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1

REPEATABILITY AND COMPARISION OF IMAGE ANALYSIS AND VISUAL ASSESSMENT FOR DISEASE ASSESSMENT OF CITRUS CANKER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker, a disease of several citrus species, is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac). The disease is of concern in several wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions as infection results in yield loss and severely blemished fruit unsuitable for the f...

2

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector

Y. Hu; J. Zhang; H. Jia; D. Sosso; T. Li; W. B. Frommer; B. Yang; F. F. White; N. Wang; J. B. Jones

2014-01-01

3

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.  

PubMed

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

2014-01-28

4

Automating the assessment of citrus canker symptoms with image analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (CC, caused by Xanthomonas citri) is a serious disease of citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing regions. Severity of symptoms can be estimated by visual rating, but there is inter- and intra-rater variation. Automated image analysis (IA) may offer a way of reducing some of ...

5

Citrus canker detection using hyperspectral reflectance imaging and PCA-based image classification method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten marketability of citrus crops. Technologies that can efficiently\\u000a identify citrus canker would assure fruit quality and safety and enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus\\u000a industry. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker\\u000a lesions on citrus fruit. A portable

Jianwei Qin; Thomas F. Burks; Moon S. Kim; Kuanglin Chao; Mark A. Ritenour

2008-01-01

6

Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, currently featured on the home page of the American Phytopathological Society, contains a research report regarding the Asiatic citrus canker that has had devastating effects on Florida's citrus industry. The report, in a journal article format, thoroughly relates the natural history and current status of the disease, as well as detailing the methods and results of the (primarily genetic) experiments conducted in this study. One of the most appealing features of this Web site is the quality of the photos within the report. These photos can be viewed separately from the report in a slide show. While navigating this site is relatively straightforward, the lack of a table of contents can make finding your place in the body of the text somewhat confusing.

2002-01-01

7

POST-HURRICANE ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER II: PREDICTIVE MODEL ESTIMATION OF DISEASE SPREAD AND AREA POTENTIALLY IMPACTED BY VARIOUS ERADICATION PROTOCOLS FOLLOWING CATASTROPHIC WEATHER EVENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The affect of 2005 Hurricane Wilma on the dissemination of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the cause of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC), and subsequent disease development was examined and predictions for the areas into which Xac was likely to have spread from known sources of infection was deve...

8

Automated image analysis of the severity of foliar citrus canker symptoms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease, reducing yield, and rendering fruit unfit for fresh sale. Accurate assessment of citrus canker severity and other diseases is needed for several purposes, including monitoring epidemics and evaluation of germplasm. ...

9

Infection and decontamination of citrus-canker-inoculated leaf surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...

10

CITRUS CANKER: DOING BATTLE WITH THE BEAST FOR NEARLY A CENTURY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has a long history in Florida. The disease was first found around 1910 and spread throughout the southeastern US on imported citrus seedlings from Japan. After an extensive eradication program, canker was declared eradicated from Florida and the adjacent states in 1933....

11

Detecting citrus canker by hyperspectral reflectance imaging and PCA-based image classification method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten citrus crops. Technologies that can efficiently identify citrus canker would assure fruit quality and safety and enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus industry. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker lesions on citrus fruit. A portable hyperspectral imaging system consisting of an automatic sample handling unit, a light source, and a hyperspectral imaging unit was developed for citrus canker detection. The imaging system was used to acquire reflectance images from citrus samples in the wavelength range between 400 nm and 900 nm. Ruby Red grapefruits with normal and various diseased skin conditions including canker, copper burn, greasy spot, wind scar, cake melanose, and specular melanose were tested. Hyperspectral reflectance images were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to compress the 3-D hyperspectral image data and extract useful image features that could be used to discriminate cankerous samples from normal and other diseased samples. Image processing and classification algorithms were developed based upon the transformed images of PCA. The overall accuracy for canker detection was 92.7%. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used for discriminating citrus canker from other confounding diseases.

Qin, Jianwei; Burks, Thomas F.; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Ritenour, Mark A.

2008-04-01

12

Effect of fruit harvest time on citrus canker detection using hyperspectral reflectance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus industry has need for effective and efficient approaches to remove fruit with canker before they are shipped to\\u000a selective international markets. The objective of this research was to study the effect of fruit harvest time on citrus canker\\u000a detection using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Ruby Red grapefruits with normal surface, canker, and five common peel\\u000a diseases including greasy spot,

Xuhui Zhao; Thomas F. Burks; Jianwei Qin; Mark A. Ritenour

2010-01-01

13

Hyperspectral reflectance imaging for detecting citrus canker based on dual-band ratio image classification method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus are one of the major fruit produced in China. Most of this production is exported to Europe for fresh consumption, where consumers increasingly demand best quality. Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten peel of most commercial citrus varieties. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for

Jiangbo Li; Xiuqin Rao; Junxian Guo; Yibin Ying

2010-01-01

14

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND WORLDWIDE PROLIFERATION OF CITRUS BACTERIAL CANKER PATHOGENS IDENTIFIED IN HIRTORIC SPECIMENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) may have originated in Southeast Asia based on symptoms present on early herbarium specimens. The disease was first introduced into the United States in 1911 and has spread to most citrus producing areas in the world. Thi...

15

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND WORLDWIDE PROLIFERATION OF CITRUS BACTERIAL CANKER PATHOGENS IDENTIFIED IN HISTORIC SPECIMENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) may have originated in Southeast Asia, based on symptoms present on early herbarium specimens. The disease was first introduced into the United States in 1911 and has spread to most citrus producing areas in the world. Th...

