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1

Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a review article about the Citrus Canker, an introduced plant disease. The article contains detailed background and overview and includes information on (1) Citrus Canker strain diversity, identification, diagnosis and characterization; (2) the symptoms and infection Process; (3) the epidemiology; (4) the management for prevention and control of Citrus Canker; (5) and the social, political, and legal ramifications of regulatory policy.

Tim R. Gottwald (USDA;); James H. Graham (University of Florida;); Tim S. Schubert (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;)

2002-08-12

2

CITRUS CANKER: PLANT PATHOLOGY VERSUS PUBLIC POLICY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing international travel and trade has resulted in an unprecedented number of plant pathogen introductions, including Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, (Xac), the bacterium that causes citrus canker. The disease affects commercial and dooryard citrus, and has far-reaching politi...

3

Genetic Diversity and Pathogenicity of Xanthomonas axonopodis Strains Inducing Citrus Canker Disease in Iran and South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in 1989 citrus bacterial canker disease has seen on Citrus\\u000a aurantiifolia in southern Iran. A total of 43 strains from affected citrus trees, ten strains from South Korea and representative from\\u000a all known five pathotypes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathogenic on citrus trees were used in this study. Isolated strains from Iran were indistinguishable by phenotypic, FAMEs,

G. Khodakaramian; J. Swings

2011-01-01

4

Citrus Canker: Alternatives for Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do you do when county officials show up to cut down the orange trees in your backyard? What causes citrus canker and how is it spread? This plant pathogen was the first microbe to have its genome sequenced outside of the US. There is much to investigate before deciding on the best alternative for control. * examine international alternatives for the control of citrus canker

Linda Weinland (Edison College;Biology); Peter Woodruff (Champlain College;Biology); Margaret Waterman (Southeast Missouri State University;Biology); Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

5

Detection of citrus canker in citrus plants using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker is a serious disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri bacteria, which infects citrus plants (Citrus spp.) leading to a large economic loss in citrus production worldwide. In Brazil citrus canker control is done by an official\\u000a eradication campaign, therefore early detection of such disease is important to prevent greater economic losses. However,\\u000a detection is difficult and so

Emery C. Lins; José Belasque; Luis G. Marcassa

2009-01-01

6

Screening USDA Citrus Germplasm for Resistance to Citrus Canker  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker (Acc) (causal organism Xanthomonas citri subspc. citri (Xcc) is threatening sustainability of the Florida citrus industry. Resistant cultivars, whether developed through conventional breeding or genetic transformation, will be he best solution for dealint with Acc. In Florida...

7

Rapid and sensitive detection of Citrus Bacterial Canker by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with simple visual evaluation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) is a major, highly contagious disease of citrus plants present in many countries in Asia, Africa and America, but not in the Mediterranean area. There are three types of Citrus Bacterial Canker, named A, B, and C that have different genotypes and posses variation in host range within citrus species. The causative agent for type

Luciano A Rigano; María R Marano; Atilio P Castagnaro; Alexandre Morais Do Amaral; Adrian A Vojnov

2010-01-01

8

Injection and decontamination of citrus-canker-inoculated leaf surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...

9

THE APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF CITRUS CANKER FOR THE DESIGN OF CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION PROCEDURES IN FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite eradication efforts in both Florida and Brazil, citrus canker has been dispersed by a combination of storms and human movement. Citrus canker certainly causes crop losses put perhaps its most devastating effect is the social and political conflicts over mandated eradication programs. Epide...

10

IMAGE ANALYSIS VERSUS VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF CITRUS CANKER SYMPTOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker. Disease assessment is important for monitoring epidemics. Visual assessment (VA) is presently the only reliable means of detection. To investigate how VA of symptoms compared to image analysis we used digital images of 214 citrus le...

11

The decline in quantity of bacteria of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri dispersed from canker-infected citrus plants during wind/rain events  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and objectives. Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Xac) is an important disease of citrus in several tropical and sub-tropical citrus growing regions. Canker damaged trees produce less yield and the blemished fruit is unfit for fresh sale, so processing becomes the...

12

78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker. DATES: We will consider...suppress, control, prevent, or retard the spread of plant pests, such as citrus canker...regulations to prevent the interstate spread of citrus canker are contained...

2013-09-25

13

78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provide adequate safeguards to prevent the spread of the three pests into currently unaffected...measures determined necessary to prevent the spread of the pest, or requiring the plants...regulations to prevent the interstate spread of citrus canker are contained...

2013-10-24

14

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri: factors affecting successful eradication of citrus canker.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Taxonomic status: Bacteria, Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision, Xanthomodales, Xanthomonas group, axonopodis DNA homology group, X. axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Microbiological properties: Gram negative, slender, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile by a single polar flagellum, produces slow growing, non-mucoid colonies in culture, ecologically obligate plant parasite. Host range: Causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker on most Citrus spp. and close relatives of Citrus in the family Rutaceae. Disease symptoms: Distinctively raised, necrotic lesions on fruits, stems and leaves. Epidemiology: Bacteria exude from lesions during wet weather and are disseminated by splash dispersal at short range, windblown rain at medium to long range and human assisted movement at all ranges. Crop loss: Severe infections cause defoliation, blemished fruit, premature fruit drop, die-back of twigs and general debilitation of the tree. Distribution: Citrus canker is not present in all subtropical to tropical regions of citriculture in the world, so considerable regulatory efforts are expended to prevent the introduction and spread of X. axonopodis pv. citri into areas in the Americas, Australia and elsewhere, with climates conducive to the disease. Importance: Limited strategies exist for suppression of citrus canker on more susceptible cultivars. Blemished fruit are unmarketable and exposed fruit are restricted in market access. The economic impact of loss of markets is much greater than that from yield and quality reductions of the crop. Useful websites: http://doacs.state.fl.us/canker, http://www.apsnet.org/education/lessonsplantpath/citruscanker/top.htm, http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/citruscanker/, http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/review/citruscanker/, http://www.abecitrus.com.br/fundecitrus.html, http://www.biotech.ufl.edu/PlantContainment/canker.htm, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/ccanker/. PMID:20565577

Graham, James H; Gottwald, Tim R; Cubero, Jaime; Achor, Diann S

2004-01-01

15

QCM immunoassay for recombinant cysteine peptidase: a potential protein biomarker for diagnosis of citrus canker.  

PubMed

Citrus canker is one of the most important agricultural citrus diseases worldwide. It is caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) bacterium that infects leaves and the fruits produce a cysteine peptidase (CPXaC), which makes it a potential target for the development of effective and rapid detection methods for citrus canker. We report here the studies on the development of piezoelectric immunoassay for CPXaC using a polyclonal antibody against CPXaC (anti-CPXaC). Three different strategies for covalent immobilization of anti-CPXaC on gold surfaces were evaluated by monitoring the frequency (?f) and energy dissipation (?D) variation in real time when 64.5×10(-8) mol L(-1) CPXaC was added. Anti-CPXaC immobilized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) showed the best relation between the frequency and dissipation factor variation, and strong values for the kinetic and equilibrium binding constant were obtained. The immunosensor showed a detection limit of 13.0 nmol L(-1) with excellent specificity, showing no response for different proteins that include another cysteine peptidase that is used as a target to detect Xylella fastidiosa bacterium, responsible for another important citrus disease. These results provide good perspectives for the use of CPXaC as a new biomarker for citrus canker. PMID:23597909

Afonso, André S; Zanetti, Bianca F; Santiago, Adelita C; Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Faria, Ronaldo C

2012-11-13

16

Distribution of canker lesions on the surface of diseased grapefruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) can cause direct yield loss of citrus, and infection of fruit can result in trade restriction being imposed on canker endemic areas. Developing fruit become infected through splash dispersed inoculum. The objective of this study was to describ...

17

Wind speed and wind-associated leaf injury affect severity of citrus canker on Swingle citrumelo  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) can cause severe damage to citrus. It is endemic in Florida, and occurs in other citrus growing regions. The bacterium is dispersed predominantly in rain splash. To simulate dispersal in splash, and to investigate t...

18

Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. Results We have sequenced the genomes of strains B and C to draft status. We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. In addition to pthA, already known to be present in all three citrus canker strains, two additional effector genes, xopE3 and xopAI, are also present in all three strains and are both located on the same putative genomic island. These two effector genes, along with one other effector-like gene in the same region, are thus good candidates for being pathogenicity factors on citrus. Numerous gene content differences also exist between the three cankers strains, which can be correlated with their different virulence and host range. Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. Conclusion We have uncovered numerous commonalities and differences in gene content between the genomes of the pathogenic agents causing citrus canker A, B, and C and other Xanthomonas genomes. Molecular genetics can now be employed to determine the role of these genes in plant-microbe interactions. The gained knowledge will be instrumental for improving citrus canker control.

2010-01-01

19

Genetic diversity of citrus bacterial canker pathogens preserved in herbarium specimens  

PubMed Central

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time, the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described strains continues to increase, with novel strains appearing in Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Florida in the last decade. Herbarium specimens of infected plants provide an historical record documenting both the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the pathogen in the past. However, no method was available to assess the genetic diversity within these herbarium samples. We have developed a method, insertion event scanning (IES), and applied the method to characterize the diversity present within CBC populations documented as herbarium specimens over the past century. IES is based on the specific amplification of junction fragments that define insertion events. The potential for IES in current forensic applications is demonstrated by finding an exact match of pathogen genotypes preserved in herbarium specimens from Japan and Florida, demonstrating the source of the original outbreak of citrus canker in Florida in 1911. IES is a very sensitive technique for differentiating bacterial strains and can be applied to any of the several hundred bacteria for which full genomic sequence data are available.

Li, Wenbin; Song, Qijian; Brlansky, Ronald H.; Hartung, John S.

2007-01-01

20

Wind speed effects on the quantity of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri dispersed downwind from canopies of grapefruit trees infected with citrus canker  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemic of citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) in Florida continues to expand since termination of the eradication program in 2006. Storms are known to be associated with disease spread, but little information exists on the interaction of fundamental physical and biological proc...

21

POST-HURRICANE ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER SPREAD AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR FUTURE WEATHER RELATED SPREAD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), has been introduced into the state of Florida multiple times since the early 1900’s. With each discovery, an eradication program has been put into place to eliminate the disease. The most recent program began in 1996 and is still in ...

22

ANNUAL AND POLYETIC PROGRESSION OF CITRUS CANKER ON TREES PROTECTED WITH COPPER SPRAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Mathematical models are important tools for comparative analysis of epidemics. In this paper, parameters obtained from the mathematical model that best fitted to the annual progress curves of citrus canker incidence were used to evaluate the effect of copper sprays and windbreaks on the annual and...

23

Citrus MAF1, a repressor of RNA polymerase III, binds the Xanthomonas citri canker elicitor PthA4 and suppresses citrus canker development.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas species pathogens act as transcription factors in plant cells; however, how TAL effectors activate host transcription is unknown. We found previously that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, known as PthAs, bind the carboxyl-terminal domain of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibit the activity of CsCYP, a cyclophilin associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the citrus RNA Pol II that functions as a negative regulator of cell growth. Here, we show that PthA4 specifically interacted with the sweet orange MAF1 (CsMAF1) protein, an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) repressor that controls ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human. CsMAF1 bound the human RNA Pol III and rescued the yeast maf1 mutant by repressing tRNA(His) transcription. The expression of PthA4 in the maf1 mutant slightly restored tRNA(His) synthesis, indicating that PthA4 counteracts CsMAF1 activity. In addition, we show that sweet orange RNA interference plants with reduced CsMAF1 levels displayed a dramatic increase in tRNA transcription and a marked phenotype of cell proliferation during canker formation. Conversely, CsMAF1 overexpression was detrimental to seedling growth, inhibited tRNA synthesis, and attenuated canker development. Furthermore, we found that PthA4 is required to elicit cankers in sweet orange leaves and that depletion of CsMAF1 in X. citri-infected tissues correlates with the development of hyperplastic lesions and the presence of PthA4. Considering that CsMAF1 and CsCYP function as canker suppressors in sweet orange, our data indicate that TAL effectors from X. citri target negative regulators of RNA Pol II and Pol III to coordinately increase the transcription of host genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:23898043

Soprano, Adriana Santos; Abe, Valeria Yukari; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2013-07-29

24

Processess involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infected citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida and elsewhere, where the pathogen occurs and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms with...

25

Processes involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infectd citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida, and elsewhere where the pathogen occurs, and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms wit...

26

Modifications of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Lipopolysaccharide Affect the Basal Response and the Virulence Process during Citrus Canker  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, one of the most devastating citrus diseases in the world. A broad range of pathogens is recognized by plants through so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are highly conserved fragments of pathogenic molecules. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolisaccharyde (LPS) is considered a virulence factor and it is being recognized as a PAMP. The study of the participation of Xac LPS in citrus canker establishment could help to understand the molecular bases of this disease. In the present work we investigated the role of Xac LPS in bacterial virulence and in basal defense during the interaction with host and non host plants. We analyzed physiological features of Xac mutants in LPS biosynthesis genes (wzt and rfb303) and the effect of these mutations on the interaction with orange and tobacco plants. Xac mutants showed an increased sensitivity to external stresses and differences in bacterial motilities, in vivo and in vitro adhesion and biofilm formation. Changes in the expression levels of the LPS biosynthesis genes were observed in a medium that mimics the plant environment. Xacwzt exhibited reduced virulence in host plants compared to Xac wild-type and Xacrfb303. However, both mutant strains produced a lower increase in the expression levels of host plant defense-related genes respect to the parental strain. In addition, Xac LPS mutants were not able to generate HR during the incompatible interaction with tobacco plants. Our findings indicate that the structural modifications of Xac LPS impinge on other physiological attributes and lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence. On the other hand, Xac LPS has a role in the activation of basal defense in host and non host plants.

Petrocelli, Silvana; Tondo, Maria Laura; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Orellano, Elena G.

2012-01-01

27

Spatial Pattern Analysis of Citrus Canker-Infected Plantings in S?o Paulo, Brazil, and Augmentation of Infection Elicited by the Asian Leafminer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gottwald, T. R., Bassanezi, R. B., Amorim, L., and Bergamin-Filho, A. 2007. Spatial pattern analysis of citrus canker-infected plantings in São Paulo, Brazil, and augmentation of infection elicited by the Asian leafminer. Phytopathology 97:674-683. Eradication of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade, following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which

T. R. Gottwald; R. B. Bassanezi; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin-Filho

2007-01-01

28

Detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants by fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants (Citrus limonia [L.] Osbeck) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to its economic importance we have chosen to investigate the citrus canker disease, which is caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. Mechanical stress was also studied because it plays an important role in the plant's infection by such bacteria. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system, composed of a spectrometer and a 532 nm10 mW excitation laser was used to perform fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio of two chlorophyll fluorescence bands allows us to detect and discriminate between mechanical and disease stresses. This ability to discriminate may have an important application in the field to detect citrus canker infected trees.

Belasque, J., Jr.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Marcassa, L. G.

2008-04-01

29

Detecting Citrus Canker using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging and PCA-based Image Classification Method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A portable hyperspectral imaging system was developed to measure the reflectance images from citrus samples with normal and various common diseased skin conditions in the wavelength range between 400 nm and 900 nm. PCA was used to reduce the spectral dimension of the 3-D hyperspectral image data and...

30

Complete Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Strain Aw12879, a Restricted-Host-Range Citrus Canker-Causing Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker. The Asiatic strain has a broad host range, whereas the Wellington variant has a restricted host range. Here, we present the complete genome of X. citri subsp. citri strain AW12879. This study lays the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of X. citri.

Jalan, Neha; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.

2013-01-01

31

SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER INFECTED PLANTINGS IN SÃO PAULO BRAZIL AND IMPLICATION OF THE ASIAN LEAFMINER ON THE POTENTIAL DISPERSAL PROCESSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eradication of Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which lead to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the s...

32

Nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex: keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia.  

PubMed

This article addresses nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex, namely keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia. Keratoma is an uncommon cause of lameness, which may be surgically removed. White line disease, a keratolytic process on the solar surface of the hoof, is treated with therapeutic farriery and resection of the hoof wall when appropriate. Equine canker is an infectious process that results in development of a chronic hypertrophy of the horn-producing tissues. Neoplasia involving the equine foot is rare, and melanoma is the most common type of neoplasm reported. PMID:22981198

Redding, W Rich; O'Grady, Stephen E

2012-08-01

33

Genetic dissection of fusiform rust and pitch canker disease traits in loblolly pine.  

PubMed

Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) exhibits genetic resistance to fusiform rust disease (incited by the biotrophic fungus, Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme) and pitch canker disease (incited by the necrotrophic fungus, Fusarium circinatum). In this study, a total of 14,015 loblolly pine cuttings from 1,065 clones were screened in controlled greenhouse conditions to identify phenotypes of clones, families, and parents that guide a genetic dissection of disease traits associated with pitch canker and fusiform rust. A total of 23,373 phenotypic data points were collected for lesion length (pitch canker) and gall score, gall length, and gall width (fusiform rust). We verified heritable fusiform rust and pitch canker traits and calculated parental, clonal, and full-sib family rankings for both diseases. Genetic correlations revealed that traits associated with fusiform rust are genetically distinct from one another, and that the genetic mechanisms underlying pitch canker and fusiform rust resistance are independent. The disease phenotyping described here is a critical step towards identifying specific loci and alleles associated with fusiform rust and pitch canker resistance. PMID:15700146

Kayihan, Gogce C; Huber, Dudley A; Morse, Alison M; White, Timothy L; Davis, John M

2005-02-08

34

Citrus stubborn disease (CSD)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CSD is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, cell-wall-less bacterium. S. citri is transmitted in a propagative, circulative manner by several leafhoppers including Circulifer tenellus and Scaphytopius nitridus in citrus-growing regions of California and Arizona and by C. haematoceps (syn....

35

Different Transcriptional Response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between Kumquat and Sweet Orange with Contrasting Canker Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future.

Fu, Xing-Zheng; Gong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

2012-01-01

36

Multiple leafminer species attracted to the major pheromone components of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of citrus throughout the world due to leafmining damage that reduces photosynthetic capacity of leaves and increases the incidence and severity of citrus canker disease. A lure comprised of two aldehyde compounds isolated from ph...

37

Transgenic Sweet Orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Expressing the attacin A Gene for Resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation with genes that code for antimicrobial peptides has been an important strategy used to control bacterial\\u000a diseases in fruit crops, including apples, pears, and citrus. Asian citrus canker (ACC) caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Schaad et al. (Xcc) is a very destructive disease, which affects the citrus industry in most citrus-producing areas of the world. Here, we

Suane Coutinho Cardoso; Janaynna Magalhães Barbosa-Mendes; Raquel Luciana Boscariol-Camargo; Rock Seille Carlos Christiano; Armando Bergamin Filho; Maria Lúcia Carneiro Vieira; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho

2010-01-01

38

A Test of the Validity of Screening Poplar Clones for Long-Term Canker Disease Damage by Responses to Inoculation with Septoria Musiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Septoria musiva (S. musiva) causes a stem canker dis- ease that severely damages susceptible hybrid poplars in Eastern North America. An earlier field trial demonstrated the potential for short-term responses of poplar stems to inoculation with S. musiva to be predictive of long-term canker disease damage. In the summer of 2000, addition- al poplar clones primarily selected by a

J. E. Weiland; J. C. Stanosz; G. R. Stanosz

39

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene

Michael G Bausher; Nameirakpam D Singh; Seung-Bum Lee; Robert K Jansen; Henry Daniell

2006-01-01

40

Canker sore  

MedlinePLUS

Aphthous ulcer; Ulcer - aphthous ... Canker sores are a common form of mouth ulcer . They may occur with viral infections. In some ... spots or bump that develops into an open ulcer Middle of the sore is white or yellow ...

41

Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host.  

PubMed

In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte. Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the vascular system of the host, either in the phloem (Candidatus Liberibacter) or xylem (X. fastidiosa) causing variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing diseases, respectively. Candidatus Liberibacter can be found within host cells and is thus unique as an intracellular phytopathogenic bacterium. Genome sequence comparisons have identified groups of species-specific genes that may be associated with the particular lifestyle, mode of transmission or symptoms produced by each phytopathogen. In addition, components that are conserved amongst bacteria may have diverse regulatory actions underpinning the different bacterial lifestyles; one example is the divergent role of the Rpf/DSF cell-cell signalling system in X. citri and X. fastidiosa. Biofilm plays a key role in epiphytic fitness and canker development in X. citri and in the symptoms produced by X. fastidiosa. Bacterial aggregation may be associated with vascular occlusion of the xylem vessels and symptomatology of variegated chlorosis. PMID:20449739

Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Dow, John Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Marano, Marìa Rosa

2010-05-07

42

Ecoport Slide Shows on the Internet Related to Citrus and Citrus Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The EcoPort website was launched in 2000 to provide a knowledge database of biodiversity. As of September 2005, the EcoPort website contained over one half million references, over 42,000 pictures and over 200 slide shows, of which 59 pertain to citrus and citrus virus and virus-like diseases. As ...

43

Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

44

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis

Federico Martinelli; Sandra L. Uratsu; Ute Albrecht; Russell L. Reagan; My L. Phu; Monica Britton; Vincent Buffalo; Joseph Fass; Elizabeth Leicht; Weixiang Zhao; Dawei Lin; Raissa DSouza; Cristina E. Davis; Kim D. Bowman; Abhaya M. Dandekar

2012-01-01

45

Injected Treatments for Management of Madrone Canker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) has been experiencing a decline in the Puget Sound area, primarily as a result of a canker disease caused by the fungus Fusicoccum arbuti. Cultural methods such as prevention of stress and wounding are recommended to control canker diseases on trees. In addition to these, injected treatments can be used to protect valuable Pacific madrone trees

Marianne Elliott; Robert L. Edmonds

2008-01-01

46

DISTANCE OF SPREAD OF ASIAN CITRUS CANKER FROM SOURCE OF INFECTION IN COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS IN SAO PAULO, BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac)-infected trees continued to occur in São Paulo commercial plantings previously subjected to eradication, indicating that removing all trees within a 30-m radius of known Xac-infected trees was insufficient to eradicate the disease within infected orchards. Pos...

47

Involvement of microRNA-Mediated Gene Expression Regulation in the Pathological Development of Stem Canker Disease in Populus trichocarpa  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of short (21–23 nucleotides), non-coding RNA molecule, mediate repressive gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level, and play an important role in defense and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In the present study, Affymetrix® miRNA Array, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for miRNAs and their targets, and miRNA promoter analysis were used to validate the gene expression patterns of miRNAs in Populus trichocarpa plantlets induced with the poplar stem canker pathogen, Botryosphaeria dothidea. Twelve miRNAs (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR168, miR172, miR319, miR398, miR408, miR1448, and miR1450) were upregulated in the stem bark of P. trichocarpa, but no downregulated miRNAs were found. Based on analysis of the miRNAs and their targets, a potential co-regulatory network was developed to describe post-transcriptional regulation in the pathological development of poplar stem canker. There was highly complex cross-talk between diverse miRNA pathway responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The results suggest that miR156 is probably an integral component of the miRNA response to all environmental stresses in plants. Cis-regulatory elements were binding sites for the transcription factors (TFs) on DNA. Promoter analysis revealed that TC-rich repeats and a W1-box motif were both tightly related disease response motifs in Populus. Promoter analysis and target analysis of miRNAs also revealed that some TFs regulate their activation/repression. Furthermore, a feedback regulatory network in the pathological development of poplar stem canker is provided. The results confirm that miRNA pathways regulate gene expression during the pathological development of plant disease, and provide new insights into understanding the onset and development of poplar stem canker.

Zhao, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Su, Xiao-Hua

2012-01-01

48

Adhesive tablet effective for treating canker sores in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mucoadhesive tablet, which releases natural active agents for pain reduction and rapid healing of canker sores, has been prepared and characterized. Adhesive tablets were prepared by compression molding of mixed powders of crosslinked polyacrylic acid and hydroxypropyl cellulose, absorbed with citrus oil and magnesium salt. The rate of tablet erosion and the rates of citrus oil and magnesium

Boaz Mizrahi; Jacob Golenser; Joseph S. Wolnerman; Abraham J. Domb

2004-01-01

49

Canker Sores (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... canker sores. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), an ingredient in many toothpastes and mouthwashes, has been linked to canker sores and is thought to prolong the healing time of the sores. Even emotional stress could be a factor. One study of college students showed that they had more canker sores during ...

50

Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious ?-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments. PMID:23441969

Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj

2013-07-01

51

7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine... § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas....

2013-01-01

52

7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine... § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas....

2009-01-01

53

7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine... § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas....

2010-01-01

54

Induction of disease resistance by the plant activator, acibenzolar- S-methyl (ASM), against bacterial canker ( Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) in tomato seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant defence activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzo [1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester, ASM; Bion 50 WG) was assayed on tomato seedlings for its ability to induce resistance against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Pre-treatment of plants with ASM reduced the severity of the disease as well as the growth of the bacteria in planta. In

Soner Soylu; Ömür Baysal; E. Mine Soylu

2003-01-01

55

Citrus stubborn disease incidence determined by quantitative real time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative real-time (q) PCR was developed for detection of Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), using the DNA binding fluorophore SYBR Green I. The primer pair, P58-3f/4r, developed based on sequences from the P58 putative adhesin multigene of the pathogen result...

56

75 FR 34419 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker and to request an extension...from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker, contact Ms. Lynn Evans-Goldner...suppress, control, prevent, or retard the spread of plant pests, such as citrus...

2010-06-17

57

A new excised-leaf assay method to test the inoculativity of the Asian citrus psyllid with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. Here, we developed a new excised-leaf assay that can speed up Las...

58

Canker sore (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... which appears as a painful white or yellow ulcer surrounded by a bright red area. A canker sore sore can be triggered by emotional stress, dietary deficiencies, menstrual periods, hormonal changes, food allergies ...

59

Molecular, ecological and evolutionary approaches to understanding Alternaria diseases of citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Alternaria fungi cause four different diseases of citrus: Alternaria brown spot of tangerines, Alternaria leaf spot of rough lemon, Alternaria black rot of several citrus fruits and Mancha foliar of Mexican lime. The first three diseases are caused by the small- spored species, Alternaria alternata and the causal agents can only be differentiated using pathogenicity tests, toxin assays or

Kazuya Akimitsu; Tobin L. Peever; L. W. Timmer

2003-01-01

60

New Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Citrus Stubborn Disease in California Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although citrus stubborn disease (CSD), caused by the phloem resident mollicute Spiroplasma citri, is a significant threat to California citrus industry, our knowledge of its epidemiology is mostly anecdotal. We optimized multiple pathogen-detection protocols, measured disease incidence in two plots...

61

Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

2012-05-31

62

Estimation of incidence and spatial temporal distribution of Citrus Stubborn disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a culturable wall-less prokaryote. The pathogen is graft-transmissible and vectored by the beet leafhopper (BLH). The objective of this study was to determine incidence and spread of S. citri in two sweet orange citrus groves in the San J...

63

An Evolutionary Perspective of Pierce's Disease of Grapevine, Citrus Variegated Chlorosis, and Mulberry Leaf Scorch Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases on a growing list of economically important plants. An understanding of how xylellae diseases originated\\u000a and evolved is important for disease prevention and management. In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic relationships\\u000a of X. fastidiosa strains from citrus, grapevine, and mulberry through the analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and conserved\\u000a 16S rDNA genes. RAPD

Jianchi Chen; John S. Hartung; Chung-Jan Chang; Anne K. Vidaver

2002-01-01

64

CITRUS CANKER: THE PATHOGEN AND ITS IMPACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing international travel and trade have rendered US borders more porous and dramatically increased the risk of introductions of invasive plant pests into agricultural crops. Currently in Florida, one such invasive species is Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), a bacterial plant pathogen ...

65

Detection of a phytoplasma in citrus showing Huanglongbing (yellow shoot disease) symptoms in Guangdong, P. R. China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease (ex. greening disease) is highly destructive to citrus production worldwide. Understanding the etiology of HLB is critical for managing the disease. HLB is currently known to be associated with infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in China...

66

Characterization of Citrus sinensis transcription factors closely associated with the non-host response to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.  

PubMed

Plants, when exposed to certain pathogens, may display a form of genotype-independent resistance, known as non-host response. In this study, the response of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) leaves to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), a pepper and tomato pathogenic bacterium, was analyzed through biochemical assays and cDNA microarray hybridization and compared with Asiatic citrus canker infection caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Citrus leaves exposed to the non-host bacterium Xcv showed hypersensitive response (HR) symptoms (cell death), a defense mechanism common in plants but poorly understood in citrus. The HR response was accompanied by differentially expressed genes that are associated with biotic stress and cell death. Moreover, 58 transcription factors (TFs) were differentially regulated by Xcv in citrus leaves, including 26 TFs from the stress-associated families AP2-EREBP, bZip, Myb and WRKY. Remarkably, in silico analysis of the distribution of expressed sequence tags revealed that 10 of the 58 TFs, belonging to C2C2-GATA, C2H2, CCAAT, HSF, NAC and WRKY gene families, were specifically over-represented in citrus stress cDNA libraries. This study identified candidate TF genes for the regulation of key steps during the citrus non-host HR. Furthermore, these TFs might be useful in future strategies of molecular breeding for citrus disease resistance. PMID:23453188

Daurelio, Lucas D; Romero, María S; Petrocelli, Silvana; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R; Orellano, Elena G

2013-02-26

67

Spread of citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) following incursion into Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huanglongbing (HLB) was previously known in many countries as greening disease. It is caused by the bacterium ‘Candidates Liberibacter asiaticus’ and is vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). A delimiting survey showed that the disease had become established in, and near the border town of,\\u000a Vanimo in the Sandaun Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) by

R. I. Davis; T. G. Gunua; M. F. Kame; D. Tenakanai; T. K. Ruabete

2005-01-01

68

Validation and comparison of a hierarchal sampling plan for estimating incidence of citrus stubborn disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) is a production-limiting disease that is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a culturable wall-less prokaryote. The pathogen is transmitted mainly by the beet leafhopper (BLH) in California. The objective of this study was to validate a method to estimate incidence of CSD in...

