Sample records for citrus canker disease

  1. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  2. REPEATABILITY AND COMPARISION OF IMAGE ANALYSIS AND VISUAL ASSESSMENT FOR DISEASE ASSESSMENT OF CITRUS CANKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, a disease of several citrus species, is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac). The disease is of concern in several wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions as infection results in yield loss and severely blemished fruit unsuitable for the f...

  3. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hu; J. Zhang; H. Jia; D. Sosso; T. Li; W. B. Frommer; B. Yang; F. F. White; N. Wang; J. B. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector

  4. CITRUS CANKER: PLANT PATHOLOGY VERSUS PUBLIC POLICY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing international travel and trade has resulted in an unprecedented number of plant pathogen introductions, including Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, (Xac), the bacterium that causes citrus canker. The disease affects commercial and dooryard citrus, and has far-reaching politi...

  5. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B.; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F.; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccAw, induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

  6. Automating the assessment of citrus canker symptoms with image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (CC, caused by Xanthomonas citri) is a serious disease of citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing regions. Severity of symptoms can be estimated by visual rating, but there is inter- and intra-rater variation. Automated image analysis (IA) may offer a way of reducing some of ...

  7. Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA“s” and PthC“s” of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Results Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA“s” and PthC“s” in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. Conclusions The identification of PthA“s” and PthC“s” targets, such as the LOB (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding of the canker symptoms development during host susceptibility, or the defenses of sweet orange against the canker bacteria. We have narrowed down candidate targets to a few, which pointed out the host metabolic pathways explored by the pathogens. PMID:24564253

  8. Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site, currently featured on the home page of the American Phytopathological Society, contains a research report regarding the Asiatic citrus canker that has had devastating effects on Florida's citrus industry. The report, in a journal article format, thoroughly relates the natural history and current status of the disease, as well as detailing the methods and results of the (primarily genetic) experiments conducted in this study. One of the most appealing features of this Web site is the quality of the photos within the report. These photos can be viewed separately from the report in a slide show. While navigating this site is relatively straightforward, the lack of a table of contents can make finding your place in the body of the text somewhat confusing.

  9. Developing Transgenic Citrus for Resistance to Huanglongbing and Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) are serious threats to citrus production, and resistant transgenic citrus is desirable. Genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with diverse promoters have been used to generate thousands of rootstock and scion transformants. D35S::D4E1 transfor...

  10. Automated image analysis of the severity of foliar citrus canker symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease, reducing yield, and rendering fruit unfit for fresh sale. Accurate assessment of citrus canker severity and other diseases is needed for several purposes, including monitoring epidemics and evaluation of germplasm. ...

  11. The distribution and spread of citrus canker in Emerald, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Gambley; A. K. Miles; M. Ramsden; V. Doogan; J. E. Thomas; K. Parmenter; P. J. L. Whittle

    2009-01-01

    Citrus canker is a disease of citrus and closely related species, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This disease, previously exotic to Australia, was detected on a single farm [infested premise-1, (IP1). IP is the terminology\\u000a used in official biosecurity protocols to describe a locality at which an exotic plant pest has been confirmed or is presumed\\u000a to

  12. Comparison of Assessment of Citrus Canker Foliar Symptoms by Experienced and Inexperienced Raters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is destructive in many citrus production regions in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Assessment of canker symptoms is required for diverse reasons, including monitoring epidemics, evaluating the efficacy of control strategies, and disease re...

  13. Detecting citrus canker by hyperspectral reflectance imaging and PCA-based image classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Burks, Thomas F.; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Ritenour, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten citrus crops. Technologies that can efficiently identify citrus canker would assure fruit quality and safety and enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus industry. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker lesions on citrus fruit. A portable hyperspectral imaging system consisting of an automatic sample handling unit, a light source, and a hyperspectral imaging unit was developed for citrus canker detection. The imaging system was used to acquire reflectance images from citrus samples in the wavelength range between 400 nm and 900 nm. Ruby Red grapefruits with normal and various diseased skin conditions including canker, copper burn, greasy spot, wind scar, cake melanose, and specular melanose were tested. Hyperspectral reflectance images were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to compress the 3-D hyperspectral image data and extract useful image features that could be used to discriminate cankerous samples from normal and other diseased samples. Image processing and classification algorithms were developed based upon the transformed images of PCA. The overall accuracy for canker detection was 92.7%. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used for discriminating citrus canker from other confounding diseases.

  14. Developing and implementing mating disruption for area-wide control of citrus leafminer and citrus canker disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful development and commercial launch of the first semiochemical-based control method for a major exotic insect pest and associated disease of citrus in Florida have resulted from vigorous collaboration between university and government researchers with support from private industry and innov...

  15. Incidence and severity of Asiatic citrus canker on citrus and citrus–related germplasm in a Florida field planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Hasse), is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC), a commercially important disease in Florida citrus, as well as in many other regions. In this study we evaluated occurrence of foliar lesions from ACC on progenies of 94 seed-source genotypes (hereafter called ...

  16. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; R. H. Brlansky

    2009-01-01

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus worldwide are present in Florida. Citrus diseases of economic importance that are currently present in Florida include tristeza, blight, greasy spot, Alternaria brown spot, Phytophthora-induced diseases, melanose, scab, citrus canker, and

  17. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; R. H. Brlansky

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus are present in Florida. Major citrus diseases currently present in Florida include tristeza, blight, greasy spot, Alternaria brown spot, Phytophthora-induced diseases, melanose, scab, canker, and postbloom fruit drop (PFD). There are

  18. IMAGE ANALYSIS VERSUS VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF CITRUS CANKER SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker. Disease assessment is important for monitoring epidemics. Visual assessment (VA) is presently the only reliable means of detection. To investigate how VA of symptoms compared to image analysis we used digital images of 214 citrus le...

  19. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND WORLDWIDE PROLIFERATION OF CITRUS BACTERIAL CANKER PATHOGENS IDENTIFIED IN HISTORIC SPECIMENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) may have originated in Southeast Asia, based on symptoms present on early herbarium specimens. The disease was first introduced into the United States in 1911 and has spread to most citrus producing areas in the world. Th...

  20. THE EFFECT OF HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS ON LONG DISTANCE SPREAD OF CITRUS CANKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) is a serious disease of citrus that causes foliar and fruit lesions leading to extensive yield and quality losses. During Fall 2004, Florida experienced 3 hurricanes (Charlie, Francis, Jeanne) and one tropical storm (Ivan) whose paths crossed the majority of the commercia...

  1. LONG DISTANCE SPREAD OF CITRUS CANKER RELATED TO HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) is a serious disease of citrus that causes foliar and fruit lesions leading to extensive yield and quality losses. During Fall 2004, Florida experienced 3 hurricanes (Charlie, Francis, Jeanne) and one tropical storm (Ivan) whose paths crossed the majority of the commercia...

  2. Managing citrus canker for the fresh fruit industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of citrus canker in Florida changed the way the $400 million dollar industry grows, packs ships and stores fruit. Canker regulations have become less strict, but there is still a requirement for compliance for growers and packers to move fruit from Florida to other areas. The comp...

  3. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Citrus Tristeza Virus Stem Pitting (CTV-SP)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; R. H. Brlansky

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus are present in Florida. Major citrus diseases currently present in Florida include: Alternaria brown spot, blight, citrus canker, greasy spot, melanose, Phytophthora-induced diseases (foot and root rot, brown rot), postbloom fruit

  4. Activity of citrus canker lesions on leaves, shoots and fruit of grapefruit in a Florida orchard from June 2010 to January 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesions of citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), on citrus fruit preclude export to certain markets. Characterizing the population dynamics of bacteria in canker lesions in commercial orchards can help gauge risk associated with diseased fruit entering fresh markets. The aim...

  5. Effect of the duration of inoculum exposure on development of citrus canker symptoms on seedlings of Swingle citrumelo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is one of the most serious diseases citrus in Florida, and elsewhere in the world. The disease causes yield loss and some fresh fruit trade restrictions may apply. Cultural management techniques such as windbreaks may work by not only reducing wind...

  6. Genetic diversity of citrus bacterial canker pathogens preserved in herbarium specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described str...

  7. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Black Spot1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; N. A. Peres; L. W. Timmer

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus are present in Florida. Major citrus diseases currently present in Florida include tristeza, blight, greasy spot, Alternaria brown spot, Phytophthora-induced diseases, melanose, scab, postbloom fruit drop (PFD), and citrus canker. An

  8. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Sweet Orange Scab (SOS)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; L. W. Timmer

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by a wide range of plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens that attack citrus worldwide are present in Florida. Citrus diseases of economic importance currently in Florida include: Alternaria brown spot, blight, citrus canker, greening, greasy spot, melanose, Phytophthora-induced diseases

  9. QCM immunoassay for recombinant cysteine peptidase: a potential protein biomarker for diagnosis of citrus canker.

    PubMed

    Afonso, André S; Zanetti, Bianca F; Santiago, Adelita C; Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Faria, Ronaldo C

    2013-01-30

    Citrus canker is one of the most important agricultural citrus diseases worldwide. It is caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) bacterium that infects leaves and the fruits produce a cysteine peptidase (CPXaC), which makes it a potential target for the development of effective and rapid detection methods for citrus canker. We report here the studies on the development of piezoelectric immunoassay for CPXaC using a polyclonal antibody against CPXaC (anti-CPXaC). Three different strategies for covalent immobilization of anti-CPXaC on gold surfaces were evaluated by monitoring the frequency (?f) and energy dissipation (?D) variation in real time when 64.5×10(-8) mol L(-1) CPXaC was added. Anti-CPXaC immobilized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) showed the best relation between the frequency and dissipation factor variation, and strong values for the kinetic and equilibrium binding constant were obtained. The immunosensor showed a detection limit of 13.0 nmol L(-1) with excellent specificity, showing no response for different proteins that include another cysteine peptidase that is used as a target to detect Xylella fastidiosa bacterium, responsible for another important citrus disease. These results provide good perspectives for the use of CPXaC as a new biomarker for citrus canker. PMID:23597909

  10. The filamentous phage XacF1 causes loss of virulence in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, filamentous phage XacF1, which can infect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) strains, was isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that XacF1 is a member of the family Inoviridae and is about 600 nm long. The genome of XacF1 is 7325 nucleotides in size, containing 13 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), some of which showed significant homology to Ff-like phage proteins such as ORF1 (pII), ORF2 (pV), ORF6 (pIII), and ORF8 (pVI). XacF1 showed a relatively wide host range, infecting seven out of 11 strains tested in this study. Frequently, XacF1 was found to be integrated into the genome of Xac strains. This integration occurred at the host dif site (attB) and was mediated by the host XerC/D recombination system. The attP sequence was identical to that of Xanthomonas phage Cf1c. Interestingly, infection by XacF1 phage caused several physiological changes to the bacterial host cells, including lower levels of extracellular polysaccharide production, reduced motility, slower growth rate, and a dramatic reduction in virulence. In particular, the reduction in virulence suggested possible utilization of XacF1 as a biological control agent against citrus canker disease. PMID:25071734

  11. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Witches' Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; I. A. Khan; R. H. Brlansky

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus are present in Florida. Major citrus diseases currently present in Florida include: Alternaria brown spot, blight, citrus canker, greasy spot, melanose, Phytophthora-induced diseases (foot and root rot, brown rot), postbloom fruit

  12. Status of Citrus Canker Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis PV. CITRI in Peninsular Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ESHETU DERSO; KAMARUZAMAN SIJAM; ZAINAL ABIDIN; MIOR AHMAD; IBRAHIM OMAR

    Study on citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was undertaken in Peninsular Malaysia. The disease occurred in eight states, where incidence of 36.5% and severity of 15.2% was observed on leaves, while incidence of 18.7% and severity of 7.5% was observed on fruits. Field host range included Mexican lime (C. aurantifolia), pomelo (C. grandis) and kaffier lime (C.

  13. First report of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri in Somalia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri, causal agent of citrus canker, has been reported in several countries in Africa, but not Somalia. During 2006 and 2007, hyperplasia-type lesions, often surrounded by a water-soaked margin and yellow halo, typical of citrus canker caused by X. citri, were found on 8-10 year-old gr...

  14. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates occurrence of citrus canker in susceptible navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-08-15

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is a devastating bacterial disease threatening the citrus industry. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense response to biotic stress, but information is scarce concerning the application of SA to enhancing Xac resistance. In the present research attempts were made to investigate how exogenous application of SA influenced canker disease outbreak in navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Exogenously applied SA at 0.25 mM significantly enhanced the endogenous free and bound SA, particularly the latter. Upon exposure to Xac, lower disease incidence rate and smaller lesion sites were observed in the samples pre-treated with SA, accompanied by repression of bacterial growth at the lesion sites. Concurrent with the augmented disease resistance, SA-treated leaves had higher H?O? level and smaller stomata apertures before or after Xac infection when compared with their counterparts pre-treated with water (control). SA treatment elevated the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and ?-1,3-glucanase, but only the latter was higher in the SA-treated samples after Xac infection. In addition, mRNA levels of two pathogenesis-related genes, CsCHI and CsPR4A, were higher in the SA-treated samples relative to the control. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the exogenously applied SA has evoked a cascade of physiological and molecular events that function singly or in concert to confer resistance to Xac invasion. PMID:22658220

  15. Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6?h and up to 72?h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120?h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes. Pretreatment with Xflg22 prior to Xcc inoculation inhibited bacterial growth in kumquat, but not in grapefruit. A flagellin-deficient Xcc strain (Xcc?fliC) showed greater growth increase relative to wild-type Xcc in kumquat than in grapefruit. Taken together, our results indicate that Xflg22 initiates strong PTI in canker-resistant genotypes, but not in susceptible ones, and that a robust induction of PTI is an important component of citrus resistance to canker. PMID:25231217

  16. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...plant disease that is caused by a complex of Xanthomonas spp. bacteria and that affects plants and plant parts of citrus and citrus...the protocol document are adhered to, there should be no bacterium within the nursery or compartment. In that same section...

  17. A survey of survival and activity of citrus canker lesion populations on foliage, fruit and shoots in a Florida grapefruit orchard in 2009 and 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc)) can infect several species of citrus. The disease can develop on the leaves, shoots and fruit, causing erumpent lesions, that on fruit precludes sale to the fresh market. We assessed lesion activity in orchard-grown grapefruit to provide informa...

  18. Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. Results We have sequenced the genomes of strains B and C to draft status. We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. In addition to pthA, already known to be present in all three citrus canker strains, two additional effector genes, xopE3 and xopAI, are also present in all three strains and are both located on the same putative genomic island. These two effector genes, along with one other effector-like gene in the same region, are thus good candidates for being pathogenicity factors on citrus. Numerous gene content differences also exist between the three cankers strains, which can be correlated with their different virulence and host range. Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. Conclusion We have uncovered numerous commonalities and differences in gene content between the genomes of the pathogenic agents causing citrus canker A, B, and C and other Xanthomonas genomes. Molecular genetics can now be employed to determine the role of these genes in plant-microbe interactions. The gained knowledge will be instrumental for improving citrus canker control. PMID:20388224

  19. Update on packing line protocols for citrus canker and their effects on bacterial survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Markets for Florida citrus are severely restricted by regulations in place to minimize the spread of citrus canker to citrus producing areas. Included in these regulations are accepted protocols for sanitation and coating of fruit. However, these measures do not eradicate all the living bacterial ce...

  20. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Phaeoramularia Fruit and Leaf Spot (PFLS)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; L. W. Timmer

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus are present in Florida. Citrus diseases present in Florida include: Alternaria brown spot, blight, canker, greasy spot, greening (Huanglongbing), melanose, Phytophthora-induced diseases (foot and root rot, brown rot), postbloom fruit drop

  1. Wind speed effects on the quantity of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri dispersed downwind from canopies of grapefruit trees infected with citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemic of citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) in Florida continues to expand since termination of the eradication program in 2006. Storms are known to be associated with disease spread, but little information exists on the interaction of fundamental physical and biological proc...

  2. [Loquat canker: a new disease for Argentina].

    PubMed

    Alippi, A M; Alippi, H E

    1990-01-01

    A stem canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae (Takimoto) Young, Dye y Wilkie on loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica [Thumb] Lindl) was recorded for the first time in Argentina. Symptoms of the disease appeared as dry stem cankers which in advanced stages surrounded the stems. Similar cankers were noticeable on leaves midribs. Seven bacterial strains were isolated from diseased loquats and their identification was based on disease symptoms, pathogenicity and cultural and biochemical characteristics. All strains were levan positive and gave a hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves. Neither arginine dehydrolase nor oxidase was detected in any of the strains which produced a diffusible green pigment on King B which fluoresced under UV light and a distinct diffusible brown pigment on King B, SPA and Tween 80 media within 5-7 days of incubation. Lipolysis of Tween 80 was also recorded. The symptoms observed in the field and obtained by experimental inoculations were similar to those induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae in the original description of the disease. PMID:2102015

  3. Citrus MAF1, a Repressor of RNA Polymerase III, Binds the Xanthomonas citri Canker Elicitor PthA4 and Suppresses Citrus Canker Development1

    PubMed Central

    Soprano, Adriana Santos; Abe, Valeria Yukari; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas species pathogens act as transcription factors in plant cells; however, how TAL effectors activate host transcription is unknown. We found previously that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, known as PthAs, bind the carboxyl-terminal domain of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibit the activity of CsCYP, a cyclophilin associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the citrus RNA Pol II that functions as a negative regulator of cell growth. Here, we show that PthA4 specifically interacted with the sweet orange MAF1 (CsMAF1) protein, an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) repressor that controls ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human. CsMAF1 bound the human RNA Pol III and rescued the yeast maf1 mutant by repressing tRNAHis transcription. The expression of PthA4 in the maf1 mutant slightly restored tRNAHis synthesis, indicating that PthA4 counteracts CsMAF1 activity. In addition, we show that sweet orange RNA interference plants with reduced CsMAF1 levels displayed a dramatic increase in tRNA transcription and a marked phenotype of cell proliferation during canker formation. Conversely, CsMAF1 overexpression was detrimental to seedling growth, inhibited tRNA synthesis, and attenuated canker development. Furthermore, we found that PthA4 is required to elicit cankers in sweet orange leaves and that depletion of CsMAF1 in X. citri-infected tissues correlates with the development of hyperplastic lesions and the presence of PthA4. Considering that CsMAF1 and CsCYP function as canker suppressors in sweet orange, our data indicate that TAL effectors from X. citri target negative regulators of RNA Pol II and Pol III to coordinately increase the transcription of host genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:23898043

  4. PROSPECTS FOR CONTROL OF CITRUS CANKER WITH NOVEL CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials conducted in Brazil demonstrate that copper formulations (copper hydroxide, CH; copper oxychloride, COC) even at reduced rates are consistently effective for control of canker on moderately susceptible orange varieties. Contact activity to replace and/or reduce copper could minimize po...

  5. Processes involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infectd citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida, and elsewhere where the pathogen occurs, and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms wit...

  6. Bayesian Analysis for Inference of an Emerging Epidemic: Citrus Canker in Urban Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Franco M.; Cook, Alex R.; Gibson, Gavin J.; Gottwald, Tim R.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases require a rapid response from policy makers. The choice of an adequate level of response relies upon available knowledge of the spatial and temporal parameters governing pathogen spread, affecting, amongst others, the predicted severity of the epidemic. Yet, when a new pathogen is introduced into an alien environment, such information is often lacking or of no use, and epidemiological parameters must be estimated from the first observations of the epidemic. This poses a challenge to epidemiologists: how quickly can the parameters of an emerging disease be estimated? How soon can the future progress of the epidemic be reliably predicted? We investigate these issues using a unique, spatially and temporally resolved dataset for the invasion of a plant disease, Asiatic citrus canker in urban Miami. We use epidemiological models, Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo, and advanced spatial statistical methods to analyse rates and extent of spread of the disease. A rich and complex epidemic behaviour is revealed. The spatial scale of spread is approximately constant over time and can be estimated rapidly with great precision (although the evidence for long-range transmission is inconclusive). In contrast, the rate of infection is characterised by strong monthly fluctuations that we associate with extreme weather events. Uninformed predictions from the early stages of the epidemic, assuming complete ignorance of the future environmental drivers, fail because of the unpredictable variability of the infection rate. Conversely, predictions improve dramatically if we assume prior knowledge of either the main environmental trend, or the main environmental events. A contrast emerges between the high detail attained by modelling in the spatiotemporal description of the epidemic and the bottleneck imposed on epidemic prediction by the limits of meteorological predictability. We argue that identifying such bottlenecks will be a fundamental step in future modelling of weather-driven epidemics. PMID:24762851

  7. Dooryard Citrus Production: Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Spann; Ryan A. Atwood; Jamie D. Yates; Ronald H. Brlansky; Kuang-Ren Chung

    2010-01-01

    Florida is world famous for its citrus production, and many homeowners in Florida enjoy growing citrus in their yards. Unfortunately, citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens, and losses due to plant diseases can be severe. Major citrus diseases that are present in Florida include citrus tristeza virus (CTV), blight, greasy spot, Alternaria brown

  8. Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

    2015-03-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria. PMID:25403594

  9. Under severe HLB and citrus canker pressure, 'Triumph' and 'Jackson' perform better than 'Flame' and 'Marsh' grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Canker (CC) threaten the viability of Florida grapefruit production. ‘Triumph’ (T), reportedly a grapefruit/sweet orange hybrid, is similar to seedy white grapefruit with earlier maturity and lower bitterness. ‘Jackson’ (J) is a low-seeded budsport of ‘Triumph’. Tree h...

  10. Under severe citrus canker and HLB (Huanglongbing) pressure, Triumph and Jackson perform better than Flame and Marsh grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Canker (CC) threaten the viability of Florida grapefruit production. Triumph (T), reportedly a grapefruit/sweet orange hybrid, is similar to seedy white grapefruit with earlier maturity and lower bitterness. Jackson (J) is a low-seeded budsport of Triumph. Tree health ...

  11. Pruning for prevention and management of canker diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trunk diseases (wood-canker diseases) threaten all California vineyards due to widespread distribution of the fungal pathogens. The infections are chronic and occur each year. Trunk diseases in mature vineyards reduce yields and increase management costs to the point where the vineyard is no longer ...

  12. Detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belasque, J., Jr.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Marcassa, L. G.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants (Citrus limonia [L.] Osbeck) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to its economic importance we have chosen to investigate the citrus canker disease, which is caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. Mechanical stress was also studied because it plays an important role in the plant's infection by such bacteria. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system, composed of a spectrometer and a 532 nm10 mW excitation laser was used to perform fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio of two chlorophyll fluorescence bands allows us to detect and discriminate between mechanical and disease stresses. This ability to discriminate may have an important application in the field to detect citrus canker infected trees.

  13. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus canker diseases in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus canker diseases in Colombia By C. A. Rodas1,3 , B, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa; 3 Smurfit Carto´n de Colombia, Investigacio´n Forestal, Carrera 3 No. 10-36, Cali, Valle, Colombia. 4 E-mail: bernard.slippers@fabi.up.ac.za (for correspondence) Summary

  14. The LOV Protein of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Plays a Significant Role in the Counteraction of Plant Immune Responses during Citrus Canker

    PubMed Central

    Kraiselburd, Ivana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Tondo, María Laura; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A.; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Orellano, Elena G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates) was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development. PMID:24260514

  15. Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797

  16. SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER INFECTED PLANTINGS IN SAO PAULO BRAZIL AND IMPLICATION OF THE ASIAN LEAFMINER ON POTENTIAL DISPERSAL PROCESSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eradication of Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida. This prompted epidemiological studies in both countries that resulted in changes in the eradication protocols. The objective ...

  17. ESTIMATING THE INCREASE AND SPREAD OF CITRUS CANKER CAUSED BY THE INTERACTION OF PEDESTRIAN VERSUS CATASTROPHIC WEATHER EVENTS, HUMANS, AND BAD LUCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), that causes Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC) can move in any of a variety of modes in the presence of free moisture. From a meteorological point of view, gentle rain, rain with wind, rain storms, tropical storms, and hurricanes can all disperse Xac i...

  18. Citrus stubborn disease (CSD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CSD is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, cell-wall-less bacterium. S. citri is transmitted in a propagative, circulative manner by several leafhoppers including Circulifer tenellus and Scaphytopius nitridus in citrus-growing regions of California and Arizona and by C. haematoceps (syn....

  19. Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrián Alberto Vojnov; Alexandre Morais do Amaral; John Maxwell Dow; Atilio Pedro Castagnaro; Marìa Rosa Marano

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of\\u000a pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte.\\u000a Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the

  20. Distribution of canker lesions on grapefruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is an important disease of grapefruit in Florida. To establish disease distribution on fruit, six samples of 24 diseased grapefruit were collected from two groves in east Florida. A plane was sliced through ...

  1. Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule for Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut (TCD) will be effective

    E-print Network

    Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut ­ Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule, and recently added Tennessee may not come into Indiana without an inspection at the point of origin by a state before they are to come into Indiana. The primary concern is Tennessee as it is the most likely source

  2. A New Canker Disease of Apple, Pear, and Plum Rootstocks Caused by Diaporthe ambigua in South Africa

    E-print Network

    A New Canker Disease of Apple, Pear, and Plum Rootstocks Caused by Diaporthe ambigua in South., Wingfield. B. D.. Wingfield. M. 1., and Calitz. F. J. 1996. A new canker disease of apple. pear, and plum was found to be the c:J.useof a newly recognized disease of apple. pear, and plum rootstocks in South Africa

  3. Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease: Field Identification Guide

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    fungal cankers form, coalesce, and girdle branches and stems (E). (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) #12;Successful WTB, University of California, Davis, CA Tom W. Coleman, USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, San. Seybold, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, CA Please cite this document as

  4. Predisposition of citrus foliage to infection with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is a serious disease of susceptible citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing areas of the world. The effect of leaf preconditioning as a route for entry of the bacteria is poorly characterized. A series of experiments were designed to i...

  5. Effect of copper hydroxide sprays for citrus canker control on wild type Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were performed in vitro with bacteria grown in broth and then subjected to the same copper hydroxide concentrations as are sprayed on citrus trees in Florida throughout the growing season. Studies were also undertaken with grapefruit leaves and the survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on t...

  6. Different Transcriptional Response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between Kumquat and Sweet Orange with Contrasting Canker Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Gong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future. PMID:22848606

  7. Citrus phytophthora diseases: Management challenges and successes

    E-print Network

    Graham, J.; Feichtenberger, E.

    2015-01-01

    soil conditions such as high pH, calcium iocv_journalcitruspathology_27203 Table 2 Differential susceptibility of the major rootstocks planted in Florida and Brazilsoils. HLB, the most destructive disease of citrus world- wide, was detected in Brazil

  8. Population Structure of Geosmithia morbida, the Causal Agent of Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut Trees in

    E-print Network

    , Steven J. Seybold7 , Ned Tisserat1 1 Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America, 2 USDA Forest Service Hardwood Tree morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease

  9. Spatial pattern analysis of citrus canker-infected plantings in são paulo, Brazil, and augmentation of infection elicited by the asian leafminer.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, T R; Bassanezi, R B; Amorim, L; Bergamin-Filho, A

    2007-06-01

    ABSTRACT Eradication of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade, following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which has led to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the spatial patterns of ACC in commercial citrus plantings to gain better understanding of the dynamics of the disease subsequent to introduction of the leafminer. The spatial patterns of ACC were mapped in 326 commercial citrus plantings and statistically assessed at various spatial dimensions. The presence of "within-group" aggregation in each plot was examined via beta-binomial analysis for groups of trees parsed into three-by-three-tree quadrats. The relative intensity of aggregation was expressed as a binomial index of dispersion (D) and heterogeneity among plots expressed as the intracluster correlation coefficient, rho. The population of data sets was found to fall into three D categories, D < 1.3, 1.3 3.5. These categories then were related to other spatial characteristics. The binary form of Taylor's power law was used to assess the overdispersion of disease across plots and was highly significant. When the overall population of plots was parsed into D categories, the Taylor's R (2) improved in all cases. Although these methods assessed aggregation well, they do not give information on the number of foci or aggregations within each plot. Therefore, the number of foci per 1,000 trees was quantified and found to relate directly to the D categories. The lowest D category could be explained by a linear relationship of number of foci versus disease incidence, whereas the higher two categories were most easily explained by a generalized beta function for the same relationship. Spatial autocorrelation then was used to examine the spatial relationships "among groups" composed of three-by-three-tree quadrats and determine common distances between these groups of ACC-infected trees. Aggregation was found in >84% of cases at this spatial level and there was a direct relationship between increasing D category and increasing core cluster size, and aggregation at the among-group spatial hierarchy was generally stronger for the within-row than for the across-row orientation. Clusters of disease were estimated to average between 18 and 33 tree spaces apart, and the presence of multiple foci of infection was commonplace. The effectiveness of the eradication protocol of removing all "exposed" trees within 30 m surrounding each "ACC-infected tree" was examined, and the distance of subsequent infected trees beyond this 30-m zone from the original focal infected tree was measured for each plot. A frequency distribution was compiled over all plots to describe the distance that would have been needed to circumscribe all of these outliers as a theoretical alternative protocol to the 30-m eradication protocol. The frequency distribution was well described by a monomolecular model (R(2) = 0.98) and used to determine that 90, 95, and 99% of all newly infected trees occurred within 296, 396, and 623 m of prior-infected trees in commercial citrus plantings, respectively. These distances are very similar to previously reported distances determined for ACC in residential settings in Florida. PMID:18943598

  10. Multiple leafminer species attracted to the major pheromone components of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of citrus throughout the world due to leafmining damage that reduces photosynthetic capacity of leaves and increases the incidence and severity of citrus canker disease. A lure comprised of two aldehyde compounds isolated from ph...

  11. Levels of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Xanthomonas citri in diverse citrus genotypes and relevance to potential transmission from pollinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases huanglongbing (HLB, associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, CLas) and Asian citrus canker (ACC, caused by Xanthomonas citri, Xcc) are widespread in Florida and many other citrus-growing areas, presenting unprecedented challenges for citrus breeding. Since HLB and ACC weaken ...

  12. VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF CITRUS IN EPIRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Barbarossa; G. Loconsole; C. Vovlas

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2005 a survey was conducted in the main citrus- growing areas of Epirus. Commercial groves and nurs- eries were inspected for symptoms of virus and virus- like diseases and a total of 123 samples were collected. Molecular hybridisation was used to test for Citrus tris- teza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus in- fectious variegation virus (CVV),

  13. Pest management practices aimed at curtailing citrus huanglongbing disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating, insect-vectored disease of citrus sometimes referred to as citrus greening disease and putatively caused by phloem-limited bacteria within the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Citrus trees infected by this disease decline in productivity; produce misshapen, inedib...

  14. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus stubborn disease, caused by Spiroplasma Citri, has occured in California for more than 90 years, however, detection methods for estimating disease incidence have not been well developed. Two 8 ha plots in Kern Co. CA were established and sampled in July and August, 2006. Different tissues o...

  15. Transgenic Sweet Orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Expressing the attacin A Gene for Resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suane Coutinho Cardoso; Janaynna Magalhães Barbosa-Mendes; Raquel Luciana Boscariol-Camargo; Rock Seille Carlos Christiano; Armando Bergamin Filho; Maria Lúcia Carneiro Vieira; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho

    2010-01-01

    Genetic transformation with genes that code for antimicrobial peptides has been an important strategy used to control bacterial\\u000a diseases in fruit crops, including apples, pears, and citrus. Asian citrus canker (ACC) caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Schaad et al. (Xcc) is a very destructive disease, which affects the citrus industry in most citrus-producing areas of the world. Here, we

  16. Symptom-based diagnosis of Huanglongbing (citrus greening) disease by PCR in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gopal; V. Gopi; L. Kalyani; M. Sreelatha; B. Sreenivasulu

    2010-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), previously known as citrus greening disease, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus and responsible for the decline of citrus orchards in Andhra Pradesh (AP) and other citrus growing areas in the country. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 1160 bp fragment of 16S rDNA of HLB was observed in mottling symptoms, yellow vein symptoms, symptoms

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G Bausher; Nameirakpam D Singh; Seung-Bum Lee; Robert K Jansen; Henry Daniell

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene

  18. Area-wide mating disruption of a major citrus pest using an off-ratio blend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is a global pest of citrus and contributes to the incidence and severity of citrus bacterial canker disease. Results of response surface models generated by mixture-amount experiments suggested that an off-ratio blend consisting of t...

  19. Canker sore

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and minerals in the diet (especially iron, folic acid , or vitamin B-12 ) Hormonal changes Food allergies Anyone can develop a canker sore. Women are more likely to get them than men. Canker sores may run in families.