16

IMAGE ANALYSIS VERSUS VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF CITRUS CANKER SYMPTOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker. Disease assessment is important for monitoring epidemics. Visual assessment (VA) is presently the only reliable means of detection. To investigate how VA of symptoms compared to image analysis we used digital images of 214 citrus le...

17

THE EFFECT OF HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS ON LONG DISTANCE SPREAD OF CITRUS CANKER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) is a serious disease of citrus that causes foliar and fruit lesions leading to extensive yield and quality losses. During Fall 2004, Florida experienced 3 hurricanes (Charlie, Francis, Jeanne) and one tropical storm (Ivan) whose paths crossed the majority of the commercia...

18

LONG DISTANCE SPREAD OF CITRUS CANKER RELATED TO HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) is a serious disease of citrus that causes foliar and fruit lesions leading to extensive yield and quality losses. During Fall 2004, Florida experienced 3 hurricanes (Charlie, Francis, Jeanne) and one tropical storm (Ivan) whose paths crossed the majority of the commercia...

19

The decline in quantity of bacteria of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri dispersed from canker-infected citrus plants during wind/rain events  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and objectives. Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Xac) is an important disease of citrus in several tropical and sub-tropical citrus growing regions. Canker damaged trees produce less yield and the blemished fruit is unfit for fresh sale, so processing becomes the...

20

Characteristics of Multi-rater Estimates of Citrus Canker Severity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (CC, caused by Xanthomonas citri) was under eradication for 10 y in Florida. A total of 28 CC surveyors and plant pathologists rated severity of CC symptoms on 200 images to investigate the range of abilities and some factors that influence canker severity estimation. Actual dis...

21

Visual rating and the use of image analysis for assessing different symptoms of citrus canker on grapefruit leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) and infects several citrus species in wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate, precise and reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics and disease response in breeding...

22

Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

23

Characteristics of the perception of different severity measures of citrus canker and the relations between the various symptom types  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker is a disease of citrus and is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac). Ways of managing the disease are being sought, and accurate, precise, reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics. The objective of this study was to investigate...

24

Effect of the duration of inoculum exposure on development of citrus canker symptoms on seedlings of Swingle citrumelo  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is one of the most serious diseases citrus in Florida, and elsewhere in the world. The disease causes yield loss and some fresh fruit trade restrictions may apply. Cultural management techniques such as windbreaks may work by not only reducing wind...

25

Genetic diversity of citrus bacterial canker pathogens preserved in herbarium specimens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described str...

26

Efficacy of Cankerguard® Sprays for Effective Decontamination of Citrus Canker  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is endemic in Florida. We used grapefruit leaf surfaces to explore the efficacy of the personnel decontaminant Cankerguard® to kill inoculum. In three experiments plants in flush (leaves 3/4 expanded) were sprayed with inoculum (2x104-9x105 CFU/ml)...

27

Hyperspectral reflectance imaging for detecting citrus canker based on dual-band ratio image classification method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Citrus are one of the major fruit produced in China. Most of this production is exported to Europe for fresh consumption, where consumers increasingly demand best quality. Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten peel of most commercial citrus varieties. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker lesions on citrus fruit. Navel oranges with cankerous, normal and various common diseased skin conditions including wind scar, thrips scarring, scale insect, dehiscent fruit, phytotoxicity, heterochromatic stripe, and insect damage were studied. The imaging system (400-1000 nm) was established to acquire reflectance images from samples. Region of interest (ROI) spectral feature of various diseased peel areas was analyzed and characteristic wavebands (630, 685, and 720 nm) were extracted. The dual-band reflectance ratio (such as Q720/685) algorithm was performed on the hyperspectral images of navel oranges for differentiating canker from normal fruit skin and other surface diseases. The overall classification success rate was 96.84% regardless of the presence of other confounding diseases. The presented processing approach overcame the presence of stem/navel on navel oranges that typically has been a problematic source for false positives in the detection of defects. Because of the limited sample size, delineation of an optimal detection scheme is beyond the scope of the current study. However, the results showed that two-band ratio (Q685/630) along with the use of a simple threshold value segmentation method for discriminating canker on navel oranges from other peel diseases may be feasible.

Li, Jiangbo; Rao, Xiuqin; Guo, Junxian; Ying, Yibin

2010-10-01

28

First report of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri in Somalia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas citri, causal agent of citrus canker, has been reported in several countries in Africa, but not Somalia. During 2006 and 2007, hyperplasia-type lesions, often surrounded by a water-soaked margin and yellow halo, typical of citrus canker caused by X. citri, were found on 8-10 year-old gr...

29

Transcriptional Profiling of Canker-Resistant Transgenic Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Constitutively Overexpressing a Spermidine Synthase Gene  

PubMed Central

Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the citrus industry worldwide. In our previous study, the canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) plants were produced via constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying Xcc resistance of the transgenic plants, in the present study global transcriptional profiling was compared between untransformed line (WT) and the transgenic line (TG9) by hybridizing with Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip. In total, 666 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, 448 upregulated, and 218 downregulated. The DEGs were classified into 33 categories after Gene ontology (GO) annotation, in which 68 genes are in response to stimulus and involved in immune system process, 12 genes are related to cell wall, and 13 genes belong to transcription factors. These genes and those related to starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, and plant hormones were hypothesized to play major roles in the canker resistance of TG9. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript levels of several candidate genes in TG9 were significantly higher than in WT both before and after Xcc inoculation, indicating their potential association with canker disease. PMID:23509803

Fu, Xing-Zheng; Liu, Ji-Hong

2013-01-01

30

Update on packing line protocols for citrus canker and their effects on bacterial survival  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Markets for Florida citrus are severely restricted by regulations in place to minimize the spread of citrus canker to citrus producing areas. Included in these regulations are accepted protocols for sanitation and coating of fruit. However, these measures do not eradicate all the living bacterial ce...