69

Citrus huanglongbing in Sao Paulo State, Brazil: PCR detection of the 'Candidatus' Liberibacter species associated with the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa, have been noticed in March 2004 in the Araraquara region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. HLB has not been reported previously from America. The causal HLB bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus in Africa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus

Jean Luc Danet; Pedro Takao Yamamoto; Joseph Marie Bove; Adhemar Pereira de Barros

70

Citrus huanglongbing in São Paulo State, Brazil: PCR detection of the ‘ Candidatus’ Liberibacter species associated with the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa, have been noticed in March 2004 in the Araraquara region of São Paulo State, Brazil. HLB has not been reported previously from America. The causal HLB bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus in Africa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus

Diva do Carmo Teixeira; Jean Luc Danet; Sandrine Eveillard; Elaine Cristina Martins; Waldir Cintra de Jesus Junior; Pedro Takao Yamamoto; Silvio Aparecido Lopes; Renato Beozzo Bassanezi; Antonio Juliano Ayres; Colette Saillard; Joseph Marie Bové

2005-01-01

71

Physiological and proteomic characterizations of “Candidatus Liberibacter” associated diseases in citrus and potato plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Candidatus Liberibacter” species (Lib) are fastidious gram-negative bacteria transmitted by psyllids and associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and potato zebra chip (ZC) diseases. Here, proteomic analyses via 2-DE and mass spectrometry were employed to elucidate protein expression profiles in ...

72

EMBELLISIA SKIN BLOTCH AND BULB CANKER OF GARLIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Embellisia allii, a hyphomycetous fungal pathogen of garlic (Allium sativum) is described in terms of microscopic morphology and host symptoms (skin blotch and bulb canker). Disease is worsened under conditions of excessive humidity during the latter part of the growing season or in storage. Growe...

73

Genetic Structure and Biology of Xylella fastidiosa Strains Causing Disease in Citrus and Coffee in Brazil?  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa is a vector-borne, plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in citrus (citrus variegated chlorosis [CVC]) and coffee (coffee leaf scorch [CLS]) plants in Brazil. CVC and CLS occur sympatrically and share leafhopper vectors; thus, determining whether X. fastidiosa isolates can be dispersed from one crop to another and cause disease is of epidemiological importance. We sought to clarify the genetic and biological relationships between CVC- and CLS-causing X. fastidiosa isolates. We used cross-inoculation bioassays and microsatellite and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches to determine the host range and genetic structure of 26 CVC and 20 CLS isolates collected from different regions in Brazil. Our results show that citrus and coffee X. fastidiosa isolates are biologically distinct. Cross-inoculation tests showed that isolates causing CVC and CLS in the field were able to colonize citrus and coffee plants, respectively, but not the other host, indicating biological isolation between the strains. The microsatellite analysis separated most X. fastidiosa populations tested on the basis of the host plant from which they were isolated. However, recombination among isolates was detected and a lack of congruency among phylogenetic trees was observed for the loci used in the MLST scheme. Altogether, our study indicates that CVC and CLS are caused by two biologically distinct strains of X. fastidiosa that have diverged but are genetically homogenized by frequent recombination.

Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Nascimento, Fernanda E.; Chau, John; Prado, Simone S.; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Lopes, Silvio A.; Lopes, Joao R. S.

2008-01-01

74

Methods for Sampling and Assessment in Relation to the Spatial Pattern of Phoma Stem Canker ( Leptosphaeria maculans ) in Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sound assessment of phoma stem canker symptoms is needed to develop epidemiological, agronomical and physiological studies on the pathosystem. A specific analysis was therefore carried out to: (i) compare four methods of crown canker assessment; (ii) test the among and within assessor repeatability of one of the methods compared; (iii) characterise the spatial pattern of the disease; and (iv)

J.-N. Aubertot; J.-J. Schott; A. Penaud; H. Brun; T. Doré

2004-01-01

75

Phosphonate applied by trunk injection controls stem canker and decreases Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) incidence in cocoa in Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod caused by Phytophthora palmivora are serious diseases of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Sulawesi, Indonesia, causing high yield losses for smallholders, possibly exceeded only by losses due to the cocoa\\u000a pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella. Potassium phosphonate (phosphite) applied by trunk injection has been demonstrated to effectively control canker and

P. J. McMahon; A. Purwantara; A. Wahab; M. Imron; S. Lambert; P. J. Keane; D. I. Guest

2010-01-01

76

Dispersal of adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae), the vector of citrus greening disease, in artificial release experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial release of marked adult Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of citrus greening disease, was performed in July 2007 (10,000 adults released, experiment 1) and October\\u000a 2008 (1,000 adults released, experiment 2) to determine the association of the dispersal pattern with disease invasion risk.\\u000a During the experimental periods, in experiment 1, the mean dispersal distances from the release point were

Youichi Kobori; Tadafumi Nakata; Yasuo Ohto; Fugo Takasu

2011-01-01

77

Huanglongbing, a systemic disease, restructures the bacterial community associated with citrus roots.  

PubMed

To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P citrus by "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots. PMID:20382817

Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

2010-04-09

78

Huanglongbing, a Systemic Disease, Restructures the Bacterial Community Associated with Citrus Roots?  

PubMed Central

To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P ? 0.01) of 237.13 versus 42.14 for the uninfected and infected clone libraries, respectively. Similarly, the Shannon index of the uninfected clone library (4.46) was significantly higher than that of the infected clone library (2.61). Comparison of the uninfected clone library with the infected clone library using LIBSHUFF statistics showed a significant difference (P ? 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the bacterial community changes not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. The relative proportions of different groups of bacteria changed significantly after infection with the pathogen. These data indicate that infection of citrus by “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots.

Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

2010-01-01

79

Identification and Genomic Characterization of a New Virus (Tymoviridae Family) Associated with Citrus Sudden Death Disease  

PubMed Central

Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a new disease that has killed approximately 1 million orange trees in Brazil. Here we report the identification of a new virus associated with the disease. RNAs isolated from CSD-affected and nonaffected trees were used to construct cDNA libraries. A set of viral sequences present exclusively in libraries of CSD-affected trees was used to obtain the complete genome sequence of the new virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus is a new member of the genus Marafivirus. Antibodies raised against the putative viral coat proteins allowed detection of viral antigens of expected sizes in affected plants. Electron microscopy of purified virus confirmed the presence of typical isometric Marafivirus particles. The screening of 773 affected and nonaffected citrus trees for the presence of the virus showed a 99.7% correlation between disease symptoms and the presence of the virus. We also detected the virus in aphids feeding on affected trees. These results suggest that this virus is likely to be the causative agent of CSD. The virus was named Citrus sudden death-associated virus.

Maccheroni, Walter; Alegria, Marcos C.; Greggio, Christian C.; Piazza, Joao Paulo; Kamla, Rachel F.; Zacharias, Paula R. A.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Assumpcao, Laura C.; Camarotte, Giovana; Cardozo, Jussara; Casagrande, Elaine C.; Ferrari, Fernanda; Franco, Sulamita F.; Giachetto, Poliana F.; Girasol, Alessandra; Jordao, Hamilton; Silva, Vitor H. A.; Souza, Leonardo C. A.; Aguilar-Vildoso, Carlos I.; Zanca, Almir S.; Arruda, Paulo; Kitajima, Joao Paulo; Reinach, Fernando C.; Ferro, Jesus A.; da Silva, Ana C. R.

2005-01-01

80

Enhancement or attenuation of disease by deletion of genes from Citrus tristeza virus.  

PubMed

Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas of the stem in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport, resulting in reduced plant growth and yield. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-limited closterovirus, induces economically important stem-pitting diseases of citrus. CTV has three nonconserved genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not related to genes of other viruses and that are not required for systemic infection of some species of citrus, which allowed us to examine the effect of deletions of these genes on symptom phenotypes. In the most susceptible experimental host, Citrus macrophylla, the full-length virus causes only very mild stem-pitting symptoms. Surprisingly, we found that certain deletion combinations (p33 and p18 and/or p13) induced greatly increased stem-pitting symptoms, while other combinations (p13 or p13 plus p18) resulted in reduced stem pitting. These results suggest that the stem-pitting phenotype, which is one of more economically important disease phenotypes, can result not from a specific sequence or protein but from a balance between the expression of different viral genes. Unexpectedly, using green fluorescent protein-tagged full-length virus and deletion mutants (CTV9?p33 and CTV9?p33?p18?p13), the virus was found at pitted areas in abnormal locations outside the normal ring of phloem. Thus, increased stem pitting was associated not only with a prevention of xylem production but also with a proliferation of cells that supported viral replication, suggesting that at random areas of stems the virus can elicit changes in cellular differentiation and development. PMID:22593155

Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O

2012-05-16

81

An Evaluation of the Genetic Diversity of Xylella fastidiosa Isolated from Diseased Citrus and Coffee in São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Strains of Xylella fastidiosa, isolated from sweet orange trees (Citrus sinensis) and coffee trees (Coffea arabica) with symptoms of citrus variegated chlorosis and Requeima do Café, respectively, were indistinguishable based on repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR assays. These strains were also indistinguishable with a previously described PCR assay that distinguished the citrus strains from all other strains of Xylella fastidiosa. Because we were not able to document any genomic diversity in our collection of Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from diseased citrus, the observed gradient of increasing disease severity from southern to northern regions of São Paulo State is unlikely due to the presence of significantly different strains of the pathogen in the different regions. When comparisons were made to reference strains of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from other hosts using these methods, four groups were consistently identified consistent with the hosts and regions from which the strains originated: citrus and coffee, grapevine and almond, mulberry, and elm, plum, and oak. Independent results from random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR assays were also consistent with these results; however, two of the primers tested in RAPD-PCR were able to distinguish the coffee and citrus strains. Sequence comparisons of a PCR product amplified from all strains of Xylella fastidiosa confirmed the presence of a CfoI polymorphism that can be used to distinguish the citrus strains from all others. The ability to distinguish Xylella fastidiosa strains from citrus and coffee with a PCR-based assay will be useful in epidemiological and etiological studies of this pathogen. PMID:18943950

Qin, X; Miranda, V S; Machado, M A; Lemos, E G; Hartung, J S

2001-06-01

82

INCORPORATION OF DISTANCE-OF-SPREAD CALCULATIONS INTO A WEATHER-BASED MODEL DESCRIBING DISEASE DISTRIBUTION AFTER SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Florida, Asiatic citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, XAC) has a long history of multiple introductions followed by eradication campaigns. The latest eradication campaign began in 1995 and continued through 2005 until regulatory agencies concluded that citrus canker had spread to the...

83

Psyllids as A Tool in Evaluating the Efficiency of Different Management Practices for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease, was found in Brazil in 2004. Two species of bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Ca. L. americanus, have been identified in Brazil. The disease has not been effectively managed anywhere in the world so far. This is probably because of long ...

84

Citrus greening disease detection using airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. Ground inspection and management can be focused on these infected zones rath...

85

Detection of Huanglongbing (citrus greening disease) in Timor-Leste (East Timor) and in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huanglongbing (greening disease) of citrus has been detected for the first time in Timor-Leste (East Timor) and Papua New\\u000a Guinea. Identifications were confirmed using a polymerase chain re action-re striction enzyme digest procedure.

M. P. Weinert; S. C. Jacobson; J. F. Grimshaw; G. A. Bellis; P. M. Stephens; T. G. Gunua; M. F. Kame; R. I. Davis

2004-01-01

86

Enzymatic modification enhances the protective activity of citrus flavonoids against alcohol-induced liver disease.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol in a short period of time. ALD is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of orally administrated citrus flavonoids (CFs) and their enzymatically modified ones (EM-CFs) to prevent ALD. Hesperidin and narirutin were extracted from peels of Citrus unshiu by ultra-sonication and purified further. These CFs were modified enzymatically through glycosylation and de-rhamnosylation by the actions of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) and hesperidinase, respectively. CFs and EM-CFs were fed to ICR mouse along with ethanol for 8 weeks, and changes in lipid contents, lipid peroxidation, GSH, antioxidant enzymes activity and proinflammatory cytokines in hepatic tissues were observed. Administration of CFs and EM-CFs along with alcohol significantly suppressed increases in prognostic parameters of a hepatocellular injury. Especially, EM-CFs fed groups maintained malondialdehyde, GSH levels and catalase activity in hepatic tissues close to those of the normal diet fed group. Abrupt increases in proinflammatory cytokines such as I?B-?, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 in hepatocytes due to a chronic alcohol uptake were significantly suppressed by co-administration of EM-CFs. These results indicate that although the administration of CFs can alleviate ALD through preventing excessive lipid formation, protecting the antioxidant system and suppressing induction of inflammation in hepatocytes, their effectiveness can be further improved by glycosylation and de-rhamnosylation. PMID:23561100

Park, Ho-Young; Choi, Hee-Don; Eom, Hyojin; Choi, Inwook

2013-01-29

87

Colonization of citrus and citrus-related germplasm by Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious and devastating disease of citrus caused by Candidatus Liberibacter spp. and vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The disease has the potential to greatly limit the production of citrus in Florida and other citrus gr...

88

Canker Sores (Aphthous Stomatitis or Recurrent Mouth Ulcers)  

MedlinePLUS

Canker Sores (Aphthous Stomatitis or Recurrent Mouth Ulcers) What Is It? Symptoms Diagnosis Expected Duration Prevention Treatment When To Call a Professional Prognosis Additional Info What Is It? Canker sores are ...

89

Comparative analyses of the complete genome sequences of Pierce's disease and citrus variegated chlorosis strains of Xylella fastidiosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-dwelling, insect-transmitted, gamma-proteobacterium that causes diseases in many plants, including grapevine, citrus, periwinkle, almond, oleander, and coffee. X. fastidiosa has an unusu- ally broad host range, has an extensive geographical distribution throughout the American continent, and induces diverse disease phenotypes. Previous molecular analyses indicated three distinct groups of X. fastidiosa isolates that were expected to be

M. A. Van Sluys; M. C. de Oliveira; C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello; Felipe Rodrigues da Silva

2003-01-01

90

Prediction and Mapping of the Impact of Winter Temperature on the Development of Phytophthora cinnamomi-Induced Cankers on Red and Pedunculate Oak in France.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Phytophthora cinnamomi is the causal agent of a perennial canker that develops on the lower bole on northern red oak and pedunculate oak. The disease has a limited range in Europe, being reported only in southwest France. This limited distribution is probably linked to the susceptibility of P. cinnamomi to frost. A model was developed in previous work to estimate the impact of temperatures of <0 degrees C on the winter survival of P. cinnamomi in trunk cortical tissues and on the subsequent development of cankers. In this article, we report the use of this model to simulate canker development in 503 locations across France during a 30-year period. The predicted canker extension decreased sharply when the median P. cinnamomi winter survival index decreased from 0.95 to 0.65, with cankers that poorly developed when the median survival index was lower than 0.5 to 0.6. The actual incidence of the disease in 192 stands located across southwest France was compared with that of the model outputs. Both presence of disease in stands and frequency of cankered trees in infected stands, but not canker size on infected trees, were strongly related to the median P. cinnamomi survival index. No disease was present in stands with median survival index lower than 0.65, and the frequency of cankered trees in infected stands remained very low in stands with a median survival index between 0.65 and 0.70. Aspect was an additional factor explaining disease incidence, while the effect of elevation was likely due to its effect on winter temperatures. Maps of winter suitability to P. cinnamomi-induced cankers on oaks in France are presented. PMID:18943102

Marçais, Benoit; Bergot, Magali; Pérarnaud, Victorine; Levy, André; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

2004-08-01

91

Poplar stem blister canker and its control strategies by plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem blister canker is a serious stem disease in the Populus genus in China. The pathogen was confirmed as Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr.) Ces. et de Not. based on its morphological, pathological and molecular features. Seven selected plant species\\u000a Artemisia annua, Gleditsia sinensis, Lonicera japonica, Macleaya cordata, Phyllodendron chinense, Polygonum cuspidatum and Scutellaria baicalensis, belonging to different families from

Yaming Zhou; Hao Liu; Jianglin Zhao; Manliang Tan; Peng Sui; Jingguo Wang; Ligang Zhou

2008-01-01

92

New Phomopsis species identified from wood cankers in eastern North American vineyards.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, caused by the Ascomycete fungus Phomopsis viticola, is a destructive fruit and foliar disease in eastern North American vineyards. The pathogen typically attacks green tissues, but can also cause wood cankers, presumably due to infection of pruning wounds, as is the cas...

93

Prevalence, distribution and identification of Phytophthora species from bleeding canker on European beech  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While bleeding canker of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) has long been recognized as a problem, the cause in the northeastern United States has not been clear. To resolve this, we surveyed for disease prevalence, identified the pathogens involved, proved their pathogenicity, compared protocols for ...

94

Influence of formulation and application method on the effectiveness of benzimidazole fungicides for controlling postharvest diseases of citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of citrus fruits after harvest with benzimidazole fungicides suspended in water or incorporated in wax formulations\\u000a can control the development of several diseases of the fruit during storage and marketing. Residues of 1 mg fungicide\\/kg fruit\\u000a are sufficient to retard the development of latent infections of Phomopsis and Diplodia and to prevent wound infection by\\u000a Penicillium spp. Sporulation of

J. W. Eckert; M. J. Kolbezen

1977-01-01

95

Tolerance of the trifoliate citrus hybrid US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) to Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease s...

96

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) Isolates from Recent Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Outbreaks Belong to the Same Genetic Lineage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form

Angelo Mazzaglia; David J. Studholme; Maria C. Taratufolo; Rongman Cai; Nalvo F. Almeida; Tokia Goodman; David S. Guttman; Boris A. Vinatzer; Giorgio M. Balestra

2012-01-01

97

Identification of regional climatic conditions favorable for development of European canker of apple.  

PubMed

Months of the year with high risk of European canker (Neonectria galligena) development in areas of the United States, Chile, England, and Northern Ireland were determined from published data. Moving-window analysis of long-term climatic data was used to classify disease risk in these areas in relation to rainfall and temperature conditions using the degree of agreement statistic. Greatest agreement occurred when it both rained on >30% of days/month and there was an average of >8 h/day with temperature of 11 to 16°C. When these thresholds were applied in eight validation areas in New Zealand, Australia, the United States, The Netherlands, and Denmark, areas with reported higher risk of disease tended to be areas where the thresholds were exceeded more often and by greater amounts. Areas at higher latitudes (>52°) with frequent summer rainfall appeared to be most prone to European canker, including the fruit rot phase of the disease, probably because summer temperatures were more favorable than at lower latitudes. The climatic thresholds derived for European canker could be useful for studies of disease establishment risk, surveillance, eradication, climate change impact assessment, and, possibly, for disease risk forecasting. The methods used in this study allowed conditions favorable for disease development to be identified even though quantitative regional disease data were lacking, and they could be useful for similar geoclimatic studies of other diseases. PMID:20795854

Beresford, Robert M; Kim, Kwang Soo

2011-01-01

98

Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

99

Citrus tristeza virus replicates and forms infectious virions in protoplasts of resistant citrus relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most economically important viral disease of citrus worldwide. Cultivars with improved CTV tolerance or resistance are needed to manage CTV-induced diseases. The citrus relatives Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr., and Severinia buxifolia (Poir) Ten. are potential sources of CTV resistance, but their resistance mechanisms are poorly characterized. As a first step

Maria R. Albiach-Marti; Jude W. Grosser; Siddarame Gowda; Munir Mawassi; Tatineni Satyanarayana; Stephen M. Garnsey; William O. Dawson

2004-01-01

100

FIRST REPORT OF CITRUS BLIGHT IN COSTA RICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus blight is a chronic decline disease of citrus which removes 5-10 percent of the trees from production annually in Florida and Brazil, respectively. In the northern citrus area of Costa Rica, trees are undergoing a decline having symptoms similar to the symptoms associated with citrus blight; ...

101

Distribution and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus in São Paulo State, Brasil, in leaves of an affected sweet orange tree as determined by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, irrevocably decline. In the absence of curative procedures, control of

Diva C. Teixeira; Colette Saillard; Carole Couture; Elaine C. Martins; Nelson A. Wulff; Sandrine Eveillard-Jagoueix; Pedro T. Yamamoto; Antonio J. Ayres; Joseph M. Bové

2008-01-01

102

Etiology of three recent diseases of citrus in São Paulo State: sudden death, variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing.  

PubMed

The state of São Paulo (SSP) is the first sweet orange growing region in the world. Yet, the SSP citrus industry has been, and still is, under constant attack from various diseases. In the 1940s, tristeza-quick decline (T-QD) was responsible for the death of 9 million trees in SSP. The causal agent was a new virus, citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The virus was efficiently spread by aphid vectors, and killed most of the trees grafted on sour orange rootstock. Control of the disease resided in replacing sour orange by alternative rootstocks giving tolerant combinations with scions such as sweet orange. Because of its drought resistance, Rangpur lime became the favourite alternative rootstock, and, by 1995, 85% of the SSP sweet orange trees were grafted on this rootstock. Therefore, when in 1999, many trees grafted on Rangpur lime started to decline and suddenly died, the spectre of T-QD seemed to hang over SSP again. By 2003, the total number of dead or affected trees was estimated to be over one million. The new disease, citrus sudden death (CSD), resembles T-QD in several aspects. The two diseases have almost the same symptoms, they spread in time and space in a manner strikingly similar, and the pathological anatomy of the bark at the bud union is alike. Transmission of the CSD agent by graft-inoculation has been obtained with budwood inoculum taken not only on CSD-affected trees (grafted on Rangpur lime), but also on symptomless trees (grafted on Cleopatra mandarin) from the same citrus block. This result shows that symptomless trees on Cleopatra mandarin are tolerant to the CSD agent. Trees on rootstocks such as Sunki mandarin or Swingle citrumelo are also tolerant. Thus, in the CSD-affected region, control consists in replacing Rangpur lime with compatible rootstocks, or in approach-grafting compatible rootstock seedlings to the scions of trees on Rangpur lime (inarching). More than 5 million trees have been inarched in this way. A new disease of sweet orange, citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), was observed in 1987 in the Triangulo Mineiro of Minas Gerais State and the northern and north-eastern parts of SSP. By 2000, the disease affected already 34% of the 200 million sweet orange trees in SSP. By 2005, the percentage had increased to 43%, and CVC was present in all citrus growing regions of Brazil. Electron microscopy showed that xylem-limited bacteria were present in all symptomatic sweet orange leaves and fruit tissues tested, but not in similar materials from healthy, symptomless trees. Bacteria were consistently cultured from twigs of CVC-affected sweet orange trees but not from twigs of healthy trees. Serological analyses showed the CVC bacterium to be a strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The disease could be reproduced and Koch's postulates fulfilled, by mechanically inoculating a pure culture of X. fastidiosa isolate 8.1.b into sweet orange seedlings. The genome of a CVC strain of X. fastidiosa was sequenced in SSP in the frame of a project supported by FAPESP and Fundecitrus. X. fastidiosa is the first plant pathogenic bacterium, the genome of which has been sequenced. Until recently, America was free of huanglongbing (HLB), but in March 2004 and August 2005, symptoms of the disease were recognized, respectively in the State of São Paulo (SSP) and in Florida, USA. HLB was known in China since 1870 and in South Africa since 1928. Because of its destructiveness and its rapid spread by efficient psyllid insect-vectors, HLB is probably the most serious citrus disease. HLB is caused by a phloem sieve tube-restricted Gram negative bacterium, not yet available in culture. In the 1990s, the bacterium was characterized by molecular techniques as a member of the alpha proteobacteria designated Candidatus Liberibacter africanus for the disease in Africa, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus for HLB in Asia. In SSP, Ca. L. asiaticus is also present, but most of the trees are infected with a new species, Candidatus Liberibacter americanus. PMID:17505974

Bové, Joseph Marie; Ayres, Antonio Juliano

103

Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Citrus limon and Opuntia vulgaris against Newcastle disease in domestic fowl in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of a combination of Capsicum frutescens (red pepper), Citrus limon (lemon) and Opuntia vulgaris (prickly pear) against Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic fowl were evaluated. Eighty-eight broiler chickens were divided into five groups. Birds from three groups were inoculated with velogenic ND virus strain, whereas birds from two groups were left as controls. Two groups received

M. M. A. Mtambo; E. J. Mushi; L. D. B. Kinabo; A. Maeda-Machang’u; G. L. M. Mwamengele; M. G. S. Yongolo; R. P. C. Temu

1999-01-01

104

Remote Diagnosis and Control Expert System for Citrus Agricultural Diseases and Insect Pests Based on BP Neural Network and WebGIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, on the basis of full investigation and a lot of comparison with expert systems at home and abroad, introducing Web technology, WebGIS and BP neural network technology into expert system and taking full use of their respective advantages, we have designed and developed a remote diagnosis and control expert system for citrus agricultural diseases and insect pests

Xiao Laisheng; Wang Zhengxia; Peng Xiaohong; Wu Min; Yu Guangzhou

2009-01-01

105

Narirutin fraction from citrus peels attenuates alcoholic liver disease in mice.  

PubMed

This study aimed to demonstrate protective activities of the narirutin fraction from peels of Citrus unshiu against ethanol-induced hepatic damage through an animal study. Citrus narirutin fraction (CNF), contained 75% of narirutin, was obtained by an ultra-sonicated extraction and further purification. ICR mice were divided into four groups; normaldiet control, ethanol control (6.5g ethanol/kg), low-CNF (ethanol+150mg CNF/kg) and high-CNF (ethanol+300mg CNF/kg) groups. Consumption of alcohol for 8weeks induced severe liver damage with increases in prognostic indicators such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase in serum whereas co-administration of CNF suppressed their increases. Excessive accumulations in liver TG and TC in ethanol control group were also suppressed by co-administration of CNF. Co-administration of CNF maintained SOD activity, GSH and malondialdehyde levels close to those of the normal diet group. Chronic consumption of alcohol also stimulated abrupt increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as nuclear factor (NF)-?B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? in liver otherwise co-administration of CNF effectively suppressed production of these cytokines dose-dependently. These results indicate that co-administration of CNF with alcohol can alleviate alcohol induced liver damage through preventing lipid formation, protecting antioxidant system and suppressing productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23416143

Park, Ho-Young; Ha, Sang Keun; Eom, Hyojin; Choi, Inwook

2013-02-13

106

7 CFR 319.19 - Notice of quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker and Other Citrus...United States of the citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas...Dowson) and other citrus diseases, the importation...the United States of plants or any plant...

2013-01-01

107

Identification of a single-stranded DNA virus associated with citrus chlorotic dwarf disease, a new member in the family Geminiviridae.  

PubMed

In the attempt to identify the causal agent of Citrus chlorotic dwarf disease (CCDD), a virus-like disorder of citrus, the small RNA fraction and total DNA from symptomatic citrus plants were subjected to high-throughput sequencing. DNA fragments deriving from an apparently new geminivirus-like agent were found and assembled by NGS to re-construct the entire viral genome. The newly identified virus has a circular single-stranded DNA genome comprising five open reading frames (ORFs) with sequence homologies with those encoded by geminiviruses. PCR and qPCR assays were successfully used for determining its presence in the CCDD-affected plants obtained by graft propagation. The larger genome size (3.64 vs. 2.5-3.0 kb) and a number of differences in its structural organization, identified this virus as a highly divergent member of the family Geminiviridae, to which the provisional name of Citrus chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CCDaV) is assigned. PMID:22749878

Loconsole, Giuliana; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Savino, Vito; Martelli, Giovanni P; Saponari, Maria

2012-07-01

108

EVALUATION OF DNA AMPLIFICATION METHODS FOR IMPROVED DETECTION OF CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS HUANGLONGBING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening or citrus yellow shoot, is considered the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. The disease has Asian, African and American forms caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Ca. L. africanus and Ca. L. americanus, respectively, which can...

109

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSES OF CITRUS SUDDEN DEATH IN BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus Sudden Death (CSD) is a disease of unknown etiology that affects sweet orange grafted on Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon in Brazil. The spatial and temporal patterns of CSD was monitored in 116 citrus plots from 37 citrus farms located in 10 counties of Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) s...

110

Spectral difference analysis and airborne imaging classification for citrus greening infected trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB), became a devastating disease spread through citrus groves in Florida, since it was first found in 2005. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were acquired to detect citrus greening infected trees in 20...

111

PURIFICATION OF VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES FROM CITRUS CHLOROTIC DWARF INFECTED CITRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus chlorotic dwarf (CCD) is a new disease of citrus having been found in Turkey in the mid 1980s. Disease symptoms in the field consist of chlorotic leaf patterns, crinkling, leaf distortion, shoot malformation and stunting in young trees. CCD is vectored by the bayberry whitefly and is graft ...

112

Comparative efficiency of chemical compounds for in vitro and in vivo activity against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of tomato bacterial canker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis produces considerable economic losses in many countries because effective control measures are lacking. The extent to which bactericides control this disease effectively is low and has not yet been well documented for Southern European conditions. In this study the bactericidal effect of several products on this pathogen was assessed in

Leandro de León; Felipe Siverio; María M. López; Ana Rodríguez

2008-01-01

113

Citrus aurantium  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Citrus aurantium has enjoyed a rich history of uses in food, cosmetics, and medicine Recent misuse of this product for weight loss, however,\\u000a is threatening to tarnish the holistic reputation of this fruit Manufacturers are isolating and concentrating the synephnne\\u000a content from the 0 33 mg\\/g contained in the pulp of whole fruit to 20 mg\\/g in some dietary supplements,

Anders Westanmo

114

Genome-Wide Mutagenesis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Reveals Novel Genetic Determinants and Regulation Mechanisms of Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker disease, a major threat to citrus production worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that the formation of biofilms on citrus leaves plays an important role in the epiphytic survival of this pathogen prior to the development of canker disease. However, the process of Xac biofilm formation is poorly understood. Here, we report a genome-scale

Jinyun Li; Nian Wang

2011-01-01

115

Effect of Liberibacter infection (Huanglongbing or "greening" disease) of citrus on orange juice flavor quality by sensory evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There have been some anecdotal reports that Liberibacter asiaticus [(+) Las] infection of citrus trees, recently introduced in Florida, imparts off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the industry to know how much Liberibacter infection affects juice quality with respect to variety, maturit...

