarro

1997-01-01

387

Flavonoid profile and radical-scavenging activity of Mediterranean sweet lemon ( Citrus limetta Risso) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid composition of crude Citrus limetta Risso (limetta, Mediterranean sweet lemon) juice was elucidated by means of reverse-phase HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS\\/MS analysis. In a single course, eight compounds (C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids) were identified, six of which were found for the first time in limetta juice: four C-glucosyl flavones, namely vicenin-2, lucenin-2 4?-methyl ether, orientin 4?-methyl ether and scoparin; the O-glycosyl

Davide Barreca; Ersilia Bellocco; Corrado Caristi; Ugo Leuzzi; Giuseppe Gattuso

2011-01-01

388

Citrus Leaf Volatiles as Affected by Developmental Stage and Genetic Type  

PubMed Central

Major volatiles from young and mature leaves of different citrus types were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. A total of 123 components were identified form nine citrus cultivars, including nine aldehydes, 19 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 27 oxygenated monoterpenes, 43 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, eight oxygenated sesquiterpenes, two ketones, six esters and nine miscellaneous. Young leaves produced higher amounts of volatiles than mature leaves in most cultivars. The percentage of aldehyde and monoterpene hydrocarbons increased, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes compounds decreased during leaf development. Linalool was the most abundant compound in young leaves, whereas limonene was the chief component in mature ones. Notably, linalool content decreased, while limonene increased, during leaf development in most cultivars. Leaf volatiles were also affected by genetic types. A most abundant volatile in one or several genotypes can be absent in another one(s), such as limonene in young leaves of lemon vs. Satsuma mandarin and ?-terpinene in mature leaves of three genotypes vs. the other four. Compositional data was subjected to multivariate statistical analysis, and variations in leaf volatiles were identified and clustered into six groups. This research determining the relationship between production of major volatiles from different citrus varieties and leaf stages could be of use for industrial and culinary purposes. PMID:23994837

Azam, Muhammad; Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

2013-01-01

389

Evaluation of the genetic structure of Xylella fastidiosa populations from different Citrus sinensis varieties.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa was isolated from sweet orange plants (Citrus sinensis) grown in two orchards in the northwest region of the Brazilian state of São Paulo. One orchard was part of a germ plasm field plot used for studies of citrus variegated chlorosis resistance, while the other was an orchard of C. sinensis cv. Pêra clones. These two collections of strains were genotypically characterized by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers. The genetic diversity (H(T)) values of X. fastidiosa were similar for both sets of strains; however, H(T)(RAPD) values were substantially lower than H(T)(VNTR) values. The analysis of six strains per plant allowed us to identify up to three RAPD and five VNTR multilocus haplotypes colonizing one plant. Molecular analysis of variance was used to determine the extent to which population structure explained the genetic variation observed. The genetic variation observed in the X. fastidiosa strains was not related to or dependent on the different sweet orange varieties from which they had been obtained. A significant amount of the observed genetic variation could be explained by the variation between strains from different plants within the orchards and by the variation between strains within each plant. It appears, therefore, that the existence of different sweet orange varieties does not play a role in the population structure of X. fastidiosa. The consequences of these results for the management of sweet orange breeding strategies for citrus variegate chlorosis resistance are also discussed. PMID:12147466

Della Coletta-Filho, Helvécio; Machado, Marcos Antonio

2002-08-01

390

Evaluation of the Genetic Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Populations from Different Citrus sinensis Varieties  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa was isolated from sweet orange plants (Citrus sinensis) grown in two orchards in the northwest region of the Brazilian state of São Paulo. One orchard was part of a germ plasm field plot used for studies of citrus variegated chlorosis resistance, while the other was an orchard of C. sinensis cv. Pêra clones. These two collections of strains were genotypically characterized by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers. The genetic diversity (HT) values of X. fastidiosa were similar for both sets of strains; however, HTRAPD values were substantially lower than HTVNTR values. The analysis of six strains per plant allowed us to identify up to three RAPD and five VNTR multilocus haplotypes colonizing one plant. Molecular analysis of variance was used to determine the extent to which population structure explained the genetic variation observed. The genetic variation observed in the X. fastidiosa strains was not related to or dependent on the different sweet orange varieties from which they had been obtained. A significant amount of the observed genetic variation could be explained by the variation between strains from different plants within the orchards and by the variation between strains within each plant. It appears, therefore, that the existence of different sweet orange varieties does not play a role in the population structure of X. fastidiosa. The consequences of these results for the management of sweet orange breeding strategies for citrus variegate chlorosis resistance are also discussed. PMID:12147466

Coletta-Filho, Helvecio Della; Machado, Marcos Antonio

2002-01-01

391

Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Omani Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and Comparative Analysis within the Rosids.  

PubMed

The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C. aurantiifolia). The complete C. aurantiifolia chloroplast genome is 159,893 bp in length; the organization and gene content are similar to most of the rosids lineages characterized to date. Through comparison with the sweet orange (C. sinensis) chloroplast genome, we identified three intergenic regions and 94 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that are potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. These markers can be utilized to better understand the origin of cultivated Citrus. A comparison among 72 species belonging to 10 families of representative rosids lineages also provides new insights into their chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:25398081

Su, Huei-Jiun; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Kuo, Chih-Horng

2014-01-01

392

Citrus flavanones affect hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats by acting as prooxidant agents.  