31

Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. Results We have sequenced the genomes of strains B and C to draft status. We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. In addition to pthA, already known to be present in all three citrus canker strains, two additional effector genes, xopE3 and xopAI, are also present in all three strains and are both located on the same putative genomic island. These two effector genes, along with one other effector-like gene in the same region, are thus good candidates for being pathogenicity factors on citrus. Numerous gene content differences also exist between the three cankers strains, which can be correlated with their different virulence and host range. Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. Conclusion We have uncovered numerous commonalities and differences in gene content between the genomes of the pathogenic agents causing citrus canker A, B, and C and other Xanthomonas genomes. Molecular genetics can now be employed to determine the role of these genes in plant-microbe interactions. The gained knowledge will be instrumental for improving citrus canker control. PMID:20388224

2010-01-01

32

Amplification of DNA of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri from historic citrus canker herbarium specimens.  

PubMed

Herbaria are important resources for the study of the origins and dispersal of plant pathogens, particularly bacterial plant pathogens that incite local lesions in which large numbers of pathogen genomes are concentrated. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease, is a notable example of such a pathogen. The appearance of novel strains of the pathogen in Florida and elsewhere make it increasingly important to understand the relationships among strains of this pathogen. USDA-ARS at Beltsville, Maryland maintains approximately 700 herbarium specimens with citrus canker disease lesions up to 90 years old, originally collected from all over the world, and so is an important resource for phytogeographic studies of this bacterium. Unfortunately, DNA in herbarium specimens is degraded and may contain high levels of inhibitors of PCR. In this study, we compared a total of 23 DNA isolation techniques in combination with 31 novel primer pairs in order to develop an efficient protocol for the analysis of Xac DNA in herbarium specimens. We identified the most reliable extraction method, identified in terms of successful amplification by our panel of 31 primer pairs. We also identified the most robust primer pairs, identified as successful in the largest number of extracts prepared by different methods. We amplified Xac genomic sequences up to 542 bp long from herbarium samples up to 89 years old. Primers varied in effectiveness, with some primer pairs amplifying Xac DNA from a 1/10,000 dilution of extract from a single lesion from a citrus canker herbarium specimen. Our methodology will be useful to identify pathogens and perform molecular analyses of bacterial and possibly fungal genomes from herbarium specimens. PMID:16099061

Li, Wenbin; Brlansky, Ronald H; Hartung, John S

2006-05-01

33

DNA Polymorphisms and Biocontrol of Bacillus Antagonistic to Citrus Bacterial Canker with Indication of the Interference of Phyllosphere Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a devastating disease resulting in significant crop losses in various citrus cultivars worldwide. A biocontrol agent has not been recommended for this disease. To explore the potential of bacilli native to Taiwan to control this disease, Bacillus species with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various phytopathogens were isolated from plant potting mixes, organic compost and the rhizosphere soil. Seven strains TKS1-1, OF3-16, SP4-17, HSP1, WG6-14, TLB7-7, and WP8-12 showing superior antagonistic activity were chosen for biopesticide development. The genetic identity based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all seven native strains were close relatives of the B. subtilis group and appeared to be discrete from the B. cereus group. DNA polymorphisms in strains WG6-14, SP4-17, TKS1-1, and WP8-12, as revealed by repetitive sequence-based PCR with the BOXA1R primers were similar to each other, but different from those of the respective Bacillus type strains. However, molecular typing of the strains using either tDNA-intergenic spacer regions or 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer regions was unable to differentiate the strains at the species level. Strains TKS1-1 and WG6-14 attenuated symptom development of citrus bacterial canker, which was found to be correlated with a reduction in colonization and biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri on leaf surfaces. The application of a Bacillus strain TKS1-1 endospore formulation to the leaf surfaces of citrus reduced the incidence of citrus bacterial canker and could prevent development of the disease. PMID:22848728

Huang, Tzu-Pi; Tzeng, Dean Der-Syh; Wong, Amy C. L.; Chen, Chun-Han; Lu, Kuan-Min; Lee, Ya-Huei; Huang, Wen-Di; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Tzeng, Kuo-Ching

2012-01-01

34

POST-HURRICANE ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER SPREAD AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR FUTURE WEATHER RELATED SPREAD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker (Xanthonomas axonopodis pv. citri) has had a long history in Florida and has been introduced multiple times since the early 1900’s. With each introduction or discovery, eradication programs have been implemented to attempt to eliminate the disease. The most recent eradication...