116

Fusicoccum arbuti sp. nov. causing cankers on pacific madrone in western North America with notes on Fusicoccum dimidiatum, the correct name for Scytalidium dimidiatum and Nattrassia mangiferae.  

PubMed

Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is a broadleaf evergreen tree native to western North America that has been in decline for the past 30 years. A fungus has been isolated and was verified as the cause of cankers on dying trees. It was determined to belong in the genus Fusicoccum, an asexual state of Botryosphaeria. This genus in both its sexual and asexual states commonly causes canker diseases of deciduous woody plants. Using morphological and molecular data the fungus causing cankers on Pacific madrone is characterized, described and illustrated as a new species of Fusicoccum, F. arbuti D.F. Farr & M. Elliott sp. nov. No sexual state is known for F. arbuti. Evidence from the literature, cultures and specimens suggests that F. arbuti, often mistakenly identified as Nattrassia mangiferae, has been causing madrone canker since at least 1968. Authentic isolates of Nattrassia mangiferae as the synanamorph Scytalidium dimidiatum were sequenced and determined to be different from Fusicoccum arbuti and to belong in Botryosphaeria/Fusicoccum. In addition to molecular sequence data, the morphology of the pycnidial and arthric conidial states of Nattrassia mangiferae/ Scytalidium dimidiatum resembles that of Fusicoccum. Therefore the correct name for Nattrassia mangiferae and its numerous synonyms (Dothiorella mangiferae, Torula dimidata, Scytilidium dimidiatum, Fusicoccum eucalypti, Hendersonula toruloidea, H. cypria, Exosporina fawcetii, H. agathidia, and S. lignicola) is Fusicoccum dimidiatum (Penz.) D.F. Farr, comb. nov. PMID:16392261

Farr, David F; Elliott, Marianne; Rossman, Amy Y; Edmonds, Robert L

117

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all

Marcelo L Laia; Leandro M Moreira; Juliana Dezajacomo; Joice B Brigati; Cristiano B Ferreira; Ana CR Silva; Jesus A Ferro; Julio CF Oliveira

2009-01-01

118

Non-Host Defense Response in a Novel Arabidopsis-Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. Progress of breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties is modest due to limited resistant germplasm resources and lack of candidate genes for genetic manipulation. The objective of this study is to establish a novel heterologous pathosystem between Xcc and the well-established model plant Arabidopsis

Chuanfu An; Zhonglin Mou

2012-01-01

119

First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

120

Dissemination of Information About Management Strategies and Changes in Farming Practices for the Exploitation of Resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma Stem Canker) in Oilseed Rape Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of phoma stem canker (blackleg disease, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans) is an integral component of oilseed rape production. In this paper, we discuss the information about management strategies\\u000a that is disseminated in Europe and Australia. New cultivars have been introduced with improved resistance to disease, but\\u000a sometimes this resistance has been overcome as new races of the pathogen

P. Gladders; N. Evans; S. Marcroft; X. Pinochet

2006-01-01

121

Dissemination of information about management strategies and changes in farming practices for the exploitation of resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in oilseed rape cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of phoma stem canker (blackleg disease, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans) is an integral component of oilseed rape production. In this paper, we discuss the information about management strategies\\u000a that is disseminated in Europe and Australia. New cultivars have been introduced with improved resistance to disease, but\\u000a sometimes this resistance has been overcome as new races of the pathogen

P. Gladders; N. Evans; S. Marcroft; X. Pinochet

122

Floral nectar chemical composition of floral nectar in conventional and transgenic sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, expressing an antibacterial peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral nectar chemical composition of conventional and transgenic sweet orange trees expressing the antibacterial peptide\\u000a sarcotoxin IA (Stx IA), which has been shown to efficiently inhibit in vitro growth of the bacteria responsible for citrus\\u000a canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri), is reported. The nectar contents of primary metabolites (sugars, amino acids, proteins, triacylglycerides) and\\u000a of the secondary metabolites (total purine

V. Sala Junior; V. R. Celloto; L. G. E. Vieira; J. E. Gonçalves; R. A. C. Gonçalves; A. J. B. de Oliveira

2008-01-01

123

Quantitative trait loci analysis of citrus leprosis resistance in an interspecific backcross family of ( Citrus reticulata Blanco ×  C. sinensis L. Osbeck) ×  C. sinensis L. Osb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leprosis, caused by citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) and transmitted by the tenuipalpid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, is one of the most important viruses of citrus in the Americas. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) are highly susceptible to CiLV, while mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco) and some of their hybrids have higher tolerance or resistance to this disease. The mechanisms involved in

Marinês Bastianel; Mariângela Cristofani-Yaly; Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Juliana Freitas-Astúa; Antonio Augusto Franco Garcia; Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende; Vandeclei Rodrigues; Marcos Antônio Machado

2009-01-01

124

Movement of Regulated Articles From Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid Quarantine Zones: Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This EA analyzes the environmental impacts anticipated from the implementation of a new Federal order for the domestic quarantine of citrus greening disease and ACP. The new Federal order contains the same chemical treatments as those evaluated in the Jan...

2007-01-01

125

Occurrence of Citrus psorosis virus in Campania, southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), genus Ophiovirus, is associated with a severe disease of citrus worldwide. Double antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA using a polyclonal antiserum, and triple antibody sandwich (TAS) ELISAs, employing the IgG monoclonal antibody (mab) 13C5, and the IgM mab 2A3, were used to detect CPsV in orchards of different citrus varieties in Campania, southern Italy. TAS ELISA with

D. Alioto; A. Troisi; A. Peluso; G. Quatrano; V. Masenga; R. G. Milne

2000-01-01

126

74 FR 16097 - Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock From Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...calamondin and kumquat plants for interstate movement. The plants, except for plants that are hermetically sealed in plastic bags before leaving the nursery, are completely enclosed in containers or vehicle compartments during movement through...

2009-04-09

127

72 FR 13423 - Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock From Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...except for plants that are hermetically sealed in plastic bags before leaving the nursery, are completely enclosed...except for plants that are hermetically sealed in plastic bags before leaving the nursery, are completely...

2007-03-22

128

Genetic Transformation in Citrus  

PubMed Central

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

2013-01-01

129

Utilization of the Etest assay for comparative antibiotic susceptibility profiles of citrus variegated Chlorosis and Pierce's disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa has a wide host range. Isolates of this bacterium that cause diseases in citrus (CVC) and grapes (PD) share 98% genome homology, and 95.7% amino acid identity. Drug resistance genes show a higher level of divergence and may be involved in the X. fastidiosa-host interaction. Antibiotic susceptibility of CVC and PD strains were compared utilizing the Etest strip method (AB Biodisk). Etest is applicable for fastidious slow-growing organisms due to its reproducibility. Results showed that the CVC strain was resistant to bacitracin, cefotaxime, and trimethoprim, and susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. The PD strain was susceptible to all tested antibiotics, except kanamycin and trimethoprim. Both isolates produced a class C beta-lactamase. These data support previous antibiotic studies and gene discrepancies found in the sequencing data of PD and CVC strains. These results demonstrate the efficacy of utilizing Etest assays for X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:16132461

de P M A Ribeiro, Milena; de T F Dellias, Marina; Tsai, Siu M; Bolmströn, Anne; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; de M Bellato, Cláudia

2005-08-25

130

Seasonal flight activity by the Asian citrus psyllid in east central Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. Information was lacking on seasonal aspects of flight activit...

131

Dramatic Change in Citrus tristeza virus populations in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus and has been an important concern for the citrus industry in the Dominican Republic. Earlier studies documented widespread distribution of mild isolates of the T30 genotype, which caused no disease in the infected trees, an...

132

Detection and Quantification of Airborne Conidia of Fusarium circinatum, the Causal Agent of Pine Pitch Canker, from Two California Sites by Using a Real-Time PCR Approach Combined with a Simple Spore Trapping Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinus radiata (Monterey pine), a tree native to coastal California and Mexico, is widely planted worldwide for timber production. A major threat to Monterey pine plantations is the fungal disease pine pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum (Hypocreales). We present a novel trapping approach using filter paper in combination with a rapid molecular method to detect the presence of inoculum

Wolfgang Schweigkofler; Kerry O'Donnell; Matteo Garbelotto

2004-01-01

133

FIRST REPORT OF CITRUS BLIGHT IN COSTA RICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus blight (CB), causing a chronic decline of citrus, has been an important disease in Florida for over 100 years. CB was first reported in Brazil in the 1980s and is now responsible for the removal of nearly 10% of the trees from production annually. No causal agent has been identified, but CB h...

134

Effects on Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior of fenpropathrin and chlorpyrifos within 24 hours of application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus production. The phloem-limited bacterium associated with HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). One component of HLB managem...

135

Optimized Quantification of Unculturable Candidatus Liberibacter Species Causing Citrus Huanglongbing in Host Plants by Real-Time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) caused by the phloem-limited and psyllid-vectored Candidatus Liberibacter spp. is a destructive disease of citrus that is rapidly increasing in importance. The disease was recently reported in the principle citrus producing areas of São Paulo, Brazil in 2004 and of Florida...

136

Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Bacteriophage Infection of the Helical Mycoplasma-Like Organism (Spiroplasma citri gen. nov., sp. nov.) Cultured from "Stubborn" Disease of Citrus  

PubMed Central

The mycoplasma-like organism Spiroplasma citri gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from citrus infected with “Stubborn” disease and carried in serial cultures in several media, was examined by dark-field microscopy and electron microscopy of negatively-stained and shadowed preparations and of sections. It grows as motile, helical filaments in liquid, but as nonmotile, nonhelical filaments and round bodies in agar cultures. Helicity and motility are lost in old broth cultures and upon addition of a variety of negative stains, fixatives, and other solutions. No organelles accounting for motility are present, but a layer of surface projections is present on the surface of the single, bounding membrane. The mycoplasma produces a tailed, type B bacteriophage which appear to attach to the outer layer. Helical filaments are preserved in ammonium molybdate, but not in sodium phosphotungstate, and by fixation in Formalin or glutaraldehyde made up in medium, but not by osmium nor by glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer. This mycoplasma appears similar to the noncultured helical microorganism in corn stunt-diseased tissues and is probably a representative of a new group of mycoplasmas which are in possession of surface projections, rotary motility, and bacteriophage infection. Images

Cole, Roger M.; Tully, Joseph G.; Popkin, Terry J.; Bove, Joseph M.

1973-01-01

137

Production of DAPG and HCN by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 contributes to the biological control of bacterial canker of tomato.  

PubMed

Bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is known to cause significant economic losses to tomato production worldwide. Biological control has been proposed as an alternative to current chemical containment methods, which are often inefficient and may leave adverse effects on the environment. However, only little headway has so far been made in developing biocontrol strategies against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the antagonistic capacity of PCA, produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM223, and DAPG and HCN, both produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300, on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under in vitro and in planta conditions. Nonsynthesizing isogenic mutants of the producer strains were also developed to further dissect the role of each individual metabolite on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis biological control. Novel specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assays allowed quantification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato plants and rhizospheric soil. Pseudomonas spp. LBUM223 and LBUM300 significantly repressed C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis growth in vitro, while their respective nonproducing mutants showed less or no significant antagonistic activity. In planta, only Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 was capable of significantly reducing disease development and C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis rhizospheric population, suggesting that the production of both DAPG and HCN was involved. In summary, simultaneous DAPG/HCN production by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 shows great potential for controlling bacterial canker of tomato. PMID:22713078

Lanteigne, Carine; Gadkar, Vijay J; Wallon, Thérèse; Novinscak, Amy; Filion, Martin

2012-10-01

138

Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Citrus limon and Opuntia vulgaris against Newcastle disease in domestic fowl in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of a combination of Capsicum frutescens (red pepper), Citrus limon (lemon) and Opuntia vulgaris (prickly pear) against Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic fowl were evaluated. Eighty-eight broiler chickens were divided into five groups. Birds from three groups were inoculated with velogenic ND virus strain, whereas birds from two groups were left as controls. Two groups received a mixture of the plant extract three days prior to inoculation and birds from one group were given the plant extract for two days following development of clinical signs. Blood samples were collected for haemaglutination inhibition tests (HI) for detection of ND virus antibodies. Body weights were monitored during the experiment. Three birds died from the group that was inoculated with ND virus and treated with the plant extract; two died from the group that received the plant extract as a prophylaxis and inoculated with ND virus; and one bird died from the group that was inoculated with ND virus but not given the plant extract. No death was observed in any of the birds in the control groups. Antibody titers for ND virus rose four-fold in the inoculated birds but remained low in the un-inoculated groups. Mean body weights of birds in group B declined markedly compared to the other groups. The results indicated that there was no prophylactic or therapeutic value of the plant extract against ND. The plant extract showed a negative effect on body weights in birds with ND. PMID:10624862

Mtambo, M M; Mushi, E J; Kinabo, L D; Maeda-Machang'u, A; Mwamengele, G L; Yongolo, M G; Temu, R P

1999-12-15

139

Detection of ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Diaphorina citri and Its Importance in the Management of Citrus Huanglongbing in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manjunath, K. L., Halbert, S. E., Ramadugu, C., Webb, S., and Lee, R. F. 2008. Detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in Diaphorina citri and its importance in the management of citrus huanglongbing in Florida. Phytopathology 98:387-396. Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening), is a highly destructive disease that has been spreading in both Florida and Brazil. Its psyllid vector, Diaphorina

K. L. Manjunath; S. E. Halbert; C. Ramadugu; S. Webb; R. F. Lee

2008-01-01

140

Localized autoinoculation and dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea for control of the Asian citrus psyllid in South Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the causal organism of citrus greening disease. Integrated strategies are needed to control D. citri in south Texas. Control approaches involving entomopathogenic fungi may be useful on ornamental and abandoned citrus and other rutaceous...

141

The effects of citrus rootstocks on Valencia Late and Rhode Red Valencia oranges for some plant nutrient elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In citrus production, the rootstocks utilization is beneficial for solving the problems caused by soil, climates, pests and diseases as well as achieving higher productivity and quality, earlier and later fruit productions. Therefore, citrus producer almost exclusively utilizes rootstocks. The major rootstock of Turkish citrus production is sour orange while trifoliate, Troyer and Carrizo citranges are utilized as well. In

Celil Toplu; Mustafa Kaplankiran; T. Hakan Demirkeser; Ercan Yildiz

142

Spot Chromatography Identification of Citrus Rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE importance of knowing the variety of the rootstock in a citrus orchard is more than academic. The tolerance of an orange tree to infectious diseases; the size, the number and quality of its fruits; the palatability of its fresh and processed juice; its rate of growth and its expected longevity are all dynamically affected by the rootstock on which

Raymond M. Selle

1958-01-01

143

Citrus Huanglongbing: The Pathogen and Its Impact  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The article is a detailed review of the present status of huanglongbing (HLB) in the US and Brazil. HLB is known to be the most severe and destructive of all diseases of citrus greatly affecting yield and quality, and leads to tree death. It also has severe regulatory and quarantine implications a...

144

Micropropagation of Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Citrus is cultured in more than 100 countries making it one of the most important commercial fruit crops in terms\\u000a of economic value and human nutrition (Barlass and Skene, 1986). Fresh fruits and juice are the most significant citrus products,\\u000a but essential oils, pectin, and marmalade, as well as candied and dried rinds, also have commercial value (Barlass

Francesco Carimi; Fabio De Pasquale

145

Screening molecules for control of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) using an optimized regeneration system for 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infected periwinkle (Catharunthus roseus) cuttings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) ( also known as citrus greening) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter, of which, ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ (Las) is the most widely-distributed. An improved system using HLB-...

146

Irrigation of Citrus with Citrus Processing Waste Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several citrus scion-rootstock combinations were grown in greenhouses for 3 years and irrigated with treated waste water from two citrus processing plants in central Florida. No harmful effects were observed from the use of treated citrus waste water. Sup...

R. C. J. Koo

1974-01-01

147

Treatment of Citrus Processing Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plant scale studies were performed to determine operational and treatment parameters for citrus processing wastewaters. Part I discusses treatment of concentrated citrus processing wastwaters combined with domestic sewage using a modified activated sludge...

J. B. Goodson J. J. Smith

1970-01-01

148

The genome of the non-cultured, bacterial-like organism associated with citrus greening disease contains the nus G- rpl KAJL- rpo BC gene cluster and the gene for a bacteriophage type DNA polymerase  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently cloned three DNA fragments (In-2.6, In-1.0, and In-0.6) of the noncultured, bacterial-like organism (BLO) associated with citrus greening disease. Nucleotide sequence determination has shown that fragment In-2.6 is part of therplKAJL-rpoBC gene cluster, a well-known operon in eubacteria. The DNA fragment upstream of and partially overlapping with In-2.6 could be isolated and was shown to be thenusG

Sandrine Villechanoux; Monique Garnier; Frédéric Laigret; Joël Renaudin; Joseph-Marie Bové

1993-01-01

149

Citrus Proteins for Use in Field Detection of Citrus Blight Using Immunological Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to purified and isolated citrus blight leaf proteins which are specific indicators of the presence of citrus blight. The isolated and purified citrus blight leaf proteins are extracted from citrus blighted leaves and have a molecular...

M. G. Bausher

1991-01-01

150

7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus...regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening: (a) All plants and plant parts...

2013-01-01

151

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for discrimination of huanglongbing-infected citrus leaves from uninfected leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow dragon disease, is one of the more serious diseases of citrus and is a threat to the U.S. industry. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees su...

152

All five host-range variants of Xanthomonas citri carry one pthA homolog with 17.5 repeats that determines pathogenicity on citrus, but none determine host-range variation.  

PubMed

Citrus canker disease is caused by five groups of Xanthomonas citri strains that are distinguished primarily by host range: three from Asia (A, A*, and A(w)) and two that form a phylogenetically distinct clade and originated in South America (B and C). Every X. citri strain carries multiple DNA fragments that hybridize with pthA, which is essential for the pathogenicity of wide-host-range X. citri group A strain 3213. DNA fragments that hybridized with pthA were cloned from a representative strain from all five groups. Each strain carried one and only one pthA homolog that functionally complemented a knockout mutation of pthA in 3213. Every complementing homolog was of identical size to pthA and carried 17.5 nearly identical, direct tandem repeats, including three new genes from narrow-host-range groups C (pthC), A(w) (pthAW), and A* (pthA*). Every noncomplementing paralog was of a different size; one of these was sequenced from group A* (pthA*-2) and was found to have an intact promoter and full-length reading frame but with 15.5 repeats. None of the complementing homologs nor any of the noncomplementing paralogs conferred avirulence to 3213 on grapefruit or suppressed avirulence of a group A* strain on grapefruit. A knockout mutation of pthC in a group C strain resulted in loss of pathogenicity on lime, but the strain was unaffected in ability to elicit an HR on grapefruit. This pthC- mutant was fully complemented by pthA, pthB, or pthC. Analysis of the predicted amino-acid sequences of all functional pthA homologs and nonfunctional paralogs indicated that the specific sequence of the 17th repeat may be essential for pathogenicity of X. citri on citrus. PMID:17722697

Al-Saadi, Abdulwahid; Reddy, Joseph D; Duan, Yong P; Brunings, Asha M; Yuan, Qiaoping; Gabriel, Dean W

2007-08-01

153

Control of citrus green and blue molds by Chinese propolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, are economically important postharvest diseases of citrus fruits. In this study, Chinese propolis ethyl acetate\\u000a extract (PEAE) was evaluated to control P. digitatum and P. italicum on postharvest citrus fruits. The results indicated PEAE strongly inhibited mycelia growth and induced hyphae prominent abnormal\\u000a morphological alterations. Also, PEAE had

Shuzhen Yang; Litao Peng; Yunjiang Cheng; Feng Chen; Siyi Pan

2010-01-01

154

Response of Sweet Orange ( Citrus sinensis ) to ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Infection: Microscopy and Microarray Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kim, J.-S., Sagaram, U. S., Burns, J. K., Li, J.-L., and Wang, N. 2009. Response of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection: Microscopy and microarray analyses. Phytopathology 99:50-57. Citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus. HLB is associated with the phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic ?-proteobacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' In this report, we used sweet

Jeong-Soon Kim; Uma Shankar Sagaram; Jacqueline K. Burns; Jian-Liang Li; Nian Wang

2009-01-01

155

Stable Transformation of the Xylella fastidiosa Citrus Variegated Chlorosis Strain with oriC Plasmids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium affecting economically important crops (e.g., grapevine, citrus, and coffee). The citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) strain of X. fastidiosa is the causal agent of this severe disease of citrus in Brazil and represents the first plant-pathogenic bacterium for which the genome sequence was determined. Plasmids for the CVC strain of X. fastidiosa were constructed

PATRICIA B. MONTEIRO; DIVA C. TEIXEIRA; R. R. Palma; M. Garnier; J.-M. Bove; J. Renaudin

2001-01-01

156

Isolation and Characterization of Beneficial Bacteria Associated with Citrus Roots in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivable diversity of bacteria associated with citrus was investigated as part of a larger study to understand the roles\\u000a of beneficial bacteria and utilize them to increase the productive capacity and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Citrus\\u000a roots from Huanglongbing (HLB) diseased symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus were used in this study. A total of 227 and 125\\u000a morphologically distinct colonies were isolated

Pankaj Trivedi; Timothy Spann; Nian Wang

157

Ethanol attracts scolytid beetles to Phytophthora ramorum cankers on coast live oak.  

PubMed

Ethanol in sapwood was analyzed along vertical transects, through small spot cankers and larger basal cankers, of Phytophthora ramorum-infected stems of Quercus agrifolia at three sites in California. Trees with large basal cankers, known to attract scolytid beetles, had a 4.3 times higher ethanol level than trees with spot cankers that attract fewer beetles. Ethanol concentrations inside cankers, where scolytid beetles preferentially attack, varied by about four orders of magnitude among samples, with a median level of 16.0 ?g.g(-1) fresh mass. This concentration was 4.3 and 15.5 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations at 1 cm or 15-30 cm outside the canker boundaries. In the laboratory, we demonstrated that ethanol escaped through the bark of a Q. garryana log just 3 days after it was added to the sapwood. At the three study sites, traps baited with ethanol captured more Xyleborinus saxesenii, Pseudopityophthorus pubipennis, and Monarthrum dentiger (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) than traps baited with ethanol plus (-)-?-pinene, or ethanol plus 4-allylanisole (4AA). Logs of Q. agrifolia with a 50 % ethanol solution added to the sapwood were placed at the study sites, with or without additional bark treatments above the ethanol. The number of scolytid beetle gallery holes above the ethanol-infused sapwood was 4.4 times greater than that on the opposite side of the log where no ethanol was added. Attachment of ultra-high release (-)-?-pinene pouches to the bark surface above the 50 % ethanol solution reduced scolytid attacks to a density of 19.1 % that of logs without this treatment. We conclude that ethanol in P. ramorum cankers functions as a primary host attractant for scolytid beetles and is an important link in colonization of these cankers and accelerated mortality of Q. agrifolia. The results of this research shed light on the chemical ecology behind the focused scolytid attacks on P. ramorum-infected coast live oaks, and lay the groundwork for future efforts to prolong the survival of individual trees of this keystone species. PMID:23525941

Kelsey, Rick G; Beh, Maia M; Shaw, David C; Manter, Daniel K

2013-03-24

158

Citrus Leafminer Mating Disruption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mating disruption targets a specific pest and has no negative impact on natural enemies, the environment, or agricultural workers. A flowable wax dispenser was tested for releasing the female sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella. These dispensers are biodegradable, inexpens...

159

Characterization of Pear Blister Canker Viroid Isolates from Australian Pome Fruit Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVd) was detected in pear (Pyrus sp.), nashi (Pyrus serotina) and quince (Cydonia oblonga) trees from various pome fruit growing regions of Australia using dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. Characteristic symptoms of PBCVd infection were not observed on the...

160

Cold-Induced Cankers and Associated Fungi in a Sycamore Seed Orchard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of the trees in a 6-year-old sycamore seed orchard in Carlisle County, KY, 66 percent developed obscure vertical cankers in the spring of 1990. A variety of wound-invading saprophytes, including Hyalodendron sp., Stachylidium sp., Botrytis sp., Phialophor...

F. I. McCracken R. Rousseau

1991-01-01

161

Natural occurrence and distribution of stem cankers caused by Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies were conducted in five cocoa growing districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana solely infected by Phytophthora palmivora and five districts in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions prevalently infected by Phytophthora megakarya to determine the natural incidence, the vertical distribution on trees and the probable sources of stem canker infections, and to isolate and identify the causal

Alex A. Appiah; Isaac Y. Opoku; Andrews Y. Akrofi

2004-01-01

162

Cellular automata model for citrus variegated chlorosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cellular automata model is proposed to analyze the progress of citrus variegated chlorosis epidemics in São Paulo orange plantations. In this model epidemiological and environmental features, such as motility of sharpshooter vectors that perform Lévy flights, level of plant hydric and nutritional stress, and seasonal climatic effects, are included. The observed epidemic data were quantitatively reproduced by the proposed model on varying the parameters controlling vector motility, plant stress, and initial population of diseased plants.

Martins, M. L.; Ceotto, G.; Alves, S. G.; Bufon, C. C. B.; Silva, J. M.; Laranjeira, F. F.

2000-11-01

163

Cloning and Sequencing of Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus Isolated from Citrus Trees in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, a causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) disease of citrus in Malaysia, was detected in infected leaf samples collected from citrus growing areas in Selangor and Terangganu. The HLB bacterium was cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were 1324 and 1337 bp for GFB (greening fastidious bacterium) -T and-S isolate, respectively including the upstream and downstream nucleotides. It

A. KHAIRULMAZMI; S. KAMARUZAMAN; H. HABIBUDDIN; JUGAH KADIR; SYED OMAR; SYED RASTAN

164

Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB. Laboratory and field studies were cond...

165

Phaeoramularia fruit and leaf spot of citrus with special reference to Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit and leaf spot of citrus caused by Phaeoramularia angolensis was first observed in Angola and Mozambique in 1952. The disease has now spread to 15 countries, south of Sahara, and recently to Yemen, in the Arabian Peninsula. All citrus species are affected with grapefruit, with orange being the most susceptible. P. angolensis infects foliage, fruit and stems. Severe infection

A. A. Seif; R. J. Hillocks

1993-01-01

166

A synchronous rearing method for the Asian citrus psyllid and its parasitoids in quarantine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and two of its parasitoids, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) [Hymenoptera: Eulophidae] and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal) [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae], were reared under artificial light in a quarantine facility as part of a classical biological control program. Diaphorina citri, the vector of citrus greening disease, were reared on propagated orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata (L.)

Lucile H. Skelley; Marjorie A. Hoy

2004-01-01

167

Global gene expression of Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus sunki and their hybrids under infection of Phytophthora parasitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R), and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S) to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible

Leonardo P Boava; Mariângela Cristofani-Yaly; Valéria S Mafra; Karen Kubo; Luciano T Kishi; Marco A Takita; Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves; Marcos A Machado

2011-01-01

168

Analyses of proteomic expression profiles and nutrient status of citrus plants in response to HLB  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly devastating citrus disease and represents a major threat to the citrus industries in US. The etiology of HLB worldwide is associated with three insect-transmissible phloem-limited members of the bacterial group ‘Candidatus Liberibacter spp’, prevalently ‘Candidatus Li...

169

Evaluation of management programs for protecting young citrus plantings from huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus associated in North America with the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. ACP management is considered a vital component of a program aimed at reducing...

170

Imazil residue loading and green mould control in south african citrus pack-houses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Imazalil (IMZ) is commonly applied in South African citrus pack-houses for the control of green mould, caused by Penicillium digitatum, yet the disease still causes significant postharvest losses. Maximum residue limit (MRL) for IMZ on citrus fruit is 5 µg.g-1, whereas 2-3 µg.g-1 is regarded as a b...

171

Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. RESULTS: A normalized full

Javier Terol; Ana Conesa; Jose M Colmenero; Manuel Cercos; Francisco Tadeo; Javier Agustí; Enriqueta Alós; Fernando Andres; Guillermo Soler; Javier Brumos; Domingo J Iglesias; Stefan Götz; Francisco Legaz; Xavier Argout; Brigitte Courtois; Patrick Ollitrault; Carole Dossat; Patrick Wincker; Raphael Morillon; Manuel Talon

2007-01-01

172

Citrus fruits — varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part I: Varieties, production, handling, and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part I of this comprehensive critical review on citrus fruits, the origin, botany, and classification are briefly discussed. The present status of citrus breeding with the objectives of overcoming the serious problems of die?back and other disastrous diseases, and of producing varieties having a long harvesting period and giving a higher yield of high quality fruits, have been critically

K. V. R. Ramana; V. S. Govindarajan; S. Ranganna; J. F. Kefford

1981-01-01

173

Evaluation of low-volume sprayers used in asian citrus Psyllid control applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kumayama, Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is a detrimental pest to citrus crops when it serves as a vector of the pathogen that causes greening (huanglongbing, or HLB). Transmission of this disease causes mottling, chlorosis, dieback and reductions in both frui...

174

Acoustic signals in the courtship of male and female Asian citrus psyllids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was discovered in Broward County, Florida in 1998, and has since spread through most of the state. It is an important vector of Huanglongbing, an economically devastating disease of citrus; consequently, researchers and regulators are trying to d...

175

Modeling huanglongbing transmission within a citrus tree.  