PubMed

Citrus flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities and positive health effects on mammalian cells because of their antioxidant properties. However, they also act as prooxidants and thus may interfere with metabolic pathways. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of three citrus flavanones, hesperidin, hesperetin, and naringenin, on several parameters linked to fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and perfused livers of rats. When exogenous octanoate was used as substrate, hesperetin and naringenin reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD? ratio and stimulated the citric acid cycle without significant changes on oxygen uptake or ketogenesis. When fatty acid oxidation from endogenous sources was evaluated, hesperetin and naringenin strongly reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD? ratio. They also inhibited both oxygen uptake and ketogenesis and stimulated the citric acid cycle. Hesperidin, on the other hand, had little to no effect on these parameters. These results confirm the hypothesis that citrus flavanones are able to induce a more oxidised state in liver cells, altering parameters related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The prooxidant effect is most likely a consequence of the ability of these substances to oxidise NADH upon production of phenoxyl radicals in the presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:24288675

Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; do Nascimento, Gilson Soares; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Salgueiro, Clairce Luzia; Bracht, Adelar; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko; Constantin, Jorgete

2013-01-01

393

Influence of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Leaf Age on Net Gas Exchange of Citrus Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi affect net assimilation of CO2 (A) of different-aged citrus leaves independent of mineral nutrition effects of mycorrhizae. Citrus aurantium L., sour orange plants were grown for 6 months in a sandy soil low in phosphorus that was either infested with the VAM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, or fertilized with additional phosphorus and left nonmycorrhizal (NM). Net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and mineral nutrient status for expanding, recently expanded, and mature leaves were evaluated as well as plant size and relative growth rate of leaves. Nutrient status and net gas exchange varied with leaf age. G. intraradices-inoculated plants had well-established colonization (79% of root length) and were comparable in relative growth rate and size at final harvest with NM plants. Leaf mineral concentrations were generally the same for VAM and NM plants except for nitrogen. Although leaf nitrogen was apparently sufficient for high rates of A, VAM plants did have higher nitrogen concentrations than NM at the time of gas exchange measurements. G. intraradices had no effect on A, stomatal conductance, or water use efficiency, irrespective of leaf age. These results show that well-established VAM colonization does not affect net gas exchange of citrus plants that are comparable in size, growth rate, and nutritional status with NM plants. PMID:16667848

Syvertsen, James P.; Graham, James H.

1990-01-01

394

Resistance of Citrus Fruit to Mass Transport of Water Vapor and Other Gases 1  

PubMed Central

The resistance of oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to ethylene, O2, CO2, and H2O mass transport was investigated anatomically with scanning electron microscope and physiologically by gas exchange measurements at steady state. The resistance of untreated fruit to water vapor is far less than to ethylene, CO2 and O2. Waxing partially or completely plugs stomatal pores and forms an intermittent cracked layer over the surface of fruit, restricting transport of ethylene, O2, and CO2, but not of water; whereas individual sealing of fruit with high density polyethylene films reduces water transport by 90% without substantially inhibiting gas exchange. Stomata of harvested citrus fruits are essentially closed. However, ethylene, O2 and CO2 still diffuse mainly through the residual stomatal opening where the relative transport resistance (approximately 6,000 seconds per centimeter) depends on the relative diffusivity of each gas in air. Water moves preferentially by a different pathway, probably through a liquid aqueous phase in the cuticle where water conductance is 60-fold greater. Other gases are constrained from using this pathway because their diffusivity in liquid water is 104-fold less than in air. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16664527

Ben-Yehoshua, Shimshon; Burg, Stanley P.; Young, Roger

1985-01-01

395

Citrus co-products as technological strategy to reduce residual nitrite content in meat products.  

PubMed

Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in cured meat products because it inhibits outgrowth and neurotoxin formation by Clostridium botulinum, delays the development of oxidative rancidity, develops the characteristic flavor of cured meats, and reacts with myoglobin and stabilizes the red meat color. As soon as nitrite is added in the meat formulation, it starts to disappear and the nitrite that has not reacted with myoglobin and it is available corresponds to residual nitrite level. Health concerns relating to the use of nitrates and nitrites in cured meats (cooked and dry cured) trend toward decreased usage to alleviate the potential risk to the consumers from formation of carcinogenic compounds. Recently, some new ingredients principally agro-industrial co-products in general and those from the citrus industry in particular (albedo [with different treatments], dietetic fiber obtained from the whole co-product, and washing water used in the process to obtain the dietetic fiber) are seen as good sources of bio-compounds that may help to reduce the residual nitrite level in meat products. From these co-products, citrus fiber shows the highest potential to reduce the residual nitrite level, followed by the albedo and finally the washing water. The aim of this article is to describe the latest advances concerning the use of citrus co-products in meat products as a potential ingredient to reduce the nitrite level. PMID:19799678

Viuda-Martos, M; Fernández-López, J; Sayas-Barbera, E; Sendra, E; Navarro, C; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