35

Deinococcus citri sp. nov., isolated from citrus leaf canker lesions.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, coccoid bacterium, designated NCCP-154(T), was isolated from citrus leaf canker lesions and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain NCCP-154(T) grew at 10-37 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The novel strain exhibited tolerance of UV irradiation (>1000 J m(-2)). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain NCCP-154(T) showed the highest similarity to Deinococcus gobiensis CGMCC 1.7299(T) (98.8?%), and less than 94?% similarity to other closely related taxa. The chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone, MK-8; cell-wall peptidoglycan type, A3? (Orn-Gly2); major fatty acids, summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c/iso-C15?:?0 2-OH; 35.3?%) followed by C16?:?0 (12.7?%), iso-C17?:?1?9c (9.2?%), C17?:?1?8c (7.4?%) and iso-C17?:?0 (6.9?%); major polar lipids made up of several unidentified phosphoglycolipids and glycolipids and an aminophospholipid, and mannose as the predominant whole-cell sugar] also supported the affiliation of strain NCCP-154(T) to the genus Deinococcus. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NCCP-154(T) and D. gobiensis JCM 16679(T) was 63.3±3.7?%. The DNA G+C content of strain NCCP-154(T) was 70.0 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain NCCP-154(T) can be differentiated from species with validly published names. Therefore, it represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus. The name Deinococcus citri sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain NCCP-154(T) (?=?JCM 19024(T)?=?DSM 24791(T)?=?KCTC 13793(T)). PMID:25256704

Ahmed, Iftikhar; Abbas, Saira; Kudo, Takuji; Iqbal, Muhammad; Fujiwara, Toru; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-12-01

36

ANNUAL AND POLYETIC PROGRESSION OF CITRUS CANKER ON TREES PROTECTED WITH COPPER SPRAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Mathematical models are important tools for comparative analysis of epidemics. In this paper, parameters obtained from the mathematical model that best fitted to the annual progress curves of citrus canker incidence were used to evaluate the effect of copper sprays and windbreaks on the annual and...

37

Citrus MAF1, a Repressor of RNA Polymerase III, Binds the Xanthomonas citri Canker Elicitor PthA4 and Suppresses Citrus Canker Development1  

PubMed Central

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas species pathogens act as transcription factors in plant cells; however, how TAL effectors activate host transcription is unknown. We found previously that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, known as PthAs, bind the carboxyl-terminal domain of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibit the activity of CsCYP, a cyclophilin associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the citrus RNA Pol II that functions as a negative regulator of cell growth. Here, we show that PthA4 specifically interacted with the sweet orange MAF1 (CsMAF1) protein, an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) repressor that controls ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human. CsMAF1 bound the human RNA Pol III and rescued the yeast maf1 mutant by repressing tRNAHis transcription. The expression of PthA4 in the maf1 mutant slightly restored tRNAHis synthesis, indicating that PthA4 counteracts CsMAF1 activity. In addition, we show that sweet orange RNA interference plants with reduced CsMAF1 levels displayed a dramatic increase in tRNA transcription and a marked phenotype of cell proliferation during canker formation. Conversely, CsMAF1 overexpression was detrimental to seedling growth, inhibited tRNA synthesis, and attenuated canker development. Furthermore, we found that PthA4 is required to elicit cankers in sweet orange leaves and that depletion of CsMAF1 in X. citri-infected tissues correlates with the development of hyperplastic lesions and the presence of PthA4. Considering that CsMAF1 and CsCYP function as canker suppressors in sweet orange, our data indicate that TAL effectors from X. citri target negative regulators of RNA Pol II and Pol III to coordinately increase the transcription of host genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:23898043

Soprano, Adriana Santos; Abe, Valeria Yukari; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

2013-01-01

38

PROSPECTS FOR CONTROL OF CITRUS CANKER WITH NOVEL CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field trials conducted in Brazil demonstrate that copper formulations (copper hydroxide, CH; copper oxychloride, COC) even at reduced rates are consistently effective for control of canker on moderately susceptible orange varieties. Contact activity to replace and/or reduce copper could minimize po...

39

Modifications of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Lipopolysaccharide Affect the Basal Response and the Virulence Process during Citrus Canker  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, one of the most devastating citrus diseases in the world. A broad range of pathogens is recognized by plants through so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are highly conserved fragments of pathogenic molecules. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolisaccharyde (LPS) is considered a virulence factor and it is being recognized as a PAMP. The study of the participation of Xac LPS in citrus canker establishment could help to understand the molecular bases of this disease. In the present work we investigated the role of Xac LPS in bacterial virulence and in basal defense during the interaction with host and non host plants. We analyzed physiological features of Xac mutants in LPS biosynthesis genes (wzt and rfb303) and the effect of these mutations on the interaction with orange and tobacco plants. Xac mutants showed an increased sensitivity to external stresses and differences in bacterial motilities, in vivo and in vitro adhesion and biofilm formation. Changes in the expression levels of the LPS biosynthesis genes were observed in a medium that mimics the plant environment. Xacwzt exhibited reduced virulence in host plants compared to Xac wild-type and Xacrfb303. However, both mutant strains produced a lower increase in the expression levels of host plant defense-related genes respect to the parental strain. In addition, Xac LPS mutants were not able to generate HR during the incompatible interaction with tobacco plants. Our findings indicate that the structural modifications of Xac LPS impinge on other physiological attributes and lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence. On the other hand, Xac LPS has a role in the activation of basal defense in host and non host plants. PMID:22792211

Petrocelli, Silvana; Tondo, María Laura; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Orellano, Elena G.

2012-01-01

40

The epidemiological significance of post-packinghouse survival of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri for dissemination of Asiatic citrus canker via infected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The risk of introduction of Xanthomonas citri spp. citri (Xcc) to new, unaffected citrus producing areas is a major concern for those citrus industries attempting to remain free of citrus canker. Citrus fruit, as a potential pathway for Xcc to enter and become established in these areas, is assumed...