PubMed

The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), associated with an uncultured bacterial pathogen, is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. A mathematical model of the transmission of HLB between its psyllid vector and citrus host has been developed to characterize the dynamics of the vector and disease development, focusing on the spread of the pathogen from flush to flush (a newly developing cluster of very young leaves on the expanding terminal end of a shoot) within a tree. This approach differs from that of prior models for vector-transmitted plant diseases where the entire plant is the unit of analysis. Dynamics of vector and host populations are simulated realistically as the flush population approaches complete infection. Model analysis indicates that vector activity is essential for initial infection but is not necessary for continued infection because infection can occur from flush to flush through internal movement in the tree. Flush production, within-tree spread, and latent period are the most important parameters influencing HLB development. The model shows that the effect of spraying of psyllids depends on time of initial spraying, frequency, and efficacy of the insecticides. Similarly, effects of removal of symptomatic flush depend on the frequency of removal and the time of initiation of this practice since the start of the epidemic. Within-tree resistance to spread, possibly affected by inherent or induced resistance, is a major factor affecting epidemic development, supporting the notion that alternate routes of transmission besides that by the vector can be important for epidemic development. PMID:22783015

Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H; Halbert, Susan E; Morris, J Glenn; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2012-07-10

176

Identification of QTLs associated with citrus resistance to Phytophthora gummosis.  

PubMed

Citrus gummosis, caused by Phytophthora spp., is an important citrus disease in Brazil. Almost all citrus rootstock varieties are susceptible to it to some degree, whereas resistance is present in Poncirus trifoliata, a closely related species. The objective of this study was to detect QTLs linked to citrus Phytophthora gummosis resistance. Eighty individuals of the F1 progeny, obtained by controlled crosses between Sunki mandarin Citrus sunki (susceptible) and Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux (resistant), were evaluated. Resistance to Phytophthora parasitica was evaluated by inoculating stems of young plants with a disc of fungal mycelia and measuring lesion lengths a month later. Two QTLs linked to gummosis resistance were detected in linkage groups 1 and 5 of the P. trifoliata map, and one QTL in linkage group 2 of the C. sunki map. The phenotypic variation explained by individual QTLs was 14% for C. sunki and ranged from 16 to 24% for P. trifoliata. The low character heritability (h2 = 18.7%) and the detection of more than one QTL associated with citrus Phytophthora gummosis resistance showed that inheritance of the resistance is quantitative. PMID:16424605

Siviero, Amauri; Cristofani, Mariangela; Furtado, Edson L; Garcia, Antonio A F; Coelho, Alexandre S G; Machado, Marcos A

2006-01-01

177

Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other

Vivian S da Silva; Cláudio S Shida; Fabiana B Rodrigues; Diógenes CD Ribeiro; Alessandra A de Souza; Helvécio D Coletta-Filho; Marcos A Machado; Luiz R Nunes; Regina Costa de Oliveira

2007-01-01

178

Certification Programs for Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certification programs are important for the long term sustainability of citrus and other crops which are vegetatively propagated.\\u000a The certification program provides a basic platform for all integrated pest management practices, it is important for the\\u000a management of insect and fungal pests, and the program ensures that the grower is planting healthy germplasm of the highest\\u000a horticultural quality. Graft transmissible

Richard F. Lee

179

Quantitative real-time PCR for detection and identification of Candidatus Liberibacter species associated with citrus huanglongbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB, ex greening) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. Different forms of the disease are caused by different Candidatus Liberobacter species, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. africanus (Laf) and Ca. L. americanus (Lam). The pathogen is transmitted by psyllid insects and by budding with contaminated plant materials. The vector psyllid Diaphorina citri can transmit

Wenbin Li; John S. Hartung; Laurene Levy

2006-01-01

180

DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS HUANGLONGBING BY MULTIPLEX REAL-TIM PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB, ex greening) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. Different forms of the disease are caused by different Candidatus Liberobacter species, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. africanus (Laf), and Ca. L. americanus (Lam). The pathogen is transmitted by ...

181

Potential nutritional benefits of current citrus consumption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus contains various nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are currently consumed. We then compared the amount of citrus and citrus-derived compounds that have been use...

182

Gene expression in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck following infection with the bacterial pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus causing Huanglongbing in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huanglongbing (HLB) (=citrus greening) is a destructive disease of citrus which is caused by a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting bacterium of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Large-scale analysis of gene expression changes in ‘Valencia’ orange leaves were studied during the course of 19 weeks after inoculation with Ca. L. asiaticus using the Affymetrix GeneChip® citrus genome array to provide new insights into the

Ute Albrecht; Kim D. Bowman

2008-01-01

183

7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quarantined for citrus greening or Asian citrus psyllid on the Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Web site: (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus_greening/index.shtml )....

2013-01-01

184

Neofusicoccum parvum, a causal agent associated with cankers and decline of Norfolk Island pine in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canker and decline of Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island pine) trees were observed during surveys conducted in the costal suburbs of Perth in 2009 and 2010. Samples\\u000a from symptomatic and asymptomatic parts of trees were collected and morphological characteristics of the consistently isolated\\u000a fungus analysed. The isolated fungus was identified as Neofusicoccum parvum using phylogenetic analysis of combined sequence data from

Hossein Golzar; Treena I. Burgess

185

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in those mixtures interact with each other and cause diseases.

Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.

2013-01-01

186

Flavonoids in tropical citrus species.  

PubMed

HPLC with PDA and MS(2) detection was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in the tropical citrus species Citrus microcarpa , Citrus hystrix , Citrus medica var. 1 and 2, and Citrus suhuiensis . Most of these species contained high amounts of flavones, flavanones, and dihydrochalcone C- and/or O-glycosides, which were identified on the basis of HPLC retention times, cochromatography with available authentic standards, absorbance spectra, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns. Among the major compounds detected were apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-2?-O-rhamnoside, phloretin-3',5'-di-C-glucoside, diosmetin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-neohesperidoside, and hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside. Most of the dihydrochalcone and flavone C-glycosides have not previously been detected in tropical citrus. C. microcarpa contained a high amount of phloretin-3',5'-di-C-glucoside. Most of the tropical citrus flavanones were neohesperidoside conjugates, which are responsible for imparting a bitter taste to the fruit. Only C. suhuiensis fruit contains rutinoside, a nonbitter conjugate. PMID:21978223

Roowi, Suri; Crozier, Alan

2011-10-19

187

Chemical compounds effective against the citrus Huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta.  

PubMed

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. As a possible control strategy for citrus HLB, therapeutic compounds were screened using a propagation test system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infected periwinkle and citrus plants. The results demonstrated that the combination of penicillin and streptomycin (PS) was effective in eliminating or suppressing the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium and provided a therapeutically effective level of control for a much longer period of time than when administering either antibiotic separately. When treated with the PS, 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected periwinkle cuttings achieved 70% of regeneration rates versus <50% by other treatments. The 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterial titers in the infected periwinkle plants, as measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, decreased significantly following root soaking or foliar spraying with PS. Application of the PS via trunk injection or root soaking also eliminated or suppressed the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium in the HLB-affected citrus plants. This may provide a useful tool for the management of citrus HLB and other Liberibacter-associated diseases. PMID:21834727

Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A; Zhou, Lijuan; He, Zhenli; Stover, Ed; Duan, Yongping

2011-09-01

188

Flavanones in Citrus fruit: Structure–antioxidant activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological surveys have shown an inverse relationship between the intake of fruit and the incidence of coronary heart disease and some type of cancer. Data found in the literature regarding the flavonoids in general while this study focuses on flavanones, a subclass of flavonoids which occurs in Citrus fruit. The aim of this work is to elucidate the antioxidant or

Danila Di Majo; Marco Giammanco; Maurizio La Guardia; Elisa Tripoli; Santo Giammanco; Enrico Finotti

2005-01-01

189

Citrus greening detection using airborne hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. This paper proposes a method to detect the citrus greening...

190

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS SUDDEN DEATH IN BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus Sudden Death (CSD) is a disease of unknown etiology that affects sweet orange grafted on Rangpur lime and Volkamerian lemon in Brazil. Ordinary runs analysis of CSD-symptomatic trees indicated a departure from randomness of symptomatic trees status among immediately adjacent trees mainly wit...

191

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) isolates from recent bacterial canker of kiwifruit outbreaks belong to the same genetic lineage.  

PubMed

Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

Mazzaglia, Angelo; Studholme, David J; Taratufolo, Maria C; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S; Vinatzer, Boris A; Balestra, Giorgio M

2012-05-09

192

Comparative Genomics and Phylogenetic Analyses of Newly Cloned Genomic Regions From the Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB)-associated Bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease, caused by Candidatus Liberibacter species, is a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. The pathogen is a gram negative, unculturable, phloem-limited bacterium, with little known genomic information. Here, we report cloning and characterizatio...

193

Callose deposition and inhibited symplastic transport in the phloem of citrus leaves infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a lethal disease of citrus, damaging citrus agriculture worldwide. A phloem-limited, alpha proteobacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is associated with HLB in North America. We examined Lasinfected (Las+) leaf phloem cells by microscopy methods to characterize p...

194

Differential stylet penetration behaviors of two Aphis gossypii biotypes in relation to host or vector infection with Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important citrus disease agents worldwide. The impact of CTV on American agriculture has been significant, affecting 50 million trees with economic losses of several hundred million dollars. In California, this virus is predominantly transmitted by tw...

195

Molecular Analysis Among MCA13-reactive Isolates Reveals a Strategy for Rapid Assessment of Citrus tristeza Virus Severity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypes vary in disease severity ranging from symptomless to virulent (stem pitting) in commercial citrus plantings. Because CTV is spread by propagation and by aphid vectors, rapid identification and virulence typing are critical for control and interdiction activitie...

196

Molecular analyses revealed genetic complexity in Citrus tristeza virus Dekopon isolate and its aphid-transmitted progeny  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An assessment was made of the disease potential of a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolate designated Dekopon found in a hybrid mandarin variety topworked in a citrus planting in Fresno County, CA. After aphid transmissions (AT), parental and AT isolates were analyzed by SSCP, genotyping with multipl...

197

A TaqMan PCR method for routine diagnosis of the quarantine fungus guignardia citricarpa on citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

With respect to disease risk for the quarantine fungus Guignardia citricarpa on citrus fruit an accurate diagnosis for routine analysis is required. Also, when inspections have to be performed on imported citrus fruits, a fast detection method is urgently needed. A fast automated DNA extraction method based on magnetic beads combined with a real-time PCR assay was optimized to improve

Gent-Pelzer van M. P. E; Brouwershaven van I. R; L. F. F. Kox; P. J. M. Bonants

2007-01-01

198

Transcriptional responses and carbohydrate metabolism of citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of Huanglongbing in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus occurring in most citrus growing regions worldwide. It is caused by a phloem-limited, fastidious bacterium of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, which is transmitted through insect vectors. HLB causes the decline of trees within few years afte...

199

76 FR 78228 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Greening and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...associated with regulations to prevent the spread of citrus greening and its vector, Asian...movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of citrus greening and its vector, contact...suppress, control, prevent, or retard the spread of plant pests and diseases that are...

2011-12-16

200

Gene expression in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck following infection with the bacterial pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus causing Huanglongbing in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hunglongbing (HLB) (=citrus greening) is a destructive disease of citrus which is caused by a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting bacterium of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Large-scale analysis of gene expression changes in ‘Valencia’ orange leaves were studied during the course of 19 weeks after in...

201

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from recent outbreaks of kiwifruit bacterial canker belong to different clones that originated in China.  

PubMed

A recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis), is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease was first reported in China and Japan in the 1980s. A severe outbreak of PSA began in Italy in 2008 and has spread to other European countries. PSA was found in both New Zealand and Chile in 2010. To study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of PSA between countries, genomes of strains from China and Japan (where the genus Actinidia is endemic), Italy, New Zealand and Chile were sequenced. The genomes of PSA strains are very similar. However, all strains from New Zealand share several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguish them from all other PSA strains. Similarly, all the PSA strains from the 2008 Italian outbreak form a distinct clonal group and those from Chile form a third group. In addition to the rare SNPs present in the core genomes, there is abundant genetic diversity in a genomic island that is part of the accessory genome. The island from several Chinese strains is almost identical to the island present in the New Zealand strains. The island from a different Chinese strain is identical to the island present in the strains from the recent Italian outbreak. The Chilean strains of PSA carry a third variant of this island. These genomic islands are integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). Sequencing of these ICEs provides evidence of three recent horizontal transmissions of ICE from other strains of Pseudomonas syringae to PSA. The analyses of the core genome SNPs and the ICEs, combined with disease history, all support the hypothesis of an independent Chinese origin for both the Italian and the New Zealand outbreaks and suggest the Chilean strains also originate from China. PMID:23555547

Butler, Margi I; Stockwell, Peter A; Black, Michael A; Day, Robert C; Lamont, Iain L; Poulter, Russell T M

2013-02-27

202

The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing

Javier Terol; Guillermo Soler; Manuel Talon; Manuel Cercos

2010-01-01

203

Development and systematic validation of qPCR assays for rapid and reliable differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing citrus variegated chlorosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The xylem-limited, Gram-negative, fastidious plant bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease affecting approximately half of the citrus plantations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The disease was recently found in Central America...

204

Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our "recipe" for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

Folimonova, Svetlana Y

2013-04-04

205

Flavanone Glycoside Biosynthesis in Citrus  

PubMed Central

Previous indirect evidence suggested that the biosynthesis of flavonoids in Citrus may not proceed via the usual chalcone synthase reaction and that glycosylation occurs during chalcone formation and not afterward, as has been reported in other species. We detected chalcone-synthase and UDP-glucose:flavanone-7-O-glucosyl-transferase activities in cell-free extracts of Citrus. The glucosylated flavanone was further rhamnosylated when exogenous UDP-glucose and NADPH were added to the extract. Chalcone-synthase activity was detected in cell-free extracts derived from young leaves and fruits. Young fruits (2 millimeter diameter) had the highest chalcone synthase activity. UDP-glucose:flavanone-7-O-glucosyl-transferase activity was measured in cell-free extracts derived from young leaves and fruits of Citrus mitis and Citrus maxima. The highest UDP-glucose:flavanone-7-O-glucosyl-transferase activity was found in young C. maxima leaves. These data indicate that Citrus contains a flavonoid pathway similar to that studied in other species. Images Figure 2 Figure 3

Lewinsohn, Efraim; Britsch, Lothar; Mazur, Yehuda; Gressel, Jonathan

1989-01-01

206

Tests of fungicides for post-germination activity against Nectria galligena, causal agent of canker and fruit rot of apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve fungicides were screened in vitro for post-germination activity against Nectria galligena, the causal agent of European apple canker and Nectria fruit rot. Colony size was recorded 5 and 12 days after the application of fungicides. Fungicides differed in their ability to inhibit colony growth. Type of fungicide and concentration interacted. In general, inhibition was greater the higher the concentration

Xiangming Xu; Denis J. Butt

1996-01-01

207

Effects of biological and chemical treatments on Botrytis stem canker and fruit yield of tomato under greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to identify, by in vitro dual culture tests, potential biological control agents producing antibiotics and to evaluate selected biological and chemical agents for control of stem canker caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in yellow cedar sawdust in a research greenhouse. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis and one each of Enterobacter agglomerans and

R. Utkhede; C. Bogdanoff; J. McNevin

2001-01-01

208

Selection of Antagonistic Bacteria of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Evaluation of Their Efficiency Against Bacterial Canker of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 178 bacterial strains, antagonistic towards Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis , the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, were isolated from bulk soil, the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato, originating from different sites in the Souss-Massa Valley, Agadir, Morocco. The strains were characterized on the basis of the Gram stain, sporulation, fluorescence on King's B medium and physiological tests.

E. H. Boudyach; M. Fatmi; O. Akhayat; E. Benizri; A. Ait Ben Aoumar

2001-01-01

209

Chipping citrus wood for gasification  

SciTech Connect

Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.

Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

1985-01-01

210

Detection and Quantification of Airborne Conidia of Fusarium circinatum, the Causal Agent of Pine Pitch Canker, from Two California Sites by Using a Real-Time PCR Approach Combined with a Simple Spore Trapping Method  

PubMed Central

Pinus radiata (Monterey pine), a tree native to coastal California and Mexico, is widely planted worldwide for timber production. A major threat to Monterey pine plantations is the fungal disease pine pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum (Hypocreales). We present a novel trapping approach using filter paper in combination with a rapid molecular method to detect the presence of inoculum in the air. The assay is also useful for diagnosing the presence of the pathogen on plants. The test is based on the F. circinatum specific primer pair CIRC1A-CIRC4A, which amplifies a 360-bp DNA fragment in the intergenic spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal operon. Real-time PCR was used to calculate the number of fungal spores present in each reaction mixture by comparing the threshold cycle (Ct) of unknown spore samples to the Ct values of standards with known amounts of F. circinatum spores. The filter paper method allows prolonged and more sensitive spore sampling in the field compared to traditional traps using petri dishes filled with selective medium. A field test at two sites in coastal California infested with pine pitch canker was carried out during the summer and fall of 2002. Spore counts were in the range of ca. 1 × 103 to ca. 7 × 105/m2, with the highest spore counts in the fall, suggesting a seasonal fluctuation.

Schweigkofler, Wolfgang; O'Donnell, Kerry; Garbelotto, Matteo

2004-01-01

211

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for reliable, sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in citrus trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect six RNA and one DNA citrus virus: Citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV), Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus variegation virus (CVV), Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), and Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) from citrus plants. These seven viruses are classified in

Avijit Roy; Amer Fayad; G. Barthe; R. H. Brlansky

2005-01-01

212

A new method for short-term rearing of psyllid adults and nymphs on detached citrus leaves and detached young terminal shoots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using whole citrus plants for rearing of psyllids for biological studies or for studying vector relations of the huanglongbing disease takes considerable space, time and other resources. We have developed a new and simpler method for short-term rearing of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri us...

213

Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi subsp. nov., isolated from bark canker of poplar trees.  

PubMed

Seven Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from oozing bark canker of poplar (Populus × euramericana) trees in Hungary. They showed high (>98.3%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Lonsdalea quercina; however, they differed from this species in several phenotypic characteristics. Multilocus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, atpD and infB) revealed, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis confirmed, that this group of bacterial strains forms a distinct lineage within the species Lonsdalea quercina. A detailed study of phenotypic and physiological characteristics confirmed the separation of isolates from poplars from other subspecies of L. quercina; therefore, a novel subspecies, Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, type strain NY060(T) (=DSM 25466(T)=NCAIM B 02483(T)), is proposed. PMID:23159756

Tóth, Tímea; Lakatos, Tamás; Koltay, András

2012-11-16

214

Diphenylurea Derivatives Induce Somatic Embryogenesis in Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research investigates the possibility that three diphenylurea (DPU) derivatives, N-phenyl-N?-benzothiazol-6-ylurea (PBU), N,N?-bis-(2,3-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (2,3-MDPU) and N,N?-bis-(3,4-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (3,4-MDPU), stimulate the induction of somatic embryogenesis in three Citrus species. The hypothetical embryogenic activity was assessed using stigma and styles of Citrus myrtifolia Raf., Citrus madurensis Lour. and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. The three compounds influenced the production of somatic embryos differently

Angela Carra; Fabio De Pasquale; Ada Ricci; Francesco Carimi

2006-01-01

215

Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

216

Citrus allergy from pollen to clinical symptoms.  

PubMed

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-04

217

Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.  

PubMed

More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

2010-01-27

218

Canker Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... SLS is a foaming agent found in most toothpastes and mouthwashes. Finally, not getting the right nutrition, ... you brush your teeth . Brush and rinse with toothpastes and mouthwashes that don't contain sodium lauryl ...

219

Canker Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... logged in Home About Us Mission and Vision Leadership Executive Committee Board of Trustees Staff/Contact History ... Fellowship Fellowship Study Resources Application Process ABOM ABOM Leadership Fellowship in Dental Surgery ABOM Diplomates Events Calendar ...

220

Heat treatment of Huanglongbing–affected citrus trees in field for reduction of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus”  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) is a devastating citrus disease worldwide. Research conducted by Lin Kung-Hisang et al. in 1960s China suggested that heat treatments were effective at eliminating the pathogen that causes HLB from scions. We tested the effects of high temperature on the red...

221

Simultaneous detection of six citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus from citrus plants by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect six citrus viroids: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV) and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV)) from citrus plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was

Takao Ito; Hiroyuki Ieki; Katsumi Ozaki

2002-01-01

222

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.  

PubMed

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications. PMID:23211617

Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2012-09-28

223

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

224

[Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China].  

PubMed

By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth. PMID:21043095

Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong

2010-08-01

225

The control of black pod, canker and seedling blight of cocoa, caused by Phytophthora palmivora , with potassium phosphonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trunk injected potassium phosphonate (8 or 16 g a.i. per tree every 6 months) controls black pod and stem canker of cocoa:\\u000a Foliar sprays of potassium phosphonate (20 g a.i. per tree every 6 months) or Ridomil Plus 72WP (0.72 g a.i. per tree every\\u000a 6 weeks during the wet season) do not control black pod. Trunk injection is less

R. D. Anderson; D. I. Guest

1990-01-01

226

EFFECTS OF DROUGHT-STRES S AND WOUNDING ON CYTOSPORA CANKER DEVELOPMENT ON COLORADO BLUE SPRUCE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trees subjected to drought-stress in the greenhouse following inoculation with inoculum produced from monoascospore cultures developed significantly (p = 0.001) more cankered branches than did inoculated, non-drought- stressed trees. Inoculation of drought-stres sed and non- drought-stressed trees with inoculum produced from monoconidium cultures did not cause infection. No infection with either inoculum occurred in the absence of wounding.

Lewis K. Kamiri; Franklin F. Laemmlen

1981-01-01

227

An Integrated Control Scheme for Cocoa Pests and Diseases in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest control recommendations in Papua New Guinea cocoa plantings are based on an integrated approach to insect pest and disease management. The most damaging problems are Pantorhytes weevils, black pod and bark canker disease (both caused by Phytophthora palmivora) but vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease is important in some areas of the country. Most other insect pests can be kept

E. S. C. Smith

1981-01-01

228

COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CTV IN PLANTINGS OF VARIOUS CITRUS SPECIES IN COSTA RICA AND LONG DISTANCE SPREAD BY THE BROWN CITRUS APHID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five 400-tree plots were established to compare the virus increase and spread of CTV among grapefruit, orange and lemon plots in San Carlos and Nicoya citrus producing areas of Costa Rica. Tree disease status was assayed semiannually over a five-year period via DAS-I ELISA using a monoclonal mixtur...

229

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi...

2010-01-01

230

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi...

2013-01-01

231

Adventitious Citrus Juice Vesicles from Pre-Existing Juice Vesicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention comprises adventitious citrus juice vesicles having the unique characteristic that they branch out of pre-existing citrus juice vesicles. This is in contrast to tree-produced citrus juice vesicles which arise from the endocarp of the citrus ...

B. Tisserat

1989-01-01

232

Hydrogel substrate amendment alleviates drought effects on young citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water deficits affect citrus physiology, yield, fruit size and quality. Citrus can respond to drought stress conditions through endogenous hormonal regulation of water status and leaf abscission. In this work, we assayed the efficiency of an amendment to soilless media in delaying the drought stress effect in young citrus seedlings and trees. Substrate amendment promoted plant survival of citrus seedlings

Vicent Arbona; Domingo J. Iglesias; Josep Jacas; Eduardo Primo-Millo; Manuel Talon; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

2005-01-01

233

Citrus Viruses in Guatemala: Application of Laboratory-Based Assays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In preparation for a citrus certification in Guatemala, there was an urgent need to determine which graft transmissible citrus pathogens were present. Because of the lack of biological indicator plants, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent for citrus variegated chlorosis...

234

Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits

Sonja KAI

235

OCCURRENCE OF CITRUS BLIGHT IN COSTA RICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Since 1997, citrus blight (CB) symptoms were observed in several groves in the northern region of Costa Rica, the country=s most important citrus area (more than 25,000 ha.). The symptoms include a general decline of the tree canopy with wilt, off-color leaves, leaf drop, twig...

236

Nitrogen best management practice for citrus trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils in central Florida citrus production region are very sandy, hence are vulnerable to leaching of soluble nutrients and chemicals. The objective of this study was to develop nitrogen (N) and irrigation best management practices for citrus in sandy soils to maintain optimal crop yield and quality, and to minimize N leaching below the rootzone. A replicated plot experiment was

A. K. Alva; S. Paramasivam; A. Fares; T. A. Obreza; A. W. Schumann

2006-01-01

237

Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

238

The plastome of Citrus . Physical map, variation among Citrus cultivars and species and comparison with related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical plastome map was constructed for Citrus aurantium, and the plastomes of species and cultivars of Citrus and of two Citrus relatives were analysed by Southern blot-hybridisation of labelled total tobacco cpDNA to digests of total Citrus DNA. A resemblance was found between the plastomes of cultivars of C. limon (lemon), C. sinensis (orange), C. aurantium (sour orange), C.

R. M. Green; A. Vardi; E. Galun

1986-01-01

239

Citrus leprosis and its status in Florida and Texas: past and present.  

PubMed

According to published reports from 1906 to 1968, leprosis nearly destroyed the Florida citrus industry prior to 1925. This was supported with photographs showing typical leprosis symptoms on citrus leaves, fruit, and twigs. Support for the past occurrence of citrus leprosis in Florida includes: (1) presence of twig lesions in affected orange blocks in addition to lesions on fruits and leaves and corresponding absence of similar lesions on grapefruit; (2) yield reduction and die-back on infected trees; and (3) spread of the disease between 1906 and 1925. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of tissue samples from leprosis-like injuries to orange and grapefruit leaves from Florida in 1997, and fruits from grapefruit and sweet orange varieties from Texas in 1999 and 2000 did not contain leprosis-like viral particles or viroplasm inclusions. In contrast, leprosis viroplasm inclusions were readily identified by TEM within green non-senescent tissues surrounding leprosis lesions in two of every three orange leaf samples and half of the fruit samples obtained from Piracicaba, Brazil. Symptoms of leprosis were not seen in any of the 24,555 orange trees examined across Florida during 2001 and 2002. The authors conclude that citrus leprosis no longer exists in Florida nor occurs in Texas citrus based on: (1) lack of leprosis symptoms on leaves, fruit, and twigs of sweet orange citrus varieties surveyed in Florida: (2) failure to find virus particles or viroplasm inclusion bodies in suspect samples from both Florida and Texas examined by TEM; (3) absence of documented reports by others on the presence of characteristic leprosis symptoms in Florida; (4) lack of its documented occurrence in dooryard trees or abandoned or minimal pesticide citrus orchard sites in Florida. In view of the serious threat to citrus in the U.S., every effort must be taken to quarantine the importation of both citrus and woody ornamental plants that serve as hosts for Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus (Banks), and B. obovatus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from countries where citrus leprosis occurs. PMID:14756416

Childers, C C; Rodrigues, J C V; Derrick, K S; Achor, D S; French, J V; Welbourn, W C; Ochoa, R; Kitajima, E W

2003-01-01

240

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2010-01-01

241

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2013-01-01

242

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2009-01-01

243

Citrus biotechnology: Achievements, limitations and future directions.  

PubMed

Citrus is one of the most important commercial and nutritional fruit crops in the world, hence it needs to be improved to cater to the diverse needs of consumers and crop breeders. Genetic manipulation through conventional techniques in this genus is invariably a difficult task for plant breeders as it poses various biological limitations comprising long juvenile period, high heterozygosity, sexual incompatibility, nucellar polyembryony and large plant size that greatly hinder cultivar improvement. Hence, several attempts were made to improve Citrus sps. by using various in vitro techniques. Citrus sps are widely known for their recalcitrance to transformation and subsequent rooting, but constant research has led to the establishment of improved protocols to ensure the production of uniformly transformed plants, albeit with relatively low efficiency, depending upon the genotype. Genetic modification through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has emerged as an important tool for introducing agronomically important genes into Citrus sps. Somatic hybridization has been applied to overcome self and cross-incompatibility barriers and generated inter-specific and inter-generic hybrids. Encouraging results have been achieved through transgenics for resistance against viruses and bacteria, thereby augmenting the yield and quality of the fruit. Now, when major transformation and regeneration protocols have sufficiently been standardized for important cultivars, ongoing citrus research focuses mainly on incorporating such genes in citrus genotypes that can combat different biotic and abiotic stresses. This review summarizes the advances made so far in Citrus biotechnology, and suggests some future directions of research in this fruit crop. PMID:23572908

Singh, Sandeepa; Rajam, Manchikatla V

2009-05-14

244

Clues into the metagenome of huanglongbing infected citrus by analysis of ancillary sequences from Ion Torrent whole genome Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a globally devastating disease of citrus. Presently, three etiological agents are associated with HLB and include; Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), Candidatus Liberibacter americanus; and Candidatus Liberibacter africanus. Attempts to determine alternate (non-Liberi...

245

Essential oil profiles of new Citrus hybrids, a tool for genetic citrus improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil composition of new Citrus hybrids obtained from the Citrus genetic improvement programs at the CRA-Centro di Ricerche per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee of Acireale, Italy (CRA-ACM), were used to evaluate the fruit quality and to identify new valuable flavor components. The common objective of genetic improvement programs is to generate Citrus cultivars with a higher resistance

Simona Fabroni; Giuseppe Ruberto; Paolo Rapisarda

2012-01-01

246

Differential expression of genes of Xylella fastidiosa in xylem fluid of citrus and grapevine.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa causes a serious Pierce's disease (PD) in grapevine. Xylella fastidiosa cells from a PD strain were grown in a pure xylem fluid of a susceptible grapevine cultivar vs. xylem fluid from citrus, which is not a host for this strain of X. fastidiosa. When grown in grapevine xylem fluid, cells of the PD strain formed clumps and biofilm formed to a greater extent than in citrus xylem fluid, although the PD strain did grow in xylem fluid of three citrus varieties. The differential expression of selected genes of a PD X. fastidiosa strain cultured in the two xylem fluids was analyzed using a DNA macroarray. Compared with citrus xylem fluid, grapevine xylem fluid stimulated the expression of X. fastidiosa genes involved in virulence regulation, such as gacA, algU, xrvA, and hsq, and also genes involved in the biogenesis of pili and twitching motility, such as fimT, pilI, pilU, and pilY1. Increased gene expression likely contributes to PD expression in grapevine, whereas citrus xylem fluid did not support or possibly suppressed the expression of these virulence genes. PMID:20070368

Shi, Xiangyang; Bi, Jianlong; Morse, Joseph G; Toscano, Nick C; Cooksey, Donald A

2010-12-19

247

Citrus flavonoids: Molecular structure, biological activity and nutritional properties: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between dietary flavonoid intakes and cardiovascular diseases. Citrus fruits are the main winter fruits consumed in the Mediterranean diet, so they are the main source of dietary flavonoids. The possible beneficial effects are due, not only to the high amounts of vitamins and minerals, but also to the antioxidant properties of their flavonoids.