2009-10-01

396

Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Erosion is a natural process that shapes the Earth. Due to the impact of agriculture, soil erosion rates increase, landforms show gullies and rills, and soils are depleted. In the Mediterranean, wheat, olive and vineyards were the main agriculture products, but new plantations are being found in sloping terrain due to the drip-irrigation. This new strategy results in the removal of the traditional terraces in order to make suitable for mechanization the agriculture plantation. Citrus is a clear example of the impact of the new chemical agriculture with a high investment in herbicides, pesticides, mechanisation, land levelling and drip computer controlled irrigation systems. The new plantation of citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean, but also in California, Florida, China and Brazil. Chile, Argentina, and South Africa are other producers that are moving to an industrial production of citrus. This paper shows how the citrus plantations are found as one of the most aggressive plantation due to the increase in soil erosion, and how we can apply successful control strategies. The research into the high erosion rates of citrus orchard built on the slopes are mainly found in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012) and in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) Most of the research done devoted to the measurements of the soil losses but also some research is done related to the soil properties (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and the impact of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel in order to reduce the soil losses. There are 116 million tonnes of citrus produced yearly, and this affects a large surface of the best land. The citrus orchards are moving from flood irrigated to drip irrigated land, and this contributes to increase the soil losses due to the sloping terrain. Although citrus is a world wide food, and occupy a large surface little is being researched on their impact on soil erosion, land degradation and strategies to control the soil, water and nutrient losses. This paper review the research developed until now and the results show that there is a poor background on this topic. It is necessary to develop research projects to improve the knowledge on the impact of citrus plantations on soil degradation and soil erosion. Another key information from the literature review done, is that most of the research was done in two regions of China and one of the Mediterranean. Definitively, a poor understanding of a huge environmental problem that need more scientific research. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 140, 145-154. Cerdà, A., Giménez Morera, A., Burguet, M., Arcenegui, V., González Peñaloza, F.A., García-Orenes, F., Pereira, P. 2012. The impact of the farming, abandonment and agricultural intensification on loss of water and soil. The example of the northern slopes of the Serra Grossa, Eastern Spain [El impacto del cultivo, el abandono y la intensificación de la agricultura en la pérdida de agua y suelo. el ejemplo de la vertiente norte de la serra grossa en el este peninsular] Cuadernos de Investigacion Geografica, 38 (1), 75-94. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology, 132 (4), 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approach. Catena, 85 (3), 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on

Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

2013-04-01

397

Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Omani Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and Comparative Analysis within the Rosids  

PubMed Central

The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C. aurantiifolia). The complete C. aurantiifolia chloroplast genome is 159,893 bp in length; the organization and gene content are similar to most of the rosids lineages characterized to date. Through comparison with the sweet orange (C. sinensis) chloroplast genome, we identified three intergenic regions and 94 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that are potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. These markers can be utilized to better understand the origin of cultivated Citrus. A comparison among 72 species belonging to 10 families of representative rosids lineages also provides new insights into their chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:25398081

Su, Huei-Jiun; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Kuo, Chih-Horng

2014-01-01

398

Citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.  

PubMed

Abstract Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between citrus fruit and bladder cancer risk; however, the results are inconsistent. To assess these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis of currently available studies. We identified relevant articles by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We calculated the summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using a random effect model. We included eight case-control studies and six cohort studies in the meta-analysis. There was a significant inverse association between citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk in all pooled studies (RR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and case-control studies (RR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.92), but not in the cohort studies (RR: 0.96; 95% CI, 0.87-1.07). Our results suggest that citrus fruit intake is related to decreased bladder cancer risk. Subsequent well-designed, large prospective studies are needed to obtain better understanding of this relationship. PMID:24932663

Liang, Sudong; Lv, Gaofei; Chen, Weikai; Jiang, Jianxin; Wang, Jingqun

2014-11-01

399

Transcriptome analysis of a spontaneous mutant in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] during fruit development  

PubMed Central

Bud mutations often arise in citrus. The selection of mutants is one of the most important breeding channels in citrus. However, the molecular basis of bud mutation has rarely been studied. To identify differentially expressed genes in a spontaneous sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] bud mutation which causes lycopene accumulation, low citric acid, and high sucrose in fruit, suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis were performed to decipher this bud mutation during fruit development. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 267 non-redundant transcripts were obtained and 182 (68.2%) of them shared homology (E-value ?1×10?10) with known gene products. Few genes were constitutively up- or down-regulated (fold change ?2) in the bud mutation during fruit development. Self-organizing tree algorithm analysis results showed that 95.1% of the differentially expressed genes were extensively coordinated with the initiation of lycopene accumulation. Metabolic process, cellular process, establishment of localization, response to stimulus, and biological regulation-related transcripts were among the most regulated genes. These genes were involved in many biological processes such as organic acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, and pyruvate metabolism, etc. Moreover, 13 genes which were differentially regulated at 170 d after flowering shared homology with previously described signal transduction or transcription factors. The information generated in this study provides new clues to aid in the understanding of bud mutation in citrus. PMID:19218315

Liu, Qing; Zhu, Andan; Chai, Lijun; Zhou, Wenjing; Yu, Keqin; Ding, Jian; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

2009-01-01

400

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species  

PubMed Central

The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutierrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

2011-01-01

401

Citrus Products and Their Use Against Bacteria: Potential Health and Cost Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Citrus pulp and dried peel are by products of juice production.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Citrus oils can kill bacteria, including pathogenic bacteria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Citrus pulp can be used as a high quality feedstuff for animals and are fed currently.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Research has shown that these products can kill foodborne pathogenic bacteria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a These products can be used to improve human and

Todd R. Callaway; Jeff A. Carroll; John D. Arthington; Tom S. Edrington; Robin C. Anderson; Steve C. Ricke; Phil Crandall; Chad Collier; David J. Nisbet

402

Calcium sulfate crystallization along citrus root channels in a Florida soil exhibiting acid sulfate properties  

SciTech Connect

The authors observed euhedral crystals in Manatee soil in a citrus grove in St. Lucie County, Florida. The material was identified as gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/ /times/ 2H/sub 2/O) using x-ray diffraction and infrared spectra. Photomicrography and scanning electron microscopy revealed that gypsum accumulated both in old root channels and within citrus root tissue of the Btg horizon. The subsurface horizons had elevated sulfate levels, a low initial pH, a drop (0.5 unit) in pH upon air-drying. Electrical conductivity paralleled the concentration of water-soluble sulfate. High levels of calcium and sulfate occurred for horizons above the water table. This accumulation is attributed to groundwater bearing these ions and subsequently discharging them to the overlying soil. Dead citrus roots appear to act as wicks to aid water transfer from lower to higher horizons. The roots and their empty channels provide spaces in which the gypsum can precipitate if the concentrations of calcium and sulfate in the evaporating groundwater exceed the solubility product of gypsum.