41

Bayesian Analysis for Inference of an Emerging Epidemic: Citrus Canker in Urban Landscapes  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of infectious diseases require a rapid response from policy makers. The choice of an adequate level of response relies upon available knowledge of the spatial and temporal parameters governing pathogen spread, affecting, amongst others, the predicted severity of the epidemic. Yet, when a new pathogen is introduced into an alien environment, such information is often lacking or of no use, and epidemiological parameters must be estimated from the first observations of the epidemic. This poses a challenge to epidemiologists: how quickly can the parameters of an emerging disease be estimated? How soon can the future progress of the epidemic be reliably predicted? We investigate these issues using a unique, spatially and temporally resolved dataset for the invasion of a plant disease, Asiatic citrus canker in urban Miami. We use epidemiological models, Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo, and advanced spatial statistical methods to analyse rates and extent of spread of the disease. A rich and complex epidemic behaviour is revealed. The spatial scale of spread is approximately constant over time and can be estimated rapidly with great precision (although the evidence for long-range transmission is inconclusive). In contrast, the rate of infection is characterised by strong monthly fluctuations that we associate with extreme weather events. Uninformed predictions from the early stages of the epidemic, assuming complete ignorance of the future environmental drivers, fail because of the unpredictable variability of the infection rate. Conversely, predictions improve dramatically if we assume prior knowledge of either the main environmental trend, or the main environmental events. A contrast emerges between the high detail attained by modelling in the spatiotemporal description of the epidemic and the bottleneck imposed on epidemic prediction by the limits of meteorological predictability. We argue that identifying such bottlenecks will be a fundamental step in future modelling of weather-driven epidemics. PMID:24762851

Neri, Franco M.; Cook, Alex R.; Gibson, Gavin J.; Gottwald, Tim R.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

42

Bayesian analysis for inference of an emerging epidemic: citrus canker in urban landscapes.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of infectious diseases require a rapid response from policy makers. The choice of an adequate level of response relies upon available knowledge of the spatial and temporal parameters governing pathogen spread, affecting, amongst others, the predicted severity of the epidemic. Yet, when a new pathogen is introduced into an alien environment, such information is often lacking or of no use, and epidemiological parameters must be estimated from the first observations of the epidemic. This poses a challenge to epidemiologists: how quickly can the parameters of an emerging disease be estimated? How soon can the future progress of the epidemic be reliably predicted? We investigate these issues using a unique, spatially and temporally resolved dataset for the invasion of a plant disease, Asiatic citrus canker in urban Miami. We use epidemiological models, Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo, and advanced spatial statistical methods to analyse rates and extent of spread of the disease. A rich and complex epidemic behaviour is revealed. The spatial scale of spread is approximately constant over time and can be estimated rapidly with great precision (although the evidence for long-range transmission is inconclusive). In contrast, the rate of infection is characterised by strong monthly fluctuations that we associate with extreme weather events. Uninformed predictions from the early stages of the epidemic, assuming complete ignorance of the future environmental drivers, fail because of the unpredictable variability of the infection rate. Conversely, predictions improve dramatically if we assume prior knowledge of either the main environmental trend, or the main environmental events. A contrast emerges between the high detail attained by modelling in the spatiotemporal description of the epidemic and the bottleneck imposed on epidemic prediction by the limits of meteorological predictability. We argue that identifying such bottlenecks will be a fundamental step in future modelling of weather-driven epidemics. PMID:24762851

Neri, Franco M; Cook, Alex R; Gibson, Gavin J; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A

2014-04-01

43

Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.  

PubMed

The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria. PMID:25403594

Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

2014-11-18

44

Under severe HLB and citrus canker pressure, 'Triumph' and 'Jackson' perform better than 'Flame' and 'Marsh' grapefruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Canker (CC) threaten the viability of Florida grapefruit production. ‘Triumph’ (T), reportedly a grapefruit/sweet orange hybrid, is similar to seedy white grapefruit with earlier maturity and lower bitterness. ‘Jackson’ (J) is a low-seeded budsport of ‘Triumph’. Tree h...

45

Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease: Field Identification Guide  

E-print Network

, University of California, Davis, CA Tom W. Coleman, USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, San examining large logs for symptoms of thousand cankers disease, first look for evidence of old sap staining. Seybold, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, CA Please cite this document as

Ishida, Yuko

46

SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER INFECTED PLANTINGS IN SÃO PAULO BRAZIL AND IMPLICATION OF THE ASIAN LEAFMINER ON THE POTENTIAL DISPERSAL PROCESSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eradication of Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which lead to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the s...

47

ESTIMATING THE INCREASE AND SPREAD OF CITRUS CANKER CAUSED BY THE INTERACTION OF PEDESTRIAN VERSUS CATASTROPHIC WEATHER EVENTS, HUMANS, AND BAD LUCK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), that causes Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC) can move in any of a variety of modes in the presence of free moisture. From a meteorological point of view, gentle rain, rain with wind, rain storms, tropical storms, and hurricanes can all disperse Xac i...

48

A novel Fusarium species causes a canker disease of the critically endangered conifer, Torreya taxifolia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A canker disease of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia), here designated CDFT, has been implicated in the decline of this critically endangered species in its native range of northern Florida and southeastern Georgia. In our current surveys of eight Florida torreya sites, cankers were present on all...

49

Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

2014-01-01

50

Predisposition of citrus foliage to infection with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is a serious disease of susceptible citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing areas of the world. The effect of leaf preconditioning as a route for entry of the bacteria is poorly characterized. A series of experiments were designed to i...