Elisa Tripoli; Maurizio La Guardia; Santo Giammanco; Danila Di Majo; Marco Giammanco

2007-01-01

248

GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN-LABELED STRAINS OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA COLONIZE CITRUS, GRAPEVINES AND PERIWINKLE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapevines, sweet orange and periwinkle are three natural symptomatic host plants of Xylella fastidiosa. Our previous studies showed that X. fastidiosa strains from citrus could also induced disease symptoms in grapevines and periwinkle. In our post-genomic research program, defined gfp-marked strai...

249

Susceptibility of citrus species to Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of the Alternaria brown spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of Alternaria brown spot (ABS), causes necrosis on leaves, twigs, and fruit, reducing the productivity and quality of fruits. Tangerines and their hybrids are highly susceptible to the disease. Species, hybrids, and cultivars of Citrus from the germplasm bank of the Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in 2004 and

R. F. Reis; T. F. de Almeida; E. S. Stuchi; A. de Goes

2007-01-01

250

Multilocus microsatellite analysis of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. In the United States (US), HLB is typically associated with the presence of a fastidious phloem-limited bacterium named ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, though other Liberibacter species also have been associated with ...

251

Transcriptional response of susceptible and tolerant citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is the suspected causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB) in Florida. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus and no resistant cultivars have been identified to date, though tolerance has been observed in t...

252

Citrus scion breeding at the USDA/ARS U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus breeding has been conducted by the USDA since 1893 when Walter Swingle made the first crosses at the USDA Subtropical Laboratory in Eustis, Florida. The initial objectives included improved disease-resistance, cold hardiness, and easy peeling fruit, which are still important breeding objecti...

253

Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium. PMID:23660459

Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

2013-05-06

254

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

255

A Polygalacturonase from Citrus Leaf Explants  

PubMed Central

The relationship between polygalacturonase activity and abscission of citrus leaf explants was studied. Determination of polygalacturonase activity in citrus tissues requires concentration of the enzyme, use of a proper assay method, and inhibition of an oxidase present in the extracts which oxidizes the reaction products of the polygalacturonase. The polygalacturonase from citrus leaf explants is an exopolygalacturonase and appears to be a soluble enzyme. Polygalacturonase activity increased during abscission of citrus leaf explants and was localized in the separation layer. Ethylene accelerated the increase in polygalacturonase activity, but its effect was evident only after at least an 8-hour lag period. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and cycloheximide inhibited abscission and polygalacturonase activity. It is concluded that polygalacturonase, in addition to cellulase, plays a role in abscission. Images

Riov, J.

1974-01-01

256

Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: new findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Significantly, much of the activity of Citrus flavonoids appears to impact blood and microvascular endothelial cells, and it is not surprising that the two main areas of research on the biological actions of Citrus flavonoids have been inflammation and cancer. Epidemiological and animal studies point to a possible protective effect of flavonoids against cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Although flavonoids have been studied for about 50 years, the cellular mechanisms involved in their biological action are still not completely known. Many of the pharmacological properties of Citrus flavonoids can be linked to the abilities of these compounds to inhibit enzymes involved in cell activation. Attempts to control cancer involve a variety of means, including the use of suppressing, blocking, and transforming agents. Suppressing agents prevent the formation of new cancers from procarcinogens, and blocking agents prevent carcinogenic compounds from reaching critical initiation sites, while transformation agents act to facilitate the metabolism of carcinogenic components into less toxic materials or prevent their biological actions. Flavonoids can act as all three types of agent. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular flavonoid intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In coronary heart disease, the protective effects of flavonoids include mainly antithrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-oxidant, and vasorelaxant. It is suggested that flavonoids decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by three major actions: improving coronary vasodilatation, decreasing the ability of platelets in the blood to clot, and preventing low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidizing. The anti-inflammatory properties of the Citrus flavonoids have also been studied. Several key studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids are due to its inhibition of the synthesis and biological activities of different pro-inflammatory mediators, mainly the arachidonic acid derivatives, prostaglandins E 2, F 2, and thromboxane A 2. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids can play a key role in their activity against several degenerative diseases and particularly brain diseases. The most abundant Citrus flavonoids are flavanones, such as hesperidin, naringin, or neohesperidin. However, generally, the flavones, such as diosmin, apigenin, or luteolin, exhibit higher biological activity, even though they occur in much lower concentrations. Diosmin and rutin have a demonstrated activity as a venotonic agent and are present in several pharmaceutical products. Apigenin and their glucosides have been shown a good anti-inflammatory activity without the side effects of other anti-inflammatory products. In this paper, we discuss the relation between each structural factor of Citrus flavonoids and the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activity of Citrus flavonoids and their role in degenerative diseases. PMID:18593176

Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J

2008-07-02

257

Can an Alder Disease Influence the Controls of Ecosystem Water Flux?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Alaska, nitrogen-fixing shrubs (Alnus spp.) comprise a large component of the vegetation and are important for water and energy flux in the Alaskan tundra, the Interior boreal forest, and south-central Alaska. Recently there has been high incidence and severity of a canker disease on Alnus which alters small scale controls (e.g., leaves, branches) of water and carbon flux and may have ecosystem scale effects in severely diseased areas. The fungal pathogen, Valsa melanodiscus (anamorph =Cytospora umbrina), kills active xylem and phloem, causes long, girdling cankers on stems, and is frequently associated with stem mortality in the thin leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia) and green alder (Alnus crispa). We are just beginning to understand how this canker disease affects the physiology of its host and the implications for water loss and carbon fixation. An inoculation experiment at the University of Alaska is currently being conducted on well-watered and water-limited green alders to: 1) monitor the response of the water transport system to infection and canker development; 2) assess the ability of colonized alders to adjust water use efficiency; and 3) measure the effect of canker development on photosynthesis. Only 4 weeks after inoculation, stems (3-5 mm diam.) with incipient cankers had an overall reduction in total daily water loss and up to 50 percent decrease in daily peak water loss. Stems with incipient cankers were also unable to attain the maximum photosynthetic rate of healthy stems, and had lower light saturation points and quantum efficiencies. Further quantification of these relationships is underway. This study, in combination with recent field measurements of sapflow, will allow us to estimate the impact of varying degrees of disease severity on stand-level water flux. Alders are a keystone species and are currently responding to climate change by expanding into the Alaska tundra, increasing abundance in northern Alaska, and migrating into river drainages in the Interior. Thus, this canker disease poses the potential for wide ecophysiological consequences across the state of Alaska.

Rohrs-Richey, J. K.; Mulder, C. P.; Ruess, R. W.; Winton, L. M.; Stanosz, G. R.

2007-12-01

258

The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus  

PubMed Central

Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1) Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2) the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels of expression of both aconitases, an observation correlating with the acidless phenotype. However, in the acidless "Dulce" lemon aconitase expression was normal suggesting that the acidless trait in this variety is not dependent upon aconitases. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies showed the occurrence of five different subfamilies of aconitate hydratase in plants and sequence analyses indentified three active genes in citrus. The pattern of expression of two of these genes, CcAco1 and CcAco2, was normally associated with the timing of acid content reduction in most genotypes. Two exceptions to this general observation suggest the occurrence of additional regulatory steps of citrate homeostasis in citrus.

2010-01-01

259

Characterization of grapefruit plants ( Citrus paradisi Macf.) transformed with citrus tristeza closterovirus genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv Duncan) plants were transformed with several sequences from citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) that varied in terms of position in the CTV genome and virus strain origin in an attempt to obtain resistant plants. The sequences included the capsid protein gene from three different strains, a nontranslatable version of the capsid protein gene, the replicase (RdRp),

V. J. Febres; C. L. Niblett; R. F. Lee; G. A. Moore

2003-01-01

260

Citrus County Schools Copyright Guidelines Recommended by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains copyright guidelines determined appropriate for the Citrus County School System (Florida) by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists in May, 1992. These guidelines are based on interpretation and understanding of current copyright law as applied to education and implemented in school districts in the United…

Citrus County School District, Inverness, FL.

261

7 CFR 301.75-9 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations...to be adequate to prevent the spread of citrus canker, i.e., conditions of...

2013-01-01

262

7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

2013-01-01

263

Ionizing radiation and marketing simulation on bioactive compounds and quality of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi c.v. Rio Red)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds in citrus fruits have been shown to be protective against chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease, but their levels may be affected by postharvest treatments such as storage and irradiation. In this study, grapefruits were exposed to gamma irradiation at 0, 150 and 300Gy and then stored at 10°C for 36d, followed by an additional 20d

Jairam Vanamala; Greg Cobb; Julio Loaiza; Kilsun Yoo; Leonard M. Pike; Bhimanagouda S. Patil

2007-01-01

264

Isolation and characterization of beneficial bacteria associated with citrus roots in Florida.  

PubMed

Cultivable diversity of bacteria associated with citrus was investigated as part of a larger study to understand the roles of beneficial bacteria and utilize them to increase the productive capacity and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Citrus roots from Huanglongbing (HLB) diseased symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus were used in this study. A total of 227 and 125 morphologically distinct colonies were isolated and characterized from HLB asymptomatic and symptomatic trees, respectively. We observed that the frequency of bacterial isolates possessing various plant beneficial properties was significantly higher in the asymptomatic samples. A total of 39 bacterial isolates showing a minimum of five beneficial traits related to mineral nutrition [phosphate (P) solubilization, siderophore production, nitrogen (N) fixation], development [indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis], health [production of antibiotic and lytic enzymes (chitinase)], induction of systemic resistance [salicylic acid (SA) production], stress relief [production of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase] and production of quorum sensing [N-acyl homoserine lactones] signals were characterized. A bioassay using ethidium monoazide (EMA)-qPCR was developed to select bacteria antagonistic to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Using the modified EMA-qPCR assay, we found six bacterial isolates showing maximum similarity to Paenibacillus validus, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas putida, Microbacterium oleivorans, and Serratia plymutica could significantly reduce the population of viable Ca. L. asiaticus in HLB symptomatic leaf samples. In conclusion, we have isolated and characterized multiple beneficial bacterial strains from citrus roots which have the potential to enhance plant growth and suppress diseases. PMID:21360139

Trivedi, Pankaj; Spann, Timothy; Wang, Nian

2011-03-01

265

Citrus cultivars with high flavonoid contents in the fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavanone contents of some lesser known citrus cultivars grown in Cuba have been determined in research searching for citrus species\\/cultivars with high flavanone contents. The cultivar ‘Galleta’ of the mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) has a higher hesperidin content than the hybrid mandarin ‘Nova’, which is currently being used for the commercial obtainment of this flavanone. The grapefruit cultivar ‘Isaac’

Ana Ortuño; Inès Reynaldo; Maria Dolores Fuster; Juana Botía; Damián Garcia Puig; Francisco Sabater; Angel García Lidón; Ignacio Porras; JoséAntonio Del Río

1997-01-01

266

COOPERATION IN THE CONSERVATION OF CITRUS GENETIC RESOURCES: RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A consortium of cooperating programs for the conservation and utilization of genetic resources centers the University of California, Riverside (UCR). University units include the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Citrus Variety Collection (CVC), and Citrus Breeding Program (CBP). The USDA sup...

267

Converting citrus waste to ethanol and other co-products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conversion of citrus processing waste (CPW) generated during juice production into value added co-products is an important aspect of the juice industry as it offers a solution to waste disposal issues. Currently the practice of drying citrus waste to produce citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as catt...

268

CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS: EVOLUTION IN A HOST-LIMITED PATHOSYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus(CTV) is a major viral pathogen of citrus, with a natural and experimental host range confined to members of the family Rutaceae, including the economically important genus Citrus. Experimental and agricultural paths of distribution of CTV are transmission by aphids and graft p...

269

7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit...control. In areas where citrus is produced for export...placed in fruit fly host plants at least 6...

2013-01-01

270

Absorption and Mobility of Boron in Young Citrus Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron (B) deficiency is widespread in Brazilian citrus orchards and has been considered an important soil constraint to citrus yield. The aim of this work was to study B uptake and its mobility in young citrus trees, under different B statuses, in two rootstocks. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange trees budded on Rangpur

Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto; José Antonio Quaggio; Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho; Maria Fernanda Giné; Antonio Enedi Boaretto

2008-01-01

271

Conventional and transgenic resistance/tolerance to Huanglongbing in citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus, and has been found in California and Texas. Citrus researchers are immersed in extensive and broad-ranging efforts to identify solutions to HLB. Previous research indicates susceptibility to HLB throughout cultivated citrus: in FL none are im...

272

Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most

Burhan Ozkan; Handan Akcaoz; Feyza Karadeniz

2004-01-01

273

Current status of Citrus tristeza virus in Central California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Lindcove Research and Extension Center (LREC), Exeter, CA has 51 ha of citrus and is the field site and screenhouses for the University of California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP). LREC maintains a zero tolerance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infected trees to protect the CCPP and re...

274

Pesticide Use in United States Citrus Production, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pesticide use in citrus production for 1977 was estimated for the three citrus producing regions in the United States (Florida, Texas, and California/Arizona). Citrus growers used an estimated 38.4 million pounds of active ingredient in approximately 8.2 ...

J. J. Haydu

1981-01-01

275

Identification of two chilling-regulated 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate synthase genes from citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 °C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of

Wai Shing Wong; Wen Ning; Pei Lin Xu; Shain Dow Kung; Shang Fa Yang; Ning Li

1999-01-01

276

Ineffectiveness of pruning to control citrus huanglongbing caused by Candidatus Liberibacter americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huanglongbing (HLB) disease of citrus trees, caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Ca. Liberibacter americanus, was first reported in Brazil in March, 2004. The presence of the disease has caused serious concerns\\u000a among growers. Pruning experiments were conducted to determine if removal of symptomatic branches or the entire canopy (decapitation)\\u000a would eliminate infected tissues and save HLB-affected trees. Pruning

Silvio Aparecido Lopes; Guilherme Fernando Frare; Pedro Takao Yamamoto; Antonio Juliano Ayres; José Carlos Barbosa

2007-01-01

277

Temperature Studies with the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri: Cold Hardiness and Temperature Thresholds for Oviposition  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. The psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathogens responsible for citrus greening disease, Huanglongbing, considered the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri was first found in Florida during 1998, and the disease was discovered during 2005. Little was known regarding cold hardiness of D. citri, but Florida citrus is occasionally subjected to notable freeze events. Temperature and duration were each significant sources of variation in percent mortality of D. citri subjected to freeze events. Relatively large percentages of adults and nymphs survived after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -5 to -6° C. Relatively large percentages of eggs hatched after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -8° C. Research results indicated that adult D. citri become cold acclimated during the winter through exposure to cooler winter temperatures. There was no evidence that eggs became cold acclimated during winter. Cold acclimation in nymphs was not investigated. Research with adult D. citri from laboratory and greenhouse colonies revealed that mild to moderate freeze events were usually nonlethal to the D. citri irrespective of whether they were cold acclimated or not. Upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition were investigated because such information may be valuable in explaining the geographic distribution and potential spread of the pest from Florida as well as how cooler winter temperatures might limit population growth. The estimated lower and upper thresholds for oviposition were 16.0 and 41.6° C, respectively; the estimated temperature of peak oviposition over a 48 h period was 29.6° C.

Hall, David G.; Wenninger, Erik J.; Hentz, Matthew G.

2011-01-01

278

Differential resistance to Citrus psorosis virus in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing hairpin RNA derived from the coat protein and 54K protein genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae, is the causal agent of a serious disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. The viral genome consists of three ssRNAs\\u000a of negative polarity. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant defence against viruses, can be induced\\u000a by transgenic expression of virus-derived sequences encoding hairpin RNAs. Since the production of transgenic

Carina Andrea Reyes; Eduardo José Peña; María Cecilia Zanek; Daniela Verónica Sanchez; Oscar Grau; María Laura García

2009-01-01

279

7 CFR 301.75-16 - Payments for the recovery of lost production income.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...Florida, or from the USDA Citrus Canker Eradication...must be sent to the USDA Citrus Canker Eradication Program...Program, c/o Division of Plant Industry,...

2013-01-01

280

Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.  

PubMed

Numerous compounds, many of them osmolytes, were quantified in natural juices and in frozen concentrate juices from fruits of plants of the Citrus genus. L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline (hygric acid), N,N-dimethyl-L-proline (stachydrine), 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine (betonicine), 4-hydroxy-L-proline, ?-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), 3-carboxypropyltrimethylammonium (GabaBet), N-methylnicotinic acid (trigonelline), and choline in the fruit juices of yellow orange, blood orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), and grapefruit were analyzed by sensitive HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. It was found that the most represented osmolytes in the juices, that is, L-proline, stachydrine, and betonicine, can be quantified with minimal sample preparation and short analysis time (about 1 min) also by flow injection analysis (FIA) ESI-MS/MS with the same results as obtained by HPLC ESI-MS/MS. In all of the juices, discrete amounts of choline and trigonelline were present. Conversely, GabaBet was always below detection limits. Notably, N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine, which were discovered for the first time in the juice of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), are also present in all of the citrus juices examined. PMID:21838291

Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Bata-Csere, Andrea; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

2011-08-12

281

Bioflavonoid profile of citrus juices from Greece.  

PubMed

High-performance liquid chromatography with confirmation by UV-visible photodiode array detector-positive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [HPLC-UV-vis-DAD-(+ESI)-MS] with enhanced fragmentation by appropriate adjustment of the cone voltage was used to determine bioflavonoid content of five citrus species (tangerine, sanguine, sour orange, lemon and grapefruit) cultivated in Greece which come from citrus varieties analyzed for the first time. The main groups of bioflavonoids found in the juice of the citrus species according to HPLC retention times, spectral data and literature references were O-glycosylated flavanones and flavones, C-glucosylated flavones, O-glucosylated flavones, O-C-glucosylated flavones like saponarin and a phenolic derivative. PMID:22334498

Anagnostopoulou, Maria A; Kefalas, Panagiotis

2012-02-15

282

Seed transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in periwinkle and dodder resulted in low bacterial titer and very mild disease in periwinkle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canadidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the most widely-distributed of three species of Liberibacter that are associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), a lethal disease of citrus worldwide. In addition to citrus, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) and dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) are two experime...

283

Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene emissions among all Citrus species are dominated by ocimenes, ?-caryophyllene, and linalool, respectively. In addition to utilizing our reported emission factors in BVOC emission models, we recommend that future BVOC emission models consider additional emissions from flowering and harvest, which occur seasonally and may have a significant impact on regional atmospheric chemistry.

Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

2011-09-01

284

77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prohibitions on the movement of the article. Alternatively, if the article is sold in a box or container...citrus greening's vector for short-distance spread. Accordingly...interstate movement of the articles. Finally, we appreciate...

2012-10-01

285

Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing  

SciTech Connect

The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host plants (5,27,40). Tatineni and colleagues discovered that the HLB bacteria were unevenly distributed in phloem of bark tissue, vascular tissue of the leaf midrib, roots, and different floral and fruit parts (43). Unsuccessful attempts in culturing the pathogen are notably hampering efforts to understand its biology and pathogenesis mechanism. Using a modified Koch's Postulates approach, Jagoueix and colleagues were able to re-infect periwinkle plants from a mixed microbial community harvested from HLB diseased plants (25). Emergence of the disease in otherwise healthy plants led to the conclusion that HLB was associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp. based on its 16S rDNA sequence (18,25). Currently, three species of the pathogen are recognized from trees with HLB disease based on 16S rDNA sequence: Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. Liberibacter africanus (Laf), and Ca. Liberibacter americanus (Lam); Las is the most prevalent species among HLB diseased trees (5,12,18,25,44). Las is naturally transmitted to citrus by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can be artificially transmitted by grafting from citrus to citrus and dodder (Cuscuta campestris) to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi) (5). Based on current research regarding the associations of Liberibacter in planta there is not enough evidence to implicate Liberibacter as the definitive causal agent of HLB disease due to its resistance to cultivation in vitro. It is possible that HLB disease may be the result of complex etiology where Liberibacter interacts with other endophytic bacteria. However, there is not enough evidence regarding its association(s) in planta to make this conclusion, nor is it known whether associated microbial communities play a role in expression of pathogenic traits. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that other bacteria besides Ca. Liberibacter spp. are associated with citrus greening disease. The differences between the relative abundance, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial communitie

Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

2009-03-01

286

Efficient production of transgenic citrus plants expressing the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has been introduced into Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swing.) plants by using an improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system. Internodal stem segments from greenhouse-grown seedlings were co-cultivated with\\u000a A. tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying the binary plasmid pBI 121\\/CTV-CP in a medium rich in auxins that provided the explant cells with the

A. Domínguez; J. Guerri; M. Cambra; L. Navarro; P. Moreno; L. Peña

2000-01-01

287

Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures

J. A. del Río; A. Ortuño; D. García Puig; J. L. Iborra; F. Sabater

1991-01-01

288

Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers*  

PubMed Central

Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea. Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.

Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani

2006-01-01

289

Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.  

PubMed

Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and ?-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that ?-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344

Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

2012-03-02

290

40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this...to discharges resulting from the processing of citrus into citrus products. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

2009-07-01

291

40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this...to discharges resulting from the processing of citrus into citrus products. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

2012-07-01

292

40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this...to discharges resulting from the processing of citrus into citrus products. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

2010-07-01

293

7 CFR 457.121 - Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...REGULATIONS § 457.121 Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions. The Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...

2013-01-01

294

7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock. 301.75-17 Section 301...for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, a commercial citrus nursery may be eligible to receive funds to...

2013-01-01

295

Protection from Metabolic Dysregulation, Obesity, and Atherosclerosis by Citrus Flavonoids: Activation of Hepatic PGC1?-Mediated Fatty Acid Oxidation  

PubMed Central

Studies in a multitude of models including cell culture, animal and clinical studies demonstrate that citrus-derived flavonoids have therapeutic potential to attenuate dyslipidemia, correct hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia, and reduce atherosclerosis. Emerging evidence suggests the metabolic regulators, PPAR? and PGC1?, are targets of the citrus flavonoids, and their activation may be at least partially responsible for mediating their metabolic effects. Molecular studies will add significantly to the concept of these flavonoids as viable and promising therapeutic agents to treat the dysregulation of lipid homeostasis, metabolic disease, and its cardiovascular complications.

Mulvihill, Erin E.; Huff, Murray W.

2012-01-01

296

Cacao Diseases: Important Threats to Chocolate Production Worldwide Black Pod: Diverse Pathogens with a Global Impact on Cocoa Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guest, D. 2007. Black pod: Diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytopathology 97:1650-1653. Pathogens of the Straminipile genus Phytophthora cause significant disease losses to global cocoa production. P. megakarya causes signifi- cant pod rot and losses due to canker in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause pod rots in Central and South America. The

David Guest

297

Characterization of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini causing root disease of Pinus patula seedlings in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium subglutinans has been associated with many hosts. Some isolates of the fungus are responsible for pitch canker disease of pines. A South African population of F. subglutinans from pine seedlings was characterized by comparing it to isolates from various hosts, pine and non-pine. A total of 26 isolates representing six dierent hosts were selected for the study. Cultural and

A. Viljoen; W. F. O. Marasas; M. J. Wingfield; C. D. Viljoen

1997-01-01

298

Modelling the effect of an alternative host population on the spread of citrus Huanglongbing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to model the spread of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) considering the presence of a population of alternative hosts (Murraya paniculata). We developed a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delays in the latency and incubation phases of the disease in the plants and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of HLB in Brazil. The results of numerical simulations indicate that alternative hosts should not play a crucial role on HLB dynamics considering a typical scenario for the Recôncavo Baiano region in Brazil . Also, the current policy of removing symptomatic plants every three months should not be expected to significantly hinder HLB spread.

d'A. Vilamiu, Raphael G.; Ternes, Sonia; Laranjeira, Francisco F.; de C. Santos, Tâmara T.

2013-10-01

299

CHILLING INJURY AND POSTHARVEST DECAY IN CITRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hot water treatments have been studied and used as non-chemical methods to reduce postharvest decay and chilling injury (CI) in fresh citrus fruit. While many studies have been performed in Mediterranean climates, there exists relatively little work evaluating the effects of hot water on Florida gra...

300

CITRUS GERMPLASM RESOURCES AND THEIR USES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant germplasm is living material, capable of being propagated, that contains genetic information that is passed down through time. Plant germplasm is the basis for plant agriculture and improvement. Citrus is a fruit crop of major importance in areas with a climate suitable for its growth. It has ...

301

Rheology and composition of processed citrus fiber  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fibrous byproducts are abundant in supply, using them in food products in such a way to not degrade taste or texture can be challenging. Citrus fibers have been shown to have high water holding and viscous properties. However, to better incorporate dried orange pulp into foods, their propert...

302

Worker exposure to ethion in florida citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermal and respiratory exposure to ethion was determined for 17 men in eight spray crews in Florida citrus spray operations. Respiratory exposure was less than 1% of the total exposure. Hands represented 42% of the total body exposure for applicators and 76% for suppliers. At one location, suppliers exhibited a larger decrease in ChE activity than applicators. This difference appeared

G. A. Wojeck; H. N. Nigg; J. H. Stamper; D. E. Bradway

1981-01-01

303

Protection afforded citrus pesticide applicators by coveralls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four airblast applicators of the pesticides dicofol and ethion to Florida citrus were monitored for pesticide exposure with pads placed inside and outside two types of protective coveralls. Hand exposure was not assessed. Pesticide accumulated uniformly over the coveralls' outer surface at a mean rate of 55 ±6 mg\\/hr. The penetration of ethion through a reusable treated twill suit was

H. N. Nigg; J. H. Stamper; E. P. Easter; W. D. Mahon; J. O. DeJonge

1990-01-01

304

Ecology of the Asian citrus pysllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...

305

Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

306

Use of Ozone in the Citrus Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ozone for postharvest sanitation and decay control of fruits, vegetables and their products during handling, processing and storage has been investigated for commercial applications. Due to their significant contribution to world trade and human nutrition, citrus fruits are thought to be important commodities. Decay can be observed in these products because of microbial activity and ethylene accumulation

Hakan Karaca

2010-01-01

307

Advances in nitrogen fertigation of citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Advances in micro irrigation techniques, i.e. drip and under the tree sprinklers, have facilitated greater adoption of fertigation especially for perennial crops including citrus. It is generally believed that fertigation improves nutrient uptake efficiency, and increases the yield as well as crop q...

308

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is present in orange jasmine and Asian citrus psyllid reared from jasmine at low titers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a common horticultural plant in Florida, and an alternate host of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Orange jasmine has also been reported to harbor the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease. We ...

309

The effects of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ infection on the protein expression profiles and nutrient status of Citrus plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus plants causing significant yield loss within 4-6 years of initial infection. The etiology of HLB worldwide is associated with three insect-transmissible phloem-limited members of the bacterial group ‘Candidatus Liberibacter spp’, prevalently ‘Ca...

310

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS SUDDEN DEATH AS A TOOL TO GENERATE HYPOTHESES CONCERNING ITS ETIOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus sudden death (CSD), a new disease of unknown etiology that affects sweet orange grafted on Rangpur lime, was visually monitored for 14 months in 41 groves in Brazil. Ordinary runs analysis of CSD-symptomatic trees indicated a departure from randomness of symptomatic trees status among immedia...

311

Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and sustainability of citrus-producing agro-ecosystems. PMID:21796220

Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

2011-07-28

312

Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and sustainability of citrus-producing agro-ecosystems.

Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

2012-01-01

313

Bud emergence and shoot growth from mature citrus nodal stem segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bud emergence and shoot growth from adult phase citrus nodal cultures were studied using Citrus mitis (calamondin), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). The effects of 6-benzyladenine (BA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and citrus type on shoot quality and growth\\u000a of mature bud explants from greenhouse grown trees were determined using a 2-component mixture-amount × citrus type experiment.\\u000a BA increased

Mizuri Marutani-Hert; Terence J. Evens; Gregory T. McCollum; Randall P. Niedz

2011-01-01

314

Naringenin from Citrus junos Has an Inhibitory Effect on Acetylcholinesterase and a Mitigating Effect on Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to identify safe and more effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The total methanol extract of Citrus junos had a significant inhibitory effect on AChE in vitro. By sequential fractionation of C. junos, the active component was finally identified as naringenin. Naringenin inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner. In this study,

Ho Jin Heo; Mi-Jeong Kim; Jung-Min Lee; Soo Jung Choi; Hong-Yon Cho; Bumshik Hong; Hye-Kyung Kim; Eunki Kim; Dong-Hoon Shin

2004-01-01

315

Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Star's captain used his vessel to ram the cutter after he was ordered to stop and submit to inspection by a boarding team. Citrus was not seriously damaged in the collision. U.S. Coast Guard personnel recovered a large amount of marijuana from the wreckage - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter CITRUS, Coos Bay, Coos County, OR

316

Ethylene association with chloride stress in citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under non-chloride stress conditions, the chloride-sensitive citrus plant rootstock `Troyer' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Rafinesque×Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) accumulated 5-fold more chloride in their leaves [Bar, Y., Apelbaum, A., Kafkafi, U., Goren, R., 1996. Polyamines in chloride-stressed Citrus plants: alleviation of stress by nitrate supplementation via the irrigation water. J. Am. Soc. Horti. Sci., 121: 507–513.] and produced ethylene at

Y Bar; A Apelbaum; U Kafkafi; R Goren

1998-01-01

317

[Effect of ecological factors on citrus fruit quality].  