Syslo, S.K.; Myhre, D.L.; Harris, W.G.

1988-02-01

403

Citrus Flavanones Affect Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Acting as Prooxidant Agents  

PubMed Central

Citrus flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities and positive health effects on mammalian cells because of their antioxidant properties. However, they also act as prooxidants and thus may interfere with metabolic pathways. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of three citrus flavanones, hesperidin, hesperetin, and naringenin, on several parameters linked to fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and perfused livers of rats. When exogenous octanoate was used as substrate, hesperetin and naringenin reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and stimulated the citric acid cycle without significant changes on oxygen uptake or ketogenesis. When fatty acid oxidation from endogenous sources was evaluated, hesperetin and naringenin strongly reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio. They also inhibited both oxygen uptake and ketogenesis and stimulated the citric acid cycle. Hesperidin, on the other hand, had little to no effect on these parameters. These results confirm the hypothesis that citrus flavanones are able to induce a more oxidised state in liver cells, altering parameters related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The prooxidant effect is most likely a consequence of the ability of these substances to oxidise NADH upon production of phenoxyl radicals in the presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:24288675

Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; do Nascimento, Gilson Soares; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Salgueiro, Clairce Luzia; Bracht, Adelar; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko

2013-01-01

404

A Class IV Chitinase Is Up-Regulated by Fungal Infection and Abiotic Stresses and Associated with Slow-Canker-Growth Resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Western White Pine (Pinus monticola).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT In the present study, in a candidate gene approach, a class IV chitinase gene (PmCh4A) of pathogenesis-related family three was cloned and characterized in western white pine (Pinus monticola). PmCh4A chitinase expression in the different organs of healthy seedlings was below levels detectable by western immunoblot analysis using an antibody raised against PmCh4A protein. However, a 27-kDa isozyme of PmCh4A accu mulated in both susceptible and slow-canker-growth (SCG) resistant seedlings after infection by Cronartium ribicola. As with fungal infection, the application of a signal chemical (methyl jasmonate) and a protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor (okadaic acid) increased the PmCh4A protein accumulation. Furthermore, another 26-kDa isozyme was expressed specifically in SCG resistant seedlings, providing a potential tool for marker-assisted selection in forest breeding. Wounding treatment also induced expression of the protein. These data suggest that the class IV chitinase PmCh4A is involved in the defense response of western white pine to infection and abiotic stresses. PMID:18943122

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Zamani, Arezoo

2005-03-01

405

7 CFR 319.28 - Notice of quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Tucuman, which are considered free of citrus canker); Brazil; and Paraguay is prohibited. (2) To prevent the introduction...Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle, from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay is prohibited. (3) To prevent...

2013-01-01

406

7 CFR 319.28 - Notice of quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Tucuman, which are considered free of citrus canker); Brazil; and Paraguay is prohibited. (2) To prevent the introduction...Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle, from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay is prohibited. (3) To prevent...

2012-01-01

407

7 CFR 319.28 - Notice of quarantine.  

...and Tucuman, which are considered free of citrus canker); Brazil; and Paraguay is prohibited. (2) To prevent the introduction...Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle, from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay is prohibited. (3) To prevent...

2014-01-01

408

Brevipalpus Transmitted Plant Virus and Virus-Like Diseases: Cytopathology and Some Recent Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of diseases transmitted by Brevipalpus mite species (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is being identified that affect economically important plants such as citrus, coffee,\\u000a passion fruit, orchids, and several ornamentals. All of these diseases are characterized by localized lesions (chlorotic,\\u000a green spots, or ringspots) on leaves, stems, and fruits. Virus or virus-like agents are considered to be the causal agents,

E. W. Kitajima; C. M. Chagas; J. C. V. Rodrigues

2003-01-01

409

Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus

Gabino Ríos; Miguel A Naranjo; María-Jesús Rodrigo; Enriqueta Alós; Lorenzo Zacarías; Manuel Cercós; Manuel Talón

2010-01-01

410

Associations of soil iron with citrus tree decline and variability of sand, soil water, pH, magnesium and Diaprepes abbreviatus root weevil: Two-site study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis of associations of environmental soil heterogeneity with citrus tree decline and Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil variability was tested in two flatwoods fields of ‘Hamlin’ orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.). Studies were conducted on a loamy, poorly drained Mollisol in Osceola County, central Florida in 2002, and on a sandy, poorly drained Spodosol in DeSoto County, south-west

Hong Li; Stephen H. Futch; Robin J. Stuart; James P. Syvertsen; Clay W. McCoy

2007-01-01

411

Associations of soil iron with citrus tree decline and variability of sand, soil water, pH, magnesium and Diaprepes abbreviatus root weevil: Two-site study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis of associations of environmental soil heterogeneity with citrus tree decline and Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) root weevil variability was tested in two flatwoods fields of 'Hamlin' orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.). Studies were conducted on a loamy, poorly drained Mollisol in Osceola County, central Florida in 2002, and on a sandy, poorly drained Spodosol in DeSoto County, south-west

Hong Li; Stephen H. Futch; Robin J. Stuart; James P. Syvertsen; Clay W. McCoy

2006-01-01

412

Exclusion experiments reveal relative contributions of natural enemies to mortality of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Alabama satsuma orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is an important pest of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) in Alabama. A recent study identified several species of beneficial arthropods including spiders (e.g., Hibana sp.), ants (e.g., Solenopis invicta Buren), Chrysoperla sp., Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and two parasitoid species (Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya and Cirrospilus sp.), as potential natural mortality factors of