51

THE EFFECT OF WIND SPEED ON THE DISPERSAL PLUME OF BACTERIA DOWNWIND FROM CANKER-INFECTED GRAPEFRUIT TREES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker. Disease assessment is important for monitoring epidemics. Visual assessment (VA) is presently the only reliable means of detection. To investigate how VA of symptoms compared to image analysis we used digital images of 214 citrus le...

52

THE CHANGE IN QUANTITY OF BACTERIA OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI DISPERSED DOWN WIND FROM CANKER-INFECTED GRAPEFRUIT TREES DURING A WIND/RAIN EVENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield and marketability of citrus is limited in several tropical wet parts of the world by citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Xac). The disease can cause severe epidemics and there are few options for control, although eradication has been favored (1). A thorough knowledg...

53

Bayesian analysis for inference of an emerging epidemic: citrus canker in urban landscapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Outbreaks of infectious diseases require a rapid response from policy makers. The strength and efficacy of the responses depend upon available knowledge of the spatial and temporal parameters governing pathogen spread, affecting, amongst others, the predicted severity of the epidemic. Yet, when a ne...

54

SCREENING CITRUS GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO XANTHOMONAS ANONOPODIS PV. CITRI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac)) is a serious threat to the citrus industry. Currently there are no effective means to control citrus canker. Our objective was to determine the resistance of selected Citrus species, citrus hybrids, and citrus relatives to...

55

The HPLC-Fluorescence Detection of Coumarins in ‘Hamlin’ Sweet Orange and ‘Marsh’ Grapefruit Leaf Cankers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canker is a devastating disease for the citrus fresh fruit market and is caused by the pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri var. citri (Xcc). Infection occurs by bacterial penetration through physical damage of leaves, peel and stems, and also by bacterial entry through the stomates of these photo...

56

Canker Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... Million NIDCR/NIH Grant 2015 AAOM Call for Abstract Submissions Upcoming Events 2015 Annual Conference Registration is Now Open 2016 Annual Meeting in Atlanta - Save the Date! Canker Sores Canker ...

57

A Filamentous Hemagglutinin-Like Protein of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the Phytopathogen Responsible for Citrus Canker, Is Involved in Bacterial Virulence  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker has a number of protein secretion systems and among them, at least one type V protein secretion system belonging to the two-partner secretion pathway. This system is mainly associated to the translocation of large proteins such as adhesins to the outer membrane of several pathogens. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possess a filamentous hemagglutinin-like protein in close vicinity to its putative transporter protein, XacFhaB and XacFhaC, respectively. Expression analysis indicated that XacFhaB was induced in planta during plant-pathogen interaction. By mutation analysis of XacFhaB and XacFhaC genes we determined that XacFhaB is involved in virulence both in epiphytic and wound inoculations, displaying more dispersed and fewer canker lesions. Unexpectedly, the XacFhaC mutant in the transporter protein produced an intermediate virulence phenotype resembling wild type infection, suggesting that XacFhaB could be secreted by another partner different from XacFhaC. Moreover, XacFhaB mutants showed a general lack of adhesion and were affected in leaf surface attachment and biofilm formation. In agreement with the in planta phenotype, adhesin lacking cells moved faster in swarming plates. Since no hyperflagellation phenotype was observed in this bacteria, the faster movement may be attributed to the lack of cell-to-cell aggregation. Moreover, XacFhaB mutants secreted more exopolysaccharide that in turn may facilitate its motility. Our results suggest that this hemagglutinin-like protein is required for tissue colonization being mainly involved in surface attachment and biofilm formation, and that plant tissue attachment and cell-to-cell aggregation are dependent on the coordinated action of adhesin molecules and exopolysaccharides. PMID:19194503

Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S.; Garofalo, Cecilia G.; Orellano, Elena G.; Ottado, Jorgelina

2009-01-01

58

Ecoport Slide Shows on the Internet Related to Citrus and Citrus Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The EcoPort website was launched in 2000 to provide a knowledge database of biodiversity. As of September 2005, the EcoPort website contained over one half million references, over 42,000 pictures and over 200 slide shows, of which 59 pertain to citrus and citrus virus and virus-like diseases. As ...

59

PHENYLACETALDEHYDE O-METHYLOXIME: A VOLATILE COMPOUND FROM PLANTS INFECTED WITH CITRUS CANKER PATHOGENIC BACTERIUM, XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An aldehyde oxime o-methyl ether, phenylacetaldehyde o-methyloxime (PAAMO), was detected using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the headspace above grapefruit leaves infected with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causal agent of citrus bacte...

60

Control of virus diseases of citrus.  

PubMed

Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed. PMID:25591879

Lee, Richard F

2015-01-01

61

Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

62

Multiplexed lateral flow microarray assay for detection of citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri  

DOEpatents

The invention provides highly sensitive and specific assays for the major citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis, including a field deployable multiplexed assay capable of rapidly assaying for both pathogens simultaneously. The assays are directed at particular gene targets derived from pathogenic strains that specifically cause the major citrus diseases of citrus variegated chlorosis (Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c) and citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri). The citrus pathogen assays of the invention offer femtomole sensitivity, excellent linear dynamic range, and rapid and specific detection.

Cary; R. Bruce (Santa Fe, NM); Stubben, Christopher J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-03-22

63

Estimation of Citrus Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus Groves by real-time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A rapid and sensitive method is needed to detect Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), for epidemiology studies and implementation of CSD management strategies. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for detection of S. citri using the DNA binding fl...