PubMed

This paper summarized the research advance on the physiological foundation of citrus fruit's major quality factors such as color formation and organic acid and sugar accumulation, and analyzed the effects of main ecological factors such as temperature, sunshine, water, soil, terrain and landforms on them. The existing problems and the research prospects of citrus ecology were expounded, and a useful proposal on the quality sub-distribution of citrus in China was put forward. PMID:15574012

Bao, Jiangfeng; Xia, Renxue; Peng, Shu'ang

2004-08-01

318

Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision. PMID:16813342

Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

2006-06-01

319

Metabolic profiling strategy for discovery of nutritional biomarkers: proline betaine as a marker of citrus consumption123  

PubMed Central

Background: New food biomarkers are needed to objectively evaluate the effect of diet on health and to check adherence to dietary recommendations and healthy eating patterns. Objective: We developed a strategy for food biomarker discovery, which combined nutritional intervention with metabolic phenotyping and biomarker validation in a large-scale epidemiologic study. Design: We administered a standardized diet to 8 individuals and established a putative urinary biomarker of fruit consumption by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic profiling. The origin of the biomarker was confirmed by using targeted NMR spectroscopy of various fruit. Excretion kinetics of the biomarker were measured. The biomarker was validated by using urinary NMR spectra from UK participants of the INTERMAP (International Collaborative Study of Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Blood Pressure) (n = 499) in which citrus consumption was ascertained from four 24-h dietary recalls per person. Finally, dietary patterns of citrus consumers (n = 787) and nonconsumers (n = 1211) were compared. Results: We identified proline betaine as a putative biomarker of citrus consumption. High concentrations were observed only in citrus fruit. Most proline betaine was excreted ?14 h after a first-order excretion profile. Biomarker validation in the epidemiologic data showed a sensitivity of 86.3% for elevated proline betaine excretion in participants who reported citrus consumption and a specificity of 90.6% (P < 0.0001). In comparison with noncitrus consumers, citrus consumers had lower intakes of fats, lower urinary sodium-potassium ratios, and higher intakes of vegetable protein, fiber, and most micronutrients. Conclusion: The biomarker identification and validation strategy has the potential to identify biomarkers for healthier eating patterns associated with a reduced risk of major chronic diseases. The trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01102049 and NCT01102062.

Heinzmann, Silke S; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Bictash, Magda; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Kochhar, Sunil; Stamler, Jeremiah; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul

2010-01-01

320

Sensitive and robust detection of citrus greening (huanglongbing) bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" by DNA amplification with new 16S rDNA-specific primers.  

PubMed

Citrus greening disease is caused by "Candidatus Liberibacter spp.," including "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las)." For detecting this disease, we designed new primers from the Las 16S rDNA and used a very small DNA template for PCR. More Las-infected tissues were detected with our primers than with the common primers. PMID:22728344

Fujikawa, Takashi; Iwanami, Toru

2012-06-21

321

Transcriptional response of susceptible and tolerant citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.  

PubMed

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is the suspected causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in Florida. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus and no resistant cultivars have been identified to date, though tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids. This study compares transcriptional changes in tolerant US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and susceptible 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reticulata) seedlings in response to infection with Las using the Affymetrix GeneChip citrus array, with the main objective of identifying genes associated with tolerance to HLB. Microarray analysis identified 326 genes which were significantly upregulated by at least 4-fold in the susceptible genotype, compared with only 17 genes in US-897. Exclusively upregulated in US-897 was a gene for a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and Fe(II)-dependant oxygenase, an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. More than eight hundred genes were expressed at much higher levels in US-897 independent of infection with Las. Among these, genes for a constitutive disease resistance protein (CDR1) were notable. The possible involvement of these and other detected genes in tolerance to HLB and their possible use for biotechnology are discussed. PMID:22325873

Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

2011-10-01

322

Metabolomic analysis of citrus infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' reveals insight into pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious citrus disease in the world, is associated with the nonculturable bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las). Infection of citrus by this pathogen leads to reduced plant vigor and productivity, ultimately resulting in death of the infected tree. It can take up to two years following initial infection before outward symptoms become apparent, making detection difficult. The existing knowledge gap in our understanding of Las and its pathogenesis leading to HLB has stymied development of treatments and methods to mitigate the pathogen's influence. To evaluate the influence of Las on fruit quality in both symptomatic and asymptomatic fruit, and gain further insight into the pathogenesis of the disease, a 1H NMR metabolomics investigation, complemented with physicochemical and analyte-specific analyses, was undertaken. Comparison of the juice obtained from oranges gathered from Las+ (symptomatic and asymptomatic) and Las- (healthy) trees revealed significant differences in the concentrations of sugars, amino and organic acids, limonin glucoside, and limonin. This study demonstrates differing metabolic profiles in the juice of oranges from Las+ and Las- and proposes how Las may be able to evade citrus defense responses. PMID:22698301

Slisz, Anne M; Breksa, Andrew P; Mishchuk, Darya O; McCollum, Greg; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2012-07-02

323

Molecular characterization of Wolbachia strains associated with the invasive Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri in Brazil.  

PubMed

Wolbachia is a symbiont intensively studied due to its ability to interfere with their host's reproduction, and it has been recently proposed as an alternative tool to control insect pests or vectors of diseases. The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is an important pest of citrus since it vectors the bacterium that causes the "Huanglongbing" disease in citrus. The frequency and diversity of Wolbachia associated with D. citri is unknown, limiting the utilization of Wolbachia as an alternative strategy for insect management. Thus, we aimed to determine the natural rate of infection, to characterize the Wolbachia strains associated with this psyllid by "multilocus sequencing typing" (MLST) and wsp analysis, and to verify the association of the symbiont to particular genotypes of the host. Analysis indicated Wolbachia infects 100 % of all specimens tested from all 15 sampled populations. MLST revealed the occurrence of five new sequence types (STs) of Wolbachia, while analysis based on the wsp sequences indicated only four different types of Wolbachia. ST-173 was predominant, while the remaining STs were population specific. Analysis of the host-symbiont relationship did not reveal any particular association of Wolbachia and haplotypes or a decrease in nucleotide diversity of D. citri in populations in which more than one ST was recorded. The consequences of the diversity of STs reported are still unknown, but the fact that Wolbachia infection is fixed and that there is one ST with a broad distribution highlights the use of this symbiont as an alternative strategy to control D. citri. PMID:23269454

Guidolin, A S; Cônsoli, F L

2012-12-28

324

Nitrogen best management practice for citrus trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) in the surficial aquifer above the drinking water quality standard, i.e. maximum contaminant limit (MCL; 10mgL?1), have been reported in some part of central Florida citrus production regions. Soils in this region are very sandy (sand content >95%), hence are vulnerable to leaching of soluble nutrients and chemicals below the rooting depth of the trees.

A. K. Alva; S. Paramasivam; T. A. Obreza; A. W. Schumann

2006-01-01

325

Review Adverse Effects of Salinity on Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture, efficient use of the limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is becoming more and more vital. However, water salinity is a major problem due to its negative influence on the yields of many crops. It reduces citrus trees' growth and causes physiological disorders. Salt-stress lowers net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance,

ADNAN AL-YASSIN

326

A graft-based chemotherapy method for screening effective molecules and rescuing huanglongbing-affected citrus plants.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating disease of citrus. The global citrus industry is in urgent need of effective chemical treatments for HLB control because of its rapid spreading worldwide. Due to the fastidious nature of the pathogens, and the poor permissibility of citrus leaf surfaces, effective screening of chemicals for the HLB control can be challenging. In this study, we developed a graft-based chemotherapy method to rapidly screen potential HLB-controlling chemical compounds. In addition, we improved transmission efficiency by using the best HLB-affected scion-rootstock combination, and demonstrated the HLB bacterial titer was the critical factor in transmission. The HLB-affected lemon scions had a high titer of HLB bacterium, survival rate (83.3%), and pathogen transmission rate (59.9%). Trifoliate, a widely used commercial rootstock, had the highest survival rate (>70.0%) compared with grapefruit (52.6%) and sour orange (50.4%). Using this method, we confirmed a mixture of penicillin and streptomycin was the most effective compounds in eliminating the HLB bacterium from the HLB-affected scions, and in successfully rescuing severely HLB-affected citrus germplasms. These findings are useful not only for chemical treatments but also for graft-based transmission studies in HLB and other Liberibacter diseases. PMID:22568814

Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A; Guo, Ying; Doud, Melissa S; Duan, Yongping

2012-06-01

327

Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had

G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun

328

World Fresh Citrus Fruit Production and Trade Statistics, Jungle 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world's fresh citrus trade volume has doubled over the past two decades. Most of this expansion occurred during the 1960's, a period in which exports of all citrus types increased sharply. In the 1970's, the annual rate of growth slowed as a result of...

1984-01-01

329

Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Citrus Varieties Collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to detect molecular polymorphisms among 370 Citrus accessions from the Citrus Variety Collection located at The University of California, Riverside. The number of alleles detected per locus ranged from three to thirty. A total of 298 alle...

330

DIVERSITY AND PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE CITRUS VARIETY COLLECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-five Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were used to detect molecular polymorphisms among 370 Citrus accessions from the Citrus Variety Collection located at the University of California, Riverside. The number of alleles detected per locus ranged from three to thirty. A total of 298 alleles...

331

The David Rosen lecture: biological control in citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

David Rosen was a scientist, professor, administrator, philosopher, organizer, family man, and friend to many. He made numerous and remarkable contributions to biological control in citrus. Much of his research was on the biosystematics of Aphytis parasitoids, but he also held strong convictions about the importance of biological control in citrus integrated pest management (IPM), and carried out research on

Marjorie A Hoy

2000-01-01

332

New enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation of citrus waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The expense involved to dry citrus processing waste into citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as a cattle feed continues to increase with rising fuel costs. While there have also been recent increases in the value of CPP, this value fluctuates considerably and does not always cover processing costs. Th...

333

EVALUATION OF WASTE CITRUS ACTIVATED SLUDGE IN POULTRY FEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted on chick broilers and hens to determine the metabolizable energy of citrus sludge. A determination of metabolizable energy values showed that the values decreased as the level of citrus sludge in the diet increased. A series of protein levels were fed t...

334

Induction of triploid Citrus plants from endosperm calli in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid hybrid Citrus plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis in vitro from endosperm derived calli. A sequence of media formulations was used to induce and support proliferation of primary callus from endosperm, to induce embryogenesis from primary callus, and to allow embryo development leading to viable plantlets. Calli were induced from cellular endosperm of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange), C. Xparadisi

F. G. Gmitter; X. B. Ling; X. X. Deng

1990-01-01

335

Characterization of Constituents in the Peel of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachibankan).  

PubMed

Fifteen constituents, including a new compound, were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the peel of Citrus kawachiensis Hort. ex. Y. Tanaka (Japanese brand name, kawachibankan) which is one of the citrus products specific to Ehime, Japan. The new compound was characterized as 4'-dihydrophaseic acid ?-glucopyranose ester (15) on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:24018684

Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Ouchi, Kazusa; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Takashi

2013-09-07

336

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

337

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS TO CLEAN CITRUS FRUIT SURFACES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A move away from harsh chemicals towards more natural or organic postharvest treatments for citrus has prompted interest in alternate sanitizers for cleaning citrus in packinghouses. In this study we compare the efficiency of sanitizing methods on oranges. The oranges were collected from the field...

338

Inhibition of Spoiling Yeasts of Fruit Juices through Citrus Extracts.  

PubMed

This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

2013-10-01

339

A model for Huanglongbing spread between citrus plants including delay times and human intervention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to present a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delay in the disease's incubation phase in the plants, and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the most important HLB insect vector in Brazil. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the possible impacts of human detection efficiency of symptomatic plants, as well as the influence of a long incubation period of HLB in the plant.

Vilamiu, Raphael G. d'A.; Ternes, Sonia; Braga, Guilherme A.; Laranjeira, Francisco F.

2012-09-01

340

Essential Oils from Citrus latifolia and Citrus reticulata Reduce Anxiety and Prolong Ether Sleeping Time in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EO) from Citrus reticulata and Citrus latifolia were submitted to classical experimental procedures, such as light-dark box and marble-burying tests with male Swiss mice, to evaluate anxiolytic activity. Sedative activity was also investigated with EO from C. aurantium using the sleeping time induced by ether inhalation. EOs were administered 30 min before the experiments in doses ranging from

André Costa Gargano

2008-01-01

341

Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of citrus auraptene.  

PubMed

Abstract Auraptene is the most abundant naturally occurring geranyloxycoumarin. It is primarily isolated from plants in the Rutaceae family, many of which, like citrus fruits, are used as food in many countries. Auraptene is a biologically active secondary metabolite with valuable properties. The aim of our study was to identify novel properties of auraptene with potential for managing periodontal diseases, an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin affecting the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. In vitro assays showed that auraptene decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 as well as key inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5 secreted by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells. Using gingival fibroblasts, auraptene showed a significant (P<.05) wound healing effect by its capacity to increase cell migration. In conclusion, auraptene shows promise for promoting wound healing and controlling periodontal diseases through its capacity to interfere with inflammatory mediator secretion. PMID:24070132

La, Vu Dang; Zhao, Lei; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Grenier, Daniel

2013-09-26

342

Antennal response of the Asian citrus psyllid to citrus volatiles and their degradation product  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asian citrus psyllid antennae reacted strongly when stimulated with citral and ocimene stimulus tubes that had been aged for 3-5 days. When 20 µl of neat ocimene or citral were aged on filter paper strips in sealed Pasteur pipette stimulus tubes for 6 days on the laboratory bench, voltage changes we...

343

Cultivar identification of ‘Yuzu’ ( Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) and related acid citrus by leaf isozymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf extracts of 27 ‘Yuzu’ and related acid citrus cultivars were analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for isozyme variation of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH). SDH yielded 12 different isozyme phenotypes and six cultivars were discriminated by this enzyme alone. GOT produced 10 different isozyme phenotypes and four cultivars were separated. When both enzyme systems were taken

Mohammad Mizanur Rahman; Nobumasa Nito; Shiro Isshiki

2001-01-01

344

Heat treatment eliminates 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' from infected citrus trees under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The three known causal agents of HLB are species of ?-proteobacteria: 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. L. africanus', and 'Ca. L. americanus'. Previous studies have found distinct variations in temperature sensitivity and tolerance among these species. Here, we describe the use of controlled heat treatments to cure HLB caused by 'Ca. L. asiaticus', the most prevalent and heat-tolerant species. Using temperature-controlled growth chambers, we evaluated the time duration and temperature required to suppress or eliminate the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium in citrus, using various temperature treatments for time periods ranging from 2 days to 4 months. Results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after treatment illustrate significant decreases in the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterial titer, combined with healthy vigorous growth by all surviving trees. Repeated qPCR testing confirmed that previously infected, heat-treated plants showed no detectable levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus', while untreated control plants remained highly infected. Continuous thermal exposure to 40 to 42°C for a minimum of 48 h was sufficient to significantly reduce titer or eliminate 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacteria entirely in HLB-affected citrus seedlings. This method may be useful for the control of 'Ca. Liberibacter'-infected plants in nursery and greenhouse settings. PMID:23035631

Hoffman, Michele T; Doud, Melissa S; Williams, Lisa; Zhang, Mu-Qing; Ding, Fang; Stover, Ed; Hall, David; Zhang, Shouan; Jones, Lisa; Gooch, Mark; Fleites, Laura; Dixon, Wayne; Gabriel, Dean; Duan, Yong-Ping

2013-01-01

345

Immunodiagnosis of Citrus leprosis virus C using a polyclonal antibody to an expressed putative coat protein.  

PubMed

Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent for citrus leprosis disease, is present in South and Central America and is a threat for introduction into the U.S. citrus industry. A specific, inexpensive and reliable antibody based detection system is needed for the rapid identification of CiLV-C. The CiLV-C is very labile and has not been purified in sufficient amount for antibody production. The p29 gene of CiLV-C genome that codes for the putative coat protein (PCP) was codon optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and synthesized in vitro. The optimized gene was sub-cloned into the bacterial expression vector pDEST17 and transferred into E. coli BL21AI competent cells. The expression of PCP containing N-terminal His-tag was optimized by induction with l-arabinose. Induced cells were disrupted by sonication and expressed PCP was purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA agarose. The purified expressed PCP was then used as an immunogen for injections into rabbits to produce polyclonal antibody (PAb). The PAb specific to the expressed PCP was identified using Western blotting. The antibody was successfully used to detect CiLV-C in the symptomatic CiLV-C infected tissues using double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent (DAS-ELISA), indirect ELISA and dot-blot immunoassay (DBIA) formats. PMID:23911294

Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Guillermo, Leon M; Picton, D D; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

2013-07-30

346

On-farm selection for quality and resistance to pest\\/diseases of cocoa in Sulawesi: (ii) quality and performance of selections against Phytophthora pod rot and vascular-streak dieback  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cocoa industry in Sulawesi, the main region of cocoa production in Indonesia, is threatened by destructive diseases, including vascular-streak dieback (VSD) caused by the basidiomycete Oncobasidium theobromae and stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod, caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Using the considerable genetic diversity of cocoa on farms, host resistance was identified and tested with the

Peter McMahon; Agus Purwantara; Agung W. Susilo; Sri Sukamto; Abdul Wahab; Hussin bin Purung; Muhammad Hidayat; Darna Ismail; Tap Taproni; Smilja Lambert; David Guest; Philip Keane

2010-01-01

347

Identification and characterization of citrus yellow vein clearing virus, a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus.  

PubMed

Molecular features and genomic organization were determined for Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), the putative viral causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease of lemon trees, reported in Pakistan, India, and more recently in Turkey and China. CYVCV isolate Y1 from Adana, Turkey, was used for deep sequencing analysis of the virus-induced small RNA fractions and for mechanical and graft inoculation of herbaceous and citrus indicator plants. A polyclonal antiserum was developed from CYVCV-Y1 purified from Phaseolus vulgaris and used in western blot assays to characterize the coat protein of CYVCV-Y1 and determine its serological relationship with related viruses. Contigs assembled from the Illumina sequenced short reads were used to construct the whole genome of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), consisting in a positive-sense RNA of 7,529 nucleotides and containing six predicted open reading frames. The CYVCV genome organization and size resembled that of flexiviruses, and search for sequence homologies revealed that Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) (Mandarivirus, Alphaflexiviridae) is the most closely related virus. However, CYVCV had an overall nucleotide sequence identity of ?74% with ICRSV. Although the two viruses were similar with regard to genome organization, viral particles, and herbaceous host range, CYVCV caused different symptoms in citrus and was serologically distinct from ICRSV. Primer pairs were designed and used to detect the virus by conventional and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on yellow vein clearing symptomatic field trees as well as graft- and mechanically inoculated host plants. Collectively, these data suggest that CYVCV is the causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease and represents a new species in the genus Mandarivirus. PMID:22913410

Loconsole, G; Onelge, N; Potere, O; Giampetruzzi, A; Bozan, O; Satar, S; De Stradis, A; Savino, V; Yokomi, R K; Saponari, M

2012-12-01

348

[Population fluctuation of sharpshooters vectors of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. in commercial citrus groves in northwestern Paraná State].  

PubMed

The citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), an important disease of citrus in Brazil, is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. and transmitted by xylem-feeding sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). This study evaluated the fluctuation of populations of species of sharpshooters belonging to the tribes Cicadellini and Proconiini, from subfamily Cicadelinae, in a commercial sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] grove, located in the Northwest Region of Paraná State, Brazil, in four varieties: Valência, Natal, Pêra, and Folha Murcha. Sharpshooters population was monitored using yellow stick traps sampled at 15 day-intervals, in 24 traps, from November of 1999 to March of 2004. The most abundant species were Dilobopterus costalimai Young (tribe Cicadellini) and Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli (tribe Proconiini). Both species were detected during the complete period studied, which is important because they have great potential for transmitting CVC. Thus, since more than a sharpshooter species were detected, more efforts are recommended to monitor and control these insects in citrus groves, aiming to reduce the dissemination of CVC. PMID:17607459

Nunes, William M C; Molina, Rúbia de O; de Albuquerque, Fernando A; Corazza-Nunes, Maria J; Zanutto, Carlos A; Machado, Marcos A

349

7 CFR 301.75-2 - General prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...interstate into any commercial citrus-producing area, except as...be moved through a commercial citrus-producing area if they...

2013-01-01

350

Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.  

PubMed

Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications. PMID:11204182

Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

351

Improved Resistance Management for Durable Disease Control: A Case Study of Phoma Stem Canker of Oilseed Rape ( Brassica napus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific resistance loci in plants are generally very efficient in controlling development of pathogen populations. However,\\u000a because of the strong selection pressure exerted, these resistances are often not durable. The probability of a resistance\\u000a breakdown in a pathosystem depends on the evolutionary potential of the pathogen which is affected by: (i) the type of resistance\\u000a (monogenic and\\/or polygenic), (ii) the

J. N. Aubertot; J. S. West; L. Bousset-Vaslin; M. U. Salam; M. J. Barbetti; A. J. Diggle

2006-01-01

352

Transcriptional and Microscopic Analyses of Citrus Stem and Root Responses to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection.

Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian

2013-01-01

353

Transcriptional and Microscopic Analyses of Citrus Stem and Root Responses to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. PMID:24058486

Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian

2013-09-13

354

The evolution of CMA bands in Citrus and related genera.  

PubMed

Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n = 18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA(+) bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S rDNA and the main satellite DNA isolated from C. sinensis (CsSat) were investigated by in situ hybridization in seven species of Citrus, two species of closely related genera (Fortunella obovata and Poncirus trifoliata) and four species of the subfamily Aurantioideae, which were less related to Citrus (Atalantia monophylla, Murraya paniculata, Severinia buxifolia, and Triphasia trifolia). In Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, most CMA(+) bands colocalized only with CsSat sites, whereas others colocalized only with rDNA sites. However, some of these species displayed a few CMA(+) bands that colocalized with sites of both probes and other CMA(+) bands that did not colocalized with any of the probes. On the other hand, in the four species less related to Citrus, no CsSat signal was found on chromosomes. On Southern blot, the CsSat probe hybridized with genomic DNA from Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus at high stringency only, while under the less stringent conditions, it also hybridized with distantly related species. Therefore, CsSat sequences are the principal component of the heterochromatic blocks of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella, whereas CsSat-like sequences seem to be widespread in the subfamily Aurantioideae. These data further suggest that the variable number of terminal CMA(+) bands observed on chromosomes of Citrus and related genera are probably the consequence of amplification or reduction in the number of CsSat-like sequences distributed on chromosome termini, paralleled by mutation and homogenization events, as proposed by the library hypothesis. PMID:20490650

e Silva, Ana Emília Barros; Marques, André; dos Santos, Karla G B; Guerra, Marcelo

2010-05-21

355

Study on Citrus Response to Huanglongbing Highlights a Down-Regulation of Defense-Related Proteins in Lemon Plants Upon 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' Infection  

PubMed Central

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citruslimon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants. Furthermore, there was a 6% increase (P > 0.05) in K concentration in leaves of lemon plants upon Las infection, which support results from previous studies and might represent a common response pattern of citrus plants to Las infection. Interestingly, contrary to reports from prior studies, this study showed a general reduction in the production of defense-related pathogen-response proteins but a 128% increase in Zn concentration in lemon plants in response to Las infection. Taken together, this study sheds light on general and intra-species specific responses associated with the response of citrus plants to Las.

Nwugo, Chika C.; Duan, Yongping; Lin, Hong

2013-01-01

356

Inhibition of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by a polymethoxyflavone from young fruits of Citrus unshiu in rat primary astrocytes.  

PubMed

Abnormal activation of astrocytes (e.g., the overproduction of cytokines and nitric oxide) is relevant to neurodegenerative disease. It is important, therefore, to search for inhibitors of the abnormal activation of astrocytes that can be derived from natural substances. This study focused on the effects of extracts from young fruits of Citrus unshiu on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat primary astrocytes. The methanol extract of young citrus inhibited NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. After reverse-phase extraction of the extract, we found that polymethoxyflavone, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, and tangeletin inhibited NO production by primary astrocytes. These polymethoxyflavones also inhibited LPS-induced iNOS protein and mRNA expression by suppressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. To evaluate possible applications of these neuroprotective agents in vivo, we examined the effects of young citrus fruit on delayed neurodegeneration in hippocampal CA1 neurons of the Mongolian gerbil after global ischemia. Oral administration of young citrus fruit significantly suppressed delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 neurons. This suggests a possible application of young citrus fruit as a neuroprotective agent. PMID:23047093

Ihara, Hideshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Ida, Tomoaki; Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Okada, Toshiya; Kozaki, Shunji

2012-10-07

357

Polymerase chain reaction detection of greening bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) and Citrus mosaic virus in citrus tissues, by means of a simplified template-preparation protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of a simplified protocol for nucleic acid preparation for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of greening bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus; Cla) and Citrus mosaic virus (CMBV) associated with citrus is described. Crude extracts of citrus tissues in NaOH - ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, prepared without the use of liquid nitrogen, were spotted on a nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) and then eluted

V. K. Baranwal; K. N. Gupta; R. P. Singh

2007-01-01

358

Effects of the fungus Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) on reduced feeding and mortality of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea Wize, reduced feeding of psyllids upon infection. Psyllids transmit the plant-infecting bacterium which causes Huanglongbing, in citrus trees, thus disruption of psyllid feeding may provide an added measure of control to reduce disease spread. The effe...

359

A concept model to estimate the potential distribution of the Asiatic citrus psyllid ( Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) in Australia under climate change—A means for assessing biosecurity risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing global temperatures as a result of climate change are widely considered inevitable for Australia. Despite this, the specific effects of climate change on Australian agriculture are little studied and the effects on agricultural pests and diseases are virtually unknown. In this paper we consider the impact of climate change on the Asiatic citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama [Hemiptera: Psyllidae]);

J. P. Aurambout; K. J. Finlay; J. Luck; G. A. C. Beattie

2009-01-01

360

?????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? (Penicillium digitatum) ???????????????????????? Selection and Enhancement of Antagonistic Yeasts for Controlling Green Mold (Penicillium digitatum) of Citrus Fruit cv. Sai-Numphaung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four yeasts isolates were evaluated for their antagonistic properties in controlling green mold on citrus fruit by applying both Penicillium digitatum and yeasts at difference times and incubated at 25 oC for 7 days. Application of yeast suspensions prior 12 and 24 hr to pathogen inoculation showed the lowest diseases incidence (0%) as compared with simultaneous application of yeasts and

Suangsan Niamjang; Somsiri Sangchote

361

[Historical and pharmalogical study of Citrus hassaku.].  

PubMed

The original plant of Citrus hassaku Hort. Tanaka was found at the Jyoudo Temple in Inno-shima, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan by Ekei Shounin in the Edo Era. Citrus hassaku has been called "jagada" when it was first discovered. Since this fruit was seasoned for eating around "hassaku" (August 1st of the lunar calendar), it was given the scientific name as "C. hassaku." Today, the fresh raw fruits of C. Hassaku are cultivated as a seasonal food, and the most famous producing district of C. hassaku fruit is Wakayama Prefecture, representing about 60% of the Japanese output. The immature fruits of C. hassaku and its three main flavanone glycosides (naringin, neohesperidin and narirutin) was found to shown inhibitory activities on a compound 48/80 induced histamine released from mast cells, and anti-allergic effects on dinitrofluorobenzen (DNFB)-induced triphasic skin reactions in mice. The contents of the three flavanone glycosides in the immature fruits were higher than those in mature fruits. The application of extracts from the immature fruits of C. hassaku to skin care for patients with atopitic dermatitis has resulted in improving effects for 76% of the patients. Similar efficacy was obtained for patients pollinosis. PMID:16217907

Kubo, Minchinori; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Harima, Shouichi

2005-01-01

362

Nucleotide sequence of a hop stunt viroid variant isolated from citrus growing in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The 303 nucleotide sequence of HSVd-citrus(T), a hop stunt viroid (HSVd) variant present in Etrog citron growing in Taiwan, was determined from cDNAs amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. HSVd-citrus(T) is very similar to several HSVd isolates previously recovered from citrus or cucumber, and exhibits microsequence heterogeneity at positions 154 and 181. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony grouped HSVd-citrus(T) with seven other isolates from citrus and cucumber in a large cluster of "citrus-type" isolates. A similar analysis revealed marked differences in both the extent and distribution of sequence variation among naturally occurring isolates of potato spindle tuber viroid. PMID:7732666

Hsu, Y H; Chen, W; Owens, R A

1995-01-01

363

Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Improvement ofCitrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term\\u000a nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial\\u000a traits inCitrusare improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA

Javier Terol; Ana Conesa; Jose M Colmenero; Manuel Cercos; Francisco Tadeo; Javier Agustí; Enriqueta Alós; Fernando Andres; Guillermo Soler; Javier Brumos; Domingo J Iglesias; Stefan Götz; Francisco Legaz; Xavier Argout; Brigitte Courtois; Patrick Ollitrault; Carole Dossat; Patrick Wincker; Raphael Morillon; Manuel Talon

2007-01-01

364

Waste Citrus Activated Sludge as a Poultry Feed Ingredient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an evaluation of the potential of using waste activated sludge as a poultry feed supplement. The sludge used in this study was obtained from an activated sludge process treating concentrated citrus waste containing no sanitary wastewat...

R. H. Jones J. T. White B. L. Damron

1975-01-01

365

9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

366

Citrus residues isolates improve astaxanthin production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.  

PubMed

The wild strain and two astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strains, W618 and GNG274, of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were analyzed in order to assess their ability to grow and synthesize astaxanthin in a minimal medium containing (per liter): 2 g KH2PO4, 0.5 g MgSO4, 2 g KNO3, and 1 g yeast extract, and supplemented with citrus residues isolates as a carbon source (citrus medium). The selected strain W618 was evaluated under various contents of citrus juice. At the content of 20% (v/v), the highest astaxanthin production reached 22.63 mg L(-1), which was two-fold more than that observed in yeast malt medium. Addition of 8% (v/v) n-hexadecane to the citrus medium was found to be optimal, increasing the astaxanthin yield by 21.7%. PMID:21138061

Wu, Wei; Lu, Mingbo; Yu, Longjiang

367

FDA Technical Scientific Workshop On How Citrus Juice Firms ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... RELEVANT AT THIS TIME TO STRESS THAT CITRUS ... T BUY IT FROM THE FIELD, IS THAT ... help accessing information in different file formats, see ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/haccp

368

Worker Reentry in Florida Citrus Pesticides in the Agricultural Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The environmental behavior of five organophospate insecticides in Florida citrus are reported. Parathion disappearance rate from fruit, leaf, and soil surfaces was the same. Potential worker exposure to parathion was leaf surface, soil surface, fruit surf...