  20. Canker Sores

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fall Meeting Canker Sores Canker sores (recurrent aphthous stomatitis, RAS) are among the most common of oral ... appear. There are three main forms: Minor Aphthous Stomatitis: this is the form that affects more than ...

  1. Ecoport Slide Shows on the Internet Related to Citrus and Citrus Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EcoPort website was launched in 2000 to provide a knowledge database of biodiversity. As of September 2005, the EcoPort website contained over one half million references, over 42,000 pictures and over 200 slide shows, of which 59 pertain to citrus and citrus virus and virus-like diseases. As ...

  2. Occurrence of bacterial canker in tomato fields of Karnataka and effect of biological seed treatment on disease incidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Umesha

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis was detected during a survey of tomato fields in the state of Karnataka, India. The disease incidence ranged from 25% to 48%. The pathogen was isolated from infected plant material and seeds. The pathogen was also detected in tomato seeds by laboratory assay and its identity was confirmed by biochemical, physiological, hypersensitivity

  3. Research progress for integrated canker management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2013, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  4. Fungal Diseases of Fruit and Foliage of Citrus Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Timmer; S. N. Mondal; N. A. R. Peres; Alka Bhatia

    Several important diseases of the fruit and foliage of citrus trees are addressed in this chapter: Postbloom fruit drop, caused\\u000a by Colletotrichum acutatum; Alternaria brown spot, caused by Alternaria alternata; scab diseases, caused by Elsinoe fawsettii and E. australis; melanose, caused by Diaporthe citri; and greasy spot caused by Mycosphaerella citri. With each disease the history, economic importance, disease cycle,

  5. ESTABLISHMENT OF A DISEASE-FREE CITRUS NURSERY SYSTEM AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CROP HEALTH MANAGEMENT OF CITRUS ORCHARDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha Minh Trung; Le Thi; Thu Hong; Ngo Vinh Vien

    In Vietnam, greening and tristeza are the citrus diseases of high economic importance. Because both diseases are transmitted by planting material insect vectors, the setting up of a pathogen-free nursery system and the practice of integrated pest management are the most important components of citrus disease control in Vietnam. Through successful international cooperation with FFTC, CIRAD, ACIAR, JIRCAS, and other

  6. Comparison of different detection methods for citrus greening disease based on airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease spread in many citrus groves since first found in 2005 in Florida. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were taken to detect citrus greening infected trees in 2007 and 2010. Ground truthi...

  7. CITRUS BLIGHT AND OTHER DISEASES OF RECALCITRANT ETIOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Derrick, K. S.; Timmer, L. W.

    2000-01-01

    Several economically important diseases of unknown or recently determined cause are reviewed. Citrus blight (CB), first described over 100 years ago, was shown in 1984 to be transmitted by root-graft inoculations; the cause remains unknown and is controversial. Based on graft transmission, it is considered to be an infectious agent by some; others suggest that the cause of CB is abiotic. Citrus variegated chlorosis, although probably long present in Argentina, where it was considered to be a variant of CB, was identified as a specific disease and shown to be caused by a strain of Xylella fastidiosa after if reached epidemic levels in Brazil in 1987. Citrus psorosis, described in 1933 as the first virus disease of citrus, is perhaps one of the last to be characterized. In 1988, it was shown to be caused by a very unusual virus. The cause of lettuce big vein appears to be a viruslike agent that is transmitted by a soilborne fungus. Double-stranded RNAs were associated with the disease, suggesting it may be caused by an unidentified RNA virus. Rio Grande gummosis, dry rot root, peach tree short life, and some replant diseases may be diseases of complex etiology. Various microorganisms have been isolated from trees with these diseases, but the diseases may be attributable in part to environmental factors. Determination of the cause of these diseases of complex etiology has proven difficult, in part, because they affect only mature trees. PMID:11701841

  8. Diagnosis and Management of Virus and Virus like Diseases of Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Roistacher

    This chapter covers fifteen virus and virus like diseases of citrus plus thermotherapy, with emphasis on the citrus tristeza\\u000a disease. Included in this chapter are the citrus disease of psorosis, cristacortis, citrus chlorotic dwarf, impietratura,\\u000a satsuma dwarf, vein enation, leprosis, tatter leaf, infectious variegation, exocortis, cachexia, gum pocket, stubborn and\\u000a concave gum. Epidemiology of tristeza is presented in some detail

  9. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    PubMed

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production. PMID:24617532

  10. Citrus stubborn disease incidence determined by quantitative real time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time (q) PCR was developed for detection of Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), using the DNA binding fluorophore SYBR Green I. The primer pair, P58-3f/4r, developed based on sequences from the P58 putative adhesin multigene of the pathogen result...

  11. RNAi-based strategy for Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) Control: A method to reduce the spread of citrus greening disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening disease is a serious bacterial disease of citrus worldwide and is vectored by the Asian citrus pysllid (Diaphorina Citri). The only effective control strategy includes vigorous control of the psyllid, primarily through heavy reliance on pesticides. As a more sustainable and environm...

  12. Genetic variation and recombination of RdRp and HSP 70h genes of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from orange trees showing symptoms of citrus sudden death disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarissa PC Gomes; Tatsuya Nagata; Waldir C de Jesus; Carlos R Borges Neto; Georgios J Pappas Jr; Darren P Martin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). CTV genetic variation was therefore

  13. Effect of Citrus Stubborn Disease on Navel Orange Production in a Commercial Orchard in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), caused by Spiroplasma citri, on citrus is not fully understood or quantified. The objective of this work was to measure the impact of S. citri infection on citrus production and assess bacterial distribution in trees differing in symptom severity. Infecte...

  14. Bacterial brown leaf spot of citrus, a new disease caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new bacterial disease of citrus was recently identified in Florida and named as bacterial brown leaf spot (BBLS) of citrus. BBLS-infected citrus displayed flat, circular and brownish lesions with water-soaked margins surrounded by a chlorotic halo on leaves. Based on Biolog carbon source metabolic...

  15. Efficacy of heat treatment for the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen in small black walnut logs.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, A E; Fraedrich, S W; Taylor, A; Merten, P; Myers, S W

    2014-02-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically valuable tree species in the United States. Effective phytosanitary measures are needed to reduce the possibility of spreading this insect and pathogen through wood movement. This study evaluated the efficacy of heat treatments and debarking to eliminate P. juglandis and C. morbida in J. nigra logs 4-18 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Infested logs were steam heated until various outer sapwood temperatures (60, 65, and 70 degrees C in 2011; 36, 42, 48, 52, and 56 degrees C in 2012) were maintained or exceeded for 30-40 min. In 2011, all heat treatments eliminated G. morbida from the bark, but logs were insufficiently colonized by P. juglandis to draw conclusions about treatment effects on the beetle. Debarking did not ensure elimination of the pathogen from the sapwood surface. In 2012, there was a negative effect of increasing temperature on P. juglandis emergence and G. morbida recovery. G. morbida did not survive in logs exposed to treatments in which minimum temperatures were 48 degrees C or higher, and mean P. juglandis emergence decreased steadily to zero as treatment minimum temperature increased from 36 to 52 degrees C. A minimum outer sapwood temperature of 56 degrees C maintained for 40 min is effective for eliminating the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen from walnut logs, and the current heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer (60 degrees C core temperature for 60 min) is more than adequate for treating P. juglandis and G. morbida in walnut firewood. PMID:24665700

  16. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra).

    PubMed

    Hadziabdic, Denita; Vito, Lisa M; Windham, Mark T; Pscheidt, Jay W; Trigiano, Robert N; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic composition of Geosmithia morbida populations in the native range of black walnut and provide a better understanding regarding demography of the pathogen. The fungus G. morbida, and the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, have been associated with a disease complex of black walnut (Juglans nigra) known as thousand cankers disease (TCD). The disease is manifested as branch dieback and canopy loss, eventually resulting in tree death. In 2010, the disease was detected in black walnut in Tennessee, and subsequently in Virginia and Pennsylvania in 2011 and North Carolina in 2012. These were the first incidences of TCD east of Colorado, where the disease has been established for more than a decade on indigenous walnut species. A genetic diversity and population structure study of 62 G. morbida isolates from Tennessee, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Oregon was completed using 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The results revealed high haploid genetic diversity among seven G. morbida populations with evidence of gene flow, and significant differentiation among two identified genetic clusters. There was a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance. Understanding the genetic composition and demography of G. morbida can provide valuable insight into recognizing factors affecting the persistence and spread of an invasive pathogen, disease progression, and future infestation predictions. Overall, these data support the hypotheses of two separate, highly diverse pathogen introductions into the native range of black walnut. PMID:24177436

  17. Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhugiri Nageswara Rao; Jaya R. Soneji; Leela Sahijram

    \\u000a Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops grown in the subtropical and tropical areas of the world and has great economic,\\u000a health, religious, and cultural values. While there are conservation and management efforts, the lack of sufficient descriptions,\\u000a specimens, and original habitats has made it difficult for the biogeographers to define precisely the centers of origin and\\u000a ancestors

  18. AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE OF XYELLAE DISEASES IN GRAPEVIN, CITRUS AND MULBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases on many economically important plants. An understanding of how xylellae diseases originated and evolved is interesting as well as important for disease prevention and management. We evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among strains from citrus, grapevine, and ...

  19. Induction of disease resistance by the plant activator, acibenzolar- S-methyl (ASM), against bacterial canker ( Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) in tomato seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soner Soylu; Ömür Baysal; E. Mine Soylu

    2003-01-01

    The plant defence activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzo [1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester, ASM; Bion 50 WG) was assayed on tomato seedlings for its ability to induce resistance against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Pre-treatment of plants with ASM reduced the severity of the disease as well as the growth of the bacteria in planta. In

  20. Molecular, ecological and evolutionary approaches to understanding Alternaria diseases of citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Akimitsu; Tobin L. Peever; L. W. Timmer

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Alternaria fungi cause four different diseases of citrus: Alternaria brown spot of tangerines, Alternaria leaf spot of rough lemon, Alternaria black rot of several citrus fruits and Mancha foliar of Mexican lime. The first three diseases are caused by the small- spored species, Alternaria alternata and the causal agents can only be differentiated using pathogenicity tests, toxin assays or

  1. The effect of wind on dispersal of splash-borne Xanthomonas citri subsp citri at different heights and distances downwind of canker-infected grapefruit trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri subsp citri (Xcc), which causes citrus canker, is a major pathogen of grapefruit and other canker-susceptible citrus species and cultivars grown in Florida and elsewhere. It is dispersed by rain splash, and wind promotes the dispersal of the pathogen. The aim of this study was to e...

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

  3. All Five Host-Range Variants of Xanthomonas citri Carry One pthA Homolog With 17.5 Repeats That Determines Pathogenicity on Citrus, but None Determine Host-Range Variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker disease is caused by five groups of Xanthomonas citri strains that are distinguished primarily by host range: three from Asia (A, A*, and Aw) and two that form a phylogenetically distinct clade and originated in South America (B and C). Every X. citri strain carries multiple DNA fragme...

  4. Influence of rootstock variety on huanglongbing disease development in field-grown sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) osbeck trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), a bacterial disease of citrus, is causing substantial economic losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Sweet oranges are highly susceptible to the disease, and account for nearly 90% of all varieties grown in Florida. Rootstock is an important component of commercial citrus p...

  5. Estimation of incidence and spatial temporal distribution of Citrus Stubborn disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a culturable wall-less prokaryote. The pathogen is graft-transmissible and vectored by the beet leafhopper (BLH). The objective of this study was to determine incidence and spread of S. citri in two sweet orange citrus groves in the San J...

  6. PCR-based Detection of Spiroplasma citri Associated with Citrus Stubborn Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PCR detection of Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease, was improved using primers based on sequences of the P89 adhesin gene and the P58 putative adhesin multigene of S. citri. PCR was compared with isolation by culturing for detection of S. citri in two 20 A citrus orchar...

  7. Molecular Detection of Spiroplasma Citri Associated with Stubborn Disease in Citrus Orchards in Syria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be transmitted from plant to plant by several species of phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent has been recorded from several Med...

  8. Population structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease of walnut trees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zerillo, Marcelo M; Ibarra Caballero, Jorge; Woeste, Keith; Graves, Andrew D; Hartel, Colleen; Pscheidt, Jay W; Tonos, Jadelys; Broders, Kirk; Cranshaw, Whitney; Seybold, Steven J; Tisserat, Ned

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease of Juglans (walnut) and Pterocarya (wingnut). The disease was first reported in the western United States (USA) on several Juglans species, but has been found more recently in the eastern USA in the native range of the highly susceptible Juglans nigra. We performed a comprehensive population genetic study of 209 G. morbida isolates collected from Juglans and Pterocarya from 17 geographic regions distributed across 12 U.S. states. The study was based on sequence typing of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms from three genomic regions and genotyping with ten microsatellite primer pairs. Using multilocus sequence-typing data, 197 G. morbida isolates were placed into one of 57 haplotypes. In some instances, multiple haplotypes were recovered from isolates collected on the same tree. Twenty-four of the haplotypes (42%) were recovered from more than one isolate; the two most frequently occurring haplotypes (H02 and H03) represented 36% of all isolates. These two haplotypes were abundant in California, but were not recovered from Arizona or New Mexico. G. morbida population structure was best explained by four genetically distinct groups that clustered into three geographic regions. Most of the haplotypes isolated from the native range of J. major (Arizona and New Mexico) were found in those states only or present in distinct genetic clusters. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or genetic recombination in any population. The scattered distribution of the genetic clusters indicated that G. morbida was likely disseminated to different regions at several times and from several sources. The large number of haplotypes observed and the genetic complexity of G. morbida indicate that it evolved in association with at least one Juglans spp. and the walnut twig beetle long before the first reports of the disease. PMID:25393300

  9. Nutritional deficiency in citrus with symptoms of citrus variegated chlorosis disease.

    PubMed

    Silva-Stenico, M E; Pacheco, F T H; Pereira-Filho, E R; Rodrigues, J L M; Souza, A N; Etchegaray, A; Gomes, J E; Tsai, S M

    2009-08-01

    It is well known that citrus plants that have been infected by Xylella fastidiosa display nutritional deficiencies, probably caused by production of extracellular polymers by the bacteria that block normal nutrient flow through the xylem. The aim of this work was to study the mineral composition of specific foliar areas in different stages of infection in citrus. Thus, the concentrations of macro and micronutrients in leaves of citrus infected by X. fastidiosa were measured. Samples from four infected citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were respectively collected from Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, Neves Paulista, Gavião Peixoto and Paraíso counties. The presence of X. fastidiosa in leaves was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific PCR primers. To understand the variation in leaf-nutrient content in citrus plants, we used foliar nutrient values from control (non-symptomatic) plants as a reference. Chemometric analysis showed that the deficiency of P and K in symptomatic trees for all orchards and high concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn were observed in chlorotic areas, although other studies revealed deficiency of zinc in leaves. This is the first report showing that a correlation between chlorotic citrus leaf and higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn are observed when infected and healthy plants were compared. PMID:19802445

  10. Phylogeography of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the vector of thousand cankers disease in North American walnut trees.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Seybold, Steven J; Graves, Andrew D; Stouthamer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) of walnut trees (Juglans spp.) results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties (in Arizona, California, and New Mexico), but the species has now (2014) invaded over 115 counties, representing much of the western USA, and at least six states in the eastern USA. The eastern expansion places TCD in direct proximity to highly valuable (> $500 billion) native timber stands of eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, from nearly 1100 individuals, we examined variation among 77 samples of WTB populations across its extended range in the USA, revealing high levels of polymorphism and evidence of two divergent lineages. The highest level of genetic diversity for the different lineages was found in the neighboring Madrean Sky Island and Western New Mexico regions, respectively. Despite their proximity, there was little evidence of mixing between these regions, with only a single migrant detected among 179 beetles tested. Indeed, geographic overlap of the two lineages was only common in parts of Colorado and Utah. Just two haplotypes, from the same lineage, predominated over the vast majority of the recently expanded range. Tests for Wolbachia proved negative suggesting it plays no role in "driving" the spread of particular haplotypes, or in maintaining deep levels of intraspecific divergence in WTB. Genotyping of ribosomal RNA corroborated the mitochondrial lineages, but also revealed evidence of hybridization between them. Hybridization was particularly prevalent in the sympatric areas, also apparent in all invaded areas, but absent from the most haplotype-rich area of each mitochondrial lineage. Hypotheses about the specific status of WTB, its recent expansion, and potential evolutionary origins of TCD are discussed. PMID:25695760

  11. Cryphonectria canker on Tibouchina in Colombia By M. J. WINGFIELD

    E-print Network

    Cryphonectria canker on Tibouchina in Colombia By M. J. WINGFIELD 1 , C. RODAS 2 , H. MYBURG 3 , M.Wing®eld@fabi.up.ac.za; 2 Smur®t Carton de Colombia, Cali, Colombia and Wright Forest Management Consultants Inc., Cary NC canker disease on Tibouchina spp. (Melastomataceae) in Colombia. We used morphological studies

  12. Preharvest measures for postharvest improvement in marketable fresh citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri supsp. citri, (Xcc),was once the scourge of the Florida citrus industry from the early 1900’s on and off until the early 1990’s. It has been replaced, for the most part, by citrus greening but still continues to be a problem for Florida fres...

  13. Preharvest measures for postharvest improvement in marketable fresh citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri supsp. citri, (Xcc), was once the scourge of the Florida citrus industry from the early 1900’s on and off until the early 1990’s. It has been replaced, for the most part, by citrus greening but still continues to be a problem for Florida fresh ...

  14. Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus leaf diseases and stem cankers in Uruguay

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    in Uruguay By C. A. Pe´rez1,2,5 , M. J. Wingfield3 , N. A. Altier4 and R. A. Blanchette1 1 Department´, Uruguay; 3 Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Uruguay; 5 E-mail: caperez@fagro.edu.uy (for correspondence) Summary Mycosphaerella leaf diseases

  15. Fungal Diversity A new bark canker disease of the tropical hardwood tree Cedrelinga cateniformis

    E-print Network

    , University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa 3 Fundación Forestal Juan Manuel Durini, Ecuador Lombard in Ecuador Lombard, L.1* , Bogale, M.2 , Montenegro, F.3 , Wingfield, B.D.2 and Wingfield, M.J.1 1 Department disease of the tropical hardwood tree Cedrelinga cateniformis in Ecuador. Fungal Diversity 31: 73

  16. Detection of Citrus Psorosis Virus by ELISA, Molecular Hybridization, RT-PCR and Immunosorbent Electron Microscopy and its Association with Citrus Psorosis Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Martín; Daniela Alioto; Robert G. Milne; Stephen M. Garnsey; Oscar Grau; José Guerri; Pedro Moreno

    2004-01-01

    Psorosis is a citrus disease of undemonstrated etiology that can be diagnosed by biological indexing on sweet orange seedlings followed by a cross protection test. Its presumed causal agent is Citrus psorosis virus(CPsV), type species of the genus Ophiovirus. We compared detection of CPsV by ELISA, RT-PCR, molecular hybridization and immunosorbent electron microscopy, and examined its association with psorosis disease

  17. Molecular, ecological and evolutionary approaches to understanding Alternaria diseases of citrus.

    PubMed

    Akimitsu, Kazuya; Peever, Tobin L; Timmer, L W

    2003-11-01

    SUMMARY Alternaria fungi cause four different diseases of citrus: Alternaria brown spot of tangerines, Alternaria leaf spot of rough lemon, Alternaria black rot of several citrus fruits and Mancha foliar of Mexican lime. The first three diseases are caused by the small-spored species, Alternaria alternata and the causal agents can only be differentiated using pathogenicity tests, toxin assays or genetic markers. Mancha foliar is caused by the morphologically distinct, large-spored species A. limicola. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the biology, ecology, population biology, systematics, molecular biology and biochemistry of the interactions between these pathogens and citrus. Epidemiological studies have focused on brown spot of tangerines and their hybrids and have contributed to the development of a model of disease development which has improved control and reduced fungicide use. Studies of the population genetics, host specificity and ecology of A. alternata from different ecological niches on citrus have revealed host specific forms of the pathogen which cause disease on different citrus species, the existence of three phylogenetic lineages of the fungus which cause brown spot world-wide, and closely related non-pathogenic isolates which colonize healthy citrus tissue. The role of host-specific toxins in Alternaria diseases of citrus has been extensively studied for over 20 years, and these pathosystems have become model systems for host-pathogen interactions. Recent molecular research has started to unravel the genetic basis of toxin production and the host susceptibility to toxin, and the role of extracellular, degradative enzymes in disease. PMID:20569403

  18. The Effects of Virus and Viruslike Diseases on Citrus Production in Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Garnsey

    Summary Florida has not experienced as much devastating injury from virus diseases as many citrus-growing areas; however, tristeza, psorosis, exocortis, and xyloporosis have all been damaging. Tristela continues to be a major problem, but psorosis, xylopo- rosis, and exocortis are now controllable. Sewral other viruses have been described, but are not widely distributed. New dis- eases, including a stem-pitting disorder

  19. Estimation of Incidence and Spatial Temporal Distribution of Citrus Stubborn Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a culturable prokaryote principally vectored by the beet leafhopper (BLH) in California. The objective of this study was to develop a method to estimate incidence of CSD. A 100% sample was compared with a 25% sample collected by a hiera...

  20. CITRUS CANKER: THE PATHOGEN AND ITS IMPACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing international travel and trade have rendered US borders more porous and dramatically increased the risk of introductions of invasive plant pests into agricultural crops. Currently in Florida, one such invasive species is Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), a bacterial plant pathogen ...

  1. Identification and Genomic Characterization of a New Virus (Tymoviridae Family) Associated with Citrus Sudden Death Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Maccheroni; Marcos C. Alegria; Christian C. Greggio; Joao Paulo Piazza; Rachel F. Kamla; Paula R. A. Zacharias; Moshe Bar-Joseph; Elliot W. Kitajima; Laura C. Assumpcao; Giovana Camarotte; Jussara Cardozo; Elaine C. Casagrande; Fernanda Ferrari; Sulamita F. Franco; Poliana F. Giachetto; Alessandra Girasol; Hamilton Jordao; V. H. A. Silva; L. C. A. Souza; C. I. Aguilar-Vildoso; A. S. Zanca; P. Arruda; J. P. Kitajima; F. C. Reinach; J. A. Ferro; A. C. R. da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a new disease that has killed approximately 1 million orange trees in Brazil. Here we report the identification of a new virus associated with the disease. RNAs isolated from CSD-affected and nonaffected trees were used to construct cDNA libraries. A set of viral sequences present exclusively in libraries of CSD-affected trees was used to obtain

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of metabolite disorder in orange trees caused by citrus sudden death disease.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Rosilene A; Colnago, Luiz A; Forato, Lucimara A; Carrilho, Emanuel; Bassanezi, Renato B; Wulff, Nelson A

    2009-01-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a new disease of sweet orange and mandarin trees grafted on Rangpur lime and Citrus volkameriana rootstocks. It was first seen in Brazil in 1999, and has since been detected in more than four million trees. The CSD causal agent is unknown and the current hypothesis involves a virus similar to Citrus tristeza virus or a new virus named Citrus sudden death-associated virus. CSD symptoms include generalized foliar discoloration, defoliation and root death, and, in most cases, it can cause tree death. One of the unique characteristics of CSD disease is the presence of a yellow stain in the rootstock bark near the bud union. This region also undergoes profound anatomical changes. In this study, we analyse the metabolic disorder caused by CSD in the bark of sweet orange grafted on Rangpur lime by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging results show the presence of a large amount of non-functional phloem in the rootstock bark of affected plants. The spectroscopic analysis shows a high content of triacylglyceride and sucrose, which may be related to phloem blockage close to the bud union. We also propose that, without knowing the causal CSD agent, the determination of oil content in rootstock bark by low-resolution NMR can be used as a complementary method for CSD diagnosis, screening about 300 samples per hour. PMID:19161352

  3. Huanglongbing, a Systemic Disease, Restructures the Bacterial Community Associated with Citrus Roots?

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P ? 0.01) of 237.13 versus 42.14 for the uninfected and infected clone libraries, respectively. Similarly, the Shannon index of the uninfected clone library (4.46) was significantly higher than that of the infected clone library (2.61). Comparison of the uninfected clone library with the infected clone library using LIBSHUFF statistics showed a significant difference (P ? 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the bacterial community changes not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. The relative proportions of different groups of bacteria changed significantly after infection with the pathogen. These data indicate that infection of citrus by “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots. PMID:20382817

  4. Enhancement or Attenuation of Disease by Deletion of Genes from Citrus Tristeza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas of the stem in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport, resulting in reduced plant growth and yield. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-limited closterovirus, induces economically important stem-pitting diseases of citrus. CTV has three nonconserved genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not related to genes of other viruses and that are not required for systemic infection of some species of citrus, which allowed us to examine the effect of deletions of these genes on symptom phenotypes. In the most susceptible experimental host, Citrus macrophylla, the full-length virus causes only very mild stem-pitting symptoms. Surprisingly, we found that certain deletion combinations (p33 and p18 and/or p13) induced greatly increased stem-pitting symptoms, while other combinations (p13 or p13 plus p18) resulted in reduced stem pitting. These results suggest that the stem-pitting phenotype, which is one of more economically important disease phenotypes, can result not from a specific sequence or protein but from a balance between the expression of different viral genes. Unexpectedly, using green fluorescent protein-tagged full-length virus and deletion mutants (CTV9?p33 and CTV9?p33?p18?p13), the virus was found at pitted areas in abnormal locations outside the normal ring of phloem. Thus, increased stem pitting was associated not only with a prevention of xylem production but also with a proliferation of cells that supported viral replication, suggesting that at random areas of stems the virus can elicit changes in cellular differentiation and development. PMID:22593155

  5. Enhancement or attenuation of disease by deletion of genes from Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O

    2012-08-01

    Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas of the stem in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport, resulting in reduced plant growth and yield. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-limited closterovirus, induces economically important stem-pitting diseases of citrus. CTV has three nonconserved genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not related to genes of other viruses and that are not required for systemic infection of some species of citrus, which allowed us to examine the effect of deletions of these genes on symptom phenotypes. In the most susceptible experimental host, Citrus macrophylla, the full-length virus causes only very mild stem-pitting symptoms. Surprisingly, we found that certain deletion combinations (p33 and p18 and/or p13) induced greatly increased stem-pitting symptoms, while other combinations (p13 or p13 plus p18) resulted in reduced stem pitting. These results suggest that the stem-pitting phenotype, which is one of more economically important disease phenotypes, can result not from a specific sequence or protein but from a balance between the expression of different viral genes. Unexpectedly, using green fluorescent protein-tagged full-length virus and deletion mutants (CTV9?p33 and CTV9?p33?p18?p13), the virus was found at pitted areas in abnormal locations outside the normal ring of phloem. Thus, increased stem pitting was associated not only with a prevention of xylem production but also with a proliferation of cells that supported viral replication, suggesting that at random areas of stems the virus can elicit changes in cellular differentiation and development. PMID:22593155

  6. ENHANCED DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF THE WALNUT PATHOGEN BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS: CAUSAL AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep bark canker (DBC) of walnut is caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens which produces the red pigment rubrifacine. This disease of English walnut trees, is characterized by deep vertical cankers which exude sap laden with B. rubrifaciens. Although DBC is not observed on younger trees, ...

  7. Enhanced detection and isolation of the walnut pathogen Brenneria rubrifaciens , causal agent of deep bark canker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali E. McClean; Padma Sudarshana; Daniel A. Kluepfel

    2008-01-01

    Deep bark canker (DBC) of walnut is caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens which produces the red pigment rubrifacine. This disease of English walnut trees, is characterized by deep vertical cankers\\u000a which exude sap laden with B. rubrifaciens. Although DBC is not observed on young trees, it is hypothesized that B. rubrifaciens is present in host tissue years before symptom

  8. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

  9. Small RNA Profiling Reveals Phosphorus Deficiency as a Contributing Factor in Symptom Expression for Citrus Huanglongbing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Ruobai; Jin, Hailing

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ (Ca. L.). Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB. Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases, including cancers. To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB, sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue. Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs), 76 conserved miRNAs, and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered. Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection, and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB. miR399, which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species, was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn—a disease with symptoms similar to HLB. We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees. Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida. Our molecular, physiological, and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology. PMID:23292880

  10. Genetic variation and recombination of RdRp and HSP 70h genes of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from orange trees showing symptoms of citrus sudden death disease

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Clarissa PC; Nagata, Tatsuya; de Jesus, Waldir C; Neto, Carlos R Borges; Pappas, Georgios J; Martin, Darren P

    2008-01-01

    Background Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the disease's distribution and symptomatology it is suspected that the agent may be a new strain of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). CTV genetic variation was therefore assessed in two Brazilian orange trees displaying CSD symptoms and a third with more conventional CTV symptoms. Results A total of 286 RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) and 284 heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h) gene fragments were determined for CTV variants infecting the three trees. It was discovered that, despite differences in symptomatology, the trees were all apparently coinfected with similar populations of divergent CTV variants. While mixed CTV infections are common, the genetic distance between the most divergent population members observed (24.1% for RdRp and 11.0% for HSP70h) was far greater than that in previously described mixed infections. Recombinants of five distinct RdRp lineages and three distinct HSP70h lineages were easily detectable but respectively accounted for only 5.9 and 11.9% of the RdRp and HSP70h gene fragments analysed and there was no evidence of an association between particular recombinant mosaics and CSD. Also, comparisons of CTV population structures indicated that the two most similar CTV populations were those of one of the trees with CSD and the tree without CSD. Conclusion We suggest that if CTV is the causal agent of CSD, it is most likely a subtle feature of population structures within mixed infections and not merely the presence (or absence) of a single CTV variant within these populations that triggers the disease. PMID:18199320

  11. Improved real-time PCR diagnosis of citrus stubborn disease by targeting prophage genes of Spiroplasma citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma citri is a phloem-limited bacterium causing citrus stubborn disease (CSD). Isolation and culturing of S. citri is difficult and time consuming. Current detection methods use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays with primers developed from sequences of S. citri house-keeping genes. In c...

  12. Certification Programs for Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus certification programs designed to ensure that healthy plants of the highest genetic potential are being planted in the field are the basic building block of an integrated pest management program. Certification programs began for citrus began with the discovery that the diseases were graft t...

  13. Identification of a new enamovirus associated with citrus vein enation disease by deep sequencing of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Vives, Mari Carmen; Velázquez, Karelia; Pina, José Antonio; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José; Navarro, Luis

    2013-10-01

    To identify the causal agent of citrus vein enation disease, we examined by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina) the small RNA (sRNA) fraction from infected and healthy Etrog citron plants. Our results showed that virus-derived sRNAs (vsRNAs): (i) represent about 14.21% of the total sRNA population, (ii) are predominantly of 21 and 24 nucleotides with a biased distribution of their 5' nucleotide and with a clear prevalence of those of (+) polarity, and (iii) derive from all the viral genome, although a prominent hotspot is present at a 5'-proximal region. Contigs assembled from vsRNAs showed similarity with luteovirus sequences, particularly with Pea enation mosaic virus, the type member of the genus Enamovirus. The genomic RNA (gRNA) sequence of a new virus, provisionally named Citrus vein enation virus (CVEV), was completed and characterized. The CVEV gRNA was found to be single-stranded, positive-sense, with a size of 5,983 nucleotides and five open reading frames. Phylogenetic comparisons based on amino acid signatures of the RNA polymerase and the coat protein clearly classifies CVEV within the genus Enamovirus. Dot-blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests were developed to detect CVEV in plants affected by vein enation disease. CVEV detection by these methods has already been adopted for use in the Spanish citrus quarantine, sanitation, and certification programs. PMID:23718835

  14. Tolerance of the trifoliate citrus hybrid US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) to Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease s...

  15. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...the efficacy of various insecticides to control ACP.\\5\\ Yamamoto and his colleagues found that the residual effect of imidacloprid and other soil drenches on nursery stock is considerably longer than previously thought--in certain instances, as...

  16. A combined indexing and budwood propagation method for citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bar-Joseph; Y. Ben-Shalom

    1993-01-01

    Several budwood-transmitted citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis, citrus impietratura and a range\\u000a of citrus viroids, were tested both visually and biochemically on a combined indicator (CInd) plant consisting of an Alemow\\u000a (Citrus macrophylla) rootstock grafted with Etrog citron (C.medica) and Sour orange (C.aurantium) or Sweet orange (C.sinensis) buds. Indexing on CInd plants is economical for limited testing

  17. Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

  18. Citrus tristeza virus replicates and forms infectious virions in protoplasts of resistant citrus relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria R. Albiach-Marti; Jude W. Grosser; Siddarame Gowda; Munir Mawassi; Tatineni Satyanarayana; Stephen M. Garnsey; William O. Dawson

    2004-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most economically important viral disease of citrus worldwide. Cultivars with improved CTV tolerance or resistance are needed to manage CTV-induced diseases. The citrus relatives Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr., and Severinia buxifolia (Poir) Ten. are potential sources of CTV resistance, but their resistance mechanisms are poorly characterized. As a first step

  19. Antennal and behavioral response of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) to degradation products of citrus volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vectors the bacterial causal pathogen of the deadly citrus disease, Huanglongbing (citrus greening) which is a major threat to citrus industry worldwide. We studied antennal and behavioral responses to principal components of head...