64

Chemical Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid and of Huanglongbing Disease in Citrus.  

PubMed

By 2014, Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus growing regions of the world including the United States of America (USA), with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low-volume in large areas of citrus cultivation, has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. Since insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. PMID:25491482

Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

2014-12-01

65

Involvement of microRNA-Mediated Gene Expression Regulation in the Pathological Development of Stem Canker Disease in Populus trichocarpa  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of short (21–23 nucleotides), non-coding RNA molecule, mediate repressive gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level, and play an important role in defense and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In the present study, Affymetrix® miRNA Array, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for miRNAs and their targets, and miRNA promoter analysis were used to validate the gene expression patterns of miRNAs in Populus trichocarpa plantlets induced with the poplar stem canker pathogen, Botryosphaeria dothidea. Twelve miRNAs (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR168, miR172, miR319, miR398, miR408, miR1448, and miR1450) were upregulated in the stem bark of P. trichocarpa, but no downregulated miRNAs were found. Based on analysis of the miRNAs and their targets, a potential co-regulatory network was developed to describe post-transcriptional regulation in the pathological development of poplar stem canker. There was highly complex cross-talk between diverse miRNA pathway responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The results suggest that miR156 is probably an integral component of the miRNA response to all environmental stresses in plants. Cis-regulatory elements were binding sites for the transcription factors (TFs) on DNA. Promoter analysis revealed that TC-rich repeats and a W1-box motif were both tightly related disease response motifs in Populus. Promoter analysis and target analysis of miRNAs also revealed that some TFs regulate their activation/repression. Furthermore, a feedback regulatory network in the pathological development of poplar stem canker is provided. The results confirm that miRNA pathways regulate gene expression during the pathological development of plant disease, and provide new insights into understanding the onset and development of poplar stem canker. PMID:23028709

Zhao, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Su, Xiao-Hua

2012-01-01

66

Citrus stubborn disease incidence determined by quantitative real time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative real-time (q) PCR was developed for detection of Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), using the DNA binding fluorophore SYBR Green I. The primer pair, P58-3f/4r, developed based on sequences from the P58 putative adhesin multigene of the pathogen result...

67

7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock. 301.75-17 Section...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations...Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock. Subject to the...

2010-01-01

68

7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The...

2010-01-01

69

Efficacy of heat treatment for the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen in small black walnut logs.  

PubMed

Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically valuable tree species in the United States. Effective phytosanitary measures are needed to reduce the possibility of spreading this insect and pathogen through wood movement. This study evaluated the efficacy of heat treatments and debarking to eliminate P. juglandis and C. morbida in J. nigra logs 4-18 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Infested logs were steam heated until various outer sapwood temperatures (60, 65, and 70 degrees C in 2011; 36, 42, 48, 52, and 56 degrees C in 2012) were maintained or exceeded for 30-40 min. In 2011, all heat treatments eliminated G. morbida from the bark, but logs were insufficiently colonized by P. juglandis to draw conclusions about treatment effects on the beetle. Debarking did not ensure elimination of the pathogen from the sapwood surface. In 2012, there was a negative effect of increasing temperature on P. juglandis emergence and G. morbida recovery. G. morbida did not survive in logs exposed to treatments in which minimum temperatures were 48 degrees C or higher, and mean P. juglandis emergence decreased steadily to zero as treatment minimum temperature increased from 36 to 52 degrees C. A minimum outer sapwood temperature of 56 degrees C maintained for 40 min is effective for eliminating the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen from walnut logs, and the current heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer (60 degrees C core temperature for 60 min) is more than adequate for treating P. juglandis and G. morbida in walnut firewood. PMID:24665700

Mayfield, A E; Fraedrich, S W; Taylor, A; Merten, P; Myers, S W

2014-02-01

70

Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra).  

PubMed

The main objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic composition of Geosmithia morbida populations in the native range of black walnut and provide a better understanding regarding demography of the pathogen. The fungus G. morbida, and the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, have been associated with a disease complex of black walnut (Juglans nigra) known as thousand cankers disease (TCD). The disease is manifested as branch dieback and canopy loss, eventually resulting in tree death. In 2010, the disease was detected in black walnut in Tennessee, and subsequently in Virginia and Pennsylvania in 2011 and North Carolina in 2012. These were the first incidences of TCD east of Colorado, where the disease has been established for more than a decade on indigenous walnut species. A genetic diversity and population structure study of 62 G. morbida isolates from Tennessee, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Oregon was completed using 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The results revealed high haploid genetic diversity among seven G. morbida populations with evidence of gene flow, and significant differentiation among two identified genetic clusters. There was a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance. Understanding the genetic composition and demography of G. morbida can provide valuable insight into recognizing factors affecting the persistence and spread of an invasive pathogen, disease progression, and future infestation predictions. Overall, these data support the hypotheses of two separate, highly diverse pathogen introductions into the native range of black walnut. PMID:24177436

Hadziabdic, Denita; Vito, Lisa M; Windham, Mark T; Pscheidt, Jay W; Trigiano, Robert N; Kolarik, Miroslav

2014-05-01

71

Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.  