Yingfang Xiao; Henry Y. Fadamiro

2010-01-01

413

Inhibitory effects of Citrus flavonoids on starch digestion and antihyperglycemic effects in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are a class of important bioactive natural products and are being extensively used in functional foods. In the present study, the effects of four Citrus flavonoids (i.e., hesperidin, naringin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) on amylase-catalyzed starch digestion, major digestive enzyme activities (e.g., pancreatic ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase), and glucose use in HepG2 cells were investigated. The results showed that all of the tested Citrus flavonoids significantly inhibited amylase-catalyzed starch digestion. Moreover, naringin and neohesperidin mainly inhibited amylose digestion, whereas hesperidin and nobiletin inhibited both amylose and amylopectin digestion. However, these flavonoids showed weak inhibitory activities against digestive enzymes. Furthermore, glucose consumption, glycogen concentration, and glucokinase activity were significantly elevated, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity was markedly decreased by Citrus flavonoids. These results demonstrate that Citrus flavonoids play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by binding to starch, increasing hepatic glycolysis and the glycogen concentration, and lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis. This work suggests that Citrus flavonoids might be potentially used for the prevention of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:22958058

Shen, Wei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yan-Hua

2012-09-26

414

Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases  

PubMed Central

Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed. PMID:22295177

Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

2011-01-01

415

Comparison of the inhibition of monoamine oxidase and butyrylcholinesterase activities by infusions from green tea and some citrus peels.  

PubMed

This study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and some citrus peels [shaddock (Citrus maxima), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), and orange (Citrus sinensis)] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (MAO) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)]. The total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2(')-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and Fe(2+) chelating abilities were also investigated. Green tea had the highest total phenol (43.3?mg/g) and total flavonoid (16.4?mg/g) contents, when compared to orange [total phenol (19.6?mg/g), total flavonoid (6.5?mg/g)], shaddock [total phenol (16.3?mg/g), total flavonoid (5.2?mg/g)], and grapefruit [total phenol (17.7?mg/g), total flavonoid (5.9?mg/g)]. Orange (EC50 = 1.78?mg/mL) had the highest MAO inhibitory ability, while green tea had the least MAO inhibitory ability (EC50 = 2.56?mg/mL). Similarly, green tea had the least BChE inhibitory ability (EC50 = 5.43?mg/mL) when compared to the citrus peels' infusions. However, green tea infusions had the strongest highest ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Fe(2+) chelating ability. The inhibition of MAO and BChE activities by the green tea and citrus peels infusions could make them good dietary means for the prevention/management of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25243093

Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oboh, Ganiyu

2014-01-01

416

Comprehensive analysis of CCCH-type zinc finger gene family in citrus (Clementine mandarin) by genome-wide characterization.  

PubMed

The CCCH-type zinc finger proteins comprise a large gene family of regulatory proteins and are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. The CCCH proteins have been implicated in multiple biological processes and environmental responses in plants. Little information is available, however, about CCCH genes in plants, especially in woody plants such as citrus. The release of the whole-genome sequence of citrus allowed us to perform a genome-wide analysis of CCCH genes and to compare the identified proteins with their orthologs in model plants. In this study, 62 CCCH genes and a total of 132 CCCH motifs were identified, and a comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, functional annotations, gene structures and conserved motifs was performed. Distribution mapping revealed that 54 of the 62 CCCH genes are unevenly dispersed on the nine citrus chromosomes. Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structural features, we constructed 5 subfamilies of 62 CCCH members and integrative subfamilies from citrus, Arabidopsis, and rice, respectively. Importantly, large numbers of SNPs and InDels in 26 CCCH genes were identified from Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella japonica using whole-genome deep re-sequencing. Furthermore, citrus CCCH genes showed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different developmental processes and in response to various stress conditions. Our comprehensive analysis of CleC3Hs is a valuable resource that further elucidates the roles of CCCH family members in plant growth and development. In addition, variants and comparative genomics analyses deepen our understanding of the evolution of the CCCH gene family and will contribute to further genetics and genomics studies of citrus and other plant species. PMID:24820208

Liu, Shengrui; Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Li, Yongping; Zhang, Jinzhi; Hu, Chungen

2014-10-01

417

Cloning and molecular analysis of cDNAs encoding three sucrose phosphate synthase isoforms from a citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu Marc.).  

PubMed

Three partial cDNA clones (pSPS1, pSPS2 and pSPS3) encoding sucrose phosphate synthases (SPS) were isolated by Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR using first-strand cDNA prepared from the leaf or fruit of citrus (Citrus unshiu Marc.). The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the three clones showed significant similarities to SPS previously isolated in other plants. A full-length, cDNA clone, CitSPS1, was isolated from a fruit (juice sacs and pulp segment) cDNA library using one (pSPS1) of the three partial clones as a probe. The 3539-bp CitSPS1 clone coded for a 1057-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 117.8 kDa. The amino acid sequence deduced from the CitSPS1 clone showed homology with SPS from maize (55.8% identity) and spinach (74.0% identity). Genomic Southern blot analysis suggested that CitSPS1 clone represents a lowcopy-number gene. RNA blot analysis of leaf, flower and fruit showed that CitSPS1 and pSPS2 were expressed in all organs. However, the levels of expression of CitSPS1 in young leaves, flowers and immature fruits were low, but high in mature leaves, and fruit. pSPS2 transcripts were barely detectable in young leaves and immature fruits, low in mature leaves, and high in flowers and mature fruits. pSPS3 transcripts were only detected in young and in mature leaves. PMID:8842155