  20. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants. PMID:20438136

  1. Enhanced tomato resistance to bacterial canker by application of turtle oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömür Baysal; Y. Ziya Gürsoy; Hakan Örnek; Ahmet Duru

    2005-01-01

    Pretreatment with oil of sea turtle Caretta caretta protected tomato plants against bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). The turtle oil was ineffective in inhibiting Cmm in an agar diffusion test, suggesting a mechanism of induced resistance. Under controlled conditions in the greenhouse, turtle oil lowered the disease index and had reduced the growth of bacteria up

  2. New Phomopsis species identified from wood cankers in eastern North American vineyards.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, caused by the Ascomycete fungus Phomopsis viticola, is a destructive fruit and foliar disease in eastern North American vineyards. The pathogen typically attacks green tissues, but can also cause wood cankers, presumably due to infection of pruning wounds, as is the cas...

  3. 78 FR 29049 - Streptomycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...aminoglycoside class and is produced by the bacteria streptomyces. The active pesticide...citrus canker, a disease caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas citri. Citrus canker...of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria, in consideration of factors...

  4. INDUCTION OF DISEASE RESISTANCE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES BY ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL AGAINST BACTERIAL CANKER (CLAVIBACTER MICHIGANENSIS SUBSP. MICHIGANENSIS) IN TOMATO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Soylu; S. Soylu

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY The plant defence activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (Bion) was assayed on tomato seedlings for its ability to induce multicomponent defence response against Clav- ibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). Pre- treatment of plants with ASM reduced the severity of the disease as well as the growth of the bacteria in plan- ta. In ASM-treated plants, reduction in disease severity (up to 75%)

  5. Identification of a single-stranded DNA virus associated with citrus chlorotic dwarf disease, a new member in the family Geminiviridae.

    PubMed

    Loconsole, Giuliana; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Savino, Vito; Martelli, Giovanni P; Saponari, Maria

    2012-10-10

    In the attempt to identify the causal agent of Citrus chlorotic dwarf disease (CCDD), a virus-like disorder of citrus, the small RNA fraction and total DNA from symptomatic citrus plants were subjected to high-throughput sequencing. DNA fragments deriving from an apparently new geminivirus-like agent were found and assembled by NGS to re-construct the entire viral genome. The newly identified virus has a circular single-stranded DNA genome comprising five open reading frames (ORFs) with sequence homologies with those encoded by geminiviruses. PCR and qPCR assays were successfully used for determining its presence in the CCDD-affected plants obtained by graft propagation. The larger genome size (3.64 vs. 2.5-3.0 kb) and a number of differences in its structural organization, identified this virus as a highly divergent member of the family Geminiviridae, to which the provisional name of Citrus chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CCDaV) is assigned. PMID:22749878

  6. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  7. Orchard and nursery dynamics of the effect of interplanting citrus with guava for Huanglongbing, vector, and disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important pest of citrus in the United States of America primarily because it vectors ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the bacterium putatively responsible for Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB). Asiatic HLB is con...

  8. Detection of Citrus psorosis virus in the northwestern citrus production area of Argentina by using an improved TAS-ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Cecilia Zanek; Eduardo Peña; Carina Andrea Reyes; Julia Figueroa; Beatriz Stein; Oscar Grau; Maria Laura Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Citrus Psorosis in Argentina is a serious disease. Citrus is produced in two regions located in the northeast (NE) and northwest (NW) area of the country. These two areas have different climates and soil types, and therefore different citrus species and varieties are cultivated. In the NE region, Psorosis is epidemic, and in the NW region, the disease was described

  9. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

    2003-01-01

    Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented. PMID:14756415

  10. Bacterial canker of plum trees, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, as a serious threat for plum production in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wenneker, M; Janse, J D; De Bruine, J A

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, bacterial canker in plum trees (Prunus domestica) is a serious and recent problem in plum production. It is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars syringae and morsprunorum. The trunks of the affected plum trees are girdled by bacterial cankers resulting in sudden death of infected trees in 3-4 years after planting. Disease incidences can be very high, and sometimes complete orchards have to be removed. Recently, plum cultivation in the Netherlands has changed from a relatively extensive into an intensive cultivation. However, due to the risks of losses of trees due to bacterial canker, growers are reluctant to plant new plum orchards. In general nurseries and fruit growers are not familiar with bacterial diseases and lack knowledge in order to prevent infections. Therefore, control strategies to manage plum decline have to be developed. PMID:22702175

  11. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ...

  12. Modified Citrus Pectin Reduces Galectin-3 Expression and Disease Severity in Experimental Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Price, Karen L.; Winyard, Paul J.; Long, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a ?-galactoside binding lectin with roles in diverse processes including proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis which are dependent on different domains of the molecule and subcellular distribution. Although galectin-3 is known to be upregulated in acute kidney injury, the relative importance of its different domains and functions are poorly understood in the underlying pathogenesis. Therefore we experimentally modulated galectin-3 in folic acid (FA)-induced acute kidney injury utilising modified citrus pectin (MCP), a derivative of pectin which can bind to the galectin-3 carbohydrate recognition domain thereby predominantly antagonising functions linked to this role. Mice were pre-treated with normal or 1% MCP-supplemented drinking water one week before FA injection. During the initial injury phase, all FA-treated mice lost weight whilst their kidneys enlarged secondary to the renal insult; these gross changes were significantly lessened in the MCP group but this was not associated with significant changes in galectin-3 expression. At a histological level, MCP clearly reduced renal cell proliferation but did not affect apoptosis. Later, during the recovery phase at two weeks, MCP-treated mice demonstrated reduced galectin-3 in association with decreased renal fibrosis, macrophages, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptosis. Other renal galectins, galectin-1 and -9, were unchanged. Our data indicates that MCP is protective in experimental nephropathy with modulation of early proliferation and later galectin-3 expression, apoptosis and fibrosis. This raises the possibility that MCP may be a novel strategy to reduce renal injury in the long term, perhaps via carbohydrate binding-related functions of galectin-3. PMID:21494626

  13. Intercropping of citrus and guava trees for management of Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies conducted in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, Japanese and Australian scientists indicate that interplanting citrus with guava negated infestations of Asian citrus psyllid and consequently huanglongbing, a serious disease caused by a bacterium vectored by the psyllid. Young citrus interplanted...

  14. Spectral difference analysis and airborne imaging classification for citrus greening infected trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB), became a devastating disease spread through citrus groves in Florida, since it was first found in 2005. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were acquired to detect citrus greening infected trees in 20...

  15. PURIFICATION OF VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES FROM CITRUS CHLOROTIC DWARF INFECTED CITRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus chlorotic dwarf (CCD) is a new disease of citrus having been found in Turkey in the mid 1980s. Disease symptoms in the field consist of chlorotic leaf patterns, crinkling, leaf distortion, shoot malformation and stunting in young trees. CCD is vectored by the bayberry whitefly and is graft ...

  16. Effect of alternative strategies for the disinfection of tomato seed infected with bacterial canker ( Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-M. Kasselaki; D. Goumas; L. Tamm; J. Fuchs; J. Cooper; C. Leifert

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is a lack of effective seed treatments for bacterial pathogens, with Cu-based compounds (the only chemical treatments permitted under organic farming standards) only providing partial control. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of alternative treatments for the control of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), a major seed-borne bacterial disease in tomato. Treatments assessed

  17. Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Cervera; Olga Esteban; Maite Gil; M. Teresa Gorris; M. Carmen Martínez; Leandro Peña; Mariano Cambra

    2010-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through\\u000a genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment\\u000a (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two\\u000a different scFv constructs, separately and

  18. Dieback and sooty canker of Ficus trees in Egypt and its control.

    PubMed

    Abo Rehab, M E A; Rashed, M F; Ammar, M I; El-Morsy, S A

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to throw lights on dieback and canker disease on urban trees of Ficus sp. in Egypt, its causal pathogens and disease control. Diseased samples were collected from five locations. Pathogenicity test was done on one year old of three different healthy seedlings of Ficus trees (Ficus benghalensis, Ficu snitida and Ficus hawaii). Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis sp. were consistently isolated from infected tissues and were pathogenic. The fungicides Antracol Combi and Topsin M 70 provided effective control of the infection. Accordingly, protecting ficus trees from diseases threating is considered a major goal to attain their benefits. PMID:24897790

  19. Interference by western flower thrips in rearing Asian citrus psyllid: damage to host plants and facultative predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest of citrus primarily because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a serious citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB) (also known as citrus greening disease). Researchers seeking solutions to HLB often depend on labor...

  20. DISEASE DEVELOPMENT AND SYMPTOM EXPRESSION OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI IN VARIOUS CITRUS PLANT TISSUES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental inoculations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) in different tissues of Tahiti lime and Pineapple sweet orange were conducted monthly under natural conditions in Réunion Island. The interactions between a set of environmental and epidemic variables associated with disease express...

  1. TPCP: Cryphonectria canker of Eucalyptus CRYPHONECTRIA CANKER OF

    E-print Network

    in various parts of the world such as Brazil and India. The disease was discovered in South Africa in 1988 of the world such as Brazil. Sexual spores of Cryphonectria cubensis. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES The most effective. This fungus is soil borne and infects roots leading to a girdling of the bases of young trees. Trees, infected

  2. Filamentous flexous particles and serologically related proteins of variable size associated with citrus psorosis and ringspot diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesfis Navas-Castillo; Pedtro Moreno

    1995-01-01

    Filamentous flexous partic les of unusual morphology, previously associated with several ringspot isolates, were detected also in psorosis A and psorosis B isolates by serologically specific electron microscopy using an antiserum to citrus ringspot. Upon partial purification of six ringspot, six psorosis A, and three psorosis B isolates, a specific protein of 47 kDa was detected in most cases, but

  3. Citrus aurantium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Westanmo

    \\u000a Citrus aurantium has enjoyed a rich history of uses in food, cosmetics, and medicine Recent misuse of this product for weight loss, however,\\u000a is threatening to tarnish the holistic reputation of this fruit Manufacturers are isolating and concentrating the synephnne\\u000a content from the 0 33 mg\\/g contained in the pulp of whole fruit to 20 mg\\/g in some dietary supplements,

  4. Enhancement of the citrus immune system provides effective resistance against Alternaria brown spot disease.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Vicedo, Begonya; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-01-15

    In addition to basal defense mechanisms, plants are able to develop enhanced defense mechanisms such as induced resistance (IR) upon appropriate stimulation. We recently described the means by which several carboxylic acids protect Arabidopsis and tomato plants against fungi. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hexanoic acid (Hx) in the control of Alternaria brown spot (ABS) disease via enhancement of the immune system of Fortune mandarin. The application of 1mM Hx in irrigation water to 2-year-old Fortune plants clearly reduced the incidence of the disease and led to smaller lesions. We observed that several of the most important mechanisms involved in induced resistance were affected by Hx application. Our results demonstrate enhanced callose deposition in infected plants treated with Hx, which suggests an Hx priming mechanism. Plants treated with the callose inhibitor 2-DDG were more susceptible to the fungus. Moreover, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene expression was rapidly and significantly upregulated in treated plants. However, treatment with Hx decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected plants. Hormonal and gene analyses revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was activated due to a greater accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and JA along with a rapid accumulation of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Furthermore, we observed a more rapid accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), which could act as a positive regulator of callose deposition. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that both enhanced physical barriers and the JA signaling pathway are involved in hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to Alternaria alternata. PMID:23260526

  5. Amplification of Citrus Tristeza Virus from a cDNA Clone and Infection of Citrus Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Satyanarayana; M. Bar-Joseph; M. R. Albiach-Marti; M. R. Albiach-Mart??; M. A. Ayllón; S. Gowda; M. E. Hilf; P. Moreno; S. M. Garnsey; W. O. Dawson

    2001-01-01

    Isolates of the Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), are populations of disparate genotypes and defective RNAs developed during long periods of vegetative propagation of citrus trees. Because it has not been possible to obtain pure cultures of the virus, it is not known what components of the population are primarily responsible for induction of diseases. We previously developed an infectious

  6. Symmetric and asymmetric hybridization in citrus spp. 

    E-print Network

    Bona, Claudine M.

    2009-05-15

    The United States is the second largest producer of oranges and grapefruit. However, the US citrus industry experiences constraints in production due to pests, diseases and environmental concerns. Furthermore, due to the ...

  7. Recent advances in Citrus psorosis virus.

    PubMed

    Achachi, Asmae; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Ibriz, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Psorosis is a globally devastating disease of citrus caused by an infectious filamentous ophiovirus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which causes annual losses of about 5 % and a progressive decline of trees by affecting the conductive tissues. The disease can be harboured asymptomatically in many citrus species. In the field, the most characteristic symptoms of the disease in adult trees are bark scaling in the trunk and main branches and also internal staining in the underlying wood. The virus has a tripartite single-stranded RNA genome, and has been inadvertently spread to most citrus growing areas through the movement of citrus propagative material. No natural vectors have been identified except in limited citrus areas in some cases. Management strategies for CPsV involving shoot-tip grafting and thermotherapy or somatic embryogenesis from stigma and style cultures have been successfully used to eliminate CPsV from plant propagating material. Molecular pathogen-mediated strategies have been used to produce citrus plants. Such a strategy protects against infections by the virus from which the resistance gene and promising resistance may emerge from trials. Certification programs are among the best established means of increasing phytosanitary health, and some of those for citrus are among the oldest in the world. In conjunction with quarantine and clean stock programs, they remain important weapons in the ongoing fight against citrus diseases. One of the elements essential for successful certification programs to produce such propagation material is the availability of sensitive and effective diagnostic methods. In this review, we discuss an updated status of CPsV disease. PMID:25674593

  8. Metabolite signature of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infection in two citrus varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus Greening Disease, is caused by the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), and is severely damaging the citrus industry. Infection causes malformation of fruit, reduced fruit yields, discoloration of leaves, and twig dieback, eventually causing ...

  9. Characterization of an ATP/ADP translocase in the citrus huanglongbing bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a disease currently threatening the citrus industry worldwide, has been associated with three different species of Alphaproteobacteria known as Candidatus Liberibacter. A complete genome sequence was recently obtained via metagenomics for Ca. L. asiaticus (Las), the prom...

  10. Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2014-12-01

    Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker. PMID:25443842

  11. Occurrence of Citrus psorosis virus in Campania, southern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Alioto; A. Troisi; A. Peluso; G. Quatrano; V. Masenga; R. G. Milne

    2000-01-01

    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), genus Ophiovirus, is associated with a severe disease of citrus worldwide. Double antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA using a polyclonal antiserum, and triple antibody sandwich (TAS) ELISAs, employing the IgG monoclonal antibody (mab) 13C5, and the IgM mab 2A3, were used to detect CPsV in orchards of different citrus varieties in Campania, southern Italy. TAS ELISA with

  12. Comparative efficiency of chemical compounds for in vitro and in vivo activity against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of tomato bacterial canker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leandro de León; Felipe Siverio; María M. López; Ana Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis produces considerable economic losses in many countries because effective control measures are lacking. The extent to which bactericides control this disease effectively is low and has not yet been well documented for Southern European conditions. In this study the bactericidal effect of several products on this pathogen was assessed in

  13. Psyllid Biology: Expressed Genes in Adult Asian Citrus Psyllids, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Hunter; S. E. Dowd; C. S. Katsar; C. L. McKenzie; D. G. Hall

    2009-01-01

    Where it occurs the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is considered the primary vector of Huanglongbing, HLB, disease of citrus trees. The plant pathogenic bacterium associated with HLB causes economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. To better understand the general biology of D. citri, we undertook a sequencing project from adult psyllids. Few genes have been isolated

  14. Complete Genome sequence of citrus huanglongbing bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ obtained through metagenomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. It is spread by the citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri and Trioza erytreae), and is associated with low-titer, phloem-limited infections by any of the three uncultured species of a-Proteobacteria: 'Candidatus Liberibact...

  15. Genetic transformation of sweet orange with the coat protein gene of Citrus psorosis virus and evaluation of resistance against the virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Cecilia Zanek; Carina Andrea Reyes; Magdalena Cervera; Eduardo José Peña; Karelia Velázquez; Norma Costa; Maria Inés Plata; Oscar Grau; Leandro Peña; María Laura García

    2008-01-01

    Citrus psorosis is a serious viral disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. Its causal agent is Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), the type member of genus Ophiovirus. CPsV infects most important citrus varieties, including oranges, mandarins and grapefruits, as well as hybrids and citrus\\u000a relatives used as rootstocks. Certification programs have not been sufficient to control the disease and no

  16. Florida actions toward HLB control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida citrus industry has suffered major disease setbacks in 2005-2006. The fall 2005 discovery of huanglongbing (HLB) in Florida was just a few months before the decision to halt the citrus canker eradication program because of the predicted massive spread of citrus canker over much of south...

  17. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

  18. Progress on dissecting and controlling the citrus huanglongbing complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a century-old and emerging disease that impedes citrus production worldwide. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the globally prevalent species of HLB bacteria. Here we describe our molecular characterizations of Las, and our newly-developed control methods for...

  19. Effects on Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior of fenpropathrin and chlorpyrifos within 24 hours of application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus production. The phloem-limited bacterium associated with HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). One component of HLB managem...

  20. Coccinellid predators do not track populations of the Asian citrus phyllid (Diaphorina citri) in citrus in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow sticky cards were used to survey populations of Diaphorina citri, the vector of Huanglongbing, the most devastating bacterial disease of citrus worldwide. The numbers of coccinellids, potential predators of Diaphorina citri, were also surveyed. Citrus surveyed included a variety of species (V...

  1. Sodium sulphite yields improved DNA of higher stability for PCR detection of Citrus yellow mosaic virus from citrus leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Baranwal; S. Majumder; Y. S. Ahlawat; R. P. Singh

    2003-01-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), a non-enveloped bacilliform DNA virus causes a severe mosaic disease in sweet oranges in India. CYMV is weakly immunogenic, thus serodiagnosis is not a preferred method for its detection. As an alternative a rapid and reliable detection protocol by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. However, high levels of polyphenolics and tannins in citrus leaves

  2. Assessing Quantitative Resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma Stem Canker) in Brassica napus (Oilseed Rape) in Young Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J.; Fitt, Bruce D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases. PMID:24454767

  3. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  4. The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis discovered in eastern Australia

    E-print Network

    The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis discovered in eastern Australia Geoffrey S Pathology Centre, The University of Queensland/Agri-Science Queensland, Qld 4068, Australia. B Forestry these trees are planted as non-natives. Although the majority of Eucalyptus spp. are native to Australia, Chr

  5. Reclassification of the butternut canker fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, into the genus Ophiognomonia.

    PubMed

    Broders, K D; Boland, G J

    2011-01-01

    Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Sc-j), which causes a canker disease on butternut, is largely responsible for the decline of this tree in the United States and Canada. The original description of the species was based on anamorphic characters because the teleomorph is unknown. Recent phylogenetic investigations have found that Sc-j is not a member of the genus Sirococcus, and accurate taxonomic classification is required. The objective of this study is to use sequence data to determine the phylogenetic placement of Sc-j within the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales. Isolates were recovered from infected Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis (heartnut), Juglans cinerea (butternut), and Juglans nigra (black walnut) in Ontario and the eastern United States. The genes coding for ?-tubulin, actin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha from 28 isolates of Sc-j and representatives of the major lineages within the Gnomoniaceae were evaluated. There was no difference in the sequences of the five genes among the isolates of Sc-j studied, indicating a recent introduction followed by asexual reproduction and spread via conidia. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrate this fungus does not belong to the genus Sirococcus, and provides strong support (99% MP and 100% NJ bootstrap values, and 100% Bayesian posterior probabilities) for its inclusion in the genus Ophiognomonia, thereby supporting a reclassification of the butternut canker fungus to Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum. PMID:21215957

  6. Examination of the responses of different genotypes of citrus to huanglongbing (citrus greening) under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Robertson, Cecile J; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACT Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The causal agent of HLB in Florida is thought to be 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. In this work, we examined the responses of 30 different genotypes of citrus to Florida isolates of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' under controlled conditions in the greenhouse or growth room. Although 'Ca. L. asiaticus' was able to multiply in all of the plants, a wide range of responses was observed among different hosts. Based on the symptoms developed and the ability of plants to continue growth, the different genotypes were grouped into four categories: sensitive, which exhibited severe chlorosis on leaves, greatly reduced growth, and eventual death; moderately tolerant, which exhibited some scattered distinct symptoms but little or no growth reduction and no plant death; tolerant, which exhibited very minimal symptoms; and genotypes, which exhibited variable reactions. Interestingly, although 'Ca. L. asiaticus' was unevenly distributed within each particular plant, comparison of titers of the bacterium in different citrus genotypes revealed that most accumulated similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus', demonstrating that there is no strict correlation between bacterial titer and severity of disease. Incubation of infected plants in the growth room with continuous light greatly affected symptoms production by reducing the time before distinctive symptoms developed and significantly increasing severity of chlorosis of leaves of all citrus genotypes. These results provide additional evidence of the correlation between disruption of phloem translocation of carbohydrates during HLB infection and the appearance of chlorotic symptoms in leaves of infected trees. We also examined interaction between 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and Citrus tristeza virus, which usually occurs in trees that become infected with HLB, and found no synergistic effect of the two pathogens. We trust that observations reported here will provide reagents for further examination of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-citrus interaction to advance the understanding of how 'Ca. L. asiaticus' causes disease and to develop methods or trees to overcome the disease. PMID:19900000

  7. Morphological and Molecular Characteristics of the Oak Tree Canker Pathogen, Annulohypoxylon truncatum

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jaeyul; Heo, Bitna; Ahn, Soo Jeong; Gang, Guenhye; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-01-01

    Cankers are localized dead areas in the bark of stems, branches or twigs of many types of trees and shrubs, and are usually caused by fungi. We observed severe canker symptoms in oak trees located in Gyeongnam province in 2011. A total 31 trees were discovered with cankers of varied size, with an average of 48.5 × 15.2 cm. Black, half-rounded globular mound shaped stromata were associated with the cankers, and the asci of the fungi associated with the cankers were cylindrical shaped with their spore-bearing parts being up to 84 µm in length. The average fungal ascospores size was 7.59 × 4.23 µm. The internal transcribed spacer sequence for the canker causing fungus showed 99% similarity to the sequence of Annulohypoxylon truncatum. In this study, the isolated fungus was precisely described and then compared with fungi of similar taxa. PMID:22783140

  8. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Huanglongbing effects on citrus seeds and seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus and threatens the citrus industry worldwide. The suspected causal agent of the disease is a phloem-limited bacterium of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, transmitted through insect vector or grafting with diseased budwood. Currently, most seed...

  9. Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

    2009-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in fruit tissues were found in the locular membranes and septa (10(8) genomes/g), with 100-fold lower levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in the meso and pericarp of such fruit. Our results demonstrate both the ubiquitous presence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in symptomatic citrus trees as well as great variation between individual trees and among samples of different tissues from the same trees. Our methods will be useful in both the management and scientific study of citrus HLB, also known as citrus greening disease. PMID:19159305

  10. Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum

    PubMed Central

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  11. Abundance of citrus leafminer larvae on citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a key pest in most citrus growing regions worldwide. Adult citrus leafminers oviposit primarily on young elongating flush of citrus as well as other Rutaceae and some ornamental plants. Larvae feed on the epiderm...

  12. Resistance and tolerance to huanglongbing in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-i...

  13. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    PubMed

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5?-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community. PMID:22133378

  14. XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI: FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL ERADICATION OF CITRUS CANKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taxonomic status: Bacteria, Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision, Xanthomodales, Xanthomonas group, axonopodis DNA homology group, X. axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Microbiological properties: Gram negative, slender, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile by a single polar flagellum, produces slo...

  15. Summer heat and low soil organic matter influence severity of hazelnut Cytospora canker.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2014-04-01

    Cytospora canker, caused by the fungus Cytospora corylicola, is present in hazelnut production areas worldwide. The disease is widespread throughout the main production areas of Italy. The causal agent is considered to be a secondary invader of damaged tissue that attacks mainly stressed plants. However, little is known of disease severity and stress factors that predispose plants to infection. In particular, the role of pedoclimatic factors was investigated. Direct survey indicated that disease severity varied across several study sites. Geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation between disease severity index and summer heat (r = 0.80 and 0.91 for July and August, respectively) and strong negative correlation between disease severity index and soil organic matter (r = -0.78). A moderate positive correlation between disease severity index and magnesium/potassium ratio (r = 0.58) and moderate negative correlations between disease severity index and total soil nitrogen (r = -0.53), thermal shock (r = -0.46), and rainfall (r = -0.53) were determined. No significant correlation between disease severity index and soil aluminum (r = -0.35), soil pH (r = -0.01), and plant age (r = -0.38) was found. PMID:24168042

  16. Quantitative distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the aerial parts of the field grown HLB-infected citrus trees in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayanna, one of the vectors for citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) has been present in Texas for over a decade, but the detection of the disease is recent. HLB has been confirmed in only two adjacent commercial citrus groves of grapefruit and...

  17. Screening molecules for control of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) using an optimized regeneration system for 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infected periwinkle (Catharunthus roseus) cuttings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) ( also known as citrus greening) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter, of which, ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ (Las) is the most widely-distributed. An improved system using HLB-...

  18. ISOLATION OF AN EFFECTIVE PROMOTER FROM CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS FOR EXPRESSION OF DISEASE RESISTANT GENES IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial diseases caused by Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Ralstonia spp. often result in significant loses in the production and quality of ornamental crops, and are very difficult to control. The use of genetically engineered crops offers a novel, cost effective and environ...

  19. The effect of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection on the proteomic profiles and nutritional status of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive citrus disease which threatens citrus production worldwide. Among three known ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species associated with HLB, ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the most prevalent. To better understand the physiological and molecular processes in...

  20. BARK CANKER OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY DEVELOPING ON PECAN CARYA ILLINOENSIS TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan trees in a five-year-old orchard of 17 cultivars had symptoms of an unusual bark canker first noticed in October, 2002. Symptoms appeared from ground line up to 3 meters on the central leader and most likely were initiated during the summer of 2002. Cankers developed around buds of the trunk...

  1. Control of citrus green and blue molds by Chinese propolis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuzhen Yang; Litao Peng; Yunjiang Cheng; Feng Chen; Siyi Pan

    2010-01-01

    Green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, are economically important postharvest diseases of citrus fruits. In this study, Chinese propolis ethyl acetate\\u000a extract (PEAE) was evaluated to control P. digitatum and P. italicum on postharvest citrus fruits. The results indicated PEAE strongly inhibited mycelia growth and induced hyphae prominent abnormal\\u000a morphological alterations. Also, PEAE had

  2. Imazalil residue loading and green mould control in citrus packhouses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arno Erasmus; Cheryl L. Lennox; Hennie Jordaan; Joseph L. Smilanick; Keith Lesar; Paul H. Fourie

    2011-01-01

    Imazalil (IMZ) is commonly applied in South African citrus packhouses for the control of green mould, caused by Penicillium digitatum, yet the disease still causes significant postharvest losses. The maximum residue limit (MRL) for IMZ on citrus fruit is 5?gg?1, whereas 2–3?gg?1 is a biologically effective residue level that should at least inhibit green mould sporulation. Standard compliance auditing of

  3. Stylet morphometrics and ultrastructure in relation to feeding behavior and pathogen transmission by nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feeding behavior and stylet morphometrics were studied in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The stylet length of first instar nymphs a...

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Beneficial Bacteria Associated with Citrus Roots in Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Trivedi; Timothy Spann; Nian Wang

    Cultivable diversity of bacteria associated with citrus was investigated as part of a larger study to understand the roles\\u000a of beneficial bacteria and utilize them to increase the productive capacity and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Citrus\\u000a roots from Huanglongbing (HLB) diseased symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus were used in this study. A total of 227 and 125\\u000a morphologically distinct colonies were isolated

  5. MULTIPLEX TAQMAN-BASED PCR FOR SENSITIVE AND ACCURATE QUANTIFICATION OF CITRUS HLB AND CVC PATHOGENS; CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER AND XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening disease) and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) are caused by Candidatus Liberibacter (CL) and Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) respectively. Both pathogens were listed as plant bio-threat agents in 2002 US Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act. Citr...

  6. In-vitro evaluation of bioactive compounds, anti-oxidant, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of Citrus karna L. peel extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagdeep Singh; Shailja Sood; Arunachalam Muthuraman

    Many medicinal plants have been studied for their antioxidant and their pharmacological activity. Citrus species were well documented as potential antioxidant based therapy for cancer, inflammation, heart disease. Citrus seeds and peels have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study to explore the antioxidant\\u000a and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action of Citrus karna peel extracts

  7. A highly sensitive heminested RT-PCR assay for the detection of citrus psorosis virus targeted to a conserved region of the genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G Legarreta; M. L Garc??a; N Costa; O Grau

    2000-01-01

    Psorosis is a widespread and damaging disease of citrus in many parts of the world. The causal agent is a multipartite virus with RNA genome present in very low concentration in infected citrus tissue. Diagnosis is made by biological indexing on indicator citrus seedlings, but it is a slow and costly procedure and therefore it is not used generally. No

  8. Calculation of diagnostic parameters of advanced serological and molecular tissue-print methods for detection of Citrus tristeza virus. A model for other plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important virus diseases which affect citrus. Control of CTV in Spain and central California is achieved by planting virus-free citrus on CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. Quarantine and certification programs remain essential to avoid importation ...

  9. Tissue-print real-time RT-PCR for accurate detection of Citrus tristeza virus. Validation and comparison with Tissue print-ELISA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most important virus diseases of Citrus species. The control of CTV in Spain and Central California is based on planting virus-free citrus on CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. However, quarantine and certification programs are still essential to avo...

  10. Design of a dryer for citrus peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Carsky

    2008-01-01

    Citrus peels are important source of production of food additives. South Africa is the third largest citrus exporter in the world but presently no citrus peels are used for further processing. On contrary the country is forced to import these chemicals from overseas in spite of a good quality raw material source in the form of citrus waste. Because citrus

  11. All five host-range variants of Xanthomonas citri carry one pthA homolog with 17.5 repeats that determines pathogenicity on citrus, but none determine host-range variation.

    PubMed

    Al-Saadi, Abdulwahid; Reddy, Joseph D; Duan, Yong P; Brunings, Asha M; Yuan, Qiaoping; Gabriel, Dean W

    2007-08-01

    Citrus canker disease is caused by five groups of Xanthomonas citri strains that are distinguished primarily by host range: three from Asia (A, A*, and A(w)) and two that form a phylogenetically distinct clade and originated in South America (B and C). Every X. citri strain carries multiple DNA fragments that hybridize with pthA, which is essential for the pathogenicity of wide-host-range X. citri group A strain 3213. DNA fragments that hybridized with pthA were cloned from a representative strain from all five groups. Each strain carried one and only one pthA homolog that functionally complemented a knockout mutation of pthA in 3213. Every complementing homolog was of identical size to pthA and carried 17.5 nearly identical, direct tandem repeats, including three new genes from narrow-host-range groups C (pthC), A(w) (pthAW), and A* (pthA*). Every noncomplementing paralog was of a different size; one of these was sequenced from group A* (pthA*-2) and was found to have an intact promoter and full-length reading frame but with 15.5 repeats. None of the complementing homologs nor any of the noncomplementing paralogs conferred avirulence to 3213 on grapefruit or suppressed avirulence of a group A* strain on grapefruit. A knockout mutation of pthC in a group C strain resulted in loss of pathogenicity on lime, but the strain was unaffected in ability to elicit an HR on grapefruit. This pthC- mutant was fully complemented by pthA, pthB, or pthC. Analysis of the predicted amino-acid sequences of all functional pthA homologs and nonfunctional paralogs indicated that the specific sequence of the 17th repeat may be essential for pathogenicity of X. citri on citrus. PMID:17722697

  12. HLB resistance and tolerance in citrus scion development at the U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus and threatening industries in the rest of the United States. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected trees. Fruit size and quality often diminish as the disease advances. The USDA citrus scion breeding program is charged with producing impr...