H. N. Nigg

1980-01-01

369

Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

370

Comparative anaylsis of Asian citrus psyllid and potato psyllid antennae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and the potato/tomato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the antennal sensory arrays being...

371

Molecular and structural evolution of Citrus satellite DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly repeated satellite DNA (stDNA) of citric plants was characterized by cloning and sequencing 10–14 repeats of each plant\\u000a (Citrus limon, C. sinensis, C. ichangensis, Poncirus trifoliata). The monomers are mostly 181 bp in length with a GC-content between 60% and 68% (significantly higher than the average GC-content\\u000a of the citrus group genomes). Similarity among the repeats indicates that they

J.-Y. Fann; A. Kovarik; V. Hemleben; N. I. Tsirekidze; T. G. Beridze

2001-01-01

372

The evolution of CMA bands in Citrus and related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n?=?18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A3 (CMA+ bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in\\u000a several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S

Ana Emília Barros e Silva; André Marques; Karla G. B. dos Santos; Marcelo Guerra

2010-01-01

373

Characterization and regulation of ammonium transport systems in Citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated both the kinetics and regulation of 15NH4+ influx in roots of 3-month-old hydroponically grown Citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck 2 Poncirus trifoliata Blanco) seedlings. The 15NH4+ influx is saturable below an external ammonium concentration of 1 mM, indicating the action of a high-affinity transport system (HATS). The HATS is under feedback repression by the N status of

M. Cerezo; P. Tillard; A. Gojon; E. Primo-Millo; P. García-Agustín

2001-01-01

374

Zinc Nutrition, a Global Concern for Sustainable Citrus Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-optimum nutrition of zinc is globally one of the prime concerns of targeting sustainability in citrus production. Metabolically, Zn-deficiency induces many morphological, cytological and anatomical changes that lead to low flowering intensity and fruit set in addition to affecting the quality of citrus produced on sustained basis. Global occurrence of Zn-deficiency known by various names like rosette, little leaf, frenching,

A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh

2005-01-01

375

Does ethylene degreening affect internal quality of citrus fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus fruit are non-climacteric. However, exposure to exogenous ethylene, e.g., during ethylene degreening, stimulates various ripening-related processes in the peel tissue, such as destruction of the green chlorophyll pigments and accumulation of orange\\/yellow carotenoids. Nonetheless, it is not yet known whether exogenous ethylene affects internal ripening processes in citrus flesh. To address this question, we examined the possible effects of

Lina Mayuoni; Zipora Tietel; Bhimanagouda S. Patil; Ron Porat

2011-01-01

376

Lipolytic effects of citrus peel oils and their components.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the lipolytic effects of eight kinds of citrus peel oils and their components. All of the citrus peel oils revealed lipolytic effects on olive oil model solution ranging from 10.9 to 73.8%. Hakyul (Citrus natsudaidai Hayata) showed the highest lipolytic effect (73.8%), followed by yuza (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka, 68.1%) and lemon (Citrus limonium, 63.4%), and their effects were comparable with or stronger than that of 5 mM raspberry ketone (p < 0.05). Among 17 authentic compounds relating to citrus peel oils, octanal (78.6%) showed the highest lipolytic effect, followed by gamma-terpinene (76.3%), limonene (75%), terpinen-4-ol (70.7%), nerol (69.9%), p-cymene (67.7%), and geranyl acetate (67.2%), and their effects were stronger than that of 5 mM raspberry ketone (p < 0.05). Ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene, myrcene, citronellal, linallyl acetate, and citronellol exhibited poor lipolytic effect in the model solution. Lipolytic effect was found to be high when the oils included a higher content of gamma-terpinene and p-cymene. Limonene showed potential lipolytic effect, and its effect is likely to be enhanced by the presence of gamma-terpinene and p-cymene. It is considered that monoterpene hydrocarbons consisting of one or two double bonds would have stronger lipolytic effect than those having three double bonds. PMID:16637681

Choi, Hyang-Sook

2006-05-01

377

Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffe...

A. Raga

1996-01-01

378

Characterization of the microbial community structure in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics in the field  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is a worldwide devastating disease of citrus. There are no effective control measures for this newly emerging but century-old disease. Previously, we reported a combination of Penicillin G and Streptomycin was effective in eliminating or suppressing the associated bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). Results Here we report the bacterial composition and community structure in HLB-affected citrus plants during a growing season and while being treated with antibiotic combinations PS (Penicillin G and Streptomycin) and KO (Kasugamycin and Oxytetracycline) using the Phylochip™ G3 array. Both antibiotic treatments resulted in significantly lower Las bacterial titers (Pr<0.05) and hybridization scores. Of the 50,000+ available operational taxonomic units (OTUs) on PhyloChip™ G3, 7,028 known OTUs were present in citrus leaf midribs. These OTUs were from 58 phyla, of which five contained 100 or more OTUs, Proteobacteria (44.1%), Firmicutes (23.5%), Actinobacteria (12.4%), Bacteroidetes (6.6%) and Cyanobacteria (3.2%). In the antibiotic treated samples, the number of OTUs decreased to a total of 5,599. The over-all bacterial diversity decreased with the antibiotic treatments, as did the abundance of 11 OTUs within Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. Within the Proteobacteria, ten OTUs representing the class ?-proteobacteria increased in abundance after four months of treatment, when the Las bacterium was at its lowest level in the HLB-affected citrus field plants. Conclusions Our data revealed that Proteobacteria was constantly the dominant bacterial phylum recovered from citrus leaf midribs, with the ?-proteobacterial and the ?-proteobacterial classes vying for prevalence. In addition, the level of bacterial diversity found in the leaf midribs of field citrus was greater than previously described. Bacterial cells in close proximity may be able to modify their microenvironment, making the composition of the microbial community an important factor in the ability of Las to cause HLB progression. A low Las level was seen as an annual fluctuation, part of the bacterial population dynamics, and as a response to the antibiotic treatments.

2013-01-01

379

Naringin Levels in Citrus Tissues 1  

PubMed Central

The preparation of a tritiated radiotracer that was used in the radioimmunoassay of naringin (naringenin-7-O-?-rhamnosyl- (1-2)-?-d-glucopyranoside) and which was synthesized by reduction of the carbonyl group of the flavanone is reported. The resulting assay has a detection limit of 0.5 picomole per 0.1 milliliter, is specific for the 7-neohesperidoside substitution on flavanones, and can measure naringin in crude extracts of plant tissues. This radioimmunoassay is compared with three other naringin immunoassays which use antibodies raised against two different haptens and different tracers labeled with 125I or 3H. The applicability of the methods to the quantification of naringin and other flavanone neohesperidosides in citrus tissue is discussed.

Jourdan, Pablo S.; Weiler, Elmar W.; Mansell, Richard L.

1985-01-01

380

Inhibition of oral carcinogenesis by citrus flavonoids.  

PubMed

Six citrus flavonoids were tested for antineoplastic activity. The hamster cheek pouch model was utilized, and the solutions of the flavonoids (2.0-2.5%) and the solution of the carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (0.5%), were applied topically to the pouches. The pouches of the positive controls were treated with the solvent used to dissolve the flavonoids and the solution of the carcinogen. The data show that 4 flavonoids (hesperetin, neohesperidin, tangeretin, and nobiletin) were inactive. The results with naringin and naringenin show that both of these flavonoids significantly lowered tumor number [5.00 (control group), 2.53 (naringin group), and 3.25 (naringenin group)]. Naringin also significantly reduced tumor burden [269 mm(3)(control group) and 77.1 mm(3)(naringin group)]. The data suggest that naringin and naringenin, 2 flavonoids found in high concentrations in grapefruit, may be able to inhibit the development of cancer. PMID:18444138

Miller, Edward G; Peacock, Jason J; Bourland, T Campbell; Taylor, Samuel E; Wright, John M; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Miller, Edward G

2008-01-01

381

Naringin Levels in Citrus Tissues 1  

PubMed Central

The quantitative distribution of the flavanone-7-neohesperidoside, naringin, in seeds, seedlings, young plants, branches, flowers, and fruit of Citrus paradisi Macfad., cv `Duncan' was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. High levels of naringin were associated with very young tissue and lower levels were found in older tissues. Seed coats of ungerminated seeds and young shoots had high naringin concentrations whereas cotyledons and roots had very low concentrations. Light-grown seedlings contained nearly twice as much naringin as etiolated seedlings and, in young plants and branches, the naringin content was highest in developing leaves and stem tissue. In flowers, the ovary had the highest levels of naringin, accounting for nearly 11% of the fresh weight. There was a net increase in the total naringin content of fruits during growth. However, due to the large increase in fruit size, there was a concomitant decrease in the naringin concentration as the fruit matured.

Jourdan, Pablo S.; McIntosh, Cecilia A.; Mansell, Richard L.

1985-01-01

382

Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.  

PubMed

Fresh juice from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) has been studied to evaluate the polyphenolic composition by HPLC-DAD analysis and total polyphenols content by UV method. The main constituent, Naringin, has been selected as analytical and biological marker of the juice. Juice has been loaded onto maltodextrin matrix by spray-drying. The produced maltodextrin/juice powder (BMP) showed neither significant change in total polyphenols content nor decrease in antioxidant properties with respect to fresh juice. Moreover, BMP displayed high in vitro dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in water and in simulated biological fluids. BMP appears as promising functional raw material for food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. With this aim, a formulation study to develop tablets (BMT) for oral administration has been also performed. The produced solid oral dosage form preserved high polyphenols content, showed complete disaggregation in few minutes and satisfying dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in simulated biological fluids. PMID:21834231

Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Mencherini, Teresa; Prota, Lucia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca; Lauro, Maria Rosaria

2011-07-01

383

China, Peoples Republic of: Citrus. Annual, 2008. GAIN Report Number CH8110.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chinas MY 2008 citrus production is forecast at 21 MMT, up 10 percent from the revised MY 2007 figure, the result of favorable weather conditions throughout the major citrus producing areas during the crop development period. Orange production is forecast...

C. Beckman S. Peavey W. Bugang W. Tong

2008-01-01

384

Energy Conservation in Citrus Processing. Technical Progress Report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pec...

1980-01-01

385

HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT AND ABSORPTION OF CITRUS POLYMETHOXYLATED FLAVONES IN HAMSTERS WITH DIET-INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Formulations containing citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), mainly tangeretin, or citrus flavanone glucosides, hesperidin and naringin, were evaluated for cholesterol-lowering potential in hamsters with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. PMF metabolites were also investigated. Diets containin...

386

Convenient Detection of the Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing) Bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Direct PCR from the Midrib Extract  

PubMed Central

A phloem-limited bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a major pathogen of citrus greening (huanglongbing), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. The rapid identification and culling of infected trees and budwoods in quarantine are the most important control measures. DNA amplification including conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has commonly been used for rapid detection and identification. However, long and laborious procedures for DNA extraction have greatly reduced the applicability of this method. In this study, we found that the Las bacterial cells in the midribs of infected leaves were extracted rapidly and easily by pulverization and centrifugation with mini homogenization tubes. We also found that the Las bacterial cells in the midrib extract were suitable for highly sensitive direct PCR. The performance of direct PCR using this extraction method was not inferior to that of conventional PCR. Thus, the direct PCR method described herein is characterized by its simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness, and is applicable to quarantine testing.

Fujikawa, Takashi; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Iwanami, Toru

2013-01-01

387

Involvement of rooting factors and free IAA in the rootability of citrus species stem cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagee, O., Raviv, M., Medina, Sh., Becker, D. and Cosse, A., 1992. Involvement of rooting factors and free IAA in the rootability of citrus species stem cuttings. Scientia Hortic., 51: 187-195. Two-year-old trees of cultivar 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus fimonia Osb. ) and of cultivar 'Oroblanco', a triploid pummelo-grapefruit hybrid (Citrus grandis Osb. X Citrus paradisi Macf.), which had not reached

O. Sagee; M. Raviv; D. Beckeff; A. Cosse

1992-01-01

388

Effects of climate, natural enemies and biocides on three citrus mites in coastal New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestations of the citrus rust mitePhyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), the brown citrus rust miteTegolophus australis Keifer, and the citrus red mitePanonychus citri (McGregor), did not cause economic damage to orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) in two coastal New South Wales orchards during a three-year study. The seasonal abundance of the mites and their phytoseiid and coccinellid predators was defined using periodic

G. A. C. Beattie; E. A. Roberts; C. L. Vanhoff; L. K. Flack

1991-01-01

389

Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were

Welington L. Araujo; Joelma Marcon; Walter Maccheroni; Elsas van J. D; Vuurde van J. W. L; Azevedo de J. L

2002-01-01

390

Somatic hybridization in citrus: An effective tool to facilitate variety improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Citrus somatic hybridization and cybridization via protoplast fusion has become an integral part of citrus variety improvement programs worldwide. Citrus somatic hybrid plants\\u000a have been regenerated from more than 200 parental combinations, and several cybrid combinations have also been produced. Applications\\u000a of somatic hybridization to citrus scion improvement include the production of quality tetraploid breeding parents that can\\u000a be used

J. W. Grosser; P. Ollitrault; O. Olivares-Fuster

2000-01-01

391

APHID TRANSMISSION OF STEM PITTING CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS FROM MIXED VIRUS INFECTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-limited closterovirus, contains a single-stranded, 20- kb RNA. Numerous isolates of the virus exist which produce a variety of symptoms in various citrus hosts. One of these symptoms is stem pitting (SP). SP does not occur in all citrus hosts but may cause lo...

392

Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (entantiomers of ?- and ?-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.).

Antonios Michaelakis; Dimitrios Papachristos; Athanasios Kimbaris; George Koliopoulos; Athanasios Giatropoulos; Moschos G. Polissiou

2009-01-01

393

Digestibility by Dairy Cows of Monosaccharide Constituents in Total Mixed Rations Containing Citrus Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten lactating cows were divided into two groups and individually fed ad libitum one of two experimental total mixed rations (TMR) as follows: 1) a TMR con- taining 20% corn grain and 10% dry citrus pulp (high corn); and 2) a TMR containing 21% citrus pulp and 9% corn grain (high citrus pulp). Both TMR also con- tained corn silage

J. Miron; E. Yosef; D. Ben-Ghedalia; L. E. Chase; D. E. Bauman; R. Solomon

2002-01-01

394

7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106 Section...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1999...

2009-01-01

395

7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106 Section...INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1999...

2010-01-01

396

Regeneration and molecular characterization of intergeneric somatic hybrids between Citrus reticulata and Poncirus trifoliata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus exocortis viroid (CEV) is widespread in citrus production areas where trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] is used as rootstock. Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Red tangerine, a different rootstock, is tolerant to CEV. Embryogenic protoplasts of C. reticulata cv. Red tangerine were electrically fused with mesophyll protoplasts from P. trifoliata, and five embryoids were regenerated after 40 days of

W. W. Guo; Y. J. Cheng; X. X. Deng

2002-01-01

397

7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or could be marketed as fresh citrus fruit; (5) Was harvested...freeze; (b) Not including citrus fruit that: (1) Was missing...detached living portion of a plant joined to a stock in grafting. Top worked. A buckhorned citrus tree with a new scion...

2013-01-01

398

Some physiological and morphological characteristics of citrus plants for drought resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance and avoidance mechanisms to drought stress were studied in 6-month-old plants of Newhall orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and Ellendale tangor (orange × mandarin hybrid) (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck × Citrus reticulata Blanco) during a drought\\/rewatering cycle under controlled conditions. Drought stress did not promote osmotic adjustment, while elastic adjustment (tissue elasticity increase) was noted in stressed orange and

Robert Savé; Carme Biel; Rafael Domingo; M. Carmen Ruiz-Sánchez; Arturo Torrecillas

1995-01-01

399

Transcriptome Analysis of Early Fruit Development in Three Seedy Citrus Genotypes and Their Seedless Mutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedlessness is desirable for most citrus fruit, and identification of spontaneous or irradiated seedless mutants is important in developing citrus cultivars. We conducted a transcriptome analysis in early fruit development of three seedy citrus types (‘Fallglo’, a largely C. reticulata hybrid; ‘Pi...

400

Enhancement of cold tolerance and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by citrus dehydrin in transgenic tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus (Citrus unshiu Marcov.) dehydrin in response to chilling stress was overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and the cold stress tolerance of transgenics at low temperature was analyzed. The freezing at ?4 °C for 3 h of 24 independent lines indicated that a phenotype expressing citrus dehydrin showed less electrolyte leakage than the control. Dehydrin protein content was correlated with freezing

Masakazu Hara; Shogo Terashima; Tomoko Fukaya; Toru Kuboi

2003-01-01

401

Movement of Simazine in Runoff Water from Citrus Orchard Row Middles as Affected by Mechanical Incorporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In California, pre-emergence herbicide residues have been measured in runoff water from citrus orchards that resulted from winter rainfall. This study measured the effect of rainfall on the redistribution of herbicides within a citrus orchard and the effect that shallow mechanical incorporation had on residue movement. Simulated rainfall treatments were applied to plots within a citrus orchard where simazine was

J. Troiano; C. Garretson

1998-01-01

402

Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

403

76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the United States. These new treatments...species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the United States. We also...

2011-03-30

404

7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus...the person offering the plants for commercial sale are...planting in a commercial citrus grove within that...

2013-01-01

405

Interaction of Simulated Acid Rain with Ozone on Freeze Resistance, Growth, and Mineral Nutrition in Citrus and Avocado 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of O3 and acid rain on freeze resistance, growth, and mineral nutrition were studied using broadleaf-evergreen citrus and avocado trees. Using a factorial design, 'Ruby red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.) trees on either Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) or sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstocks and 'Pancho' avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.) on 'Waldin' rootstock

David M. Eissenstat; James P. Syvertsen; Thomas J. Dean; Jon D. Johnson; George Yelenosky

1991-01-01

406

Diurnal patterns in flight activity and effects of light on host finding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States. The psyllid feeds and reproduces primarily on new flush growth of citrus and other rutaceous plants. Because it vectors the bacterial causal agents of the deadly citrus green...

407

The Freeze Risk to Florida Citrus. Part 1: Investment Decisions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1980s Florida was struck by an unusual series of severe freezes that caused enormous damage to citrus groves. While citrus acreage in relatively freeze-free parts of the state has expanded rapidly since these freezes, serious questions remain about the commercial viability of growing citrus crops in some central Florida counties. This paper considers the role that freeze risk plays in the investment decisions of citrus growers. A simplified example is used to estimate tolerable levels of freeze risk for individuals evaluating the investment at different discount rates, and to show the impact of changes in the risk level. Changes in estimated freeze risk in the 1980s are computed over the historical temperature record, and related to the growers' replanting decisions. It is concluded that the computed changes in the probability of a killing freeze would be sufficient to alter the citrus planting decisions of some investors. Furthermore, the longest available climate record should be used to estimate the risk of such low-probability extreme events.

Miller, Kathleen A.; Downton, Mary W.

1993-02-01

408

6-Demethoxynobiletin, a Nobiletin-Analog Citrus Flavonoid, Enhances Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation in PC12D Cells.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone isolated from citrus peels, has the potential to improve cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that the generation of intraneuronal amyloid-beta (A?) oligomers is an early event in the pathogenesis of AD. A? oligomers cause deficits in the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling which is critical for consolidation of the memory. Our previous studies revealed that nobiletin activated ERK signaling and subsequent cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcription. In this study, the effects of five nobiletin analogs, 6-demethoxynobiletin, tangeretin, 5-demethylnobiletin, sinensetin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin, isolated from citrus peels were assessed on ERK phosphorylation in PC12D cells, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. PC12D cells were treated with nobiletin or its analogs, and the cell extracts were analyzed by Western blotting using an antibody specific to phosphorylated ERK. 6-Demethoxynobiletin markedly enhanced ERK phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. These results may be useful in developing drugs and functional foods using citrus peels for the treatment of dementia including AD. PMID:23934345

Kimura, Junko; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Degawa, Masakuni; Ohizumi, Yasushi

2013-08-09

409

Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by ?-aminobutyric acid in citrus.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (?-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri. PMID:23590847

Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2013-04-16

410

Dissipation, residues, and risk assessment of spirodiclofen in citrus.  

PubMed

The dissipation, residues, and distribution of spirodiclofen, a new type of insecticide and acaricide that belongs to the class of ketoenols or tetronic acids, in citrus were investigated in this study. Risk assessment of sprodiclofen was also conducted based on those data. The open-field experiments were conducted in Guangdong, Fujian, and Guangxi of China. Results showed that the half-lives in citrus ranged from 6.5 to 13.6 days at three sites. The terminal residues of spirodiclofen were all below the FAO/WHO maximum residue limit of 0.5 mg/kg in citrus, when they were determined 14 days after final application. Distribution of spirodiclofen in peel and flesh was analyzed, and residues were found to be concentrated on peel. Risk assessment was performed by calculation of risk quotient, which showed that the use of spirodiclofen is comparably safe for humans. PMID:23880916

Sun, Haibin; Liu, Congyun; Wang, Siwei; Liu, Yanping; Liu, Mingjin

2013-07-24

411

Canker Sore (Aphthous Ulcer)  

MedlinePLUS

... or aphthae, are the most common cause of periodic (recurring) ulcers inside the mouth and genital linings ( ... Dec 2008 Information for other ages: Child Teen Table of Contents: Overview Who's At Risk Signs and ...

412

Sampling Citrus Fibrous Roots and Tylenchulus semipenetrans.  

PubMed

Sampling precision was investigated for Tylenchulus semipenetrans juveniles and males in soil and females from roots and for citrus fibrous root mass density. For the case of two composite samples of 15 cores each, counts of juvenile and male nematodes were estimated to be within 40% of mu, at P < 0.06 (alpha) in orchards where x > 1,500 nematodes/100 cm(3) soil. A similar level of alpha was estimated for measurements of fibrous root mass density, but at a precision level of 25% of mu. Densities of female nematodes were estimated with less precision than juveniles and males. Precision estimates from a general sample plan derived from Taylor's Power Law were in good agreement with estimates from individual orchards. Two aspects involved in deriving sampling plans for management advisory purposes were investigated. A minimum of five to six preliminary samples were required to appreciably reduce bias toward underestimation of sigma. The use of a Student's t value rather than a standard normal deviate in formulae to estimate sample size increased the estimates by an average of three units. Cases in which the use of z rather than Student's t is appropriate for these formulae are discussed. PMID:19279914

Duncan, L W; El-Morshedy, M M; McSorley, R

1994-12-01

413

Sampling Citrus Fibrous Roots and Tylenchulus semipenetrans  

PubMed Central

Sampling precision was investigated for Tylenchulus semipenetrans juveniles and males in soil and females from roots and for citrus fibrous root mass density. For the case of two composite samples of 15 cores each, counts of juvenile and male nematodes were estimated to be within 40% of ?, at P < 0.06 (?) in orchards where x? > 1,500 nematodes/100 cm³ soil. A similar level of ? was estimated for measurements of fibrous root mass density, but at a precision level of 25% of ?. Densities of female nematodes were estimated with less precision than juveniles and males. Precision estimates from a general sample plan derived from Taylor's Power Law were in good agreement with estimates from individual orchards. Two aspects involved in deriving sampling plans for management advisory purposes were investigated. A minimum of five to six preliminary samples were required to appreciably reduce bias toward underestimation of ?. The use of a Student's t value rather than a standard normal deviate in formulae to estimate sample size increased the estimates by an average of three units. Cases in which the use of z rather than Student's t is appropriate for these formulae are discussed.

Duncan, L. W.; El-Morshedy, M. M.; McSorley, R.

1994-01-01

414

Weedy hosts and prevalence of potential leafhopper vectors (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) of a phytoplasma (16SrIX group) associated with Huanglongbing symptoms in citrus groves.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in São Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stål), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stål)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards. PMID:22606800

Marques, R N; Teixeira, D C; Yamamoto, P T; Lopes, J R S

2012-04-01

415

Differential resistance to Citrus psorosis virus in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing hairpin RNA derived from the coat protein and 54K protein genes.  

PubMed

Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae, is the causal agent of a serious disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. The viral genome consists of three ssRNAs of negative polarity. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant defence against viruses, can be induced by transgenic expression of virus-derived sequences encoding hairpin RNAs. Since the production of transgenic citrus lines and their evaluation would take years, a herbaceous model plant, Nicotiana benthamiana, was used to test hairpin constructs. The expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA fragments from the coat protein (cp) and 54K genes of the Argentine CPsV 90-1-1 isolate conferred resistance on N. benthamiana plants, indicating that these constructs are good candidates for the transformation of citrus plants. The degree of resistance obtained varied depending on the viral sequence chosen. The analysis of the levels of small interfering RNA accumulation and viral RNAs indicated that the construct derived from cp gene was better at inducing PTGS than that originating from the 54K gene. The dependence of PTGS induction on the degree of identity between the target and the inducer transgene sequences was tested using sequences derived from CPV4, a more distant isolate of CPsV, as PTGS targets. Efficient silencing induction was also obtained to this isolate through the expression of the cp-derived hairpin. This is the first report of transgenic-resistant plants within the context of this serious citrus disease. PMID:19820946

Reyes, Carina Andrea; Peña, Eduardo José; Zanek, María Cecilia; Sanchez, Daniela Verónica; Grau, Oscar; García, María Laura

2009-10-10

416

Inhibition of citrus fungal pathogens by using lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on pathogenic fungi was evaluated and the metabolites involved in the antifungal effect were characterized. Penicillium digitatum (INTA 1 to INTA 7) and Geotrichum citri-aurantii (INTA 8) isolated from decayed lemon from commercial packinghouses were treated with imazalil and guazatine to obtain strains resistant to these fungicides. The most resistant strains (4 fungal strains) were selected for evaluating the antifungal activity of 33 LAB strains, among which only 8 strains gave positive results. The antifungal activity of these LAB strains was related to the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and phenyllactic acid (PLA). A central composite design and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the organic acids produced by the LAB cultures. The antifungal activity of lactic acid was directly related to its concentration; however, acetic acid and PLA showed a peak of activity at 52.5 and 0.8 mM, respectively, with inhibition rates similar to those obtained with Serenade((R)) (3.0 ppm) imazalil (50 ppm) and guazatine (50 ppm). Beyond the peak of activity, a reduction in effectiveness of both acetic acid and PLA was observed. Comparing the inhibition rate of the organic acids, PLA was about 66- and 600-fold more effective than acetic acid and lactic acid, respectively. This study presents evidences on the antifungal effect of selected LAB strains and their end products. Studies are currently being undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness in preventing postharvest diseases on citrus fruits. PMID:20722936

Gerez, C L; Carbajo, M S; Rollán, G; Torres Leal, G; Font de Valdez, G

2010-08-01

417

Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report  

SciTech Connect

Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

1981-11-01

418

Evaluation of the Biolog Substrate Utilization System To Identify and Assess Metabolic Variation among Strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Citri  

PubMed Central

Metabolic fingerprints of 148 strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri originating from 24 countries and associated with various forms of citrus bacterial canker disease (CBCD) were obtained by using the Biolog substrate utilization system. Metabolic profiles were used to attempt strain identification. Only 6.8% of the studied strains were correctly identified when the commercial Microlog 2N data base was used alone. When the data base was supplemented with data from 54 strains of X. campestris pv. citri (40 CBCD-A strains, 8 CBCD-B strains, and 6 CBCD-C strains) and data from 43 strains of X. campestris associated with citrus bacterial spot disease, the percentage of correct identifications was 70%. Thus, it is recommended that users supplement the commercial data base with additional data prior to using the program for identification purposes. The utilization of Tween 40 in conjunction with other tests can help to differentiate strains associated with CBCD and citrus bacterial spot disease. These results confirmed the separation of X. campestris pv. citri into different subgroups (strains associated with Asiatic citrus canker [CBCD-A], cancrosis B [CBCD-B], and Mexican lime canker [CBCD-C]). The utilization of l-fucose, d-galactose, and alaninamide can be used as markers to differentiate strains associated with these groups. A single strain associated with bacteriosis of Mexican lime in Mexico (CBCD-D) was closely similar to CBCD-B strains.

Verniere, C.; Pruvost, O.; Civerolo, E. L.; Gambin, O.; Jacquemoud-Collet, J. P.; Luisetti, J.

1993-01-01

419

A population of variants of a viroid closely related to citrus viroid-I in citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Sequencing analyses showed a population of variants consisting of 325–330 nucleotides (nt) of a viroid closely related to\\u000a citrus viroid (CVd)-I in citrus plants. These variants, for which we propose the tentative acronym CVd-I-LSS (low sequence\\u000a similarity), have only 82–85% sequence similarities to CVd-I variants. A phylogenetic tree showed that the CVd-I-LSS variants\\u000a formed an individual cluster that was distinct

Takao Ito; Hiroyuki Ieki; Katsumi Ozaki

2000-01-01

420

Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

421

Developments in ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5~5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value pr...

422

Asian citrus psyllid genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)-Update 2013  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The psyllid genome is a scientific breakthrough that opens the psyllid genetic blueprint to investigations of all questions ranging from taxonomic origins to the understanding of developmental biology, to the acquisition and transmission of pathogens. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemi...

423

Comparison of some biochemical characteristics of different citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some citrus fruits. The contents of dietary fibre, total polyphenols, essential phenolics, ascorbic acid and some trace elements of lemons, oranges and grapefruits were determined and compared with their total radical-trapping antioxidative potential (TRAP). There were no significant differences in the contents of total, soluble and insoluble dietary

Shela Gorinstein; Olga Mart??n-Belloso; Yong-Seo Park; Ratiporn Haruenkit; Antonin Lojek; Milan ???ž; Abraham Caspi; Imanuel Libman; Simon Trakhtenberg

2001-01-01

424

Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

425

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events.