Komatsu, A; Takanokura, Y; Omura, M; Akihama, T

1996-09-13

418

Early Events in Agrobacterium?mediated Genetic Transformation of Citrus Explants  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Genetic transformation of plants relies on two independent but concurrent processes: integration of foreign DNA into plant cells and regeneration of whole plants from these transformed cells. Cell competence for regeneration and for transformation does not always fall into the same cell type/developmental stage, and this is one of the main causes of the so?called recalcitrance for transformation of certain plant species. In this study, a detailed examination of the first steps of morphogenesis from citrus explants after co?cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens was performed, and an investigation into which cells and tissues are competent for regeneration and transformation was carried out. Moreover, the role of phytohormones in the co?cultivation medium as possible enhancers of gene transfer was also studied. • Methods A highly responsive citrus genotype and well?established culture conditions were used to perform a histological analysis of morphogenesis and cell competence for transformation after co?cultivation of citrus epicotyl segments with A. tumefaciens. In addition, the role of phytohormones as transformation enhancers was investigated by flow cytometry. • Key Results It is demonstrated that cells competent for transformation are located in the newly formed callus growing from the cambial ring. Conditions conducive to further development of this callus, such as treatment of explants in a medium rich in auxins, resulted in a more pronounced formation of cambial callus and a slower shoot regeneration process, both in Agrobacterium?inoculated and non?inoculated explants. Furthermore, co? cultivation in a medium rich in auxins caused a significant increase in the rate of actively dividing cells in S?phase, the stage in which cells are more prone to integrate foreign DNA. • Conclusions Use of proper co?cultivation medium and conditions led to a higher number of stably transformed cells and to an increase in the final number of regenerated transgenic plants. PMID:15145796

PEÑA, LEANDRO; PÉREZ, ROSA M.; CERVERA, MAGDALENA; JUÁREZ, JOSÉ A.; NAVARRO, LUIS

2004-01-01

419

Collection and Chemical Composition of Phloem Sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (Sweet Orange)  

PubMed Central

Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them. PMID:25014027

Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

2014-01-01

420

Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.  

PubMed

Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (?w) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. PMID:25218731

Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

2014-10-01

421

Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that the block in mitochondrial aconitase activity, inducing acid accumulation, is caused by citramalate. Here, we investigated the effect of citramalate and of another aconitase inhibitor, oxalomalate, on aconitase activity and regulation in callus originated from juice sacs. These compounds significantly increased citrate content and reduced the enzyme's activity, while slightly inducing its protein level. Citramalate inhibited the mitochondrial, but not cytosolic form of the enzyme. Its external application to mandarin fruits resulted in inhibition of aconitase activity, with a transient increase in fruit acidity detected a few weeks later. The endogenous level of citramalate was analyzed in five citrus varieties: its pattern of accumulation challenged the notion of its action as an endogenous inhibitor of mitochondrial aconitase. Metabolite profiling of oxalomalate-treated cells showed significant increases in a few amino acids and organic acids. The activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and aspartate kinase, as well as these of two ?-aminobutyrate (GABA)-shunt enzymes, succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSAD) were significantly induced in oxalomalate-treated cells. It is suggested that the increase in citrate, caused by aconitase inhibition, induces amino acid synthesis and the GABA shunt, in accordance with the suggested fate of citrate during the acid decline stage in citrus fruit. PMID:21528417

Degu, Asfaw; Hatew, Bayissa; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Shlizerman, Ludmila; Zur, Naftali; Katz, Ehud; Fernie, Alisdair R; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2011-09-01

422

Characterization and developmental expression of genes encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Citrus paradisi Macf.  

PubMed

In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequences of PSY, PDS, and ZDS, encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in the carotenoid pathway of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), were isolated and characterized for the first time. CpPSY contained a 1311-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 436 amino acids, CpPDS contained a 1659-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 552 amino acids, and CpZDS contained a 1713-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 570 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CpPSY shares homology with PSYs from Citrus, tomato, pepper, Arabidopsis, and the monocot PSY1 group, while CpPDS and CpZDS are most closely related to orthologs from Citrus and tomato. Expression analysis revealed fluctuations in CpPSY, CpPDS, and CpZDS transcript abundance and a non-coordinated regulation between the former and the two latter genes during fruit development in albedo and juice vesicles of white ('Duncan') and red ('Flame') grapefruits. A 3× higher upregulation of CpPSY expression in juice vesicles of red-fleshed 'Flame' as compared to white-fruited 'Duncan' was observed in the middle stages of fruit development, which correlates with the well documented accumulation pattern of lycopene in red grapefruit. Together with previous data, our results suggest that the primary mechanism controlling lycopene accumulation in red grapefruit involves the transcriptional upregulation of CpPSY, which controls the flux into the carotenoid pathway, and the downregulated expression of CpLCYB2, which controls the step of cyclization of lycopene in chromoplasts during fruit ripening. A correlation between CpPSY expression and fruit color evolution in red grapefruit is demonstrated. PMID:21594623

Costa, Marcio G C; Moreira, Cristina D; Melton, John R; Otoni, Wagner C; Moore, Gloria A

2012-02-01

423

Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23. PMID:23653624

Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus; Fagoaga, Carmen; Lopez, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Pena, Leandro

2013-01-01

424

The Citrus ABA signalosome: identification and transcriptional regulation during sweet orange fruit ripening and leaf dehydration  

PubMed Central

The abscisic acid (ABA) signalling core in plants include the cytosolic ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCARs), the clade-A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs), and the subclass III SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). The aim of this work was to identify these ABA perception system components in sweet orange and to determine the influence of endogenous ABA on their transcriptional regulation during fruit development and ripening, taking advantage of the comparative analysis between a wild-type and a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant. Transcriptional changes in the ABA signalosome during leaf dehydration were also studied. Six PYR/PYL/RCAR, five PP2CA, and two subclass III SnRK2 genes, homologous to those of Arabidopsis, were identified in the Citrus genome. The high degree of homology and conserved motifs for protein folding and for functional activity suggested that these Citrus proteins are bona fide core elements of ABA perception in orange. Opposite expression patterns of CsPYL4 and CsPYL5 and ABA accumulation were found during ripening, although there were few differences between varieties. In contrast, changes in expression of CsPP2CA genes during ripening paralleled those of ABA content and agreeed with the relevant differences between wild-type and mutant fruit transcript accumulation. CsSnRK2 gene expression continuously decreased with ripening and no remarkable differences were found between cultivars. Overall, dehydration had a minor effect on CsPYR/PYL/RCAR and CsSnRK2 expression in vegetative tissue, whereas CsABI1, CsAHG1, and CsAHG3 were highly induced by water stress. The global results suggest that responsiveness to ABA changes during citrus fruit ripening, and leaf dehydration was higher in the CsPP2CA gene negative regulators than in the other ABA signalosome components. PMID:22888124

Rodrigo, Maria J.