  13. Effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) feeding behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is one of the most important pests of citrus due to its status as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing...

  14. Acoustic signals in the courtship of male and female Asian citrus psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was discovered in Broward County, Florida in 1998, and has since spread through most of the state. It is an important vector of Huanglongbing, an economically devastating disease of citrus; consequently, researchers and regulators are trying to d...

  15. Psorosis Virus A on the Mandarin Orange (Citrus nobilis Lour.) in Malaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting Wen Poh

    1962-01-01

    PSOROSIS of citrus has hitherto not been reported from Malaya. Recent investigations on the possible presence of virus diseases on citrus have shown a large number of mandarin orange trees in Segamat, Johore, to be affected by severe scaling of the bark. Affected trees showed signs of decline. No leaf symptoms, however, have been observed in the field.

  16. Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study, we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids ...

  17. Production of DAPG and HCN by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 contributes to the biological control of bacterial canker of tomato.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, Carine; Gadkar, Vijay J; Wallon, Thérèse; Novinscak, Amy; Filion, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is known to cause significant economic losses to tomato production worldwide. Biological control has been proposed as an alternative to current chemical containment methods, which are often inefficient and may leave adverse effects on the environment. However, only little headway has so far been made in developing biocontrol strategies against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the antagonistic capacity of PCA, produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM223, and DAPG and HCN, both produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300, on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under in vitro and in planta conditions. Nonsynthesizing isogenic mutants of the producer strains were also developed to further dissect the role of each individual metabolite on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis biological control. Novel specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assays allowed quantification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato plants and rhizospheric soil. Pseudomonas spp. LBUM223 and LBUM300 significantly repressed C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis growth in vitro, while their respective nonproducing mutants showed less or no significant antagonistic activity. In planta, only Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 was capable of significantly reducing disease development and C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis rhizospheric population, suggesting that the production of both DAPG and HCN was involved. In summary, simultaneous DAPG/HCN production by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 shows great potential for controlling bacterial canker of tomato. PMID:22713078

  18. Modeling huanglongbing transmission within a citrus tree

    PubMed Central

    Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.; Halbert, Susan E.; Morris, J. Glenn; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2012-01-01

    The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), associated with an uncultured bacterial pathogen, is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. A mathematical model of the transmission of HLB between its psyllid vector and citrus host has been developed to characterize the dynamics of the vector and disease development, focusing on the spread of the pathogen from flush to flush (a newly developing cluster of very young leaves on the expanding terminal end of a shoot) within a tree. This approach differs from that of prior models for vector-transmitted plant diseases where the entire plant is the unit of analysis. Dynamics of vector and host populations are simulated realistically as the flush population approaches complete infection. Model analysis indicates that vector activity is essential for initial infection but is not necessary for continued infection because infection can occur from flush to flush through internal movement in the tree. Flush production, within-tree spread, and latent period are the most important parameters influencing HLB development. The model shows that the effect of spraying of psyllids depends on time of initial spraying, frequency, and efficacy of the insecticides. Similarly, effects of removal of symptomatic flush depend on the frequency of removal and the time of initiation of this practice since the start of the epidemic. Within-tree resistance to spread, possibly affected by inherent or induced resistance, is a major factor affecting epidemic development, supporting the notion that alternate routes of transmission besides that by the vector can be important for epidemic development. PMID:22783015

  19. Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian S da Silva; Cláudio S Shida; Fabiana B Rodrigues; Diógenes CD Ribeiro; Alessandra A de Souza; Helvécio D Coletta-Filho; Marcos A Machado; Luiz R Nunes; Regina Costa de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other

  20. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25256398

  1. Detection of Citrus psorosis virus in the northwestern citrus production area of Argentina by using an improved TAS-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Zanek, Maria Cecilia; Peña, Eduardo; Reyes, Carina Andrea; Figueroa, Julia; Stein, Beatriz; Grau, Oscar; Garcia, Maria Laura

    2006-11-01

    Citrus Psorosis in Argentina is a serious disease. Citrus is produced in two regions located in the northeast (NE) and northwest (NW) area of the country. These two areas have different climates and soil types, and therefore different citrus species and varieties are cultivated. In the NE region, Psorosis is epidemic, and in the NW region, the disease was described on several occasions since 1938, but it is not observed commonly in the orchards. Recently, trees with symptoms of Psorosis were observed in the Tucumán and Salta Provinces located in the NW region. Epidemiological studies in Argentina and Texas suggested that the disease is spread naturally by an unknown vector. The causal agent of the disease is the Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which can be detected by TAS-ELISA, RT-PCR and indicator plants. A new more rapid TAS-ELISA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) is described which is more reliable, faster and more sensitive than the currently used for this virus, the TAS-ELISA-AP (alkaline phosphatase). Psorosis was detected by this improved method in few trees in the orchards of the Tucumán Province, in the NW citrus region, although natural spread does not seem to occur. PMID:16872685

  2. Quantitative real-time PCR for detection and identification of Candidatus Liberibacter species associated with citrus huanglongbing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenbin Li; John S. Hartung; Laurene Levy

    2006-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB, ex greening) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. Different forms of the disease are caused by different Candidatus Liberobacter species, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. africanus (Laf) and Ca. L. americanus (Lam). The pathogen is transmitted by psyllid insects and by budding with contaminated plant materials. The vector psyllid Diaphorina citri can transmit

  3. Molecular systematics of citrus-associated Alternaria species.

    PubMed

    Peever, T L; Su, G; Carpenter-Boggs, L; Timmer, L W

    2004-01-01

    The causal agents of Alternaria brown spot of tangerines and tangerine hybrids, Alternaria leaf spot of rough lemon and Alternaria black rot of citrus historically have been referred to as Alternaria citri or A. alternata. Ten species of Alternaria recently were described among a set of isolates from leaf lesions on rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) and tangelo (C. paradisi × C. reticulata), and none of these isolates was considered representative of A. alternata or A. citri. To test the hypothesis that these newly described morphological species are congruent with phylogenetic species, selected Alternaria brown spot and leaf spot isolates, citrus black rot isolates (post-harvest pathogens), isolates associated with healthy citrus tissue and reference species of Alternaria from noncitrus hosts were scored for sequence variation at five genomic regions and used to estimate phylogenies. These data included 432 bp from the 5' end of the mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU), 365 bp from the 5' end of the beta-tubulin gene, 464 bp of an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and 559 and 571 bp, respectively, of two anonymous genomic regions (OPA1-3 and OPA2-1). The mtLSU and beta-tubulin phylogenies clearly differentiated A. limicola, a large-spored species causing leaf spot of Mexican lime, from the small-spored isolates associated with citrus but were insufficiently variable to resolve evolutionary relationships among the small-spored isolates from citrus and other hosts. Sequence analysis of translation elongation factor alpha, calmodulin, actin, chitin synthase and 1, 3, 8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase genes similarly failed to uncover significant variation among the small-spored isolates. Phylogenies estimated independently from endoPG, OPA1-3 and OPA2-1 data were congruent, and analysis of the combined data from these regions revealed nine clades, eight of which contained small-spored, citrus-associated isolates. Lineages inferred from analysis of the combined dataset were in general agreement with described morphospecies, however, three clades contained more than one morphological species and one morphospecies (A. citrimacularis) was polyphyletic. Citrus black rot isolates also were found to be members of more than a single lineage. The number of morphospecies associated with citrus exceeded that which could be supported under a phylogenetic species concept, and isolates in only five of nine phylogenetic lineages consistently were correlated with a specific host, disease or ecological niche on citrus. We advocate collapsing all small-spored, citrus-associated isolates of Alternaria into a single phylogenetic species, A. alternata. PMID:21148834

  4. The effect of a minor constituent of essential oil from Citrus aurantium: the role of ?-myrcene in preventing peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Bonamin, Flavia; Moraes, Thiago M; Dos Santos, Raquel C; Kushima, Hélio; Faria, Felipe M; Silva, Marcos A; Junior, Ivan V; Nogueira, Leonardo; Bauab, Tais M; Souza Brito, Alba R M; da Rocha, Lucia R M; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A

    2014-04-01

    The monoterpene ?-myrcene has been widely used in cosmetics, food and beverages, and it is normally found in essential oil from citrus fruit. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-ulcer effects of ?-myrcene on experimental models of ulcers that are induced by ethanol, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), stress, Helicobacter pylori, ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) and cysteamine in order to compare with the essential oil of Citrus aurantium and its major compound limonene. The results indicate that the oral administration of ?-myrcene at a dose of 7.50mg/kg has important anti-ulcer activity with significantly decreased gastric and duodenal lesions as well as increased gastric mucus production. The results showed treatment with ?-myrcene caused a significant increase in mucosal malondialdehyde level (MDA), an important index of oxidative tissue damage. The ?-myrcene was also endowed with marked enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activity from GR system as evidenced by the decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and total glutathione in gastric tissue. Our results also shown that treatment with ?-myrcene is not involved with thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. Our results reveal, for the first time, the importance of ?-myrcene as an inhibitor of gastric and duodenal ulcers and demonstrate that an increase in the levels of gastric mucosa defence factors is involved in the anti-ulcer activity of ?-myrcene. PMID:24480520

  5. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham Van Hung; Pham Thi Lan Chi; Nguyen Thi Lan Phi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was

  6. Sequencing and computational analysis of complete genome sequences of Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus from acid lime and pummelo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basanta K. Borah; A. M. Anthony Johnson; D. V. R. Sai Gopal; Indranil Dasgupta

    2009-01-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus, is the causative agent of Citrus mosaic disease in India. Although the virus has been detected in several citrus species,\\u000a only two full-length genomes, one each from Sweet orange and Rangpur lime, are available in publicly accessible databases.\\u000a In order to obtain a better understanding of

  7. Optimising and communicating options for the control of invasive plant disease when there is epidemiological uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Stutt, Richard O J H; DeSimone, R Erik; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2015-04-01

    Although local eradication is routinely attempted following introduction of disease into a new region, failure is commonplace. Epidemiological principles governing the design of successful control are not well-understood. We analyse factors underlying the effectiveness of reactive eradication of localised outbreaks of invading plant disease, using citrus canker in Florida as a case study, although our results are largely generic, and apply to other plant pathogens (as we show via our second case study, citrus greening). We demonstrate how to optimise control via removal of hosts surrounding detected infection (i.e. localised culling) using a spatially-explicit, stochastic epidemiological model. We show how to define optimal culling strategies that take account of stochasticity in disease spread, and how the effectiveness of disease control depends on epidemiological parameters determining pathogen infectivity, symptom emergence and spread, the initial level of infection, and the logistics and implementation of detection and control. We also consider how optimal culling strategies are conditioned on the levels of risk acceptance/aversion of decision makers, and show how to extend the analyses to account for potential larger-scale impacts of a small-scale outbreak. Control of local outbreaks by culling can be very effective, particularly when started quickly, but the optimum strategy and its performance are strongly dependent on epidemiological parameters (particularly those controlling dispersal and the extent of any cryptic infection, i.e. infectious hosts prior to symptoms), the logistics of detection and control, and the level of local and global risk that is deemed to be acceptable. A version of the model we developed to illustrate our methodology and results to an audience of stakeholders, including policy makers, regulators and growers, is available online as an interactive, user-friendly interface at http://www.webidemics.com/. This version of our model allows the complex epidemiological principles that underlie our results to be communicated to a non-specialist audience. PMID:25874622

  8. Certification Programs for Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F. Lee

    Certification programs are important for the long term sustainability of citrus and other crops which are vegetatively propagated.\\u000a The certification program provides a basic platform for all integrated pest management practices, it is important for the\\u000a management of insect and fungal pests, and the program ensures that the grower is planting healthy germplasm of the highest\\u000a horticultural quality. Graft transmissible

  9. Use of carnauba based carrier for copper sprays reduces infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Diaporthe citri in Florida commercial grapefruit groves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), a bacterial disease of citrus, was first documented on Florida citrus in the early 1900’s. At that time the disease was managed, only to return in the 1980’s and 90’s and to finally remain uncontrolled in 2004. Xcc is most active ...

  10. Conservation of US citrus collections using cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 850 unique accessions of Citrus, Fortunella, and citrus wild relatives. We have developed a method to back-up critical screenhouse and greenhouse Citrus collections using cryopr...

  11. Citrus Virus Symptoms in Sardinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bruno

    1964-01-01

    SARDINIA was believed to be a virus-free citrus region until Boselli1 first noted a disorder showing symptoms commonly referred to as the psorosis virus complex. Following this, the main citrus areas of the Island have been surveyed with the view of recognizing and recording virus or virus-like manifestations.

  12. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases. PMID:23717303

  13. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Dawson, W O; Garnsey, S M; Tatineni, S; Folimonova, S Y; Harper, S J; Gowda, S

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases. PMID:23717303

  14. Sequencing and computational analysis of complete genome sequences of Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus from acid lime and pummelo.

    PubMed

    Borah, Basanta K; Johnson, A M Anthony; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2009-08-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus, is the causative agent of Citrus mosaic disease in India. Although the virus has been detected in several citrus species, only two full-length genomes, one each from Sweet orange and Rangpur lime, are available in publicly accessible databases. In order to obtain a better understanding of the genetic variability of the virus in other citrus mosaic-affected citrus species, we performed the cloning and sequence analysis of complete genomes of CMBV from two additional citrus species, Acid lime and Pummelo. We show that CMBV genomes from the two hosts share high homology with previously reported CMBV sequences and hence conclude that the new isolates represent variants of the virus present in these species. Based on in silico sequence analysis, we predict the possible function of the protein encoded by one of the five ORFs. PMID:19444599

  15. Mechanical Transmission of the Infectious Variegation Virus of Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Grant

    1960-01-01

    INFECTIOUS variegation was described as a possible virus disease of citrus in 1931 by Petri1. His description of symptoms and his illustrations are similar to those reported by Fawcett and Klotz2, who transmitted the causal agent by bud-grafting from variegated lemon to sour orange. They noticed that some of the symptoms were similar to those associated with psorosis and suggested

  16. Indian citrus ringspot virus: localization of virus in seed tissues and evidence for lack of seed transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Baranwal

    Indian citrus ringspot disease is an important viral disease in kinnow mandarin orchards where disease incidence up to 100%\\u000a has been recorded. The disease is caused by Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV), a positive sense flexuous RNA virus. The transmission of ICRSV is generally through budwood. Association of ICRSV\\u000a with pollens of naturally infected flowers from cv. ‘Kinnow’ mandarins has

  17. A method for estimating white pine blister rust canker age on limber pine in the central Rocky Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Brian W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Summary Epidemiological studies of white pine blister rust on limber pine require a temporal component to explain variations in incidence of infection and mortality. Unfortunately, it is not known how long the pathogen has been present at various sites in the central Rocky Mountains of North America. Canker age, computed from canker length and average expansion rate, can be used

  18. Ability of a Leptosphaeria maculans isolate to form stem cankers on Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea ) segregates as a single locus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Yong Chen; Kim M. Plummer; Barbara J. Howlett

    1996-01-01

    Australian isolates of the blackleg fungusLeptosphaeria maculans, that form cankers on two Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) varieties (Stoke and Zaria) are described. This ability to form cankers on var. Stoke segregates as a single locus in both F1 and backcross progeny from a cross between twoL. maculans isolates.

  19. Xylella fastidiosa disturbs nitrogen metabolism and causes a stress response in sweet orange Citrus sinensis cv. Pera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubia P. Purcino; Camilo Lazaro Medina; Daniel Martins de Souza; Flavia Vischi Winck; Eduardo Caruso Machado; JoseCamilo Novello; Marcos Antonio Machado; Paulo Mazzafera

    2007-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a fastidious bacterium that grows exclusively in the xylem of several important crop species, including grape and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) causing Pierce disease and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), respectively. The aim of this work was to study the nitrogen metabolism of a highly susceptible variety of sweet orange cv. 'Pera' (C. sinensis L.

  20. Changes in free polyphenol levels in Satsuma leaves in response to Asian citrus psyllid infestation and water stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also referred to as citrus greening disease has caused significant losses to the citrus industry in the United States and elsewhere. In our previous studies, we observed the fluctuation of some primary and secondary metabolites in response to biotic (psyllid feeding) and abiotic...

  1. Molecular analyses revealed genetic complexity in Citrus tristeza virus Dekopon isolate and its aphid-transmitted progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assessment was made of the disease potential of a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolate designated Dekopon found in a hybrid mandarin variety topworked in a citrus planting in Fresno County, CA. After aphid transmissions (AT), parental and AT isolates were analyzed by SSCP, genotyping with multipl...

  2. Control of citrus postharvest decay by ammonia gas fumigation and its influence on the efficacy of the fungicide imazalil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most important citrus postharvest diseases of arid citrus production areas, green mold and blue mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively, were effectively controlled by fumigations with ammonia alone at 3000 to 6000 µl/liter or at 1500 µl/liter when applied to fruit pr...

  3. Comparative Genomics and Phylogenetic Analyses of Newly Cloned Genomic Regions From the Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB)-associated Bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease, caused by Candidatus Liberibacter species, is a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. The pathogen is a gram negative, unculturable, phloem-limited bacterium, with little known genomic information. Here, we report cloning and characterizatio...

  4. Transcriptional responses and carbohydrate metabolism of citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of Huanglongbing in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus occurring in most citrus growing regions worldwide. It is caused by a phloem-limited, fastidious bacterium of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, which is transmitted through insect vectors. HLB causes the decline of trees within few years afte...

  5. Flavonoids in tropical citrus species.

    PubMed

    Roowi, Suri; Crozier, Alan

    2011-11-23

    HPLC with PDA and MS(2) detection was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in the tropical citrus species Citrus microcarpa , Citrus hystrix , Citrus medica var. 1 and 2, and Citrus suhuiensis . Most of these species contained high amounts of flavones, flavanones, and dihydrochalcone C- and/or O-glycosides, which were identified on the basis of HPLC retention times, cochromatography with available authentic standards, absorbance spectra, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns. Among the major compounds detected were apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-2?-O-rhamnoside, phloretin-3',5'-di-C-glucoside, diosmetin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-neohesperidoside, and hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside. Most of the dihydrochalcone and flavone C-glycosides have not previously been detected in tropical citrus. C. microcarpa contained a high amount of phloretin-3',5'-di-C-glucoside. Most of the tropical citrus flavanones were neohesperidoside conjugates, which are responsible for imparting a bitter taste to the fruit. Only C. suhuiensis fruit contains rutinoside, a nonbitter conjugate. PMID:21978223

  6. Analysis of full-length sequences of two Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus isolates infecting Citrus jambhiri (Rough Lemon) and Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (Sweet Orange) from a nursery in India.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Borah, B K; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, I

    2012-12-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus is the causative agent of mosaic disease among Citrus species in southern India. Despite its reported prevalence in several citrus species, complete information on clear functional genomics or functional information of full-length genomes from all the CMBV isolates infecting citrus species are not available in publicly accessible databases. CMBV isolates from Rough Lemon and Sweet Orange collected from a nursery were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed high sequence homology of the two CMBV isolates with previously reported CMBV sequences implying that they represent new variants. Based on computational analysis of the predicted secondary structures, the possible functions of some CMBV proteins have been analyzed. PMID:22926812

  7. Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks, functional enrichment analysis and gene expression information provide opportunities to infer gene function in citrus. We present a publicly accessible tool, Network Inference for Citrus Co-Expression (NICCE, http://citrus.adelaide.edu.au/nicce/home.aspx), for the gene co-expression analysis in citrus. PMID:25023870

  8. Effect of Liberibacter infection (Huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or greening disease was discovered in Florida several years ago and has since spread throughout the state. The disease is correlated to the presence of a gram-negative bacteria, Candididatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). This disease is not feasible to eradicate, thus, the indus...

  9. Guide to managing vineyard trunk diseases in Lodi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All vineyards in California are likely to become infected with trunk diseases (a.k.a. wood-canker diseases). The main trunk diseases are Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback. The infections are chronic and accumulate over time. Farming vines with trunk diseases becomes...

  10. Development and systematic validation of qPCR assays for rapid and reliable differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing citrus variegated chlorosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xylem-limited, Gram-negative, fastidious plant bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease affecting approximately half of the citrus plantations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The disease was recently found in Central America...

  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of an infectious clone of Citrus yellow mosaic virus that can infect sweet orange via Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Huang; John S. Hartung

    2001-01-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), a member of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus, causes citrus mosaic disease, a disease that occurs commonly in India. The CYMV genome has been cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. Its DNA genome is 7559 bp in length and contains six putative open reading frames (ORFs), all on the plus-strand of the genome and

  12. Past and future of a century old Citrus Tristeza virus collection: A California citrus germplasm tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) provides a mechanism for introduction and distribution of pathogen-free citrus varieties to California for use in research, variety improvement, or commercial production. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious citrus pathogen worldwide. The pr...

  13. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p < 0.05). Tangerine's peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058

  14. Properties of a citrus isolate of olive latent virus 1, a new necrovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Martelli; M. A. Yilmaz; V. Savino; S. Baloglu; F. Grieco; M. E. Güldür; N. Greco; R. Lafortezza

    1996-01-01

    A virus was recovered by sap transmission from plants of several citrus species exhibiting or not symptoms of chlorotic dwarf (CCD), a disease recently reported from Eastern Mediterranean Turkey. The virus was identified as an isolate of olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1), originally described as a possible sobemovirus. The citrus isolate of OLV-1 (OLV-1\\/Tk) possesses biological, morphological, physico-chemical, and ultrastructural

  15. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our "recipe" for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

  16. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    PubMed Central

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our “recipe” for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

  17. Citrus Preferences Among Customers of Selected Stores. 

    E-print Network

    Bitting, H. Wayne; Bayton, James A.; Fugett, Kenneth A.

    1950-01-01

    Summary of Replies to Questions Asked Homemakers ............ 29 ......................... Paired Comparisons of Taste Preference 47 ............................................ Taste Test Ballot 48 BULLETIN 722 JUNE 1950 Citrus Preferences Among... made in the laboratory of the vitamin content of fresh and processed citrus; and the relative cost of fresh citrus, canned citrus juices and frozen orange juice concentrate. A "taste test" panel was also conducted in the laboratory to compare...

  18. First record of Colletogloeopsis zuluense comb. nov., causing a stem canker of Eucalyptus in China

    E-print Network

    First record of Colletogloeopsis zuluense comb. nov., causing a stem canker of Eucalyptus in China. WINGFIELDa , Michael J. WINGFIELDa a Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Province, P.R. China d Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht

  19. Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) of tomato in commercial seed produced in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Anwar; Zouwen van der P. S; S. Ilyas; Wolf van der J. M

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis, the causal organism of bacterial canker of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), was isolated from two of six commercial asymptomatic tomato seed lots produced on Java in Indonesia. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis has not been reported in Indonesia previously. Methods based on the protocol of the International Seed Health Initiative were used to extract

  20. The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Holocryphia eucalypti on Eucalyptus in New Zealand

    E-print Network

    The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Holocryphia eucalypti on Eucalyptus in New Zealand M. Gryzenhout, South Africa. C Scion Research, New Zealand Forest Institute Ltd, Rotorua, New Zealand. D Corresponding and morphological characterisation, we show for the first time that H. eucalypti is present in New Zealand

  1. Characterization of Pear Blister Canker Viroid Isolates from Australian Pome Fruit Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVd) was detected in pear (Pyrus sp.), nashi (Pyrus serotina) and quince (Cydonia oblonga) trees from various pome fruit growing regions of Australia using dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. Characteristic symptoms of PBCVd infection were not observed on the...

  2. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

  3. Citrus tristeza virus-aphid interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review chapter on aphid transmission of Citrus tristeza virus is provided for a book on “Vector-Mediated Transmission of Plant Pathogens”. Earliest uses of citrus goes back over two millennia as items of trade, gifts and medicinal compounds. Citrus propagation during this period was by seed and si...

  4. Guide to managing vineyard trunk diseases in Lodi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trunk diseases (wood-canker diseases) threaten all California vineyards due to widespread distribution of the fungal pathogens. The infections are chronic and occur each year. Trunk diseases in mature vineyards reduce yields and increase management costs to the point where the vineyard is no longer ...

  5. Identification Guide for Diseases of Tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this guide on diseases associated with tea (Camellia sinensis) is to assist with p;roblem identification and raise awareness of serious plant disease pathogens not yet present in Hawaii. Blister bligtht, horse-hair blight, and twig dieback/stem canker are very destructive diseases fo...

  6. Effect of drought and defoliation on the susceptibility of eucalypts to cankers caused by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis

    SciTech Connect

    Old, K.M.; Gibbs, R.; Craig, I.; Myers, B.J. (CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)); Yuan, Z.Q. (Xinjiang August 1st Agricultural College (China))

    1990-01-01

    Seedlings, saplings and mature eucalypts were susceptible to infection by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis. Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis were more susceptible than E. grandis and E. saligna. In trees not subjected to stress, cankers were limited in extent and often healed. When trees were defoliated, either manually or by severe insect attack, stem concentrations of both starch and soluble carbohydrates were reduced and canker development in some pathogen/host combinations was increased. Seedlings subjected to water stress were not predisposed to canker formation. The association of E. gyrosa with branch dieback of rural eucalypts suffering from chronic defoliation suggests that canker fungi contribute to the crown dieback syndrome in south-eastern Australia.

  7. Bud emergence and shoot growth from mature citrus nodal segments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bud emergence and shoot growth from adult phase citrus nodal cultures were studied using Citrus mitis (calamondin), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and citrus type on shoot quality and growth fro...

  8. Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

  9. Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Magdalena; Esteban, Olga; Gil, Maite; Gorris, M Teresa; Martínez, M Carmen; Peña, Leandro; Cambra, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two different scFv constructs, separately and simultaneously, were generated. These constructs derived from the well-referenced monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, specific against CTV p25 major coat protein, whose mixture is able to detect all CTV isolates characterized so far. ScFv accumulation levels were low and could be readily detected just in four transgenic lines. Twelve homogeneous and vigorous lines were propagated and CTV-challenged by graft inoculation with an aggressive CTV strain. A clear protective effect was observed in most transgenic lines, which showed resistance in up to 40-60% of propagations. Besides, both a delay in symptom appearance and attenuation of symptom intensity were observed in infected transgenic plants compared with control plants. This effect was more evident in lines carrying the 3DF1scFv transgene, being probably related to the biological functions of the epitope recognized by this antibody. This is the first report describing successful protection against a pathogen in woody transgenic plants by ectopic expression of scFv recombinant antibodies. PMID:20204695

  10. Citrus Orchard Management in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Hancock, Bluefford G.

    1962-01-01

    and vines in citrus orchartls. The grass and weeds are useful as soil- im1lrnlging cover crops, but vines are a menace. ; kills cover crops and partially covers them il. This hastens decay of the above-ground I of the cover crop, and the death...\\th of the hanging fruit crop and may weaken the trees to the point where they may be killed b\\ Ifir\\ temperatures. Soil temperatures are high enouqli during the winter to encourage root developmert of citrus trees and this activity prevents the ces(1 tion...

  11. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from tangerines, selectively inhibits class A scavenger receptor-mediated metabolism of acetylated LDL by mouse macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart C. Whitman; Elzbieta M. Kurowska; John A. Manthey; Alan Daugherty

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids are a class of chemically related polyphenols that are nearly ubiquitous in nature. Of the more-than 4000 flavonoids thus identified, citrus fruit-derived flavonoids are suggested to have an inverse association with the occurrence of coronary heart disease via their ability to reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations. Our current studies examined whether citrus flavonoids possess an additional antiatherogenic effect by modulating

  12. Complete 3' end genome analysis of the asymptomatic citrus tristeza virus isolate B192 and its eight single aphid transmitted subisolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most important viral disease of citrus is caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). CTV infection often exists in field isolates as a complex of multiple genotypes. Aphid transmission is important for CTV dispersal. The complete 3' terminal half sequences of the asymptomatic CTV isolate B192 and it...

  13. Characterization of citrus HSVd isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Palacio-Bielsa; J. Romero-Durbán; N. Duran-Vila

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Seven citrus isolates of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) were subjected to retrotranscription and DNA amplification (RT-PCR), cloning and sequencing. Single stranded polymorphism (SSCP) analysis demonstrated the existence of variability among and within cachexia inducing sources of HSVd. The electrophoretic profiles of SSCP appeared to be able to discriminate between non-cachexia and cachexia sources of HSVd. Sequence analysis demonstrated that

  14. The Complete Sequence of the Cytoplasmic Citrus Leprosis Virus (CCLV) and its Genome Organization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leprosis, an emerging invasive disease of citrus in Central America, has been present in South America for several years. Leprosis does not occur in the U.S. or the Caribbean Islands, but these regions are threatened by the disease. We have described the association of a bipartite, positive-sense ...

  15. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for reliable, sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in citrus trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avijit Roy; Amer Fayad; G. Barthe; R. H. Brlansky

    2005-01-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect six RNA and one DNA citrus virus: Citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV), Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus variegation virus (CVV), Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), and Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) from citrus plants. These seven viruses are classified in

  16. Effect of Citrus paradisi extract and juice on arterial pressure both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Juárez, J A; Tenorio-López, F A; Zarco-Olvera, G; Valle-Mondragón, L Del; Torres-Narváez, J C; Pastelín-Hernández, G

    2009-07-01

    Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) consumption is considered as beneficial and it is popularly used for the treatment of a vast array of diseases, including hypertension. In the present study, the coronary vasodilator and hypotensive effects of Citrus paradisi peel extract were assessed in the Langendorff isolated and perfused heart model and in the heart and lung dog preparation. In both models, Citrus paradisi peel extract decreased coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure when compared with control values (60 +/- 15 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) vs 100 +/- 10 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) and 90 mmHg vs 130 +/- 15 mmHg, respectively). These decreases in coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure were blocked when isolated and perfused hearts and mongrel dogs were pre-treated with L-NAME. In humans, Citrus paradisi juice decreased diastolic arterial pressure and systolic arterial pressure both in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Citrus paradisi juice produced a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure when compared with Citrus sinensis juice, cow milk and a vitamin C-supplemented beverage. However, more detailed studies are required to isolate, purify and evaluate the chemical compounds responsible for this pharmacological effect and to clarify its possible role for treating hypertension. PMID:19153985

  17. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. PMID:25205398

  18. Three homopteran pests of citrus as prey for the convergent lady beetle: suitability and preference.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Stansly, Philip A

    2011-12-01

    The convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is an important predator of soft-bodied insect pests in many regions of the United States, but generally uncommon in Florida citrus. Certain citrus producers in Florida recently initiated releases of commercially available H. convergens from California against the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of Huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. However, there is little information on potential efficacy of this predator against the psyllid or other pests of citrus. Preference, development, and reproduction by H. convergens was evaluated on freshly collected nymphs of D. citri, brown citrus aphid Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy, green citrus aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch, and frozen eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. Larvae preferred D. citri over T. citricida in two-way choice tests and consumed more D. citri or A. spiraecola than T. citricida in no-choice tests. Adults consumed equal numbers of all three species in both tests. Development times of larvae at 25.5±0.05°C on A. spiraecola were longer than on the other three diets. Larval survival and pupation times did not differ among diets. Females lived longer than males irrespective of diet, and longevity of both genders was greatly increased on E. kuehniella compared with D. citri and A. spiraecola. Life table analysis indicated that H. convergens should increase on all three species, with a greater potential on psyllids than aphids. Further studies are warranted to assess establishment and persistence of this potential biological control agent in the Florida citrus environment. PMID:22217767

  19. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K.; Lee, Richard F.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Krueger, Robert R.; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907–1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957–2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

  20. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K; Lee, Richard F; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Krueger, Robert R; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907-1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957-2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

  1. Isolation and partial characterization of bacteriophages infecting Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker.

    PubMed

    Di Lallo, Gustavo; Evangelisti, Matteo; Mancuso, Francesco; Ferrante, Patrizia; Marcelletti, Simone; Tinari, Antonella; Superti, Fabiana; Migliore, Luciana; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Frezza, Domenico; Scortichini, Marco; Thaller, Maria Cristina

    2014-11-01

    The phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit. In the last years, it has caused severe economic losses to Actinidia spp. cultivations, mainly in Italy and New Zealand. Conventional strategies adopted did not provide adequate control of infection. Phage therapy may be a realistic and safe answer to the urgent need for novel antibacterial agents aiming to control this bacterial pathogen. In this study, we described the isolation and characterization of two bacteriophages able to specifically infect Psa. ?PSA1, a member of the Siphoviridae family, is a temperate phage with a narrow host range, a long latency, and a burst size of 178; ?PSA2 is a lytic phage of Podoviridae family with a broader host range, a short latency, a burst size of 92 and a higher bactericidal activity as determined by the TOD value. The genomic sequence of ?PSA1 has a length of 51,090?bp and a low sequence homology with the other siphophages, whereas ?PSA2 has a length of 40?472?bp with a 98% homology with Pseudomonas putida bacteriophage gh-1. Of the two phages examined, ?PSA2 may be considered as a candidate for phage therapy of kiwifruit disease, while ?PSA1 seems specific toward the recent outbreak's isolates and could be useful for Psa typing. PMID:24810619

  2. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) Isolates from Recent Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Outbreaks Belong to the Same Genetic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Taratufolo, Maria C.; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Balestra, Giorgio M.