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

426

Study of pulsed electric field treated citrus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, applied in a continuous system, on physical and chemical properties of freshly squeezed citrus juices (grapefruit, lemon, orange, tangerine) was studied. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of PEF technology on pH, Brix°, electric conductivity, viscosity, nonenzymatic browning index (NEBI), hydroxymethylfurfurol (HMF), color, organic acid content, and

Zs. Cserhalmi; Á. Sass-Kiss; M. Tóth-Markus; N. Lechner

2006-01-01

427

HEALTHY PRODUCTS FROM CITRUS JUICE PROCESSING WASTE STREAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus waste streams contain significant amounts of simple sugars, flavonoids and dietary fiber as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. A process has been developed to convert sugars and cellulose (after enzyme hydrolysis) into ethanol through fermentation for use as a biofuel. Pectin is hydrolyz...

428

A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees  

SciTech Connect

Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees.

Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL 33850 (United States); Bar-Joseph, Moshe [The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50259 (Israel); Dawson, William O. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL 33850 (United States)], E-mail: wodtmv@crec.ifas.ufl.edu

2007-11-10

429

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of limonoid glucosides from citrus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an investigation into the application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) for the analysis of limonoid glucosides in a citrus seed extract. MECC based on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used to provide highly efficient separations of the closely related structures. A phosphate-borate buffer containing SDS was used to optimize the separation conditions for

Vinayagum E. Moodley; Dulcie A. Mulholland; Mark W. Raynor

1995-01-01

430

Chlorosis Produced by Fluorine on Citrus in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique chlorotic leaf pattern on citrus trees in Florida that is attributed to fluorine is reported. The chlorosis was first noted in Polk County in April 1950 and was associated with a triple superphosphate manufacturing plant that recently opened. The polluting condition was corrected, but as new triple superphosphate plants opened, chlorosis increased. Florida pebble rock phosphate contains 2-4%

I. W. Wander; J. J. McBride Jr.

1956-01-01

431

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

432

Heat treatment of ‘Oroblanco’ citrus fruit to control insect infestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Oroblanco’ citrus fruit were heat treated with hot forced air at holding temperatures from 43 to 47°C for times from 10 to 90min. Unwaxed fruit developed heat damage at 47°C, while waxed fruit showed heat damage at 44°C. Thermal death kinetics of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), eggs, first and third instars were tested in a hot water system

Susan Lurie; Tomislav Jemric; Asya Weksler; Ruti Akiva; Yoav Gazit

2004-01-01

433

Energy recovery by production of fuel from citrus wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine how much energy can be recovered from a Florida citrus processing plant was conducted. The production of ethyl alcohol in particular was examined as it is thought to represent the greatest potential for immediate energy recovery. Three-fourths of the energy expended to produce, harvest, process and market a box of fruit was recoverable using existing technology,

Wesley Clark

1982-01-01

434

Selection of a NaCl-tolerant Citrus plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The objective of the work was to select Citrus plants more tolerant to elevated NaCl concentrations in the irrigation water. For this purpose, unfertilized Troyer citrange ovules treated with a chemical mutagenic agent (ethyl methane sulphonate) were cultured in vitro. Whole plants were regenerated from embryos developed in the nucellar tissue of the ovule. The screening for salt tolerance was

Pilar García-Agustín; Eduardo Primo-Millo

1995-01-01

435

MALLS/RI SETUP FOR SENSITIVE DETECTION OF CITRUS POLYSACCHARIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Properties of citrus polysaccharides such as pectin can be dependent on molecular weight (MW). For example, gel strength and solution properties of pectin are dependent on the MW, and extraction conditions for pectin can also affect MW. Thus, it is advantageous for optimizing extraction conditions...

436

GENETIC TOXICITY OF A STANDARDIZED MIXTURE OF CITRUS POLYMETHOXYLATED FLAVONES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flavonoids are a ubiquitous family of phytochemicals that display a variety of biological effects both beneficial and adverse depending on the individual compound. In the present studies, the mutagenicity of a mixture of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) purified from citrus peel oil was evaluated. ...

437

UTILIZATION OF GC-GC IN CITRUS FLAVOR ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation presents some work on separating, identifying and cataloging chiral compounds in citrus and their approximate ranges in various products. A dual oven GC-GC-MS system with a cryo-trapping transfer line was used with a pre-column and chiral analytical column. Samples from Brazil, F...

438

Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol\\/xanthine\\/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant

Laura Giamperi; Daniele Fraternale; Anahi Bucchini; Donata Ricci

2004-01-01

439

Subcritical Water Extraction of Nutraceutical Compounds from Citrus Pomaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water (SCW) extraction of citrus pomaces (CPs) was carried out, and antioxidant activity and nutraceutical compound levels of the SCW extracts were evaluated in detail. At first, CP samples were subjected to the SCW extraction under various conditions focusing on the extraction temperature and time. Consequently, the highest total phenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power were found

Jong-Wan Kim; Tatsuya Nagaoka; Yasuyuki Ishida; Tatsuya Hasegawa; Kuniyuki Kitagawa; Seung-Cheol Lee

2009-01-01

440

The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).  

PubMed

Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future. PMID:23179022

Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

2012-11-25

441

Citrus limon: a source of flavonoids of pharmaceutical interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the medicinal properties of lemons are due to the flavonoids they contain since they are involved in many biological activities and have many health-related functions. The levels of the principal flavanones and flavone found in different cultivars of Citrus limon, are analysed in an attempt to identify the most interesting as regards the content of such secondary compounds.

J. A. Del R??o; M. D. Fuster; P. Gómez; I. Porras; A. Garc??a-Lidón; A. Ortuño

2004-01-01

442

STRATEGIC APPROACH TOWARD INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CITRUS PEEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is well known that washed citrus peel is composed mainly of polysaccharides. Maximum utilization of this material resides on finding new products derived from the cellulosics or pectins found in this source. Strategies on this conversion will be discussed. For ease of chemical and enzymatic mo...

443

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No...more than 10 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 1...

2013-04-01

444

Reproductive biology and behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A review of research conducted during 2006-2008 on the reproductive biology and behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) will be presented. Information to be discussed will include daily patterns of mating; frequency of mating; pre-mating and pre-oviposition intervals; daily and seaso...

445

Comparative Physical Examination of Various Citrus Peel Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical parameters of various citrus peel essential oils were determined in this study. Essential oils from the peels of Kinnow (C. reticulata, var. mandarin), Fewtrell's early (C. reticulata, var. tangerine), Malta (C. sinensis var. malta), Mousami (C. sinensis var. mousami), grape fruit (C. paradisi) and eureka lemon (C. limon) were extracted by applying cold expressing method. Eureka lemon had the

MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ AHMAD; FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM; EHSAN ELAHI BAJWA

2006-01-01

446

Factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Citrus and production of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) plants expressing the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing transformation frequencies using the Agrobacterium-mediated protocol developed for Citrus seedling internodal stem segments in this laboratory were evaluated, with particular emphasis on decreasing the numbers of\\u000a ``escape'' shoots produced. Although the use of a wild-type ``shooty'' Agrobacterium strain allowed relatively high frequencies of ?-glucuronidase positive (GUS+) shoots to be produced, none of the shoots were free of wild-type

D. Luth; G. A. Moore

1997-01-01

447

Production and evaluation of non-radioactive probes for the detection of the two « Candidatus Liberobacter» species associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and evaluation of non-radioactive probes for the detection of «CandidatusLiberobacter asiaticum» and «CandidatusLiberobacter africanum», the two bacterial species associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease is described. Two DNA fagments, In 2·6 and AS 1·7, obtained previously from the ? operons of «CandidatusLiberobacter asiaticum» and «CandidatusLiberobacter africanum», respectively, were the starting materials for production of the two non-radioactive probes.

Agnès Hocquellet; Joseph-Marie Bové; Monique Garnier

1997-01-01

448

Development of real-time PCR systems based on SYBR ® Green I and TaqMan ® technologies for specific quantitative detection of Phoma tracheiphila in infected Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time PCR assays based on SYBR® Green I and TaqMan® technologies were developed for in planta detection and quantification of Phoma tracheiphila, the mitosporic fungus causing ‘mal secco’ disease on citrus. Primers and a hybridization probe were designed on the basis\\u000a of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rRNA genes. The real-time PCR assays were compared with

Maria Antonietta Demontis; Santa Olga Cacciola; Marcella Orrù; Virgilio Balmas; Valentina Chessa; Bianca Elena Maserti; Laura Mascia; Francesco Raudino; Gaetano Magnano di San Lio; Quirico Migheli

2008-01-01

449

Role of imidacloprid in integrated pest management of California citrus.  

PubMed

Portions of three commercial citrus orchards were treated for 1 yr with foliar imidacloprid or for 2 yr with a systemic formulation in a replicated plot design to determine the impact of this neonicotinoid on the San Joaquin Valley California citrus integrated pest management (IPM) program. Foliar-applied imidacloprid had little effect on California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell; or citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), populations. Short-term suppression of the parasitoids Aphytis melinus DeBach and Comperiella bifasciata Howard; vedalia, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant); and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) were observed. Suppression of natural enemies allowed scales and mites to maintain higher populations in the treated areas compared with the nontreated areas. Thus, foliar imidacloprid did not exhibit control of these citrus pest species, and it disrupted biological control. Systemically applied imidacloprid suppressed California red scale and citricola scale populations 2-3 mo after treatment. Suppression of parasitoids of the California red scale also was observed. Thus, treatments of systemic imidacloprid applied in areawide management programs for invasive pests would provide a benefit of California red scale and citricola scale suppression. However, this treatment provided only single-season control of citricola scale, it was somewhat disruptive of biological control, and it did not suppress densities of either scale as low as a treatment of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos for citricola scale or the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for California red scale. Insecticides with longer periods of efficacy and greater IPM compatibility than imidacloprid should be used for a sustainable IPM approach in California citrus. PMID:18459411

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Robillard, S M; Gorden, J M

2008-04-01

450

In Vitro Fermentation of Cellulose, Beet Pulp, Citrus Pulp, and Citrus Pectin Using Fecal Inoculum from Cats, Dogs, Horses, Humans, and Pigs and Ruminal Fluid from Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the influence of gas- trointestinal tract microflora from several species on fiber fermentation characteristics in vitro. Selected fibrous substrates (cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin) were incubated for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h with ruminal fluid from cattle or feces from dogs, cats, pigs, horses, or humans. When data were pooled across all substrates and

G. D. Sunvold; H. S. Hussein; G. C. Fahey; N. R. Merchen; G. A. Reinhart

2010-01-01

451

VECTOR TRANSMISSION OF THE CAUSAL AGENTS OF CITRUS VARIEGATED CHLOROSIS, HUANGLONGBING AND CITRUS TRISTEZA USING ENDEMIC AND NEWLY ESTABLISHED INSECT SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), causal agent Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), huanglongbing (HLB) causal agent Liberobacter spp, and exotic stem pitting isolates of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) are not present in the continental U.S. CVC is transmitted by sharpshooter leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae...

452

Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

453

Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

Not Available

1980-06-15

454

Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. from California Citrus  

PubMed Central

In October 1999, the authors received fixed specimens of a species of Longidorus from Howard Ferris found about the roots of a citrus tree in Oakville, Napa County, CA. After determining it to be new a species, we requested additional specimens. The samples contained roughly equal numbers of males and females. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. is most similar to L. elongatus, but can be distinguished by a greater c-ratio (111-187 vs 73-141), a lesser c´ (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.3), a more offset head, a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 30-33 ?m), the presence of sperm in the uterus in mature females, and the approximate 1:1 ratio of females to males. Other similar species include L. artemisiae, L. crassus, L. glycines, and L. milanis. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. artemisiae by a lesser a-ratio (74-102 vs 109-155), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.6), a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 27-34 ?m), a longer odontostyle (91-108 vs 84-98 ?m), a wider lip region (16-19 vs 14-17 ?m), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 41-52 ?m), and longer spicules (57-65 vs 39-49 ?m). The new species differs substantially from L. crassus by its lip shape and the presence of males, and differs from L. glycines by a shorter body (4.33-5.97 vs 6.14-8.31 mm), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 0.9-1.4), a narrower lip region (16-19 vs 20-23 ?m), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 39-57 ?m), longer spicules (53-69 vs 45-53 ?m), and fewer supplements (7-11 vs 11-17). Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. milanis by a longer body (4.33-5.97vs 3.00-4.90 mm), a greater c value (111-187 vs 86-130), a wider mid-body (53-69 vs 43-56 ?m), a different head shape, and longer spicules (53-69 vs 41-54 ?m). The nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA sequence of this species revealed that this species is unique with respect to all sequenced Longidorus species.

Ye, Weimin; Pedram, Majid

2009-01-01

455

7 CFR 301.75-3 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...Regulated articles. (a) Plants or plant parts, including...hybrids of the genera Citrus and...

2013-01-01

456

Light effect on carotenoids production and expression of carotenogenesis genes in citrus callus of four genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their theoretically identical genetic background, citrus callus and other plant tissues may share some mechanisms in\\u000a the regulation of carotenogenesis. Thus, in order to gain further information on light regulation of carotenoids biosynthesis\\u000a in citrus, the carotenoids and expression profiles of carotenogenesis in calluses of four citrus genotypes treated with light\\u000a or dark were investigated. As a response

Huijun GaoJuan; Juan Xu; Xi Liu; Baozhen Liu; Xiuxin Deng

457

Growth, root morphology and boron uptake by citrus rootstock seedlings differing in boron-deficiency responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron (B) is an essential microelement for higher plants and has important physiological functions in plant growth and development. Citrus plants are frequently exposed to B-deficiency, but knowledge regarding the effects of B-deficiency on rootstock growth, root morphology and genotypic variations in citrus is limited. To evaluate the variations in plant-growth parameters in response to B-deficiency, five citrus rootstocks seedlings

Li Mei; Ou Sheng; Shu-ang Peng; Gao-feng Zhou; Qing-jiang Wei; Qiao-hong Li

2011-01-01

458

Some physiological properties of citrus and noncitrus races of Geotrichum candidum isolated from soil in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physiological properties of citrus and noncitrus races ofGeotrichum candidum isolated from soils of citrus groves and noncitrus fields in Japan were studied. Of 358 isolated of citrus race, 260 isolates\\u000a required pyridoxine for growth on asparagine-glucose agar, while 98 isolates could grow in the absence of pyridoxine. On the\\u000a other hand, of 11 isolates of noncitrus race, 10 isolates

Dewa Ngurah Suprapta; Kei Arai; Hisashi Iwai

1996-01-01

459

Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×108CFU\\/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by

Peng Geng; Shaohua Chen; Meiying Hu; Muhammad Rizwan-ul-Haq; Kaiping Lai; Fei Qu; Yanbo Zhang

2011-01-01

460

Citrus Leprosis and its Status in Florida and Texas: Past and Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to published reports from 1906 to 1968, leprosis nearly destroyed the Florida citrus industry prior to 1925. This\\u000a was supported with photographs showing typical leprosis symptoms on citrus leaves, fruit, and twigs. Support for the past\\u000a occurrence of citrus leprosis in Florida includes: (1) presence of twig lesions in affected orange blocks in addition to lesions\\u000a on fruits and

C. C. Childers; J. C. V. Rodrigues; K. S. Derrick; D. S. Achor; J. V. French; W. C. Welbourn; R. Ochoa; E. W. Kitajima

2003-01-01

461

Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus

Tercilio Calsa Jr.; Antonio Figueira

2007-01-01

462

Abscisic Acid Reduces Leaf Abscission and Increases Salt Tolerance in Citrus Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the physiological effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and 100 mM NaCl on citrus plants. Water potential, leaf\\u000a abscission, ethylene production, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and chloride accumulation in roots and leaves\\u000a were measured in plants of Salustiana scion [Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck] grafted onto Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis [L.]\\u000a Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf) rootstock. Plants

Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas; Vicent Arbona; Josep Jacas; Eduardo Primo-Millo; Manuel Talon

2002-01-01

463

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Requirements for Young, Bearing Microsprinkler-Irrigated Citrus, 2005 Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher nutrient and water use efficiency are possible with microsprinkler- irrigated citrus compared to flood-irrigated citrus. Therefore, new N and P fertilizer recommendations are needed for microsprinkler-irrigated citrus. The objectives of these experiments were to i) determine the effects of N applications on tree growth, fruit yield, fruit and juice quality, and N and P removal in fruit for microsprinkler-irrigated

Thomas L. Thompson; Scott A. White; Ayako Kusakabe

464

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Requirements for Young, Bearing Microsprinkler-Irrigated Citrus, 2004 Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher nutrient and water use efficiency are possible with microsprinkler- irrigated citrus compared to flood-irrigated citrus. Therefore, new N and P fertilizer recommendations are needed for microsprinkler-irrigated citrus. The objectives of these experiments were to i) determine the effects of N applications on tree growth, fruit yield, fruit and juice quality, and N and P removal in fruit for microsprinkler-irrigated

Thomas L. Thompson; Scott A. White

465

77 FR 41709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fruit commodities'' as ``oranges,'' ``grapefruit,'' ``tangelos,'' ``mandarins/tangerines...new ``citrus fruit commodity'' named ``grapefruit,'' all ``grapefruit'' with the intended use of fresh could be...

2012-07-16

466

Vector control and foliar nutrition to maintain economic sustainability of bearing citrus in Florida groves affected by huanglongbing.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is a bacterial disease vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) causing tree decline, and yield loss. Vector control and foliar nutrition are used in Florida to slow the spread of HLB and mitigate debilitating effects of the disease. A four year replicated field study was initiated February 2008 in a 5.2-ha commercial block of young 'Valencia' orange trees employing a factorial design to evaluate individual and compound effects of vector management and foliar nutrition. Insecticides were sprayed during tree dormancy and when psyllid populations exceeded a nominal threshold. A mixture consisting primarily of micro- and macro-nutrients was applied three times a year corresponding to the principal foliar flushes. RESULTS: Differences in ACP numbers from five- to 13-fold were maintained in insecticide treated and untreated plots. Incidence of HLB estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rose from 30% at the beginning of the study to 95% in only 18 months. Highest yields all four years were seen from trees receiving both foliar nutrition and vector control. Production for these trees in the fourth year was close to the pre-HLB regional average for 10 year old 'Valencia' on 'Swingle'. Nevertheless, at current juice prices, the extra revenue generated from the combined insecticide and nutritional treatment did not cover the added treatment costs. CONCLUSIONS: This experiment demonstrated that vector control, especially when combined with enhanced foliar nutrition, could significantly increase yields in a citrus orchard with high incidence of HLB. Economic thresholds for both insecticide and nutrient applications are needed under different market and environmental conditions. PMID:23666807

Stansly, Philip A; Arevalo, H Alejandro; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Jones, Moneen M; Hendricks, Katherine; Roberts, Pamela D; Roka, Fritz M

2013-05-11

467

Non-Host Defense Response in a Novel Arabidopsis-Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathosystem  

PubMed Central

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. Progress of breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties is modest due to limited resistant germplasm resources and lack of candidate genes for genetic manipulation. The objective of this study is to establish a novel heterologous pathosystem between Xcc and the well-established model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for defense mechanism dissection and resistance gene identification. Our results indicate that Xcc bacteria neither grow nor decline in Arabidopsis, but induce multiple defense responses including callose deposition, reactive oxygen species and salicylic aicd (SA) production, and defense gene expression, indicating that Xcc activates non-host resistance in Arabidopsis. Moreover, Xcc-induced defense gene expression is suppressed or attenuated in several well-characterized SA signaling mutants including eds1, pad4, eds5, sid2, and npr1. Interestingly, resistance to Xcc is compromised only in eds1, pad4, and eds5, but not in sid2 and npr1. However, combining sid2 and npr1 in the sid2npr1 double mutant compromises resistance to Xcc, suggesting genetic interactions likely exist between SID2 and NPR1 in the non-host resistance against Xcc in Arabidopsis. These results demonstrate that the SA signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating non-host defense against Xcc in Arabidopsis and suggest that the SA signaling pathway genes may hold great potential for breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties through modern gene transfer technology.

An, Chuanfu; Mou, Zhonglin

2012-01-01

468

Characterization of a variant of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri that triggers a host-specific defense response.  

PubMed

Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by Asiatic citrus bacterial canker (CBC), a disease caused by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri). To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of CBC, 42 Xanthomonas isolates were collected from a range of Citrus spp. across 17 different orchards in Tucumán, Argentina and subjected to molecular, biochemical, and pathogenicity tests. Analysis of genome-specific X. citri markers and DNA polymorphisms based on repetitive elements-based polymerase chain reaction showed that all 42 isolates belonged to X. citri. Interestingly, pathogenicity tests showed that one isolate, which shares >90% genetic similarity to the reference strain X. citri T, has host range specificity. This new variant of X. citri subsp. citri, named X. citri A(T), which is deficient in xanthan production, induces an atypical, noncankerous chlorotic phenotype in Citrus limon and C. paradisi and weak cankerous lesions in C. aurantifolia and C. clementina leaves. In C. limon, suppression of canker development is concomitant with an oxidative burst; xanthan is not implicated in the phenotype induced by this interaction, suggesting that other bacterial factors would be involved in triggering the defense response. PMID:23268580

Chiesa, María A; Siciliano, María F; Ornella, Leonardo; Roeschlin, Roxana A; Favaro, María A; Delgado, Natalia Pino; Sendín, Lorena N; Orce, Ingrid G; Ploper, L Daniel; Vojnov, Adrian A; Vacas, José Gadea; Filippone, María P; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Marano, María R

2013-06-01

469

RNA 2 of Citrus psorosis virus is of negative polarity and has a single open reading frame in its complementary strand.  

PubMed

Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) causes a citrus disease occurring worldwide. Isolate CPV 4 has a genome with three single-stranded RNAs. The complete sequence of RNA 2 (1643 nucleotides) is reported here. Northern blot hybridization with strand-specific probes showed that most of the encapsidated RNA 2 is of negative polarity, although a small amount of the complementary strand may also be present in particles. The RNA 2 complementary strand contained a single open reading frame encoding a protein of 476 amino acids, which includes a motif resembling a nuclear localization signal. The sequence of this putative protein shows no significant similarity to any other in the databases. In the 3'-terminal untranslated region there is a putative polyadenylation signal. No subgenomic RNAs derived from RNA 2 were detected. PMID:12075099

Sánchez de la Torre, María Eugenia; López, Carmelo; Grau, Oscar; García, María Laura

2002-07-01

470

Responses of citrus (Citrus sinensis) to nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertiliser on 2 soils of Rarotonga, Cook Islands 1. Effects of NPK fertiliser rate on soil properties and leaf nutrient levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertiliser trials on citrus (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) conducted on 2 soil types of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, the relationships between fertiliser applied and nutrient levels in soils and citrus leaves were studied. Topsoils of the 2 soil types were distinguishable by their chemical properties. The older, more weathered and leached Pouara soil had lower

L. J. Hume; W. B. Healy; K. Tama; W. J. Hosking; A. Manarangi; J. Reynolds

1985-01-01

471

Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves infected with CaLam or CaLas. Conclusions Many gene transcripts and biological processes are significantly altered upon CaLam infection. Some of them had been identified in response to CaLas infection, while others had not been previously reported. These data will be useful for selecting target genes for genetic engineering to control HLB.

2013-01-01

472

Impact of minimal heat-processing on pectin methylesterase and peroxidase activity in freshly squeezed Citrus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of minimal heat-processing of juices on the activities of endogenous pectin methylesterase (PE) and peroxidase\\u000a (POD) was compared between Citrus species. Mono-cultivar juices were produced from three orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cvs. ‘Navelina’, ‘Salustiana’, and ‘Navelate’), two lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. cvs. ‘Verna’ and ‘Primofiori’), and two Clementine mandarin varieties (Citrus reticulata Blanco cvs. ‘Marisol’

Angelika R. Hirsch; Reinhold Carle; Sybille Neidhart

2011-01-01

473

The role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases in the regulation of carotenoid profiles during maturation in citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between a carotenoid profile and gene expression for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, three citrus varieties that exhibit dif- ferent 9-cis-violaxanthin levels in their juice sacs, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.; a variety accumulating a low level of 9-cis-violaxanthin), Valen- cia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck; variety accumu- lating a high level of 9-cis-violaxanthin), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon

Masaya Kato; Hikaru Matsumoto; Yoshinori Ikoma; Hitoshi Okuda; Masamichi Yano

2006-01-01

474

First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

1996-06-01

475

Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described. PMID:23179693

Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

2013-01-01

476

The tenderisation of shin beef using a citrus juice marinade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic) and a citrus juice marinade as tenderising agents in shin beef muscle was investigated. At 0.2 M, citric acid was more effective as a tenderising agent than acetic or lactic acid. Immersion of shin beef strips in citric acid (0–0.05 M) showed that a significant tenderising effect was obtained above a concentration

R. M. Burke; F. J. Monahan

2003-01-01

477

Degradation of vitamin C in citrus juice concentrates during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in citrus juice concentrates (orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine) during an eight week storage at 28, 37 and 45°C were investigated. The loss of ascorbic acid at each temperature followed a first-order kinetic model. Activation energy was determined in the range of 12.77±0.97–25.39±1.98kcalmol?1. Ascorbic acid retention after storage at 28, 37 and 45°C was about 54.5–83.7%,

Hande Selen Burdurlu; Nuray Koca; Feryal Karadeniz

2006-01-01

478

Integration of trinucleotide microsatellites into a linkage map of Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the successful assignment of the first seven microsatellite markers to the Citrus RFLP and isozyme map. A total of 14 microsatellite primer pairs were developed and tested for amplification and product-length\\u000a polymorphism within a population of plants previously used for linkage-map construction. In each case, the successfully assigned\\u000a microsatellite mapped to the termini of a different linkage group

J. M. H. Kijas; M. R. Thomas; J. C. S. Fowler; M. L. Roose

1997-01-01

479

Sprayers to reduce spray volumes in mature citrus trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional high volume pesticide spraying in citrus crops with oscillating boom sprayers results in low levels of pesticide retention on trees and high levels of off- target losses. This study was conducted to establish whether lower volume pesticide spraying with an air-assisted low-profile sprayer and air-assisted sprayers fitted with tower air conveyors (air-towers) could replace conventional high volume pesticide spraying.

Geoffrey P. Cunningham; John Harden

1999-01-01

480

Plant regeneration from embryogenic calli of six Citrus related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos were induced from immature seeds of eight Citrus relatives including Aegle marmelos, Atalantia ceylanica,\\u000a Citropsis gabunensis, Clausena excavata, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Microcitrus australasica, Murraya paniculata and Severinia\\u000a buxifolia on MT medium supplemented with 0.05 mg l?1 2,4-D, 0.05 mg l?1 BA and 400 mg l?1 malt extract. Approximately 20% of somatic embryos from six of the genera underwent callogenesis

Jing-Tian Ling; Masao Iwamasa

1997-01-01

481

Complete Sequence of the Citrus Tristeza Virus RNA Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of the entire genome of citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Florida isolate T36, was completed. The 19,296-nt CTV genome encodes 12 open reading frames (ORFs) potentially coding for at least 17 protein products. The 5?-proximal ORF 1a starts at nucleotide 108 and encodes a large polyprotein with calculated MW of 349 kDa containing domains characteristic of (from 5? to

A. V. Karasev; V. P. Boyko; S. Gowda; O. V. Nikolaeva; M. E. Hilf; E. V. Koonin; C. L. Niblett; K. Cline; D. J. Gumpf; R. F. Lee; S. M. Garnsey; D. J. Lewandowski; W. O. Dawson

1995-01-01

482

Some predaceous mites [ Phytoseiidae ] on citrus in the mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of phytoseiid mites were collected from citrus trees in the Mediterranean region during a survey in 1971.Amblyseius stipulatus\\u000a Athias-Henriot was the most abundant and widespread species in all countries surveyed (Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain).A. californicus (McGregor) was collected only in Spain;A. potentillae (Garman) andPhytoseiulus persimilis. A.-H. only in Italy.Typhlodromus talbii A.-H. was collected in Greece and Spain,T. athiasae

J. A. McMurtry

1977-01-01

483

Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions. PMID:15030930

Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

2004-03-01

484

Biochemical Markers and Nutrient Constraints Diagnosis in Citrus: A Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral deficiencies are well-established causal factor(s) for sub-optimum production in citrus. Identifying nutrient constraints based on morphological symptoms or in combination with leaf\\/soil analysis is often misleading, especially with reference to remediating the nutritional problems of a standing crop. The task becomes further confounded by other co-factors under the conditions favoring the occurrence of multi-nutrient deficiency. Important biochemical markers for

A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh

2006-01-01

485

Comparison of drainage estimation methods in irrigated citrus orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Three different methods of measuring drainage were selected and applied to two irrigated citrus orchards for 3 years. The\\u000a methods were: (1) a simple soil water capacity model, (2) a chloride balance, and (3) the LEACHM model. In the first method,\\u000a the soil is assumed to have a given water holding capacity, plants cannot extract water from soil below

Antonio Lidón; Carlos Ramos; Alfredo Rodrigo

1999-01-01

486

Citrus peel use is associated with reduced risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.  

PubMed

Limonene has demonstrated efficacy in preclinical models of breast and colon cancers. The principal sources of d-limonene are the oils of orange, grapefruit, and lemon. The present case-control study was designed to determine the usual citrus consumption patterns of an older Southwestern population and to then evaluate how this citrus consumption varied with history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. In this Arizona population, 64.3% and 74.5% of the respondents reported weekly consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juices, respectively. Orange juice (78.5%), orange (74.3%), and grapefruit (65.3%) were the predominant varieties of citrus consumed. Peel consumption was not uncommon, with 34.7% of all subjects reporting citrus peel use. We found no association between the overall consumption of citrus fruits [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-1.32] or citrus juices (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.71-1.31) and skin SCC. However, the most striking feature was the protection purported by citrus peel consumption (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.95). Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship between higher citrus peel in the diet and degree of risk lowering. This is the first study to explore the relationship between citrus peel consumption and human cancers. Our results show that peel consumption, the major source of dietary d-limonene, is not uncommon and may have a potential protective effect in relation to skin SCC. Further studies with large sample sizes are needed to more completely evaluate the interrelationships between peel intake, bioavailability of d-limonene, and other lifestyle factors. PMID:11142088

Hakim, I A; Harris, R B; Ritenbaugh, C

2000-01-01