2012-01-01

425

A simple chromosomal marker can reliably distinguishes Poncirus from Citrus species.  

PubMed

Several chromosome types have been recognized in Citrus and related genera by chromomycin A(3 )(CMA) banding patterns and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). They can be used to characterize cultivars and species or as markers in hybridization and backcrossing experiments. In the present work, characterization of six cultivars of P. trifoliata ("Barnes", "Fawcett", "Flying Dragon", "Pomeroy", "Rubidoux", "USDA") and one P. trifoliata x C. limonia hybrid was performed by sequential analyses of CMA banding and FISH using 5S and 45S rDNA as probes. All six cultivars showed a similar CMA(+) banding pattern with the karyotype formula 4B + 8D + 6F. The capital letters indicate chromosomal types: B, a chromosome with one telomeric and one proximal band; D, with only one telomeric band; F, without bands. In situ hybridization labeling was also similar among cultivars. Three chromosome pairs displayed a closely linked set of 5S and 45S rDNA sites, two of them co-located with the proximal band of the B type chromosomes (B/5S-45S) and the third one co-located with the terminal band of a D pair (D/5S-45S). The B/5S-45S chromosome has never been found in any citrus accessions investigated so far. Therefore, this B chromosome can be used as a marker to recognize the intergeneric Poncirus x Citrus hybrids. The intergeneric hybrid analyzed here displayed the karyotype formula 4B + 8D + 6F, with two chromosome types B/5S-45S and two D/5S-45S. The karyotype formula and the presence of two B/5S-45S chromosomes clearly indicate that the plant investigated is a symmetric hybrid. It also demonstrates the suitability of karyotype analyses to differentiate zygotic embryos or somatic cell fusions involving trifoliate orange germplasm. PMID:16897447

Brasileiro-Vidal, A C; Dos Santos-Serejo, J A; Soares Filho, W Dos S; Guerra, M

2007-03-01

426

Multilocus Variable-Number-Tandem-Repeats Analysis (MLVA) distinguishes a clonal complex of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains isolated from recent outbreaks of bacterial wilt and canker in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) causes bacterial wilt and canker in tomato. Cmm is present nearly in all European countries. During the last three years several local outbreaks were detected in Belgium. The lack of a convenient high-resolution strain-typing method has hampered the study of the routes of transmission of Cmm and epidemiology in tomato cultivation. In this study the genetic relatedness among a worldwide collection of Cmm strains and their relatives was approached by gyrB and dnaA gene sequencing. Further, we developed and applied a multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) scheme to discriminate among Cmm strains. Results A phylogenetic analysis of gyrB and dnaA gene sequences of 56 Cmm strains demonstrated that Belgian Cmm strains from recent outbreaks of 2010–2012 form a genetically uniform group within the Cmm clade, and Cmm is phylogenetically distinct from other Clavibacter subspecies and from non-pathogenic Clavibacter-like strains. MLVA conducted with eight minisatellite loci detected 25 haplotypes within Cmm. All strains from Belgian outbreaks, isolated between 2010 and 2012, together with two French strains from 2010 seem to form one monomorphic group. Regardless of the isolation year, location or tomato cultivar, Belgian strains from recent outbreaks belonged to the same haplotype. On the contrary, strains from diverse geographical locations or isolated over longer periods of time formed mostly singletons. Conclusions We hypothesise that the introduction might have originated from one lot of seeds or contaminated tomato seedlings that was the source of the outbreak in 2010 and that these Cmm strains persisted and induced infection in 2011 and 2012. Our results demonstrate that MLVA is a promising typing technique for a local surveillance and outbreaks investigation in epidemiological studies of Cmm. PMID:23738754

2013-01-01

427

An unusual Group 2 LEA gene family in citrus responsive to low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six cDNAs representing unique cold-induced sequences have been cloned from the hardy citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata. Among these, pBCORc115 and pBCORc119 were found to belong to the same gene family. Sequencing data indicated that pBCORc115 and pBCORc119 each contained an open reading frame, coding for a 19.8 kDa protein (COR19) and a smaller 11.4 kDa protein (COR11) respectively. Inspection of

Qinyin Cai; Gloria A. Moore; Charles L. Guy

1995-01-01

428

Simultaneous Purification of Limonin, Nomilin and Isoobacunoic Acid from Pomelo Fruit (Citrus grandis) Segment Membrane.  