    2012-01-01

    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

  3. Diphenylurea Derivatives Induce Somatic Embryogenesis in Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Carra; Fabio De Pasquale; Ada Ricci; Francesco Carimi

    2006-01-01

    The present research investigates the possibility that three diphenylurea (DPU) derivatives, N-phenyl-N?-benzothiazol-6-ylurea (PBU), N,N?-bis-(2,3-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (2,3-MDPU) and N,N?-bis-(3,4-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (3,4-MDPU), stimulate the induction of somatic embryogenesis in three Citrus species. The hypothetical embryogenic activity was assessed using stigma and styles of Citrus myrtifolia Raf., Citrus madurensis Lour. and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. The three compounds influenced the production of somatic embryos differently

  4. Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

  5. Pharmacological properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in the Mediterranean region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Álvarez Arias; Luis Ramón-Laca

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacological properties of Mediterranean-grown citrus species (Citrus L., Rutaceae), including citron (Citrus medica L.), lime (Citrus ×auantiifolia [Christm.] Swingle), lemon (Citrus ×limon [L.] Osbeck), bitter orange (Citrus ×aurantium L.) and pomelo (Citrus maxima [Burm.] Merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. The virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared

  6. A sensitive and reliable RT-nested PCR assay for detection of Citrus tristeza virus from naturally infected citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Maheshwar, P K; Sano, Teruo; Janardhana, G R

    2011-05-01

    A specific and sensitive reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-nPCR) was developed for the detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from naturally infected citrus samples. Two sets of primer pairs were designed by alignment of nucleotide sequences available in GenBank database for different genotypes of CTV. RT-nPCR reaction components and thermal cycling parameters were optimized and reaction conditions were standardized. Sequencing of the PCR products from direct and nested-PCR reactions confirmed the specificity of both primer pairs. Presence of CTV specific amplicons in asymptomatic samples which were collected from diseased orchards indicated the sensitivity of the test. As RT-nPCR technique, developed in the present study, is specific and efficient in detecting CTV, this could be envisioned for diagnostic applications and surveillance. PMID:21298268

  7. Host Status of Citrus and Citrus Relatives to Tylenchulus graminis.

    PubMed

    Inserra, R N; O'Bannon, J H; Keen, W M

    1989-10-01

    Studies were conducted on the host suitability of four citrus rootstocks--rough lemon (Citrus limon), sour orange (C. aurantium), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata cv. Argentina), and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata)--to Tylenchulus graminis which was previously considered a "grass" race of T. semipenetrans. In an uncultivated field, sour orange seedlings grown with T. graminis-infected broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were not infected with this nematode after 18-month's exposure to T. graminis population densities ranging from < 0.01 to 0.4 second-stage juveniles (J2)/cm(3) soil. In a greenhouse test, two T. graminis populations from two Florida locations did not infect sour orange seedlings grown for 2 years in soil naturally infested with 0.3 and 1.3 J2/cm(3). Rough lemon, trifoliate orange, and Swingle citrumelo seedlings suppressed T. graminis initial population densities of 7 to final values of < 0.1 J2/cm(3) soil. Final values of > 70.0 J2/cm(3) occurred in soil with broomsedge. These findings provide conclusive evidence that T. graminis is a specific parasite of grasses and does not infect citrus. PMID:19287668

  8. Host Status of Citrus and Citrus Relatives to Tylenchulus graminis

    PubMed Central

    Inserra, R. N.; O'Bannon, J. H.; Keen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the host suitability of four citrus rootstocks--rough lemon (Citrus limon), sour orange (C. aurantium), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata cv. Argentina), and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata)--to Tylenchulus graminis which was previously considered a "grass" race of T. semipenetrans. In an uncultivated field, sour orange seedlings grown with T. graminis-infected broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were not infected with this nematode after 18-month's exposure to T. graminis population densities ranging from < 0.01 to 0.4 second-stage juveniles (J2)/cm³ soil. In a greenhouse test, two T. graminis populations from two Florida locations did not infect sour orange seedlings grown for 2 years in soil naturally infested with 0.3 and 1.3 J2/cm³. Rough lemon, trifoliate orange, and Swingle citrumelo seedlings suppressed T. graminis initial population densities of 7 to final values of < 0.1 J2/cm³ soil. Final values of > 70.0 J2/cm³ occurred in soil with broomsedge. These findings provide conclusive evidence that T. graminis is a specific parasite of grasses and does not infect citrus. PMID:19287668

  9. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from Recent Outbreaks of Kiwifruit Bacterial Canker Belong to Different Clones That Originated in China

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Margi I.; Stockwell, Peter A.; Black, Michael A.; Day, Robert C.; Lamont, Iain L.; Poulter, Russell T. M.

    2013-01-01

    A recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis), is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease was first reported in China and Japan in the 1980s. A severe outbreak of PSA began in Italy in 2008 and has spread to other European countries. PSA was found in both New Zealand and Chile in 2010. To study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of PSA between countries, genomes of strains from China and Japan (where the genus Actinidia is endemic), Italy, New Zealand and Chile were sequenced. The genomes of PSA strains are very similar. However, all strains from New Zealand share several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguish them from all other PSA strains. Similarly, all the PSA strains from the 2008 Italian outbreak form a distinct clonal group and those from Chile form a third group. In addition to the rare SNPs present in the core genomes, there is abundant genetic diversity in a genomic island that is part of the accessory genome. The island from several Chinese strains is almost identical to the island present in the New Zealand strains. The island from a different Chinese strain is identical to the island present in the strains from the recent Italian outbreak. The Chilean strains of PSA carry a third variant of this island. These genomic islands are integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). Sequencing of these ICEs provides evidence of three recent horizontal transmissions of ICE from other strains of Pseudomonas syringae to PSA. The analyses of the core genome SNPs and the ICEs, combined with disease history, all support the hypothesis of an independent Chinese origin for both the Italian and the New Zealand outbreaks and suggest the Chilean strains also originate from China. PMID:23555547

  10. High codon adaptation in citrus tristeza virus to its citrus host

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution. PMID:22698086

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A PCR-BASED METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS; THE CAUSAL AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER OF WALNUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep Bark Canker (DBC), caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens (previously known as Erwinia rubrifaciens), afflicts English walnut cultivars and is characterized by late onset of symptoms in trees greater than 15 years old. These symptoms include deep bleeding vertical cankers throughout th...

  12. First Report of Nectria galligena Causing European Canker of Apple Trees in Ontario. A. R. Biggs, Agriculture Canada Research Station, Vineland Station, Ontario LOR 2EO. Plant

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    First Report of Nectria galligena Causing European Canker of Apple Trees in Ontario. A. R. Biggs for publication 19 July 1985. European canker of apple (Malus domestics Borkh. 'MacIntosh') caused by Nectria includes the apple-growing region of central Ontario. Reference: Booth, C. Commonw. Mycol. Inst. Pap. 73

  13. Distribution of citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus on citrus trees in Japan using multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Ito; Nobuyuki Namba; Tsutae Ito

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of citrus viroids – Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Citrus viroid (CVd)-I-LSS, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV), and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) – and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV; synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus) were investigated using the multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction\\u000a on samples from

  14. Simultaneous detection of six citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus from citrus plants by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Ito; Hiroyuki Ieki; Katsumi Ozaki

    2002-01-01

    We developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect six citrus viroids: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV) and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV)) from citrus plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was

  15. Cooperation in the Conservation of Citrus Genetic Resources: Riverside, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A consortium of cooperating programs for the conservation and utilization of citrus genetic resources is centered at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). University units include the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Citrus Variety Collection (CVC), and Citrus Breeding Program (CBP...

  16. Citrus Viruses in Guatemala: Application of Laboratory-Based Assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In preparation for a citrus certification in Guatemala, there was an urgent need to determine which graft transmissible citrus pathogens were present. Because of the lack of biological indicator plants, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent for citrus variegated chlorosis...

  17. Quantitative association of bark beetles with pitch canker fungus and effects of verbenone on their semiochemical communication in Monterey pine forests in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Gibson, Ken; Lindgren, B Staffan; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-08-01

    The association between 11 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) with the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell, was determined by crushing beetles on selective medium and histone H3 gene sequencing. Pityophthorus pubescens (Marsham) (25.00%), Hylurgops palliatus (Gyllenhal) (11.96%), Ips sexdentatus (Börner) (8.57%), Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood (7.89%), Hylastes attenuatus Erichson (7.40%), and Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (2.73%) were found to carry the inoculum. In addition, the root weevil Brachyderes incanus L. (14.28%) had the second highest frequency of occurrence of the fungus. The responses of the insects to a range of verbenone doses were tested in field bioassays using funnel traps. Catches of P. pubescens, a species colonizing branch tips of live trees, were significantly reduced in a log-linear dose-dependent relationship. Catches of I. sexdentatus, an opportunistic species normally attacking fresh dead host material, were also gradually reduced with increasing verbenone dose. Catches of Tomicus piniperda L., O. erosus, Dryocoetes autographus (Ratzeburg), H. eruditus, Xyleborus dryographus (Ratzeburg), Hylastes ater (Paykull), Hylurgus ligniperda (F.), H. attenuatus, and B. incanus were not significantly affected by verbenone. The effects of verbenone were consistent with differences in host-age preference. Semiochemical disruption by verbenone in P. pubescens and I. sexdentatus could represent an integrated pest management strategy for the prevention of the spread of pitch canker disease between different stands. However, several species associated with F. circinatum were unaffected by verbenone, not supporting this compound for prevention of the establishment of potential vectors in Northern Spain. PMID:17716465

  18. Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didier Ortelli; Patrick Edder; Claude Corvi

    2005-01-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides

  19. Functional analysis of block deesterified citrus pectins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful ...

  20. Citrus leprosis and its status in Florida and Texas: past and present.

    PubMed

    Childers, C C; Rodrigues, J C V; Derrick, K S; Achor, D S; French, J V; Welbourn, W C; Ochoa, R; Kitajima, E W

    2003-01-01

    According to published reports from 1906 to 1968, leprosis nearly destroyed the Florida citrus industry prior to 1925. This was supported with photographs showing typical leprosis symptoms on citrus leaves, fruit, and twigs. Support for the past occurrence of citrus leprosis in Florida includes: (1) presence of twig lesions in affected orange blocks in addition to lesions on fruits and leaves and corresponding absence of similar lesions on grapefruit; (2) yield reduction and die-back on infected trees; and (3) spread of the disease between 1906 and 1925. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of tissue samples from leprosis-like injuries to orange and grapefruit leaves from Florida in 1997, and fruits from grapefruit and sweet orange varieties from Texas in 1999 and 2000 did not contain leprosis-like viral particles or viroplasm inclusions. In contrast, leprosis viroplasm inclusions were readily identified by TEM within green non-senescent tissues surrounding leprosis lesions in two of every three orange leaf samples and half of the fruit samples obtained from Piracicaba, Brazil. Symptoms of leprosis were not seen in any of the 24,555 orange trees examined across Florida during 2001 and 2002. The authors conclude that citrus leprosis no longer exists in Florida nor occurs in Texas citrus based on: (1) lack of leprosis symptoms on leaves, fruit, and twigs of sweet orange citrus varieties surveyed in Florida: (2) failure to find virus particles or viroplasm inclusion bodies in suspect samples from both Florida and Texas examined by TEM; (3) absence of documented reports by others on the presence of characteristic leprosis symptoms in Florida; (4) lack of its documented occurrence in dooryard trees or abandoned or minimal pesticide citrus orchard sites in Florida. In view of the serious threat to citrus in the U.S., every effort must be taken to quarantine the importation of both citrus and woody ornamental plants that serve as hosts for Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus (Banks), and B. obovatus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from countries where citrus leprosis occurs. PMID:14756416

  1. Packingline treatments and their effects on Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida citrus industry still remains under quarantine for the shipment of fruit to citrus growing areas. This is because of the fear the fruit going through the packing line from a canker infected grove will carry viable bacterial cells that can cause new infections where there was no disease p...

  2. Citrus stubborn symptom severity and Spiroplasma citri location within the tress canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The severity of symptoms of citrus stubborn disease (CSD) within an orchard can range from mild to severe, but whether factors other than pathogen titer or duration of infection impact severity is not known. We tested the hypothesis that the canopy distribution of the pathogen, Spiroplasma citri, i...

  3. Susceptibility of citrus species to Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of the Alternaria brown spot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Reis; T. F. de Almeida; E. S. Stuchi; A. de Goes

    2007-01-01

    Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of Alternaria brown spot (ABS), causes necrosis on leaves, twigs, and fruit, reducing the productivity and quality of fruits. Tangerines and their hybrids are highly susceptible to the disease. Species, hybrids, and cultivars of Citrus from the germplasm bank of the Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in 2004 and

  4. Incidence and severity of huanglongbing and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus titer among field-infected citrus cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence and severity of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease were assessed in April, 2010 among eight citrus cultivars representing diverse scion types growing in commercial groves in Florida’s Indian River region, an area with high incidence of HLB. Twenty trees of each cultivar were rated for visual HLB...

  5. An update on the effect of citrus greening on flavor and taste of orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been some anecdotal reports that Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease, recently introduced in Florida, may impart off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the processing industry to determine what affect fruit from trees of various stages of infection would have on proce...

  6. Suppression of bacterial canker of tomato by composts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Yogev; Michael Raviv; Giora Kritzman; Yitzhak Hadar; Ron Cohen; Benny Kirshner; Jaacov Katan

    2009-01-01

    Suppression of Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganensis (CMM) by composts was studied in comparison to conducive peat. Composts based on tomato or pepper residues combined with cattle or chicken manure reduced disease caused by CMM by between 79% and 100% under both natural infection of mature plants and intentional inoculation. Populations of CMM in composts declined to undetectable levels within 15–

  7. Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Lai, Kaiping; Qu, Fei; Zhang, Yanbo

    2011-12-01

    Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×10? CFU/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by 2% SBC treatment. In artificial inoculation trials, disease control after 3 and 6 days, respectively, with the mixture of K. marxianus and 2% SBC (18.33%, 58.33%) was significantly improved over that obtained with K. marxianus (41.67%, 70.00%) or SBC (43.33%, 81.67%) alone. The combination of K. marxianus with SBC was as effective as the imazalil treatment in natural infection trials, which gave about 90% control of green mold. Addition of 2% SBC significantly stimulated the growth of K. marxianus in citrus fruit wounds after 72 h. Moreover, K. marxianus, SBC and their combination did not impair quality parameters including weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid at 4 °C for 30 days followed by 20 °C for 15 days. These results suggested that the use of SBC is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of K. marxianus for the postharvest green mold of citrus fruit. PMID:21920618

  8. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    PubMed

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735

  9. Citrus biotechnology: Achievements, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeepa; Rajam, Manchikatla V

    2009-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important commercial and nutritional fruit crops in the world, hence it needs to be improved to cater to the diverse needs of consumers and crop breeders. Genetic manipulation through conventional techniques in this genus is invariably a difficult task for plant breeders as it poses various biological limitations comprising long juvenile period, high heterozygosity, sexual incompatibility, nucellar polyembryony and large plant size that greatly hinder cultivar improvement. Hence, several attempts were made to improve Citrus sps. by using various in vitro techniques. Citrus sps are widely known for their recalcitrance to transformation and subsequent rooting, but constant research has led to the establishment of improved protocols to ensure the production of uniformly transformed plants, albeit with relatively low efficiency, depending upon the genotype. Genetic modification through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has emerged as an important tool for introducing agronomically important genes into Citrus sps. Somatic hybridization has been applied to overcome self and cross-incompatibility barriers and generated inter-specific and inter-generic hybrids. Encouraging results have been achieved through transgenics for resistance against viruses and bacteria, thereby augmenting the yield and quality of the fruit. Now, when major transformation and regeneration protocols have sufficiently been standardized for important cultivars, ongoing citrus research focuses mainly on incorporating such genes in citrus genotypes that can combat different biotic and abiotic stresses. This review summarizes the advances made so far in Citrus biotechnology, and suggests some future directions of research in this fruit crop. PMID:23572908

  10. Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: new findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J

    2008-08-13

    Significantly, much of the activity of Citrus flavonoids appears to impact blood and microvascular endothelial cells, and it is not surprising that the two main areas of research on the biological actions of Citrus flavonoids have been inflammation and cancer. Epidemiological and animal studies point to a possible protective effect of flavonoids against cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Although flavonoids have been studied for about 50 years, the cellular mechanisms involved in their biological action are still not completely known. Many of the pharmacological properties of Citrus flavonoids can be linked to the abilities of these compounds to inhibit enzymes involved in cell activation. Attempts to control cancer involve a variety of means, including the use of suppressing, blocking, and transforming agents. Suppressing agents prevent the formation of new cancers from procarcinogens, and blocking agents prevent carcinogenic compounds from reaching critical initiation sites, while transformation agents act to facilitate the metabolism of carcinogenic components into less toxic materials or prevent their biological actions. Flavonoids can act as all three types of agent. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular flavonoid intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In coronary heart disease, the protective effects of flavonoids include mainly antithrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-oxidant, and vasorelaxant. It is suggested that flavonoids decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by three major actions: improving coronary vasodilatation, decreasing the ability of platelets in the blood to clot, and preventing low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidizing. The anti-inflammatory properties of the Citrus flavonoids have also been studied. Several key studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids are due to its inhibition of the synthesis and biological activities of different pro-inflammatory mediators, mainly the arachidonic acid derivatives, prostaglandins E 2, F 2, and thromboxane A 2. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids can play a key role in their activity against several degenerative diseases and particularly brain diseases. The most abundant Citrus flavonoids are flavanones, such as hesperidin, naringin, or neohesperidin. However, generally, the flavones, such as diosmin, apigenin, or luteolin, exhibit higher biological activity, even though they occur in much lower concentrations. Diosmin and rutin have a demonstrated activity as a venotonic agent and are present in several pharmaceutical products. Apigenin and their glucosides have been shown a good anti-inflammatory activity without the side effects of other anti-inflammatory products. In this paper, we discuss the relation between each structural factor of Citrus flavonoids and the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activity of Citrus flavonoids and their role in degenerative diseases. PMID:18593176

  11. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:22799453

  12. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L.; Shelby, Kent S.; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R.; Shatters, Robert G.; Hall, David G.; Davis, Paul H.; Hunter, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

  13. Selection of Antagonistic Bacteria of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Evaluation of Their Efficiency Against Bacterial Canker of Tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Boudyach; M. Fatmi; O. Akhayat; E. Benizri; A. Ait Ben Aoumar

    2001-01-01

    A 178 bacterial strains, antagonistic towards Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis , the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, were isolated from bulk soil, the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato, originating from different sites in the Souss-Massa Valley, Agadir, Morocco. The strains were characterized on the basis of the Gram stain, sporulation, fluorescence on King's B medium and physiological tests.

  14. Fusarium circinatum and pitch canker of Pinus in Colombia E. T. Steenkamp & C. A. Rodas & M. Kvas &

    E-print Network

    Fusarium circinatum and pitch canker of Pinus in Colombia E. T. Steenkamp & C. A. Rodas & M. Kvas 2005­2007, symptoms typical of those associated with F. circinatum were observed in Colombia on nursery species commonly grown in Colombia. By making use of morphology and DNA-based methods, as well

  15. Considering the citrus grove of the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revolutionary changes now face the Florida citrus industry as producers grapple with economically profitable production using greening susceptible material. Changing economic realties have encouraged many tree fruit industries to modify planting density, tree architecture, and training/production s...

  16. Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

    2004-10-01

    An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

  17. A Polygalacturonase from Citrus Leaf Explants

    PubMed Central

    Riov, J.

    1974-01-01

    The relationship between polygalacturonase activity and abscission of citrus leaf explants was studied. Determination of polygalacturonase activity in citrus tissues requires concentration of the enzyme, use of a proper assay method, and inhibition of an oxidase present in the extracts which oxidizes the reaction products of the polygalacturonase. The polygalacturonase from citrus leaf explants is an exopolygalacturonase and appears to be a soluble enzyme. Polygalacturonase activity increased during abscission of citrus leaf explants and was localized in the separation layer. Ethylene accelerated the increase in polygalacturonase activity, but its effect was evident only after at least an 8-hour lag period. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and cycloheximide inhibited abscission and polygalacturonase activity. It is concluded that polygalacturonase, in addition to cellulase, plays a role in abscission. Images PMID:16658697

  18. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1) Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2) the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels of expression of both aconitases, an observation correlating with the acidless phenotype. However, in the acidless "Dulce" lemon aconitase expression was normal suggesting that the acidless trait in this variety is not dependent upon aconitases. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies showed the occurrence of five different subfamilies of aconitate hydratase in plants and sequence analyses indentified three active genes in citrus. The pattern of expression of two of these genes, CcAco1 and CcAco2, was normally associated with the timing of acid content reduction in most genotypes. Two exceptions to this general observation suggest the occurrence of additional regulatory steps of citrate homeostasis in citrus. PMID:20958971

  19. Update on USDA advanced citrus scion selections for Indian River Citrus League

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to help maintain the Florida citrus industry, the USDA US Horticultural Research Laboratory (USHRL) citrus breeding team is working to make advanced selections available for limited testing earlier and more broadly than in the past to quickly identify material with commercial potential....

  20. Characterization of grapefruit plants ( Citrus paradisi Macf.) transformed with citrus tristeza closterovirus genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. Febres; C. L. Niblett; R. F. Lee; G. A. Moore

    2003-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv Duncan) plants were transformed with several sequences from citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) that varied in terms of position in the CTV genome and virus strain origin in an attempt to obtain resistant plants. The sequences included the capsid protein gene from three different strains, a nontranslatable version of the capsid protein gene, the replicase (RdRp),

  1. Insecticidal control of Asian citrus psyllid and Asian citrus leafminer on Hamlin oranges, 2003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insecticide trial was initiated to determine the efficacy of various pesticide products for control of Asian citrus pysllid (ACP) and Asian citrus leafminer (CLM) under Florida field conditions. The trial was conducted during the rainy season (cumulative rainfall = 15.6 inches) in a commercial ...

  2. The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of citrus leaf rugose and citrus variegation ilarviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Scott; X. Ge

    1995-01-01

    Complete sequence data for the RNA 3 of both citrus leaf rugose (CiLRV) and citrus variegation (CVV) ilarviruses have been determined. The RNAs are 2289 nt (CiLRV) and 2309 nt (CVV) in length and both contain the typical Bromoviridae arrangement of two open reading frames (ORFs) which, when translated, code for proteins that correspond to the M r 32 000

  3. Structural and biochemical characteristics of citrus flowers associated with defence against a fungal pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Marques, João Paulo Rodrigues; Amorim, Lilian; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Spósito, Marcel Bellato; Appezzato-da Gloria, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive characters of plants can be structural or biochemical and play an important role in their defence against pathogens. Citrus postbloom fruit drop (PFD) caused by Colletotrichum spp. is one of the most important fungal diseases of citrus. The pathogen infects the flowers, leading to premature fruit drop and reducing citrus production. However, flower buds smaller than 8 mm long are usually not infected by Colletotrichum spp. Thus, this study investigated whether there are constitutive mechanisms in flower buds related to Colletotrichum spp. infection. We studied flower buds that were 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 15 mm long and petals, after anthesis, of sweet orange ‘Valência’ using light and scanning electron microscopy and histochemistry. We evaluated the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in flowers (R-limonene and linalool) on the in vitro growth of Colletotrichum acutatum. We found that the arrangement of the epidermal papillae in the petal primordia, the occurrence of prismatic crystals and the distribution of oil glands are the main differences between buds smaller than 8 mm and buds 8–15 mm long. Osmophores at the tips of petals produced and accumulated phenols, terpenes and lipophilic compounds. Flower buds smaller than 8 mm long have constitutive structural and biochemical barriers to Colletotrichum spp. infection. In addition, this is the first time that osmophores have been reported in citrus. Our study shows that natural terpenes of Citrus flowers inhibit the fungal growth in vitro, highlighting the potential use of terpenes for the chemical control of PFD in citrus. PMID:25535209

  4. Isolation and characterization of beneficial bacteria associated with citrus roots in Florida.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Spann, Timothy; Wang, Nian

    2011-08-01

    Cultivable diversity of bacteria associated with citrus was investigated as part of a larger study to understand the roles of beneficial bacteria and utilize them to increase the productive capacity and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Citrus roots from Huanglongbing (HLB) diseased symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus were used in this study. A total of 227 and 125 morphologically distinct colonies were isolated and characterized from HLB asymptomatic and symptomatic trees, respectively. We observed that the frequency of bacterial isolates possessing various plant beneficial properties was significantly higher in the asymptomatic samples. A total of 39 bacterial isolates showing a minimum of five beneficial traits related to mineral nutrition [phosphate (P) solubilization, siderophore production, nitrogen (N) fixation], development [indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis], health [production of antibiotic and lytic enzymes (chitinase)], induction of systemic resistance [salicylic acid (SA) production], stress relief [production of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase] and production of quorum sensing [N-acyl homoserine lactones] signals were characterized. A bioassay using ethidium monoazide (EMA)-qPCR was developed to select bacteria antagonistic to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Using the modified EMA-qPCR assay, we found six bacterial isolates showing maximum similarity to Paenibacillus validus, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas putida, Microbacterium oleivorans, and Serratia plymutica could significantly reduce the population of viable Ca. L. asiaticus in HLB symptomatic leaf samples. In conclusion, we have isolated and characterized multiple beneficial bacterial strains from citrus roots which have the potential to enhance plant growth and suppress diseases. PMID:21360139

  5. Comparison of terpenes in extracts from the resin and the bark of the resinous stem canker of Chamaecyparis obtusa and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyasu Hanari; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Ken-ichi Kuroda

    2002-01-01

    A monoterpene and 15 diterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the bark-glued resin from the resinous stem\\u000a canker ofThujopsis dolabrata var.hondae Makino. A monoterpene (nezukone20) and 4 diterpenes (acetyl torulosol5, acetyl isocupressic acid8, acetyl abietinol11, and 7?-methoxytotarol18) were characteristic constituents of the ethyl acetate extracts but were absent in then-hexane extracts from the resinous stem canker ofT.

  6. Nobiletin a citrus flavonoid isolated from tangerines selectively inhibits class A scavenger receptor-mediated metabolism of acetylated LDL by mouse macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart C. Whitman; Elzbieta M. Kurowska; John A. Manthey; Alan Daugherty; Winter Haven

    Abstract Flavonoids are a class of chemically related polyphenols that are nearly ubiquitous in nature. Of the more-than 4000 flavonoids thus identified, citrus fruit-derived flavonoids are suggested to have an inverse association with the occurrence of coronary heart disease via their ability to reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations. Our current studies examined,whether citrus flavonoids possess an additional antiatherogenic effect by modulating

  7. Differential resistance to Citrus psorosis virus in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing hairpin RNA derived from the coat protein and 54K protein genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Andrea Reyes; Eduardo José Peña; María Cecilia Zanek; Daniela Verónica Sanchez; Oscar Grau; María Laura García

    2009-01-01

    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae, is the causal agent of a serious disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. The viral genome consists of three ssRNAs\\u000a of negative polarity. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant defence against viruses, can be induced\\u000a by transgenic expression of virus-derived sequences encoding hairpin RNAs. Since the production of transgenic

  8. Postphloem, Nonvascular Transfer in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Karen E.; Avigne, Wayne T.

    1990-01-01

    Postphloem, nonvascular assimilate transport occurs over an unusually long area in citrus fruit and thus facilitates investigation of this process relative to sugar entry into many sink structures. Labeled photosynthates moving into juice tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) slowed dramatically after entering the postphloem transport path (parenchyma cells, narrow portions of segment epidermis, and hair-like, parenchymatous stalks of juice sacs). Kinetic, metabolic, and compositional data indicated that transfer through the nonvascular area was delayed many hours by temporary storage and/or equilibration with sugars in compartments along the postphloem path. Labeled assimilates were generally recovered as sucrose throughout the path, and extent of hexose formation enroute bore no apparent relationship to the assimilate transfer process. Even after 24 hours, radiolabel was restricted to discrete, highly localized areas directly between vascular bundles and juice sacs. Postphloem transfer occurred against an ascending sucrose concentration gradient in young fruit, whereas a descending gradient (favoring diffusion/cytoplasmic streaming) developed only later in maturation. Involvement of a postphloem bulk flow is complicated in the present instance by the extremely limited water loss from juice sacs either via transpiration or fluid backflow. Nonetheless, tissue expansion can account for a collective water inflow of at least 1.0 milliliter per day throughout the majority of juice sac development, thus providing a modest, but potentially important means of nonvascular solution flow. Overall, data indicate postphloem transfer (a) can follow highly localized paths through sizable nonvascular areas (up to 3.0 centimeters total), (b) appears to involve temporary storage and/or equilibration with compartmentalized sugars enroute, (c) can occur either against an overall up-hill sugar gradient (young tissues) or along a descending gradient (near full expansion), and (d) appears to involve at least some contribution by nonvascular mass flow accommodated by tissue expansion. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:16667632

  9. Temperature Studies with the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri: Cold Hardiness and Temperature Thresholds for Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David G.; Wenninger, Erik J.; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. The psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathogens responsible for citrus greening disease, Huanglongbing, considered the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri was first found in Florida during 1998, and the disease was discovered during 2005. Little was known regarding cold hardiness of D. citri, but Florida citrus is occasionally subjected to notable freeze events. Temperature and duration were each significant sources of variation in percent mortality of D. citri subjected to freeze events. Relatively large percentages of adults and nymphs survived after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -5 to -6° C. Relatively large percentages of eggs hatched after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -8° C. Research results indicated that adult D. citri become cold acclimated during the winter through exposure to cooler winter temperatures. There was no evidence that eggs became cold acclimated during winter. Cold acclimation in nymphs was not investigated. Research with adult D. citri from laboratory and greenhouse colonies revealed that mild to moderate freeze events were usually nonlethal to the D. citri irrespective of whether they were cold acclimated or not. Upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition were investigated because such information may be valuable in explaining the geographic distribution and potential spread of the pest from Florida as well as how cooler winter temperatures might limit population growth. The estimated lower and upper thresholds for oviposition were 16.0 and 41.6° C, respectively; the estimated temperature of peak oviposition over a 48 h period was 29.6° C. PMID:21870969

  10. Effective Antibiotics against ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Charles A.; Doud, Melissa S.; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

  11. Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

  12. Tomato Transcriptional Changes in Response to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Reveal a Role for Ethylene in Disease Development1(W)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasudevan Balaji; Maya Mayrose; Ofra Sherf; Jasmine Jacob-Hirsch; Rudolf Eichenlaub; Naim Iraki; Shulamit Manulis-Sasson; Gideon Rechavi; Isaac Barash; Guido Sessa

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a gram-positive actinomycete, causing bacterial wilt and canker disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Host responses to gram-positive bacteria and molecular mechanisms associated with the development of disease symptoms caused by Cmm in tomato are largely unexplored. To investigate plant responses activated during this compatible interaction, we used microarray analysis to monitor changes in host

  13. First report of Citrus psorosis virus in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Ito; Takane Furuta; Nobuyuki Namba

    2011-01-01

    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) was detected from citrus trees for the first time in Japan. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular, serological,\\u000a and biological indexing. RT-PCR detected CPsV from two citrus trees among ca. 200 tested. Both trees were variety Shiranui\\u000a of [Citrus unshiu Marc. × C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] × C. reticulata Blanco, and neither had the bark scaling symptom typical of CPsV.

  14. In-vitro evaluation of bioactive compounds, anti-oxidant, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of Citrus karna L. peel extract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagdeep; Sood, Shailja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been studied for their antioxidant and their pharmacological activity. Citrus species were well documented as potential antioxidant based therapy for cancer, inflammation, heart disease. Citrus seeds and peels have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study to explore the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action of Citrus karna peel extracts were undertaken. Extraction was performed with different solvents of increasing polarity and yield was calculated. Peel extracts were also analyzed for the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, and carotenoids. Then the Citrus karna peel extracts were evaluated for the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action In-Vitro. In further, the quantification of hesperidin and naringin was carried out by HPLC-DAD method. The results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, carotenoids, hesperidin and naringin in Citrus karna peel extracts with maximum yield of (3.91% w/w). Citrus karna peel extracts were also found to have potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action. Therefore, Citrus karna peel extracts could be used for the future therapeutic medicine due to presence of potential bioactive compounds. PMID:24426049

  15. Conventional and transgenic resistance/tolerance to Huanglongbing in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus, and has been found in California and Texas. Citrus researchers are immersed in extensive and broad-ranging efforts to identify solutions to HLB. Previous research indicates susceptibility to HLB throughout cultivated citrus: in FL none are im...

  16. Absorption and Mobility of Boron in Young Citrus Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto; José Antonio Quaggio; Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho; Maria Fernanda Giné; Antonio Enedi Boaretto

    2008-01-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is widespread in Brazilian citrus orchards and has been considered an important soil constraint to citrus yield. The aim of this work was to study B uptake and its mobility in young citrus trees, under different B statuses, in two rootstocks. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange trees budded on Rangpur

  17. Chemical and Microbiological Aspects of Soil Amended with Citrus Pulp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Marco Meli; Andrea Baglieri; Maurizio Porto; Adalgisa Belligno; Mara Gennari

    2007-01-01

    Citrus pulp is the pulp and peel waste generated by citrus fruit processing. It can be a pollutant when it is disposed of by burning or dumping, but it is rich in organic carbon (monosaccharides, polysaccharides, pectins, and organic acids), suggesting that it could also be a valuable soil amendment. For the purpose of studying the effects of citrus pulp

  18. Cryopreservation of citrus for long-term conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 850 varieties of Citrus, Fortunella, and Citrus-related species are maintained within the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection. These genetic resources are held within duplicated field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections a...

  19. Molecular analysis of citrus rust (Phyllocoptruta oleivora) populations in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phyllocoptruta olevoria (Acari: Eriophyidae) or the citrus rust mite (CRM) is one of the most economically important mite pests of citrus worldwide. CRM originated from Asia, however it is found in most citrus producing areas, such as, Brazil, Morocco and the United States. Though CRM is a major pes...

  20. Current status of Citrus tristeza virus in Central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lindcove Research and Extension Center (LREC), Exeter, CA has 51 ha of citrus and is the field site and screenhouses for the University of California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP). LREC maintains a zero tolerance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infected trees to protect the CCPP and re...

  1. SCREENING CITRUS GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have been conducted to identify sources of resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) among citrus and citrus relatives (Gottwald et al., 2002 and references therein). Kumquats (Fortunella sp.) and Calamondins (Citrus mitis) have shown to be highly resistant and mandarins...

  2. Functional analysis of unfermented and fermented citrus peels and physical properties of citrus peel-added doughs for bread making.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Yung-Shin; Lu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Chuan

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have indicated citrus peels (CP) contain specific methoxy flavones, e.g. nobiletin and tangeretin, which have been shown to prevent numerous diseases. However, research reports regarding their application as food additive in healthy baked products is scarce. In our study, both unfermented (UF) and fermented (F) citrus peels were processed under different dry hot-air temperatures to make four citrus peel powders , UF-100 °C,UF-150 °C, F-100 °C, F-150 °C, respectively. The analysis of the basic components and nutraceuticals as well as antioxidant activity were conducted. Various percentages of CP were added to dough and toast bread for physical property and sensory evaluations. The results indicated the contents of crude proteins (3.3-4.3 mg/g) and fibers (10.9-14.9 %) among the four samples were similar. The UF extracts showed better antioxidant activities than F extracts. HPLC analysis indicated the contents of hesperidine, nobiletin and tangeretin in CP extracts were UF-150 °C?>?UF-100 °C. Farinograph analysis indicated a linear relation between CP powder content and the parameters of the physical properties of dough. A high percentage of fibrous CP powder in dough increases the water adsorption capacity of the dough, resulting in a decrease in its stability The sensory evaluation results indicated a greater acceptability of UF-added toast bread relative to the F-added one. Among these, according to the statistical anaylsis, the UF-150 °C 4 % and UF-100 °C 6 % groups were the best and F-150 °C 2 % group was the poorest in overall acceptability. PMID:25477647

  3. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host plants (5,27,40). Tatineni and colleagues discovered that the HLB bacteria were unevenly distributed in phloem of bark tissue, vascular tissue of the leaf midrib, roots, and different floral and fruit parts (43). Unsuccessful attempts in culturing the pathogen are notably hampering efforts to understand its biology and pathogenesis mechanism. Using a modified Koch's Postulates approach, Jagoueix and colleagues were able to re-infect periwinkle plants from a mixed microbial community harvested from HLB diseased plants (25). Emergence of the disease in otherwise healthy plants led to the conclusion that HLB was associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp. based on its 16S rDNA sequence (18,25). Currently, three species of the pathogen are recognized from trees with HLB disease based on 16S rDNA sequence: Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. Liberibacter africanus (Laf), and Ca. Liberibacter americanus (Lam); Las is the most prevalent species among HLB diseased trees (5,12,18,25,44). Las is naturally transmitted to citrus by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can be artificially transmitted by grafting from citrus to citrus and dodder (Cuscuta campestris) to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi) (5). Based on current research regarding the associations of Liberibacter in planta there is not enough evidence to implicate Liberibacter as the definitive causal agent of HLB disease due to its resistance to cultivation in vitro. It is possible that HLB disease may be the result of complex etiology where Liberibacter interacts with other endophytic bacteria. However, there is not enough evidence regarding its association(s) in planta to make this conclusion, nor is it known whether associated microbial communities play a role in expression of pathogenic traits. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that other bacteria besides Ca. Liberibacter spp. are associated with citrus greening disease. The differences between the relative abundance, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial communitie

  4. Effects of Spray Applications on Epiphytic Populations and Disease Development of Bacterial Canker (Research in Progress)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Howard; M. K. Hausbeck; R. Hammerschmidt

    The effect of bactericidal spray applications on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) populations was assessed on tomatoes in the field. Throughout the 2006 growing season, treatments were applied as Cmm was allowed to spread from infected transplants to healthy tomatoes. Epiphytic Cmm populations were monitored on 30 June, 21 July, 11 August, and 2 September. In general, Cmm populations on

  5. Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, and mandarin) together with the evaluation of their phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH?, ORACFL, ABTS(+), FRAP and O2?(-)) aiming for new applications of the fruits in nutrition and health was carried out. As far as we are aware, the presence of 3-O-caffeoylferuoylquinic acid and two hydrated feruloylquinic acids in orange and the presence of 3,5-diferuoylquinic acid in grapefruit have been reported for the first time. Although grapefruit showed higher contents of phytochemicals such as flavanones and vitamin C, lemon and lime showed higher potential for inhibitory effects on lipase, and lime also showed the best results for in vitro ?-glucosidase inhibition. On the other hand, higher antioxidant capacity was reported for grapefruit, lemon and lime, which correlated well with their phytochemical composition. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Citrus fruits are of great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and consequently, a new field of interest in the food industry regarding new bioactive ingredients would be considered. PMID:24563112

  6. Impacts of Horticultural Mineral Oils and Two Insecticide Practices on Population Fluctuation of Diaphorina citri and Spread of Huanglongbing in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Abang, Fatimah; Beattie, Andrew; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng; Wong, Sing King

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB) in relation to the vector Diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from January 1999 to December 2001 seasons in a 0.8?ha citrus orchard at Jemukan (1° 33?N, 110° 41?E), Southwest Sarawak in Malaysia. In relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (HMOs) use, levels of HLB infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as imidacloprid, nC24HMO, and triazophos/cypermethrin/chlorpyrifos. Levels of HLB as determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were 42.2%, 9.4%, 11.4%, and 22.7%, respectively. The effects of nC24HMO and conventional pesticides on the citrus psyllid population and parasitoids in citrus orchard were also determined. PMID:22629178

  7. Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Takuo; Okushima, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30°C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the peel was extracted almost completely without macerating the peel. By this method, 20 to 25 g of pectin was obtained per kg of peel. The pectin obtained was special in that it contained neutral sugar at high levels, which was determined to have a molecular weight suitable for practical applications. Images PMID:16345556

  8. Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

    2004-03-01

    A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

  9. The destructive citrus pathogen, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ encodes a functional flagellin characteristic of a pathogen-associated molecular pattern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is presently the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. As an intracellular plant pathogen and insect symbiont, the HLB bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) retains the entire flagellum-encoding gene cluster in its significantly reduced genome. Las encodes a...

  10. Breeding citrus for HLB resistance at the USDA/ARS U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus breeding has been conducted by the USDA since 1893. The initial objectives included improved disease-resistance, cold hardiness, and easy peeling fruit, which are still important breeding objectives today. The emergence of huanglongbing (HLB) in the US has propelled the development of HLB r...

  11. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS SUDDEN DEATH AS A TOOL TO GENERATE HYPOTHESES CONCERNING ITS ETIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus sudden death (CSD), a new disease of unknown etiology that affects sweet orange grafted on Rangpur lime, was visually monitored for 14 months in 41 groves in Brazil. Ordinary runs analysis of CSD-symptomatic trees indicated a departure from randomness of symptomatic trees status among immedia...

  12. Molecular analysis among MCA13-reactive isolates reveals a rapid strategy for assessment of Citrus tristeza virus severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) usually occurs as a complex of strains that vary greatly in severity and aphid transmissibility. A rapid assay, therefore, is needed to distinguish potentially mild vs. severe strains of CTV for disease mitigation. An economical and practical strategy to screen for poten...

  13. Differentiation of citrus Hop stunt viroid variants by real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viroids are small, infectious, single-stranded RNA molecules that cause several important citrus diseases. Viroids are transmitted primarily in budwood, however, spread can also occur mechanically on pruning equipment, budding knives, hedging and topping equipment. Exocortis and cachexia are two we...

  14. INITIAL SURVEY FOR SPIROPLASMA CITRI, A LEAFHOPPER-TRANSMITTED PATHOGEN INFECTING CITRUS AND OTHER CROPS IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, Gram positive prokaryote lacking a true cell wall, is the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease. The vectors of S. citri in California are reported to be leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and includes the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus, and Scaphytop...

  15. Sodium sulphite yields improved DNA of higher stability for PCR detection of Citrus yellow mosaic virus from citrus leaves.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, V K; Majumder, S; Ahlawat, Y S; Singh, R P

    2003-09-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), a non-enveloped bacilliform DNA virus causes a severe mosaic disease in sweet oranges in India. CYMV is weakly immunogenic, thus serodiagnosis is not a preferred method for its detection. As an alternative a rapid and reliable detection protocol by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. However, high levels of polyphenolics and tannins in citrus leaves generally interfered with obtaining good quality DNA, and thus affected the reliable detection of virus by PCR. Consequently, we evaluated the addition of sodium sulphite to a DNA extraction protocol used previously and compared the two methods with a commercially available plant DNeasy Kit (Qiagen). The addition of sodium sulphite improved the yield, quality and stability of DNA. The CYMV DNA was not only amplified at lower template DNA concentration, but also provided better DNA yields. In addition, the sodium sulphite extracted DNA survived at various temperatures much longer than those extracted without addition of sodium sulphite or with the commercial kit. The amplified product of CYMV DNA was cloned, sequenced and found to have 89% sequence identity with the only other sequenced Indian isolate of CYMV. PMID:12951224

  16. Citrus tristeza virus: characterization of Texas isolates, studies on aphid transmission and pathogen-derived control strategies 

    E-print Network

    Herron, Caroline Mary

    2004-11-15

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important graft-transmissible pathogen of citrus, causes major global declines in citrus production. In the commercial citrus of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), ...

  17. TPCP: Pitch canker PITCH CANKER

    E-print Network

    to commercial forestry in South Africa today. In the past seven years, Fusarium subglutinans f.sp. pini or FSP successful control. Insects such as Ips spp., Pityophthorus spp., Pissodes sp. and Conophthorus spp. have

  18. Field evaluation of strobilurins and a plant activator for the control of citrus black spot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Miles; S. L. Willingham; A. W. Cooke

    2004-01-01

    Black spot (caused by Guignardia citricarpa) is a major disease affecting the citrus industry in subtropical Queensland. A number of chemicals were tested for control\\u000a of black spot, including the strobilurins (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and methoxycrylate); a plant activator\\u000a (acibenzolar); copper-based fungicides (copper ammonium acetate, copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide plus ferric chloride,\\u000a cuprous oxide); mancozeb; phosphorous acid; captan and iprodione.

  19. Citrus psorosis, ringspot, cristacortis and concave gum pathogens are maintained in callus culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Navas-Castillo; P. Moreno; N. Duran-Vila

    1995-01-01

    Callus cultures were established from citrus explants infected with several virus-like pathogens of the psorosis group (psorosis A, psorosis B, ringspot, cristacortis, or concave gum), and successively subcultured for up to 16 months. ‘Pineapple’ sweet orange or ‘Duncan’ grapefruit seedlings graft-inoculated with callus pieces, and incubated in a temperature-controlled greenhouse, developed symptoms characteristic of these diseases, whereas similar indicator plants

  20. Consumer demand patterns for fresh citrus and citrus products in Houston, Texas

    E-print Network

    Stack, Thomas N

    1951-01-01

    which all citrus producing sect1ons of the nation have sought to fill. A second important factor which induced increasing demand and production was a growing realization by the public of the nutritive value of citrus and the readiness of the medical... on Double Log Paper . . . . . . . 24 Demand Curve: Grapefruit Juice - High Incosm Area . 31 10 Demand Curves Grapefruit Juice - Hedium income Area 32 Demand Curve: Grapefruit Juice - Iow Incaae Area . . 33 Demand Curves Grapefruit Juice - All Income...

  1. Efficient production of transgenic citrus plants expressing the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Domínguez; J. Guerri; M. Cambra; L. Navarro; P. Moreno; L. Peña

    2000-01-01

    The coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has been introduced into Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swing.) plants by using an improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system. Internodal stem segments from greenhouse-grown seedlings were co-cultivated with\\u000a A. tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying the binary plasmid pBI 121\\/CTV-CP in a medium rich in auxins that provided the explant cells with the

  2. Transcriptional response of Citrus aurantifolia to infection by Citrus tristeza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Gandía; Ana Conesa; Gema Ancillo; José Gadea; Javier Forment; Vicente Pallás; Ricardo Flores; Nuria Duran-Vila; Pedro Moreno; José Guerri

    2007-01-01

    Changes in gene expression of Mexican lime plants in response to infection with a severe (T305) or a mild (T385) isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were analyzed using a cDNA microarray containing 12,672 probes to 6875 different citrus genes. Statistically significant (P<0.01) expression changes of 334 genes were detected in response to infection with isolate T305, whereas infection with

  3. The closely related citrus ringspot and citrus psorosis viruses have particles of novel filamentous morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Laura Garcia; E. Dal Bo; O. Grau; Robert G. Milne

    1994-01-01

    Some properties of the particles of citrus ringspot virus (CtRSV) and the related citrus psorosis-associated virus (CPsAV) are described. The particles of CtRSV have been reported to be sinuous linear structures about l0 nm in diameter and of two lengths (300 to 500 nm and 1500 to 2500 nm) representing 'top' and 'bottom' sedimentation components. We show that these particles

  4. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita G. Betty; Jill Marie Bieker; Mark David Tucker

    2005-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of

  5. Drinking Citrus Fruit Juice Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in Cuff-Induced Vascular Injury Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-no, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  6. Reduction of Legionella spp. in water and in soil by a citrus plant extract vapor.

    PubMed

    Laird, Katie; Kurzbach, Elena; Score, Jodie; Tejpal, Jyoti; Chi Tangyie, George; Phillips, Carol

    2014-10-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by Legionella spp., organisms often isolated from environmental sources, including soil and water. Legionella spp. are capable of replicating intracellularly within free-living protozoa, and once this has occurred, Legionella is particularly resistant to disinfectants. Citrus essential oil (EO) vapors are effective antimicrobials against a range of microorganisms, with reductions of 5 log cells ml(-1) on a variety of surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a citrus EO vapor against Legionella spp. in water and in soil systems. Reductions of viable cells of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii, and an intra-amoebal culture of Legionella pneumophila (water system only) were assessed in soil and in water after exposure to a citrus EO vapor at concentrations ranging from 3.75 mg/liter air to 15g/liter air. Antimicrobial efficacy via different delivery systems (passive and active sintering of the vapor) was determined in water, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the antimicrobial components (linalool, citral, and ?-pinene) was conducted. There was up to a 5-log cells ml(-1) reduction in Legionella spp. in soil after exposure to the citrus EO vapors (15 mg/liter air). The most susceptible strain in water was L. pneumophila, with a 4-log cells ml(-1) reduction after 24 h via sintering (15 g/liter air). Sintering the vapor through water increased the presence of the antimicrobial components, with a 61% increase of linalool. Therefore, the appropriate method of delivery of an antimicrobial citrus EO vapor may go some way in controlling Legionella spp. from environmental sources. PMID:25063652

  7. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea. Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops. PMID:16909469

  8. Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to orange trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcassa, L. G.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Belasque, J., Jr.; Lins, E. C.; Dias Nunes, F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we have applied laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate biological processes in orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.). We have chosen to investigate water stress and Citrus Canker, which is a disease caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. The fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated by using as an excitation source a 442-nm 15-mW HeCd gas multimode discharge laser and a 532-nm 10-mW Nd3+:YAG laser. The stress manifestation was detected by the variation of fluorescence ratios of the leaves at different wavelengths. The fluorescence ratios present a significant variation, showing the possibility to observe water stress by fluorescence spectrum. The Citrus Canker’s contaminated leaves were discriminated from the healthy leaves using a more complex analysis of the fluorescence spectra. However, we were unable to discriminate it from another disease, and new fluorescence experiments are planned for the future.

  9. EVALUATION OF A ON-SITE, ONE-HOUR REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY FOR DETECTING THE CITRUS CANKER BACTERIUM IN PLANT SAMPLES AT PORT FACILITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expanding global economy, free trade agreements, and increased air travel make the interception of accidentally and deliberately introduced plant pathogens of great importance. To determine if PCR assays are useful for on-site detection of bacteria in plant samples at port facilities, we evalua...

  10. Validation of high-throughput real time polymerase chain reaction assays for simultaneous detection of invasive citrus pathogens.

    PubMed

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Liao, Hui-Hong; Jiang, Bo; Savino, Vito; Yokomi, Raymond K

    2013-11-01

    A number of important citrus pathogens are spread by graft propagation, arthropod vector transmission and inadvertent import and dissemination of infected plants. For these reasons, citrus disease management and clean stock programs require pathogen detection systems which are economical and sensitive to maintain a healthy industry. To this end, multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays were developed allowing high-throughput and simultaneous detection of some major invasive citrus pathogens. Automated high-throughput extraction comparing several bead-based commercial extraction kits were tested and compared with tissue print and manual extraction to obtain nucleic acids from healthy and pathogen-infected citrus trees from greenhouse in planta collections and field. Total nucleic acids were used as templates for pathogen detection. Multiplex reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed for simultaneous detection of six targets including a virus, two viroids, a bacterium associated with huanglongbing and a citrus RNA internal control. Specifically, two one-step TaqMan-based multiplex RT-qPCR assays were developed and tested with target templates to determine sensitivity and detection efficiency. The first assay included primers and probes for 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) broad spectrum detection and genotype differentiation (VT- and T3-like genotypes). The second assay contained primers and probes for Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (nad5) mRNA as an internal citrus host control. Primers and TaqMan probes for the viroids were designed in this work; whereas those for the other pathogens were from reports of others. Based on quantitation cycle values, automated high-throughput extraction of samples proved to be as suitable as manual extraction. The multiplex RT-qPCR assays detected both RNA and DNA pathogens in the same dilution series as singleplex assays and yielded similar quantitation cycle values. Taken together, high throughput extraction and multiplex RT-qPCR assays reported in this study provided a rapid and standardized method for routine and simultaneous diagnosis of different RNA and DNA citrus pathogens. PMID:23891873

  11. Use of Ozone in the Citrus Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakan Karaca

    2010-01-01

    The use of ozone for postharvest sanitation and decay control of fruits, vegetables and their products during handling, processing and storage has been investigated for commercial applications. Due to their significant contribution to world trade and human nutrition, citrus fruits are thought to be important commodities. Decay can be observed in these products because of microbial activity and ethylene accumulation

  12. Ecology of the Asian citrus pysllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...

  13. Treated municipal wastewater for citrus irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mongi Zekri; Robert C. J. Koo

    1994-01-01

    Treated, reclaimed municipal wastewater was evaluated on citrus trees in central Florida for over six years. The effects of irrigation with reclaimed wastewater on soil water content, soil chemical analysis, leaf mineral status, and fruit quality were compared with those of irrigation with well water. Irrigation with reclaimed water increased mineral residues in the soil profile, altered leaf mineral concentration

  14. Pectin from galgal ( Citrus pseudolimon Tan.) peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Attri; S. B. Maini

    1996-01-01

    During the extraction of juice from galgal fruits (Citrus pesudolimon Tan.), peel, which accounts for about 25–35% of the weight of the fruit, is thrown away and causes an ecological problem when dumped around the processing plants. A process has been standardized for maximum recovery of pectin from these peels by employing various extractants and varying extractant: peel ratios, extraction

  15. Asian citrus psyllid - biology and seasonal ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seasonal ecology of Diaphorina citri was investigated in a non-irrigated citrus grove of mature orange trees beginning January 2005 in east central Florida. No insecticides were applied during the study. Predators including lady beetles, lacewings and syrphid flies were observed during the stud...

  16. Citrus viruses in sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. R. Cronjéa

    There are approximately 20 known citrus viruses. The most important ones in South Africa used to be CiTV (trizteza), exocortis, and porosis. Since the initiation of the Cultivar Improvement Programme (CIP), exocortis and psorosis were excluded from new planting material by the use of shoot tip grafting. The only virus which is still of major importance is trizteza, especially on

  17. New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all areas where citrus canker has been detected. Like most phytobacterioses, there is no efficient way to control citrus canker. Considering the importance of the disease worldwide, investigation is needed to accurately detect which genes are related to the pathogen-host adaptation process and which are associated with pathogenesis. Results Through transposon insertion mutagenesis, 10,000 mutants of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 (Xcc) were obtained, and 3,300 were inoculated in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) leaves. Their ability to cause citrus canker was analyzed every 3 days until 21 days after inoculation; a set of 44 mutants showed altered virulence, with 8 presenting a complete loss of causing citrus canker symptoms. Sequencing of the insertion site in all 44 mutants revealed that 35 different ORFs were hit, since some ORFs were hit in more than one mutant, with mutants for the same ORF presenting the same phenotype. An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. Among the 8 mutants with no canker symptoms are the hrpB4 and hrpX genes, two genes that belong to type III secretion system (TTSS), two hypothetical ORFS and, surprisingly, the htrA gene, a gene reported as involved with the virulence process in animal-pathogenic bacteria but not described as involved in phytobacteria virulence. Nucleic acid hybridization using labeled cDNA probes showed that some of the mutated genes are differentially expressed when the bacterium is grown in citrus leaves. Finally, comparative genomic analysis revealed that 5 mutated ORFs are in new putative pathogenicity islands. Conclusion The identification of these new genes related with Xcc infection and virulence is a great step towards the understanding of plant-pathogen interactions and could allow the development of strategies to control citrus canker. PMID:19149882

  18. Population structure of the butternut canker fungus, Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, in North American forests.

    PubMed

    Broders, K D; Boraks, A; Sanchez, A M; Boland, G J

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of multiple introduction events, or sudden emergence from a host jump, of forest pathogens may be an important factor in successful establishment in a novel environment or on a new host; however, few studies have focused on the introduction and emergence of fungal pathogens in forest ecosystems. While Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Oc-j), the butternut canker fungus, has caused range-wide mortality of butternut trees in North America since its first observation in 1967, the history of its emergence and spread across the United States and Canada remains unresolved. Using 17 single nucleotide polymorphic loci, we investigated the genetic population structure of 101 isolates of Oc-j from across North America. Clustering analysis revealed that the Oc-j population in North America is made up of three differentiated genetic clusters of isolates, and these genetic clusters were found to have a strong clonal structure. These results, in combination with the geographic distribution of the populations, suggest that Oc-j was introduced or has emerged in North America on more than one occasion, and these clonal lineages have since proliferated across much of the range of butternut. No evidence of genetic recombination was observed in the linkage analysis, and conservation of the distinct genetic clusters in regions where isolates from two or more genetic clusters are present, would indicate a very minimal or non-existent role of sexual recombination in populations of Oc-j in North America. PMID:23139872

  19. Genetic transformation of sweet orange with the coat protein gene of Citrus psorosis virus and evaluation of resistance against the virus.

    PubMed

    Zanek, María Cecilia; Reyes, Carina Andrea; Cervera, Magdalena; Peña, Eduardo José; Velázquez, Karelia; Costa, Norma; Plata, Maria Inés; Grau, Oscar; Peña, Leandro; García, María Laura

    2008-01-01

    Citrus psorosis is a serious viral disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. Its causal agent is Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), the type member of genus Ophiovirus. CPsV infects most important citrus varieties, including oranges, mandarins and grapefruits, as well as hybrids and citrus relatives used as rootstocks. Certification programs have not been sufficient to control the disease and no sources of natural resistance have been found. Pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) can provide an efficient alternative to control viral diseases in their hosts. For this purpose, we have produced 21 independent lines of sweet orange expressing the coat protein gene of CPsV and five of them were challenged with the homologous CPV 4 isolate. Two different viral loads were evaluated to challenge the transgenic plants, but so far, no resistance or tolerance has been found in any line after 1 year of observations. In contrast, after inoculation all lines showed characteristic symptoms of psorosis in the greenhouse. The transgenic lines expressed low and variable amounts of the cp gene and no correlation was found between copy number and transgene expression. One line contained three copies of the cp gene, expressed low amounts of the mRNA and no coat protein. The ORF was cytosine methylated suggesting a PTGS mechanism, although the transformant failed to protect against the viral load used. Possible causes for the failed protection against the CPsV are discussed. PMID:17712560

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et. al. to Citrus maxima essential oil.

    PubMed

    M?ru?escu, Lumini?a; Saviuc, Crina; Oprea, Eliza; Savu, Bogdan; Bucur, Marcela; Stanciu, Gheorghe; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Laz?r, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory constraints and environmental and human health concerns have promoted the search for alternative bio-control strategies of fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants which produces serious losses in apple and pear orchards all over the world. The aim of this study was to establish the antimicrobial activity of Citrus maxima essential oil against Erwinia amylovora. An agar diffusion method was used for the screening of the inhibitory effect of Citrus maxima essential oil on bacterial strains growth. The quantitative inhibitory effect of pomelo oil on in vitro biofilm development was established by a microtiter colorimetric assay. In order to investigate the ability of pomelo oil to interfere with bacterial adherence and subsequent biofilm development on leaves obtained from different pomaceous fruit trees species and cultivars: Pyrus (Napoca, Williams), Malus (Golden Delicious) and Cydonia (Aromate), leaves were immersed in pomelo oil for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 minutes before exposing them to bacterial colonization. The architecture of bacterial biofilms developed on leaf surface was analyzed using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM). Our results showed that Citrus maxima essential oil inhibited the development of bacterial biofilms on leaves, pomelo oil being more active on Cydonia (Aromate) leaves when the leaves were treated for 5 minutes. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the development of new bio-control agents as alternative strategies to protect fruit trees from fire blight disease. PMID:20583476

  1. Citrus Variety Trends in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. 

    E-print Network

    Alderman, D. C. (DeForest Charles)

    1951-01-01

    thousands of citrus trees and the growers were faced with a tremendous replanting program, which, in turn, had focused interest on varieties. Fruit production figures, yields per acre, and monetary returns per acre for five varieties of grapefruit... Horticulturist Lower Rio Grande Valley Experiment Station, Weslaco, Texas CONSUMERS FOR THE MOST PART are not concerned about the differences among varieties of citrus fruits. The citrus producer, however, is constantly on the lookout for new and better...

  2. In Vitro Response of Two Citrus Rootstocks to Salt Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wagdish Sh. Ghaleb; Jamal S. Sawwan; Muhanad W. Akash; Ayed M. Al-Abdallat

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro response of two citrus rootstocks (sour orange, Citrus aurantium L. and Volkamer lemon, Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) to two types of salts (NaCl and CaCl2) of different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, or 300 mM) was investigated. Results showed that increasing NaCl level in the growth medium led to increased Na and Cl accumulation and

  3. Functional Characterization of Citrus Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarunya NALUMPANG; Yukie GOTOH; Hiroyuki TSUBOI; Kenji GOMI; Hiroyuki YAMAMOTO; Kazuya AKIMITSU

    2002-01-01

      A cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (SaiPGIPA) was identified from the citrus cultivar Sainumphung (Citrus sp.), one of the most popular cultivars in northern Thailand. SaiPGIPA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the functional properties of citrus PGIP were analyzed. The PGIP fusion protein inhibited by a maximum of about\\u000a 60% of the endopolygalacturonase activity, and a mixture

  4. Assessment of oligogalacturonide from citrus pectin as a potential antibacterial agent against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Li, Hui-chin; Wu, Po-Hua; Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Wang, Yuh-Tai

    2014-08-01

    Foodborne diseases are an important public health problem in the world. The bacterial resistance against presently used antibiotics is becoming a public health issue; hence, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents from natural sources attracts a lot of attention. Antibacterial activities of oligogalacturonide from commercial microbial pectic enzyme (CPE) treated citrus pectin, which exhibits antioxidant and antitumor activities, against 4 foodborne pathogens including Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed. Pectin hydrolysates from CPE hydrolysis exhibited antibacterial activities. However, no antibacterial activity of pectin was observed. Citrus oligogalacturonide from 24-h hydrolysis exhibited bactericidal effect against all selected foodborne pathogens and displayed minimal inhibitory concentration at 37.5 ?g/mL for P. aeruginosa, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium, and at 150.0 ?g/mL for S. aureus. PMID:25048440

  5. Metabolic profiling strategy for discovery of nutritional biomarkers: proline betaine as a marker of citrus consumption123

    PubMed Central

    Heinzmann, Silke S; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Bictash, Magda; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Kochhar, Sunil; Stamler, Jeremiah; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background: New food biomarkers are needed to objectively evaluate the effect of diet on health and to check adherence to dietary recommendations and healthy eating patterns. Objective: We developed a strategy for food biomarker discovery, which combined nutritional intervention with metabolic phenotyping and biomarker validation in a large-scale epidemiologic study. Design: We administered a standardized diet to 8 individuals and established a putative urinary biomarker of fruit consumption by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic profiling. The origin of the biomarker was confirmed by using targeted NMR spectroscopy of various fruit. Excretion kinetics of the biomarker were measured. The biomarker was validated by using urinary NMR spectra from UK participants of the INTERMAP (International Collaborative Study of Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Blood Pressure) (n = 499) in which citrus consumption was ascertained from four 24-h dietary recalls per person. Finally, dietary patterns of citrus consumers (n = 787) and nonconsumers (n = 1211) were compared. Results: We identified proline betaine as a putative biomarker of citrus consumption. High concentrations were observed only in citrus fruit. Most proline betaine was excreted ?14 h after a first-order excretion profile. Biomarker validation in the epidemiologic data showed a sensitivity of 86.3% for elevated proline betaine excretion in participants who reported citrus consumption and a specificity of 90.6% (P < 0.0001). In comparison with noncitrus consumers, citrus consumers had lower intakes of fats, lower urinary sodium-potassium ratios, and higher intakes of vegetable protein, fiber, and most micronutrients. Conclusion: The biomarker identification and validation strategy has the potential to identify biomarkers for healthier eating patterns associated with a reduced risk of major chronic diseases. The trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01102049 and NCT01102062. PMID:20573794

  6. Prophage-Mediated Dynamics of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Populations, the Destructive Bacterial Pathogens of Citrus Huanglongbing

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A.; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development. PMID:24349235

  7. Electron microscopic investigations and indexing studies of psorosis and citrus ringspot virus of citrus / by Margaret Atchison Barkley 

    E-print Network

    Barkley, Margaret Atchison

    1979-01-01

    sinensis Osbeck) scion wood onto sour orange (Citrus aurantium L. ) seedlings, bark pieces from trees to be indexed were placed in the sour orange stocks as soon as the bark began slipping. Indicator seedlings inoculated with bark pieces from greenhouse... sinensis Osbeck leaf from seedling inoculated with psorosis expressing flecking symptom associated with psorosis 15 Citrus aradisi Macf. leaves showing mature leaf symp- tom characteristic of citrus ringspot virus. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Healthy...