PubMed

A method was established for purification of limonin, nomilin, and isoobacunoic acid simultaneously from segment membranes of pomelo (Citrus Grandis). This method includes 3 steps, removing most impurities by macroporous resin HZ-816, isolating limonin by High Speed Counter Current Chromatography (HSCCC), and isolating nomilin and isoobacunoic acid by semi-preparative HPLC. Naringin was partially purified as a by-product of this process using Sephadex LH-20. All limonoids purified through this method reached 95% purity. The purified limonin, nomilin and isoobacunoic acid were identified according to the retention time of the standard substances using HPLC and characteristic fragment ions of LC-MS/MS. PMID:25212475

Xiang, Yu; Cao, Jinping; Luo, Fenglei; Wang, Dengliang; Chen, Wei; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2014-10-01

429

Effect of Citrus Juice and SLCO2B1 Genotype on the Pharmacokinetics of Montelukast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously the authors found that a common polymorphism, rs12422149 (SLCO2B1{NM_007256.2}:c.935G>A), in the gene coding for OATP2B1, was associated with absorption of and response to montelukast in humans. In vitro studies showed that citrus juice could reduce the permeability of montelukast consistent with known inhibition of organic anion-transporting polypeptides. To study the clinical significance of c.935G>A, the authors conducted a single-dose,

E. B. Mougey; J. E. Lang; X. Wen; J. J. Lima

2011-01-01

430

New 4?-substituted flavones from the fruit peels of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new 4?-substituted flavones isolated from the fruit peels of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceae) have been characterized as 4?-(9?-ethylene-16?-methylnon-9?,15?-dien-7?,11?-oate)-5,7-dimethoxyflavone (limonflavonyl lactone A, 1) and 4?-(9?-ethylene-16?-methylnon-9?,15?-dien-7?,11?-oate)-5,7,3?-trimethoxyflavone (limonflavonyl lactone B, 2) on the basis of spectral data and chemical analyses. Both the flavones are reported for the first time from a plant source.

Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Shahid Hussain Ansari; Priyanka Bagri

2008-01-01

431

The genetic diversity of Citrus dwarfing viroid populations is mainly dependent on the infected host species.  

PubMed

As with viruses, viroids infect their hosts as polymorphic populations of variants. Identifying possible sources of genetic variability is significant in the case of the species Citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd) which has been proposed as a dwarfing agent for high-density citrus plantings. Here, a natural CDVd isolate (CMC) was used as an inoculum source for long-term (25 years) and short-term (1 year) bioassays in different citrus host species. Characterization of progenies indicated that the genetic stability of CDVd populations was high in certain hosts (trifoliate orange, Troyer citrange, Etrog citron, Navelina sweet orange), which preserve viroid populations similar to the original CMC isolate even after 25 years. By contrast, CDVd variant populations in Interdonato lemon and Volkamer lemon were completely different to those in the inoculated sources, highlighting how influential the host is on the genetic variability of CDVd populations. Implications for risk assessment of CDVd as a dwarfing agent are discussed. The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the complete sequences of the Citrus dwarfing viroid variants are JF970266.1 forH2-2, JF970267.1 for H2-7, EU938647.1 for H6-2, EU938651.1 forH6-10, JF970268.1 for H10-7, EU938652.1 for H14-13, EU938653.1for H14-14, JF970269.1 for H14-16, EU938648.1 for H15-9,EU938649.1 for H16-2, JF970265.1 for H16-9, EU938654.1 forH16-13, EU938650.1 for H20-3, JF970270.1 for H20-7, EU938641.1for PR-1, EU938642.1 for PR-3, EU938643.1 for PR-7, EU938644.1for CR-1, EU938639.1 for VR-4, JF12070.1 for VR-15, JF812069.1LS-4, EU938640.1 for LS-10 and JF970264.1 for LS-11. PMID:23152366

Tessitori, Matilde; Rizza, Serena; Reina, Antonella; Causarano, Giovanni; Di Serio, Francesco

2013-03-01

432

7 Diseases of Pacific Madrone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is host to a variety of patho- genic fungi. At least 21 species are identified. Isolation and identification of these fungi is done from symptoms on the tree and by culturing the fungi in the lab. Many are foliar pathogens that are not a serious threat to the tree's health. In recent years several canker fungi

Marianne Elliott

433

Genotoxicity assessment of water extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, Morinda lucida and Citrus medica using the Allium cepa assay (Evaluación de la genotoxicidad de extractos acuosos de Ocimum gratissimum, Morinda lucida y Citrus medica mediante el ensayo de Allium cepa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal preparations may be with a single or combination of herbs. With continuous and uncontrolled use of medicinal plants, there may be sufficient exposure to permit the expression of genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxicity of water extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) alone, and in combination with Morinda lucida (Benth.); and combination of Morinda lucida extract and Citrus medica (Linn.)

Bernice M. OYEDARE; Adekunle A. BAKARE; Akeem AKINBORO

434

A Novel Two-Component Response Regulator Links rpf with Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

PubMed Central

Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a serious disease that impacts citrus production worldwide, and X. axonopodis pv. citri is listed as a quarantine pest in certain countries. Biofilm formation is important for the successful development of a pathogenic relationship between various bacteria and their host(s). To understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri strain XW19, the strain was subjected to transposon mutagenesis. One mutant with a mutation in a two-component response regulator gene that was deficient in biofilm formation on a polystyrene microplate was selected for further study. The protein was designated as BfdR for biofilm formation defective regulator. BfdR from strain XW19 shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with XAC1284 of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 and 30–100% identity with two-component response regulators in various pathogens and environmental microorganisms. The bfdR mutant strain exhibited significantly decreased biofilm formation on the leaf surfaces of Mexican lime compared with the wild type strain. The bfdR mutant was also compromised in its ability to cause canker lesions. The wild-type phenotype was restored by providing pbfdR in trans in the bfdR mutant. Our data indicated that BfdR did not regulate the production of virulence-related extracellular enzymes including amylase, lipase, protease, and lecithinase or the expression of hrpG, rfbC, and katE; however, BfdR controlled the expression of rpfF in XVM2 medium, which mimics cytoplasmic fluids in planta. In conclusion, biofilm formation on leaf surfaces of citrus is important for canker development in X. axonopodis pv. citri XW19. The process is controlled by the two-component response regulator BfdR via regulation