  8. Pectin—a product of citrus waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. McCready; H. S. Owens

    1954-01-01

    The annual processing of citrus fruit wastes in the United States has reached two million tons. Forty thousand tons of pectin\\u000a could be produced, compared with current production of three thousand tons. The physical and chemical properties of pectic\\u000a substances are important botanically and industrially. Pectic substances aid in maintaining texture of fruits and vegetables\\u000a and serve as jellying agents

  9. Hormonal Modulation of Citrus Responses to Flooding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicent Arbona; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

    2008-01-01

    In this work, variations in endogenous levels of several hormones were measured in citrus under conditions of continuous flooding\\u000a following a time-course design. The use of three genotypes differing in their ability to tolerate waterlogging has allowed\\u000a the discrimination between common and specific hormonal responses. Data suggest an essential involvement of the aerial part\\u000a in the regulation of tolerance to

  10. Flavonoid glycosides and limonoids from Citrus molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Kuroyanagi; Hiromi Ishii; Nobuo Kawahara; Hiroyuki Sugimoto; Hideo Yamada; Kiyoshi Okihara; Osamu Shirota

    2008-01-01

    Molasses of tangerine orange (Citrus unshiu Markovich) is obtained as a waste product in the course of tangerine orange juice production. This molasses is expected to\\u000a be a useful source of organic compounds such as flavonoids and limonoids. To elucidate a use for this molasses waste, we isolated\\u000a and identified its organic constituents. Two new flavanonol glycosides were isolated from

  11. Screening citrus rootstocks for alkalinity tolerance 

    E-print Network

    Sudahono

    1991-01-01

    prepared seedbeds of calcareous soils containing 2. 15% CaCO3 and 0. 20% CaCO3. They found that seedlings of all sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. ) Osbeck) cultivars showed moderate or severe iron chlorosis. Mandarin (Cirrus reticulate Blanco.... mecrophylfa Wester were highly resistant. C. voikamerisna (Pasq. ) Tan. , C. auranfium, C. reticulate and C. iimonis were moderately tolerant. C. faiwsnica (Tan. ) Shim. , C. sinensis (L. ) Osbeck, Troyer (poncirus trifoliate (L. ) Raf. x C. sinensis...

  12. Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

    2005-05-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free. PMID:16019813

  13. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance in transgenic citrus based on virus challenge of protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Olivares-Fuster; G. H. Fleming; M. R. Albiach-Marti; S. Gowda; W. O. Dawson; J. W. Crosser

    2003-01-01

    Summary  A strategy for the sereening of candidate virus-derived sequences to provide RNA-mediated citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance\\u000a and early selection of virus-resistant citrus is presented. The system is based on the polyethylene glycol-(PEG) mediated\\u000a cotransformation of protoplasts using virus-derived sequences and green fluorescent protein as a single selectable marker,\\u000a followed by an in vitro assay of virus inoculation into transgenic

  14. Genetic diversity and a heterogeneous population of Citrus mosaic virus within a single citrus tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Ito; Tsutae Ito; Hiroshi Shiotani; Toru Iwanami; Katsumi Ozaki; Kazuyuki Muramoto

    2007-01-01

    Plural variants of Citrus mosaic virus (CiMV), a Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) strain, were detected from a single citrus tree. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification of 1139\\u000a nucleotides (nt) of 3?-terminal RNA1 and analyses of nucleotide sequences revealed three CiMV variants that differed by up\\u000a to 5.4%. The analyses of 1403–1493?nt of 3?-terminal RNA2 showed four CiMV variants, two of

  15. CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CITRUS PESTS IN FLORIDA AND THE CARIBBEAN: INTERCONNECTIONS AND SUSTAINABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie A. HOY

    Beginning in 1993, Florida's citrus industry has been invaded by citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy, Homoptera: Aphididae), and the Asian citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Homoptera: Psyllidae). The source(s) of these pests remain unknown but other countries in the Carib- bean, as well as Central and South America, also have suffered invasions

  16. Correlation of ethylene synthesis in Citrus fruits and their susceptibility to Alternaria alternata pv. citri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ortuño; I. Nemsa; N. Alvarez; A. Lacasa; I. Porras; A. Garcia Lidón; J. A. Del Río

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility of Fortune (Citrus clementina×Citrus reticulata), Citrus paradisi and Citrus limon fruits to Alternaria alternata pv. citri was investigated using different artificial inoculation methods. The results obtained reveal that the C. paradisi and C. limon fruits are less susceptible to A. alternata pv. citri than Fortune fruits, although all showed symptoms of Alternaria brown spot when the cuticle was

  17. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun

    This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had

  18. Gene expression analysis to understand cold tolerance in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus cultivars show a wide range of tolerance to cold temperatures. Lemons and limes are known to be sensitive to cold while certain mandarins and trifoliate oranges can endure severe winters. To understand the mechanism of cold tolerance in citrus, we selected three known cold-sensitive and three...

  19. Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

    2003-01-01

    Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

  20. Assessment of biosorption mechanism for Pb binding by citrus pectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ankit Balaria; Silke Schiewer

    2008-01-01

    Bio sorption of lead (Pb) from aqueous solution using citrus peels can provide an efficient and cost-effective solution for lead removal from industrial wastewaters. These peels contain the biopolymer pectin that has a strong affinity for metal ions. A better understanding of the chemistry behind these interactions can help in the preparation of commercial biosorbents using waste citrus peels. This

  1. Vibrofluidized bed drying of citrus processing residue for byproduct recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A Roe

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 44% of the citrus that is processed becomes processing residue. The residue consists of the non-juice components of a citrus fruit, primarily peel and pulp, and is recovered by conversion to animal feed. The material is hygroscopic, agglomerating, has a wide particle size distribution, and must be carefully dried to avoid thermal damage to nutrients and flavors. This dissertation

  2. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Acclimatization of Micropropagated Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang-Sheng Wu; Ying-Ning Zou; Gui-Yuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Micropropagated plantlets lack mycorrhizal symbionts and therefore present some physiological hindrances when transferred from axenic to ex vitro conditions. The purpose of the present study was to research the effects of Glomus mosseae and G. versiforme on growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient uptake of micropropagated citrus plantlets at the acclimatization stage. The two mycorrhizal fungi successfully colonized the roots of citrus

  3. New enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation of citrus waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expense involved to dry citrus processing waste into citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as a cattle feed continues to increase with rising fuel costs. While there have also been recent increases in the value of CPP, this value fluctuates considerably and does not always cover processing costs. Th...

  4. Non-transgenic RNAi technology to control insects on citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research demonstrated a non-transgenic delivery method for ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, that reduced fitness as measured in increased mortality over time, of two insect pests of citrus, ie. psyllids and leafhoppers. The Asian citrus psyllid transmits a deadly plant-infecting bacterium o...

  5. Development of a global conservation strategy for citrus genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus is an economically important world tree fruit crop with production in more than 146 countries. The center of origin for citrus is considered to be Southeastern Asia including southern China, northeastern India, and Malaysia, with secondary centers in surrounding areas. Novel and commercially ...

  6. Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oils of Some Iranian Citrus Peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Monajemi; Shahrbanoo Oryan; Ali Haeri-Roohani; Alireza Ghannadi; Abbas Jafariane

    There have been efforts to overcome the problem in treatment of cancer using medicinal plants. It has been shown that Citrus essential oil of contains different terpens with antitumor activities. In this study we sought to determine the cytotoxicity of essential oils of Iranian Citrus limon (L.), C. medica (L.), C. sinsensis (L.) peels on cancer cell lines. Essential oils

  7. Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Citrus Varieties Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to detect molecular polymorphisms among 370 Citrus accessions from the Citrus Variety Collection located at The University of California, Riverside. The number of alleles detected per locus ranged from three to thirty. A total of 298 alle...

  8. Complete genome sequence of citrus huanglongbing bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' obtained through metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Hall, David G; Li, Wenbin; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lin, Hong; Liu, Li; Vahling, Cheryl M; Gabriel, Dean W; Williams, Kelly P; Dickerman, Allan; Sun, Yijun; Gottwald, Tim

    2009-08-01

    Citrus huanglongbing is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. It is spread by citrus psyllids and is associated with a low-titer, phloem-limited infection by any of three uncultured species of alpha-Proteobacteria, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. L. americanus', and 'Ca. L. africanus'. A complete circular 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome has been obtained by metagenomics, using the DNA extracted from a single 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected psyllid. The 1.23-Mb genome has an average 36.5% GC content. Annotation revealed a high percentage of genes involved in both cell motility (4.5%) and active transport in general (8.0%), which may contribute to its virulence. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' appears to have a limited ability for aerobic respiration and is likely auxotrophic for at least five amino acids. Consistent with its intracellular nature, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' lacks type III and type IV secretion systems as well as typical free-living or plant-colonizing extracellular degradative enzymes. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' appears to have all type I secretion system genes needed for both multidrug efflux and toxin effector secretion. Multi-protein phylogenetic analysis confirmed 'Ca. L. asiaticus' as an early-branching and highly divergent member of the family Rhizobiaceae. This is the first genome sequence of an uncultured alpha-proteobacteria that is both an intracellular plant pathogen and insect symbiont. PMID:19589076

  9. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rajinder S; Rouseff, Russell L; Smoot, Jack; Rao, Nandikeswara; Meyer, Wendy L; Lapointe, Stephen L; Robbins, Paul S; Cha, Dong; Linn, Charles E; Webster, Francis X; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB in Florida citrus. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female D. citri to their cuticular extracts. In olfactometer assays, more male D. citri were attracted to one, five, or 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units than blank controls. The results were confirmed in field studies in which clear or yellow traps baited with 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units attracted proportionately more males than clear traps baited with male cuticular extract or unbaited traps. Analyses of cuticular constituents of male and female D. citri revealed differences between the sexes in chemical composition of their cuticular extracts. Laboratory bioassays with synthetic chemicals identified from cuticular extracts indicated that dodecanoic acid attracted more males than clean air. Traps baited with dodecanoic acid did not increase total catch of D. citri as compared with blank traps at the dosages tested; however, the sex ratio of psyllid catch was male biased on traps baited with the highest lure loading dosage tested (10.0 mg). PMID:23955888

  10. Identification and characterization of citrus yellow vein clearing virus, a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus.

    PubMed

    Loconsole, G; Onelge, N; Potere, O; Giampetruzzi, A; Bozan, O; Satar, S; De Stradis, A; Savino, V; Yokomi, R K; Saponari, M

    2012-12-01

    Molecular features and genomic organization were determined for Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), the putative viral causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease of lemon trees, reported in Pakistan, India, and more recently in Turkey and China. CYVCV isolate Y1 from Adana, Turkey, was used for deep sequencing analysis of the virus-induced small RNA fractions and for mechanical and graft inoculation of herbaceous and citrus indicator plants. A polyclonal antiserum was developed from CYVCV-Y1 purified from Phaseolus vulgaris and used in western blot assays to characterize the coat protein of CYVCV-Y1 and determine its serological relationship with related viruses. Contigs assembled from the Illumina sequenced short reads were used to construct the whole genome of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), consisting in a positive-sense RNA of 7,529 nucleotides and containing six predicted open reading frames. The CYVCV genome organization and size resembled that of flexiviruses, and search for sequence homologies revealed that Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) (Mandarivirus, Alphaflexiviridae) is the most closely related virus. However, CYVCV had an overall nucleotide sequence identity of ?74% with ICRSV. Although the two viruses were similar with regard to genome organization, viral particles, and herbaceous host range, CYVCV caused different symptoms in citrus and was serologically distinct from ICRSV. Primer pairs were designed and used to detect the virus by conventional and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on yellow vein clearing symptomatic field trees as well as graft- and mechanically inoculated host plants. Collectively, these data suggest that CYVCV is the causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease and represents a new species in the genus Mandarivirus. PMID:22913410

  11. Genome, Proteome and Structure of a T7-Like Bacteriophage of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Rebekah A; Acedo, Elena Lopez; Young, Vivienne L; Chen, Danni; Tong, Brian; Taylor, Corinda; Easingwood, Richard A; Pitman, Andrew R; Kleffmann, Torsten; Bostina, Mihnea; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. A variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect P. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to provide a framework for formulation of these phages as biocontrol agents. Here, we have examined in more detail ?Psa17, a phage with the capacity to infect a broad range of P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains and the only member of the Podoviridae in this collection. Particle morphology was visualized using cryo-electron microscopy, the genome was sequenced, and its structural proteins were analysed using shotgun proteomics. These studies demonstrated that ?Psa17 has a 40,525 bp genome, is a member of the T7likevirus genus and is closely related to the pseudomonad phages ?PSA2 and gh-1. Eleven structural proteins (one scaffolding) were detected by proteomics and ?Psa17 has a capsid of approximately 60 nm in diameter. No genes indicative of a lysogenic lifecycle were identified, suggesting the phage is obligately lytic. These features indicate that ?Psa17 may be suitable for formulation as a biocontrol agent of P. syringae pv. actinidiae. PMID:26114474

  12. Effects of Mefenoxam, Phosphonate, and Paclobutrazol on In Vitro Characteristics of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola and on Canker Size of European Beech

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora citricola and P. cactorum cause bleeding cankers that lead to the death of mature European beech in the northeastern United States. Because of the economic value placed on these trees, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two fungicides and a plant growth regulator ...

  13. Transcriptional and Microscopic Analyses of Citrus Stem and Root Responses to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. PMID:24058486

  14. Protective Effect of Coriolus versicolor Cultivated in Citrus Extract Against Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma SK-N-MC Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chul; Kim, Youn-Sub; Lee, Jin-Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Yong-Il; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2011-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical and a messenger molecule in many physiological functions. However, excessive NO is believed to be a mediator of neurotoxicity. The medicinal plant Coriolus versicolor is known to possess anti-tumor and immune-potentiating activities. In this study, we investigated whether Coriolus versicolor possesses a protective effect against NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. We utilized 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and caspase-3 enzyme activity assay in SK-N-MC cells. MTT assay showed that SNP treatment significantly reduces the viability of cells, and the viabilities of cells pre-treated with the aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in citrus extract (CVE(citrus)) was increased. However, aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in synthetic medium (CVE(synthetic)) showed no protective effect and aqueous citrus extract (CE) had a little protective effect. The cell treated with SNP exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose showed reduced apoptotic features. The cells pre-treated for 1 h with CVE(citrus) prior to SNP expose inhibited p53 and Bax expressions and caspase-3 enzyme activity up-regulated by SNP. We showed that CVE(citrus) exerts a protective effect against SNP-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells. Our study suggests that CVE(citrus) has therapeutic value in the treatment of a variety of NO-induced brain diseases. PMID:22110367

  15. Transmission of Citrus leprosis virus C by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) to Alternative Host Plants Found in Citrus Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The equivalent of US$ 75 million is spent each year in Brazil to control Brevipalpus phoenicis, a mite vector of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C). In this study we investigated the possibility that hedgerows, windbreaks, and weeds normally found in citrus orchards could host CiLV-C. Mites reared on ...

  16. Antennal response of the Asian citrus psyllid to citrus volatiles and their degradation product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid antennae reacted strongly when stimulated with citral and ocimene stimulus tubes that had been aged for 3-5 days. When 20 µl of neat ocimene or citral were aged on filter paper strips in sealed Pasteur pipette stimulus tubes for 6 days on the laboratory bench, voltage changes we...

  17. Citrus leaf blotch virus invades meristematic regions in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Jesús; Vives, María Carmen; Velázquez, Karelia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Juárez, Jose; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2013-08-01

    To invade systemically host plants, viruses need to replicate in the infected cells, spread to neighbouring cells through plasmodesmata and move to distal parts of the plant via sieve tubes to start new infection foci. To monitor the infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants by Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV), leaves were agroinoculated with an infectious cDNA clone of the CLBV genomic RNA expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the transcriptional control of a duplicate promoter of the coat protein subgenomic RNA. Fluorescent spots first appeared in agroinfiltrated leaves 11-12 days after infiltration, indicating CLBV replication. Then, after entering the phloem vascular system, CLBV was unloaded in the upper parts of the plant and invaded all tissues, including flower organs and meristems. GFP fluorescence was not visible in citrus plants infected with CLBV-GFP. Therefore, to detect CLBV in meristematic regions, Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) plants were graft inoculated with CLBV, with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a virus readily eliminated by shoot-tip grafting in?vitro, or with both simultaneously. Although CLBV was detected by hybridization and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 0.2-mm shoot tips in all CLBV-inoculated plants, CTV was not detected. These results explain the difficulty in eliminating CLBV by shoot-tip grafting in?vitro. PMID:23560714

  18. Species limits in Diaporthe: molecular re-assessment of D. citri, D. foeniculina and D. rudis with a new species on Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of Diaporthe are important plant pathogens associated with a wide range of hosts throughout the world. In the present study, the species causing melanose and stem end rot diseases on Citrus spp. were revised. Morphology and molecular phylogenetic analyses of the complete nuclear ribosomal in...

  19. Visualization of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ cells in the vascular bundle of citrus seed coats with fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ is the bacterium implicated as a causal agent of the economically damaging disease of citrus called huanglongbing (HLB). Vertical transmission of the organism through seed to the seedling has not been demonstrated, but previous studies using real-time PCR (qPCR) assays ...

  20. A highly sensitive heminested RT-PCR assay for the detection of citrus psorosis virus targeted to a conserved region of the genome.

    PubMed

    Legarreta, G G; Garciá, M L; Costa, N; Grau, O

    2000-01-01

    Psorosis is a widespread and damaging disease of citrus in many parts of the world. The causal agent is a multipartite virus with RNA genome present in very low concentration in infected citrus tissue. Diagnosis is made by biological indexing on indicator citrus seedlings, but it is a slow and costly procedure and therefore it is not used generally. No sensitive wide-spectrum assay for Citrus Psorosis virus (CPsV) has been reported based on RT-PCR. A highly sensitive heminested RT-PCR assay is described for the detection of CPsV. Fragments of 313 bp amplified from RNA 1 of different isolates were cloned and sequenced. Very high homology was found among six isolates from the citrus producing region of Argentina: 96.6-100% in nucleotide sequence. The consensus sequence obtained was used for the design of the primers for heminested PCR assay. It has been tested on different Argentine isolates, employing various methods for RNA extraction from infected tissue. This test is able to detect CPsV in dilutions of 10(10) of the original sample. PMID:10644083

  1. Study on Citrus Response to Huanglongbing Highlights a Down-Regulation of Defense-Related Proteins in Lemon Plants Upon ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nwugo, Chika C.; Duan, Yongping; Lin, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citruslimon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants. Furthermore, there was a 6% increase (P > 0.05) in K concentration in leaves of lemon plants upon Las infection, which support results from previous studies and might represent a common response pattern of citrus plants to Las infection. Interestingly, contrary to reports from prior studies, this study showed a general reduction in the production of defense-related pathogen-response proteins but a 128% increase in Zn concentration in lemon plants in response to Las infection. Taken together, this study sheds light on general and intra-species specific responses associated with the response of citrus plants to Las. PMID:23922636

  2. Effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease on orange juice flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, Huanglongbing (HLB), also called greening or yellow dragon disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. This is a serious disease of citrus that can kill the tree in 5-10 years. It has also been rumored that the disease causes off-flavor in the fruit and subsequent juice that has be...

  3. Citrus tristeza virus: a pathogen that changed the course of the citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro; Ambrós, Silvia; Albiach-Martí, Maria R; Guerri, José; Peña, Leandro

    2008-03-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. Adapted to replicate in phloem cells of a few species within the family Rutaceae and to transmission by a few aphid species, CTV and citrus probably coevolved for centuries at the site of origin of citrus plants. CTV dispersal to other regions and its interaction with new scion varieties and rootstock combinations resulted in three distinct syndromes named tristeza, stem pitting and seedling yellows. The first, inciting decline of varieties propagated on sour orange, has forced the rebuilding of many citrus industries using tristeza-tolerant rootstocks. The second, inducing stunting, stem pitting and low bearing of some varieties, causes economic losses in an increasing number of countries. The third is usually observed by biological indexing, but rarely in the field. CTV polar virions are composed of two capsid proteins and a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of approximately 20 kb, containing 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and two untranslated regions (UTRs). ORFs 1a and 1b, encoding proteins of the replicase complex, are directly translated from the gRNA, and together with the 5' and 3'UTRs are the only regions required for RNA replication. The remaining ORFs, expressed via 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs, encode proteins required for virion assembly and movement (p6, p65, p61, p27 and p25), asymmetrical accumulation of positive and negative strands during RNA replication (p23), or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (p25, p20 and p23), with the role of proteins p33, p18 and p13 as yet unknown. Analysis of genetic variation in CTV isolates revealed (1) conservation of genomes in distant geographical regions, with a limited repertoire of genotypes, (2) uneven distribution of variation along the gRNA, (3) frequent recombination events and (4) different selection pressures shaping CTV populations. Measures to control CTV damage include quarantine and budwood certification programmes, elimination of infected trees, use of tristeza-tolerant rootstocks, or cross protection with mild isolates, depending on CTV incidence and on the virus strains and host varieties predominant in each region. Incorporating resistance genes into commercial varieties by conventional breeding is presently unfeasible, whereas incorporation of pathogen-derived resistance by plant transformation has yielded variable results, indicating that the CTV-citrus interaction may be more specific and complex than initially thought. A deep understanding of the interactions between viral proteins and host and vector factors will be necessary to develop reliable and sound control measures. PMID:18705856

  4. Stem pitting Citrus tristeza virus predominantly transmitted by the brown citrus aphid from mixed infections containing non-stem pitting and stem pitting isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited closterovirus that produces a variety of symptoms in various Citrus spp. One of these symptoms is stem pitting (SP). SP does not occur in all Citrus spp. but when it does it may cause low tree vigor, decline and an economically-significant reduction ...

  5. Polymerase chain reaction detection of greening bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) and Citrus mosaic virus in citrus tissues, by means of a simplified template-preparation protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Baranwal; K. N. Gupta; R. P. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Application of a simplified protocol for nucleic acid preparation for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of greening bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus; Cla) and Citrus mosaic virus (CMBV) associated with citrus is described. Crude extracts of citrus tissues in NaOH - ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, prepared without the use of liquid nitrogen, were spotted on a nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) and then eluted

  6. Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve some important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Dambier, Dominique; Benyahia, Hamid; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Aka Kaçar, Yildiz; Froelicher, Yann; Belfalah, Zina; Lhou, Beniken; Handaji, Najat; Printz, Bruno; Morillon, Raphael; Yesiloglu, Turgut; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries. PMID:21225429

  7. The Genetic Structure of an Invasive Pest, the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guidolin, Aline S.; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is currently the major threat to the citrus industry as it is the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease (HLB). D. citri is native to Asia and now colonizes the Americas. Although it has been known in some countries for a long time, invasion routes remain undetermined. There are no efficient control methods for the HLB despite the intensive management tools currently in use. We investigated the genetic variability and structure of populations of D. citri to aid in the decision making processes toward sustainable management of this species/disease. We employed different methods to quantify and compare the genetic diversity and structure of D. citri populations among 36 localities in Brazil, using an almost complete sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Our analyses led to the identification of two geographically and genetically structured groups. The indices of molecular diversity pointed to a recent population expansion, and we discuss the role of multiple invasion events in this scenario. We also argue that such genetic diversity and population structure may have implications for the best management strategies to be adopted for controlling this psyllid and/or the disease it vectors in Brazil. PMID:25545788

  8. Overexpression of citrus polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in citrus black rot pathogen Alternaria citri.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Nalumpang, Sarunya; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2007-05-01

    The rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (RlemPGIPA) was overexpressed in the pathogenic fungus Alternaria citri. The overexpression mutant AcOPI6 retained the ability to utilize pectin as a sole carbon source, and the overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein did not have any effect on the growth of AcOPI6 in potato dextrose and pectin medium. The pathogenicity of AcOPI6 to cause a black rot symptom in citrus fruits was also unchanged. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein was secreted together with endopolygalacturonase into culture filtrates of AcOPI6, and oligogalacturonides were digested from polygalacturonic acid by both proteins in the culture filtrates. The reaction mixture containing oligogalacturonides possessed activity for induction of defense-related gene, RlemLOX, in rough lemon leaves. PMID:17223223

  9. Effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I

    2004-12-01

    The effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism was tested using 45 consenting individuals in apparent good health and between the ages of 25 and 35 years. The subjects were moderate social drinkers matched in terms of body weight and build. The results obtained showed that on average, honey significantly (p < 0.05) increased the blood ethanol clearance rate by 68% and decreased the intoxication period by 43%, but insignificantly (p > 0.05) reduced the degree of intoxication by 9%. Honey could be a promising anti-intoxicating agent, but its long-term biochemical evaluation, possibly as a complement in the management of alcohol intoxication, deserves further study. PMID:15662998

  10. Insecticidal suppression of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vector of huanglongbing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Kostyk, Barry C; Stansly, Philip A

    2014-01-01

    Diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause 'huanglongbing' or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. Vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. Efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. Insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i) labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005-2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i) or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i) to control D. citri in citrus. A combined effect of nymphal and adult suppression in response to sprays of 23 insecticides representing 9 modes of action (MoA) groups and 3 unknown MoA provided more than 90% reduction of adult D. citri over 24-68 days. Observable effects on nymphs were generally of shorter duration due to rapid maturation of flush. However, reduction of 76-100% nymphs or adults over 99-296 days was seen on young trees receiving drenches of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or clothianidin (MoA 4A) and a novel anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole (MoA 28). Effective products identified for foliar sprays to control D. citri provide sufficient MoA groups for rotation to delay evolution of insecticide resistance by D. citri and other pests. However, cyantraniliprole is now the only available alternative for rotation with neonicotinoids in soil application to young trees. Sprays of up to eight of the most effective insecticides could be rotated over a year without repetition of any MoA and little or no recourse to neonicotinoids or cyantraniliprole, so important for protection of young trees. Other considerations effecting decisions of what and when to spray include prevalence of huanglongbing, pest pressure, pre-harvest intervals, overall budget, equipment availability, and conservation of beneficial arthropods. Examples of spray programs utilizing broad-spectrum and relatively selective insecticides are provided to improve vector management and may vary depending on individual or regional assessment of all factors. PMID:25437858

  11. Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Harper, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

  12. Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

  13. Worldwide Phylogeography of the Citrus Brown Spot Pathogen, Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Peever, T L; Ibañez, A; Akimitsu, K; Timmer, L W

    2002-07-01

    ABSTRACT Sixty-five isolates of Alternaria alternata were sampled from brown spot lesions on tangerines and mandarins (Citrus reticulata) and tangerine x grapefruit (C. reticulata x C. paradisi) hybrids in the United States, Colombia, Australia, Turkey, South Africa, and Israel to investigate the worldwide phylogeography of the fungus. Genetic variation was scored at 15 putative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) loci and 465 bp of an endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) gene was sequenced for each isolate. Cluster analysis of RAPD genotypes revealed significant differentiation between United State and Colombia isolates and Turkey, South Africa, Israel, and Australia isolates. Sequencing of endo-PG revealed 21 variable sites when the outgroup A. gaisen (AK-toxin-producing pathogen of Japanese pear) was included and 13 variable sites among the sampled isolates. Nucleotide substitutions at 10 of 13 variable sites represented silent mutations when endo-PG was translated in frame. Eight distinct endo-PG haplotypes were found among the sampled isolates and estimation of a phylogeny with endo-PG sequence data revealed three clades, each with strong bootstrap support. The most basal clade (clade 1) was inferred based on its similarity to the outgroup A. gaisen and consisted exclusively of pathogenic isolates from the United States and Colombia. Clade 2 consisted of pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates from the United States, Australia, South Africa, and Israel and clade 3 contained pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates from Australia, South Africa, Israel, and Turkey. Quantitative estimates of virulence (disease incidence) were obtained for isolates from the United States, Colombia, South Africa, Israel, and Turkey by spray inoculating detached citrus leaves and counting the number of lesions 24 h after inoculation. Large differences in virulence were detected among isolates within each location and isolates from the United States were significantly more virulent than isolates from other locations. Several isolates from Colombia, South Africa, Israel, and Turkey had low virulence and 8% of all isolates were nonpathogenic. All but one of the nonpathogenic isolates were found in clade 2 of the endo-PG phylogeny, which also included the most highly virulent isolates sampled. PMID:18943277

  14. Enhancement of beta-carotene synthesis by citrus products.

    PubMed

    CIEGLER, A; NELSON, G E; HALL, H H

    1963-03-01

    beta-Ionone, a stimulatory compound in the microbiological production of beta-carotene by mated cultures of Blakeslea trispora, could be replaced with low-cost agricultural by-products (citrus oils, citrus pulp, or citrus molasses) with as good or better carotene yields. Peak yields (81 to 129 mg of carotene per g of dry solids) were achieved in 5 days. The various citrus products tested did not change the pigments produced; all trans-beta-carotene remained the pre-dominant pigment. The acid-hydrolyzed soybean meal and corn used in previous production media could be replaced with unhydrolyzed cottonseed embryo meal and corn in a medium that also contained a natural lipid, deodorized kerosene, nonionic detergent, and a precursor. PMID:14021337

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...c) Approved growing areas. The fruit must be grown in one of the following approved citrus-producing zones: Zone I, Piura; Zone II, Lambayeque; Zone III, Lima; Zone IV, Ica; and Zone V, Junin. (d) Grower registration and...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...c) Approved growing areas. The fruit must be grown in one of the following approved citrus-producing zones: Zone I, Piura; Zone II, Lambayeque; Zone III, Lima; Zone IV, Ica; and Zone V, Junin. (d) Grower registration and...

  17. Chlorophyllase activity in chlorophyll-free citrus chromoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Hirschfeld; E. E. Goldschmidt

    1983-01-01

    Chromoplast fractions from mature, chlorophyll-less ‘Valencia’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) flavedo (= the outer coloured layer of citrus peel) showed considerable chlorophyllase activity. Acetone powders prepared from chromoplast fractions had 2.5× higher specific activity than those prepared from whole flavedo. Exposure of mature, chlorophyll-less fruit to ethylene caused a 2.5 to 4.0 fold increase in chlorophyllase activity. Juice chromoplasts

  18. Survival, growth, and target canker infection of black walnut families 15 years after establishment in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, T.M.

    1993-07-01

    The survival, growth, and rate of target canker infection of 34 black walnut (Juglans nigra) families were evaluated 15 years after establishment in north-central West Virginia. The progenies originated at locations in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina. There were significant differences between families in survival, incidence of target-canker infection, total height, and diameter at breast height. The North Carolina and Tennessee sources were less suitable for the growing conditions of the test site, local and slightly more northern sources seem more suitable. Near the northern extremity of the range of black walnut, maintaining a viable native population of this species and using local seed sources in artificial regeneration activities are recommended.

  19. Physicochemical characteristics of citrus seed oils from kerman, iran.

    PubMed

    Reazai, Mohammad; Mohammadpourfard, Issa; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Jahanbakhsh, Mahdi; Shiri, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54?meg/kg and 0.77?mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province) and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil. PMID:25136460

  20. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p < 0.05). For all citrus by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p < 0.16). Dry matter (DM) digestibility contents of LE and LI were the highest (p < 0.02). The NDF digestibility was the highest (p < 0.05) in LI and GP, while the lowest (p < 0.03) values of ADF digestibility were observed in LI and LE. According to the results of the present study, carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior. PMID:25992250

  1. A Sensitive and Reliable RT-Nested PCR Assay for Detection of Citrus tristeza Virus from Naturally Infected Citrus Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama; P. K. Maheshwar; Teruo Sano; G. R. Janardhana

    2011-01-01

    A specific and sensitive reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-nPCR) was developed for the detection\\u000a of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from naturally infected citrus samples. Two sets of primer pairs were designed by alignment of nucleotide sequences\\u000a available in GenBank database for different genotypes of CTV. RT-nPCR reaction components and thermal cycling parameters were\\u000a optimized and reaction conditions were

  2. Genetic Transformation of Citrus paradisi with Antisense and Untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus tristeza closterovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F. LEE; Charles L. NIBLETT

    Protein and RNA-mediated forms of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) have been developed against many viruses in different plants. However, no resistance has been reported against Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a closterovirus, in Citrus species transformed with coat protein genes or other sequences of CTV. The successful use of replication-associated genes in RNA-mediated resistance in other crops prompted the use of the

  3. Naringin Levels in Citrus Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Jourdan, Pablo S.; McIntosh, Cecilia A.; Mansell, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    The quantitative distribution of the flavanone-7-neohesperidoside, naringin, in seeds, seedlings, young plants, branches, flowers, and fruit of Citrus paradisi Macfad., cv `Duncan' was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. High levels of naringin were associated with very young tissue and lower levels were found in older tissues. Seed coats of ungerminated seeds and young shoots had high naringin concentrations whereas cotyledons and roots had very low concentrations. Light-grown seedlings contained nearly twice as much naringin as etiolated seedlings and, in young plants and branches, the naringin content was highest in developing leaves and stem tissue. In flowers, the ovary had the highest levels of naringin, accounting for nearly 11% of the fresh weight. There was a net increase in the total naringin content of fruits during growth. However, due to the large increase in fruit size, there was a concomitant decrease in the naringin concentration as the fruit matured. PMID:16664159

  4. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Harisha, C. R.; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jamb?ra Nimb? in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (?odhana), calcination (M?ra?a) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies. PMID:25861144

  5. Characterization of viroid-like RNAs associated with the citrus exocortis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duran-Vila, N; Flores, R; Semancik, J S

    1986-04-15

    Three additional viroid-like RNA species (RNA-I, -II, and -III), smaller than the 371-nucleotide citrus exocortis viroid (CEV), have been identified in citron (Citrus medica) trees which display symptoms of the exocortis disease. The three RNAs migrate on polyacrylamide gels under denaturing conditions in the region between CEV and avocado sunblotch viroid circular molecules, indicating a size range of about 311-335 nucleotide residues in both circular and linear molecular forms. RNA-II is removed from the preparations when chromatographed on CF-11 cellulose. All three RNAs fail to replicate when introduced into Gynura aurantiaca, a herbaceous host of CEV, yet RNA-I and RNA-III can be independently transmitted to citron. Dot-blot hybridization with CEV-cDNA indicates no significant homology between CEV and RNA-I, RNA-II, or RNA-III. The relationship among CEV-RNA and the three viroid-like RNA species in the segregation of expression and intensity of the exocortis disease reaction is discussed. PMID:18640615

  6. Citrus Bioactive Compounds: Isolation, Characterization and Modulation of Bacterial Intercellular Communication and Pathogenicity 

    E-print Network

    Vikram, Amit

    2012-07-16

    The secondary metabolites of citrus such as limonoids and flavonoids constitute an important part of human diet. The present work was undertaken to elucidate the effect of citrus limonoids and flavonoids on the bacterial ...

  7. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter spp.” and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of Citrus based on sequences of six nuclear genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus has a long history of cultivation. The phylogenetic relationships between the different cultivars of citrus are not clearly understood because of hybridization, nucellar embryony and somatic mutations. Earlier studies on citrus taxonomy and phylogeny were based on isozymes analyses, microsate...

  9. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  10. Selection of citrus varieties highly productive for the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Del Río; M. D. Fuster; F. Sabater; I. Porras; A. García-Lidón; A. Ortuño

    1997-01-01

    The levels of the flavanones, neohesperidin and naringin, and the neohesperidinnaringin ratio in immature and mature fruit of different varieties of Citrus aurantium and the Citrus paradisi Macf. × Citrus depresssa Hayata hybrid are compared, and the flavonic content is analysed for the first time. Fruits of the hybrid, which are used to obtain neohesperidin for industrial-scale transformation into the

  11. Land cover classification and economic assessment of citrus groves using remote sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul J. Shrivastava; Jennifer L. Gebelein

    2007-01-01

    The citrus industry has the second largest impact on Florida's economy, following tourism. Estimation of citrus area coverage and annual forecasts of Florida's citrus production are currently dependent on labor-intensive interpretation of aerial photographs. Remotely sensed data from satellites has been widely applied in agricultural yield estimation and cropland management. Satellite data can potentially be obtained throughout the year, making

  12. Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

  13. Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

  14. Enhancement of cold tolerance and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by citrus dehydrin in transgenic tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Hara; Shogo Terashima; Tomoko Fukaya; Toru Kuboi

    2003-01-01

    Citrus (Citrus unshiu Marcov.) dehydrin in response to chilling stress was overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and the cold stress tolerance of transgenics at low temperature was analyzed. The freezing at ?4 °C for 3 h of 24 independent lines indicated that a phenotype expressing citrus dehydrin showed less electrolyte leakage than the control. Dehydrin protein content was correlated with freezing

  15. HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

  16. Simultaneous detection of six citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus from citrus plants by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takao; Ieki, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Katsumi

    2002-12-01

    We developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect six citrus viroids: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV) and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV)) from citrus plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was also designed to distinguish CVd-I-LSS (a distinct variant of CBLVd) from CBLVd. By the multiplex RT-PCR, one to eight fragments specific to the pathogens were simultaneously amplified from one sample and identified by their specific molecular sizes in 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results of the multiplex RT-PCR were consistent with those of other diagnoses, such as uniplex RT-PCR, to detect each of the pathogens. The multiplex RT-PCR provides a simple and rapid method for detecting various viroids and ASGV in citrus plants, which will help diagnose many citrus plants at a time. PMID:12393154

  17. Citrus psorosis and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein ophiovirus coat proteins localize to the cytoplasm and self interact in vivo.

    PubMed

    Peña, Eduardo José; Robles Luna, Gabriel; Zanek, María Cecilia; Borniego, María Belén; Reyes, Carina Andrea; Heinlein, Manfred; García, María Laura

    2012-12-01

    Citrus psorosis (CPsV) and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MiLBVV) belong to the family Ophioviridae, plant viruses with filamentous nucleocapsids and segmented genomes of negative polarity, causing the worldwide distributed citrus psorosis and lettuce big-vein diseases, respectively. To gain insight into the replication cycle of these viruses, the subcellular localization of the viral coat proteins (CP) was studied. Immunoblot analysis of fractionated extracts derived from natural and experimental infected hosts indicated that the CP of CPsV occurs in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. The cytoplasmic localization of this protein was confirmed by confocal microscopy of fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged CP following its expression in either CPsV-infected and healthy Citrus sinensis plants or in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The same localization was observed for FP-tagged CP of MiLBVV. The CPs of CPsV and MiLBBV can undergo homologous and heterologous interactions as revealed by fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis. A putative leucine zipper motif that is conserved among ophiovirus CP sequences may account for these interactions. PMID:22921760

  18. Endopolygalacturonase is essential for citrus black rot caused by Alternaria citri but not brown spot caused by Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, A; Akimitsu, K; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, H

    2001-06-01

    Alternaria citri, the cause of Alternaria black rot, and Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype, the cause of Alternaria brown spot, are morphologically indistinguishable pathogens of citrus: one causes rot by macerating tissues and the other causes necrotic spots by producing a host-selective toxin. To evaluate the role of endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) in pathogenicity of these two Alternaria spp. pathogens, their genes for endoPG were mutated by gene targeting. The endoPGs produced by these fungi have similar biochemical properties, and the genes are highly similar (99.6% nucleotide identity). The phenotypes of the mutants, however, are completely different. An endoPG mutant of A. citri was significantly reduced in its ability to cause black rot symptoms on citrus as well as in the maceration of potato tissue and could not colonize citrus peel segments. In contrast, an endoPG mutant of A. alternata was unchanged in pathogenicity. The results indicate that a cell wall-degrading enzyme can play different roles in the pathogenicity of fungal pathogens. The role of a cell wall-degrading enzyme depends upon the type of disease but not the taxonomy of the fungus. PMID:11386370

  19. Differential resistance to Citrus psorosis virus in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing hairpin RNA derived from the coat protein and 54K protein genes.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Carina Andrea; Peña, Eduardo José; Zanek, María Cecilia; Sanchez, Daniela Verónica; Grau, Oscar; García, María Laura

    2009-12-01

    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae, is the causal agent of a serious disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. The viral genome consists of three ssRNAs of negative polarity. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant defence against viruses, can be induced by transgenic expression of virus-derived sequences encoding hairpin RNAs. Since the production of transgenic citrus lines and their evaluation would take years, a herbaceous model plant, Nicotiana benthamiana, was used to test hairpin constructs. The expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA fragments from the coat protein (cp) and 54K genes of the Argentine CPsV 90-1-1 isolate conferred resistance on N. benthamiana plants, indicating that these constructs are good candidates for the transformation of citrus plants. The degree of resistance obtained varied depending on the viral sequence chosen. The analysis of the levels of small interfering RNA accumulation and viral RNAs indicated that the construct derived from cp gene was better at inducing PTGS than that originating from the 54K gene. The dependence of PTGS induction on the degree of identity between the target and the inducer transgene sequences was tested using sequences derived from CPV4, a more distant isolate of CPsV, as PTGS targets. Efficient silencing induction was also obtained to this isolate through the expression of the cp-derived hairpin. This is the first report of transgenic-resistant plants within the context of this serious citrus disease. PMID:19820946

  20. Effects of the nematicide 1,3-dichloropropene on weed populations and stem canker disease severity in potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick P. J. Haydock; Thomas Deliopoulos; Ken Evans; Stephen T. Minnis

    2010-01-01

    The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) has been used in the UK for the control of potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera pallida (Stone) and Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber), but its potential herbicidal activity has not been extensively investigated in this country. Field and glasshouse studies were therefore conducted to evaluate the potential of 1,3-D for the control of weeds in potatoes, and

  1. Spatial relationships between nitrogen status and pitch canker disease in slash pine planted adjacent to a poultry operation

    E-print Network

    Grunwald, Sabine

    adjacent to a poultry operation Isabel Lopez-Zamora a , Christine Bliss a , Eric J. Jokela b,*, N June 2006; accepted 18 August 2006 Local emissions from poultry production appear to significantly to nutrient imbalances. Poultry houses with forced-air ventilation systems produce nitrogen (N) emissions

  2. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2010-02-01

    The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers. PMID:20214367

  3. Inhibition of citrus fungal pathogens by using lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gerez, C L; Carbajo, M S; Rollán, G; Torres Leal, G; Font de Valdez, G

    2010-08-01

    The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on pathogenic fungi was evaluated and the metabolites involved in the antifungal effect were characterized. Penicillium digitatum (INTA 1 to INTA 7) and Geotrichum citri-aurantii (INTA 8) isolated from decayed lemon from commercial packinghouses were treated with imazalil and guazatine to obtain strains resistant to these fungicides. The most resistant strains (4 fungal strains) were selected for evaluating the antifungal activity of 33 LAB strains, among which only 8 strains gave positive results. The antifungal activity of these LAB strains was related to the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and phenyllactic acid (PLA). A central composite design and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the organic acids produced by the LAB cultures. The antifungal activity of lactic acid was directly related to its concentration; however, acetic acid and PLA showed a peak of activity at 52.5 and 0.8 mM, respectively, with inhibition rates similar to those obtained with Serenade((R)) (3.0 ppm) imazalil (50 ppm) and guazatine (50 ppm). Beyond the peak of activity, a reduction in effectiveness of both acetic acid and PLA was observed. Comparing the inhibition rate of the organic acids, PLA was about 66- and 600-fold more effective than acetic acid and lactic acid, respectively. This study presents evidences on the antifungal effect of selected LAB strains and their end products. Studies are currently being undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness in preventing postharvest diseases on citrus fruits. PMID:20722936

  4. Viability of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' prolonged by addition of citrus juice to culture medium.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer K; Wisotsky, Sarah R; Johnson, Evan G; Hijaz, Faraj M; Killiny, Nabil; Hilf, Mark E; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Infection with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding 'Ca. L. asiaticus' biology and pathogenesis is essential to develop a treatment. However, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cannot currently be successfully cultured, limiting its study. To gain insight into the conditions conducive for growth of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in vitro, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inoculum obtained from seed of fruit from infected pomelo trees (Citrus maxima 'Mato Buntan') was added to different media, and cell viability was monitored for up to 2 months using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with ethidium monoazide. Media tested included one-third King's B (K), K with 50% juice from the infected fruit, K with 50% commercially available grapefruit juice, and 100% commercially available grapefruit juice. Results show that juice-containing media dramatically prolong viability compared with K in experiments reproduced during 2 years using different juice sources. Furthermore, biofilm formed at the air-liquid interface of juice cultures contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cells, though next-generation sequencing indicated that other bacterial genera were predominant. Chemical characterization of the media was conducted to discuss possible factors sustaining 'Ca. L. asiaticus' viability in vitro, which will contribute to future development of a culture medium for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:23883155

  5. Characterization of grapefruit plants (Citrus paradisi Macf.) transformed with citrus tristeza closterovirus genes.

    PubMed

    Febres, V J; Niblett, C L; Lee, R F; Moore, G A

    2003-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv Duncan) plants were transformed with several sequences from citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) that varied in terms of position in the CTV genome and virus strain origin in an attempt to obtain resistant plants. The sequences included the capsid protein gene from three different strains, a nontranslatable version of the capsid protein gene, the replicase (RdRp), the minor capsid protein (p27), a highly transcribed gene of unknown function (p20) and the more conserved 3' end of the genomic RNA. Transgenic plants were generated from all of the constructs, except from the p20 and p27 genes. Southern and Western blot analyses demonstrated that stably transformed grapefruit plants were obtained and that at least some transgenes were expressed. In a first effort at virus challenge, 25 transgenic lines were graft inoculated with a severe strain of CTV. Although some transgenic plants averaged lower titers of virus than controls, there was great variability in titer in both controls and transgenic plants, and all were apparently susceptible to the virus. PMID:12789444

  6. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils. PMID:16332132

  7. The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of citrus leaf rugose and citrus variegation ilarviruses.

    PubMed

    Scott, S W; Ge, X

    1995-04-01

    Complete sequence data for the RNA 3 of both citrus leaf rugose (CiLRV) and citrus variegation (CVV) ilarviruses have been determined. The RNAs are 2289 nt (CiLRV) and 2309 nt (CVV) in length and both contain the typical Bromoviridae arrangement of two open reading frames (ORFs) which, when translated, code for proteins that correspond to the Mr 32,000 (32K) putative movement proteins (ORF 1) and the coat proteins (ORF 2) of the respective viruses. The 3' termini of both viruses can be folded to form a secondary structure similar to those reported for other ilarviruses. These are the first complete nucleotide sequences for RNA 3 of members of subgroup 2 of the ilarviruses. The two viruses share substantial homology in nucleic acid sequence, code for identically sized coat proteins and share high levels of identity in the translated products of both ORFs. Although related, these viruses differ sufficiently to be considered distinct. The RNA 3s of CiLRV and CVV appear to be distinct from those of other ilarviruses for which comparable sequence data are available and also from the closely related alfalfa mosaic virus. PMID:9049342

  8. The closely related citrus ringspot and citrus psorosis viruses have particles of novel filamentous morphology.

    PubMed

    García, M L; Dal Bó, E; Grau, O; Milne, R G

    1994-12-01

    Some properties of the particles of citrus ringspot virus (CtRSV) and the related citrus psorosis-associated virus (CPsAV) are described. The particles of CtRSV have been reported to be sinuous linear structures about 10 nm in diameter and of two lengths (300 to 500 nm and 1500 to 2500 nm) representing 'top' and 'bottom' sedimentation components. We show that these particles are collapsed double-stranded forms of nucleocapsid-like, highly flexuous open circles formed of filaments 3 to 4 nm in diameter. Top-component filaments had contour lengths of 600 to 1000 nm, i.e. twice that reported for the corresponding collapsed form. Bottom-component filaments had contour lengths about four times longer than those of top-component filaments. The structures suggest that CtRSV represents a new genus (possibly family) related to the tenuiviruses. However, we failed to demonstrate any serological relationship between CtRSV and several tenuiviruses; moreover, the capsid protein sizes and host ranges are quite different. We offer the name Ophiovirus for the proposed new genus. PMID:7996151

  9. Transcriptional response of Citrus aurantifolia to infection by Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Gandía, Mónica; Conesa, Ana; Ancillo, Gema; Gadea, José; Forment, Javier; Pallás, Vicente; Flores, Ricardo; Duran-Vila, Nuria; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2007-10-25

    Changes in gene expression of Mexican lime plants in response to infection with a severe (T305) or a mild (T385) isolate of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were analyzed using a cDNA microarray containing 12,672 probes to 6875 different citrus genes. Statistically significant (P<0.01) expression changes of 334 genes were detected in response to infection with isolate T305, whereas infection with T385 induced no significant change. Induced genes included 145 without significant similarity with known sequences and 189 that were classified in seven functional categories. Genes related with response to stress and defense were the main category and included 28% of the genes induced. Selected transcription changes detected by microarray analysis were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Changes detected in the transcriptome upon infecting lime with T305 may be associated either with symptom expression, with a strain-specific defense mechanism, or with a general response to stress. PMID:17617431

  10. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed. PMID:25977000

  11. Pharmacological properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Arias, Beatriz Alvarez; Ramón-Laca, Luis

    2005-02-10

    This paper reviews the pharmacological properties of Mediterranean-grown citrus species (Citrus L., Rutaceae), including citron (Citrus medica L.), lime (Citrus xauantiifolia [Christm.] Swingle), lemon (Citrus xlimon [L.] Osbeck), bitter orange (Citrus xaurantium L.) and pomelo (Citrus maxima [Burm.] Merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. The virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared to those known to modern science. A much broader spectrum of pharmacological properties was recorded by these early writers than one might expect. The use of the citron and lemon as antidotes for 'poison and venom' is recorded in the very earliest material. According to modern scientific literature the citron and the bitter orange may possess anti-cancer activity, lime may have an immunomodulatory effect in humans, and the pomelo may be useful for treating circulatory problems. Lemons might even ease hangover symptoms. Research is required to confirm these properties. PMID:15652281

  12. Flavonoid glycosides and limonoids from Citrus molasses.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Ishii, Hiromi; Kawahara, Nobuo; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hideo; Okihara, Kiyoshi; Shirota, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Molasses of tangerine orange (Citrus unshiu Markovich) is obtained as a waste product in the course of tangerine orange juice production. This molasses is expected to be a useful source of organic compounds such as flavonoids and limonoids. To elucidate a use for this molasses waste, we isolated and identified its organic constituents. Two new flavanonol glycosides were isolated from tangerine orange molasses, along with several flavonoids such as hesperidine, narirutin, eriodictyol, 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxyflavone, and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 3-beta-D-[4-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaloyl)]-glucopyranosyloxyflavone, and limonoids such as limonin, nomilin, and cyclic peptide, citrusin III. The structures of the new flavanonol glycosides were determined as (2R,3R)-7-O-(6-O-alpha-L-rahmnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-aromadendrin and 7-O-(6-O-alpha-L-rahmnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone by means of spectral analyses using (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR. Of these compounds, flavanone glycoside, hesperidin and narirutin were isolated as the main constituents. Thus, molasses is a promising source of flavonoid glycosides. PMID:18404354

  13. Citrus consumption and cancer incidence: the Ohsaki cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Li, Qiang; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2010-10-15

    Basic research and case-control studies have suggested that citrus consumption may protect against cancer. However, the protective effect has been observed from few prospective studies. This study investigated the association of citrus consumption with cancer incidence among 42,470 Japanese adults in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort, which covered an age range of 40-79 years, and was followed up from 1995 to 2003 for all-cancer and individual cancer incidence. Citrus consumption was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. During the 323,204 person-years of follow-up, 3,398 cases were identified totally. Citrus consumption, especially daily consumption, was correlated with reduced all-cancer incidence, the RRs were 0.89 (95% CI = 0.80-0.98) for total participants, 0.86 (0.76-0.98) for males and 0.93 (0.79-1.09) for females, as well as multiple cancers at individual sites, especially pancreatic (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.38-1.00) and prostate cancer (RR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.97). Joint effect analysis showed a reduced risk of overall cancer existed only for subjects who consumed >or=1 cup green tea/day (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73-0.93) as well as for males (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.97) or females (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99). These findings suggest that citrus consumption is associated with reduced all-cancer incidence, especially for subjects having simultaneously high green tea consumption. Further work on the specific citrus constituents is warranted, and clinical trials are ultimately necessary to confirm the protective effect. PMID:20104526

  14. Guide for Citrus Production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. 

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Norman P. (Norman Paul); Bailey, Morris A.

    1963-01-01

    , Weslaco. minerals must be considered when determinin, suitability of irrigation water. These include h chloride, sodium, and residual carbonate plus I bonate concentrations. Only water with less tk ppm of boron are recommended for citrus i! tion.... The best waters contain less than 0.3 boron. Irrigation waters containing between and 1.0 ppm boron may cause some boron toxicit! citrus. When necessary to use waters of the la group, occasional irrigations with low boron wait (less than 0.3 ppm...

  15. Efficient Procedure for Extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from Citrus Roots

    PubMed Central

    Greco, N.; D'Addabbo, T.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to determine the suitability of sucrose and magnesium sulphate solutions and a silica colloidal suspension with centrifugation for extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from citrus roots. The efficiency of incubation, sodium hypochlorite, centrifugation, and maceration methods was also compared. Numbers of females recovered by centrifugation with colloidal silica were greater than those from sucrose or magnesium sulphate. Incubation, sodium hypochlorite, and centrifugation methods were satisfactory for extracting eggs, second-stage juveniles, and males, whereas the maceration-sieving method was less efficient. Combining the sodium hypochlorite method with a 15-second maceration followed by centrifugation in colloidal silica reduced the recovery of T. semipenetrans females from citrus roots. PMID:19287763

  16. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

  17. Gas exchange rates at different vapor pressure deficits and water relations of ‘Pera’ sweet orange plants with citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Habermann; Eduardo Caruso Machado; João Domingos Rodrigues; Camilo Lázaro Medina

    2003-01-01

    Net photosynthesis (A) and transpiration rates (E), stomatal conductance (g), water use efficiency (WUE), intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE) and internal leaf CO2 concentration (Ci) in response to different vapor pressure deficit (1.2 and 2.5kPa) were investigated in ‘Pera’ sweet orange plants affected by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a disease caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All plants were well watered and

  18. Field evaluation of a plant activator, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, iprodione, mancozeb and strobilurins for the control of citrus brown spot of mandarin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Miles; S. L. Willingham; A. W. Cooke

    2005-01-01

    Brown spot (caused by Alternaria alternata) is a major disease of citrus in subtropical areas of Australia. A number of chemicals, the strobilurins azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin,\\u000a pyraclostrobin and methoxycrylate, a plant activator (acibenzolar), copper hydroxide, mancozeb, captan, iprodione and chlorothalonil\\/pyrimthanil\\u000a were tested in the field for its control. Over three seasons, trees in a commercial orchard received 16, 14 and 7

  19. DETECCIÓN CUANTITATIVA DEL VIRUS PSOROSIS DE CÍTRICOS MEDIANTE RT-PCR TIEMPO REAL QUANTITATIVE DIAGNOSIS OF CITRUS PSOROSIS VIRUS BY REAL TIME RT-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Barragán-Valencia; Alberto Morales-Loredo; M. Genoveva Álvarez-Ojeda; M. Ángeles; Peña-del Río; Isela Quintero-Zapata; Manuel L. Barragán; Nuevo León

    2008-01-01

    Real time RT-PCR is useful for detecting citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) and also permits the evaluation of the viral concentration that can be used to study some aspects of the disease. In this study a protocol of real time RT-PCR was implemented for the quantitative detection of CPsV, for which a group of primers were designed along with a Taqman

  20. Three genes of Citrus tristeza virus are dispensable for infection and movement throughout some varieties of citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Robertson, Cecile J; Garnsey, Stephen M; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O

    2008-07-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, possesses a 19.3-kb positive-stranded RNA genome that is organized into twelve open reading frames (ORFs). The CTV genome contains two sets of conserved genes, which are characteristic of this virus group, the replication gene block (ORF 1a and 1b) and the quintuple gene block (p6, HSP70 h, p61, CPm, and CP). With the exception of the p6 gene, they are required for replication and virion assembly. CTV contains five additional genes, p33, p18, p13, p20 and p23, in the 3' half of the genome, some of which (p33, p18 and p13) are not conserved among other members of this virus group, and have been proposed to have evolved for specific interactions with the citrus host. In the present study, the requirements for systemic infection of citrus trees of p33, p6, p18, p13 and p20 were examined. Viral mutants with a deletion in the p6 or the p20 ORF failed to infect citrus plants systemically, suggesting their possible roles in virus translocation/systemic infection. However, we found that deletions within the p33, p18 or p13 ORF individually resulted in no significant loss of ability of the virus to infect, multiply, and spread throughout citrus trees. Furthermore, deletions in the p33, p18 and p13 genes in all possible combinations including deletions in all three genes allowed the virus to systemically invade citrus trees. Green fluorescent protein-tagged CTV variants with deletions in the p33 ORF or the p33, p18 and p13 ORFs demonstrated that the movement and distribution of these deletion mutants were similar to that of the wild-type virus. PMID:18456299

  1. Naringin Levels in Citrus Tissues : II. Quantitative Distribution of Naringin in Citrus paradisi MacFad.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, P S; McIntosh, C A; Mansell, R L

    1985-04-01

    The quantitative distribution of the flavanone-7-neohesperidoside, naringin, in seeds, seedlings, young plants, branches, flowers, and fruit of Citrus paradisi Macfad., cv ;Duncan' was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. High levels of naringin were associated with very young tissue and lower levels were found in older tissues. Seed coats of ungerminated seeds and young shoots had high naringin concentrations whereas cotyledons and roots had very low concentrations. Light-grown seedlings contained nearly twice as much naringin as etiolated seedlings and, in young plants and branches, the naringin content was highest in developing leaves and stem tissue. In flowers, the ovary had the highest levels of naringin, accounting for nearly 11% of the fresh weight. There was a net increase in the total naringin content of fruits during growth. However, due to the large increase in fruit size, there was a concomitant decrease in the naringin concentration as the fruit matured. PMID:16664159

  2. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL. PMID:11858553

  3. Photographic sensing of boron and chloride toxicities of citrus trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cardenas; A. Paynado; H. W. Gausman; A. H. Gerbermann; R. L. Bowen

    1971-01-01

    Film density measurements were used to discriminate between healthy Red Blush grapefruit trees and trees whose foliage exhibited boron (B) and chloride (Cl⁻) toxicity symptoms (affected). Citrus trees were photographed from an aircraft (3000 ft altitude) and a Truco's aerial lift (9 ft above trees) with a Hasselblad camera. Light reflectance of foliage of B⁻ and Cl⁻-affected trees produced pinkish

  4. BORON UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION IN FIELD GROWN CITRUS TREES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto; José Antônio Quaggio; Dirceu Mattos Jr; Takashi Muraoka; Antonio Enedi Boaretto

    2011-01-01

    In low fertility tropical soils, boron (B) deficiency impairs fruit production. However, little information is available on the efficiency of nutrient application and use by trees. Therefore, this work verified the effects of soil and foliar applications of boron in a commercial citrus orchard. An experiment was conducted with fertigated 4-year-old ‘Valencia’ sweet orange trees on ‘Swingle’ citrumelo rootstock. Boron

  5. Subcritical Water Extraction of Nutraceutical Compounds from Citrus Pomaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Wan Kim; Tatsuya Nagaoka; Yasuyuki Ishida; Tatsuya Hasegawa; Kuniyuki Kitagawa; Seung-Cheol Lee

    2009-01-01

    Subcritical water (SCW) extraction of citrus pomaces (CPs) was carried out, and antioxidant activity and nutraceutical compound levels of the SCW extracts were evaluated in detail. At first, CP samples were subjected to the SCW extraction under various conditions focusing on the extraction temperature and time. Consequently, the highest total phenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power were found

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Functional Citrus Tree Wood 1

    PubMed Central

    Turrell, F. M.; Austin, S. W.; McNee, Dan; Park, W. J.

    1967-01-01

    Thermal conductivity coefficients have been determined for longitudinal and transverse flow in 4 varieties of fresh Citrus wood using steady state-methods. Equations were developed from which thermal conductivity could be rapidly estimated from moisture content or electrical conductivity. The heat balance of large and small tree trunks on a freezing night has been calculated on the basis of the coefficients. PMID:16656610

  7. Metal binding by citrus dehydrin with histidine-rich domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Hara; Masataka Fujinaga; Toru Kuboi

    2005-01-01

    Dehydrins are hydrophilic proteins that are responsive to osmotic stress, such as drought, cold, and salinity in plants. Although they have been hypothesized to stabi- lize macromolecules in stressed cells, their functions are not fully understood. Citrus dehydrin, which accu- mulates mainly in response to cold stress, enhances cold tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing lipid peroxidation. It has been

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Ali-Hassan, Soaib

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppress mosquito larval population. Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used. Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis) was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm), % mortality (97%) and LT50 (18.49 hours) then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate) with LC50 (377.4 ppm), % mortality (88%) and LT50 (31 hours), While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm) than limonin (382.22 ppm) after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 ?g/ml and 21.19 ?g/ml) than freutrall early (5.29 ?g/ml and 3.89 ?g/ml) respectively. Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required. PMID:23378967

  9. Longevity of radiofrequency identification device microchips in citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term identification of individual plants in the field is an important part of many types of botanical and horticultural research. In a previous report, we described methods for using implanted radiofrequency (RFID) microchips to tag citrus trees for field research. This report provides an upd...

  10. Appliation of rad-sequencing to linkage mapping in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High density linkage maps can be developed for modest cost using high-throughput DNA sequencing to genotype a defined fraction (representation) of the genome. We developed linkage maps in two citrus populations using the RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) genotyping method which involves restrict...

  11. Chemical composition and biological activity of Citrus jambhiri Lush

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia Hamdan; Mahmoud Zaki El-Readi; Ahmad Tahrani; Florian Herrmann; Dorothea Kaufmann; Nawal Farrag; Assem El-Shazly; Michael Wink

    2011-01-01

    The fresh peel of Citrus jambhiri was extracted with aqueous methanol and the residue was fractionated using light petroleum, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The constituents of the extracts were separated by column chromatography employing solvents of different polarity. The chemical structure of the isolated compounds was then identified by MS and NMR. Column chromatography of the petroleum fraction resulted in

  12. Antibacterial activity of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ) peel extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha

    2001-01-01

    Citrus paradisi peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor for 8 h each. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) of hexane and chloroform extracts showed three spots with different concentrations; hence both the extracts were mixed and fractionated into alcohol soluble and insoluble fractions. Naringin was isolated from acetone and methanol extracts by column chromatography

  13. Detection of citrus tatter leaf virus in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Broadbent; C. M. Dephoff; C. Gilkeson

    1994-01-01

    Citrus tatter leaf virus (CiTLV) was detected in trees of Meyer lemon and three Washington navel orange cultivars by graft\\u000a transmission to indicator plants of Troyer and Rusk citranges, by mechanical transmission to Physalis floridana and Chenopodium quinoa, and by CiTLV antiserum decoration of flexuous virus particles with a mean length of 616 nm.

  14. TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of aphid transmission of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) by Aphis gossypii is reviewed and an update on the genotypes and transmissibility of San Joaquin Valley CTV isolates are provided. This article includes data presented in a symposium on CTV at the annual meeting of the American Phytopath...

  15. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Folimonov, Alexey S; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O

    2007-11-10

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees. PMID:17651777

  16. Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

  17. Emergence and phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F; Rubio, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

  18. Anti-dementia Activity of Nobiletin, a Citrus Flavonoid: A Review of Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, is characterized by the progressive decline of cognitive function and has a detrimental impact worldwide. Despite intensive laboratory and clinical research over the last three decades, pharmacological options for the prevention and effective long-term treatment of AD are not currently available. Consequently, successful therapeutic and preventive treatments for AD are needed. When researching materials from natural resources having anti-dementia drug activity, we identified nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from the peel of Citrus depressa. Nobiletin exhibited memory-improving effects in various animal models of dementia and exerted a wide range of beneficial effects against pathological features of AD including amyloid-? (A?) pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, cholinergic neurodegeneration and dysfunction of synaptic plasticity-related signaling, suggesting this natural compound could become a novel drug for the treatment and prevention of AD. PMID:25191498

  19. Anti-dementia Activity of Nobiletin, a Citrus Flavonoid: A Review of Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akira; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2014-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, is characterized by the progressive decline of cognitive function and has a detrimental impact worldwide. Despite intensive laboratory and clinical research over the last three decades, pharmacological options for the prevention and effective long-term treatment of AD are not currently available. Consequently, successful therapeutic and preventive treatments for AD are needed. When researching materials from natural resources having anti-dementia drug activity, we identified nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from the peel of Citrus depressa. Nobiletin exhibited memory-improving effects in various animal models of dementia and exerted a wide range of beneficial effects against pathological features of AD including amyloid-? (A?) pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, cholinergic neurodegeneration and dysfunction of synaptic plasticity-related signaling, suggesting this natural compound could become a novel drug for the treatment and prevention of AD. PMID:25191498

  20. Factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Citrus and production of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) plants expressing the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Luth; G. A. Moore

    1997-01-01

    Factors influencing transformation frequencies using the Agrobacterium-mediated protocol developed for Citrus seedling internodal stem segments in this laboratory were evaluated, with particular emphasis on decreasing the numbers of\\u000a ``escape'' shoots produced. Although the use of a wild-type ``shooty'' Agrobacterium strain allowed relatively high frequencies of ?-glucuronidase positive (GUS+) shoots to be produced, none of the shoots were free of wild-type