PubMed

Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic. PMID:24601984

Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

2014-09-01

72

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo F1, Which Causes Citrus Bacterial Spot Disease, and Related Strains Provides Insights into Virulence and Host Specificity ? #  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo is a citrus pathogen causing citrus bacterial spot disease that is geographically restricted within the state of Florida. Illumina, 454 sequencing, and optical mapping were used to obtain a complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain F1, 4.9 Mb in size. The strain lacks plasmids, in contrast to other citrus Xanthomonas pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the tomato bacterial spot pathogen X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10, with a completely different host range. We also compared X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to the genome of citrus canker pathogen X. axonopodis pv. citri 306. Comparative genomic analysis showed differences in several gene clusters, like those for type III effectors, the type IV secretion system, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and others. In addition to pthA, effectors such as xopE3, xopAI, and hrpW were absent from X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo while present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These effectors might be responsible for survival and the low virulence of this pathogen on citrus compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. We also identified unique effectors in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo that may be related to the different host range as compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo also lacks various genes, such as syrE1, syrE2, and RTX toxin family genes, which were present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These may be associated with the distinct virulences of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo and X. axonopodis pv. citri. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to those of X. axonopodis pv. citri and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria provides valuable insights into the mechanism of bacterial virulence and host specificity. PMID:21908674

Jalan, Neha; Aritua, Valente; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.; Setubal, João C.; Wang, Nian

2011-01-01

73

AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE OF XYELLAE DISEASES IN GRAPEVIN, CITRUS AND MULBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases on many economically important plants. An understanding of how xylellae diseases originated and evolved is interesting as well as important for disease prevention and management. We evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among strains from citrus, grapevine, and ...

74

New Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Citrus Stubborn Disease in California Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although citrus stubborn disease (CSD), caused by the phloem resident mollicute Spiroplasma citri, is a significant threat to California citrus industry, our knowledge of its epidemiology is mostly anecdotal. We optimized multiple pathogen-detection protocols, measured disease incidence in two plots...

75

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2012-01-01

76

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

77

All Five Host-Range Variants of Xanthomonas citri Carry One pthA Homolog With 17.5 Repeats That Determines Pathogenicity on Citrus, but None Determine Host-Range Variation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker disease is caused by five groups of Xanthomonas citri strains that are distinguished primarily by host range: three from Asia (A, A*, and Aw) and two that form a phylogenetically distinct clade and originated in South America (B and C). Every X. citri strain carries multiple DNA fragme...

78

Molecular Detection of Spiroplasma Citri Associated with Stubborn Disease in Citrus Orchards in Syria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be transmitted from plant to plant by several species of phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent has been recorded from several Med...

79

First report of Neofusicoccum parvum causing canker and die-back of Eucalyptus in Spain  

E-print Network

First report of Neofusicoccum parvum causing canker and die-back of Eucalyptus in Spain Eugenia disease in Eucalyptus globulus in North Spain. Keywords Eucalyptus canker. Neofusicoccum parvum . Botryosphaeriaceae A canker disease outbreak was observed for the first time on Eucalyptus globulus in North Spain

80

Molecular characterization of Phoma tracheiphila , causal agent of Mal secco disease of citrus, in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mal secco disease of citrus caused by Phoma tracheiphila is a devastating disease in the Mediterranean basin. Susceptible citrus species include lemon, citron, lime and others. Trees\\u000a attacked by the fungus show characteristic symptoms; the smallest twigs die first, followed by the larger branches. Eventually,\\u000a the whole tree is killed. The symptoms are clear in the orchards but by the

David Ezra; Tammy Kroitor; Avraham Sadowsky

2007-01-01

81

An evolutionary perspective of Pierce's disease of grapevine, citrus variegated chlorosis, and mulberry leaf scorch diseases.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases on a growing list of economically important plants. An understanding of how xylellae diseases originated and evolved is important for disease prevention and management. In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic relationships of X. fastidiosa strains from citrus, grapevine, and mulberry through the analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and conserved 16S rDNA genes. RAPD analysis emphasized the vigorous genome-wide divergence of X. fastidiosa and detected three clonal groups of strains that cause Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), and mulberry leaf scorch (MLS). Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences also identified the PD and CVC groups, but with a less stable evolutionary tree. MLS strains were included in the PD group by the 16S rDNA analysis. The Asiatic origins of the major commercial grape and citrus cultivars suggest the recent evolution of both PD and CVC disease in North and South America, respectively, since X. fastidiosa is a New World organism. In order to prevent the development of new diseases caused by X. fastidiosa, it is important to understand the diversity of X. fastidiosa strains, how strains of X. fastidiosa select their hosts, and their ecological roles in the native vegetation. PMID:12402083

Chen, Jianchi; Hartung, John S; Chang, Chung-Jan; Vidaver, Anne K

2002-12-01

82

Impacts of Phytophthora ramorum Canker and Other Agents in Sonoma County  

E-print Network

209 Impacts of Phytophthora ramorum Canker and Other Agents in Sonoma County Forests1 Tedmund J canker disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum, we established permanent plots in Sonoma County forest California, including Sonoma County. Host trees that can be killed by P. ramorum canker (sudden oak death

Standiford, Richard B.

83

Fusarium circinatum (teleomorph = Gibberella circinata) causes the serious disease of pines known as pitch canker  

E-print Network

Fusarium circinatum (teleomorph = Gibberella circinata) causes the serious disease of pines known the southeastern United States and the Caribbean region.Fusarium circinatum has caused tremendous damage to native have now been identified from the November 2010 Wood SA & Timber Times10 Fusarium circinatum: The first

84

Canker Sores (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... nutritional deficiencies of folic acid, vitamin B12, and iron seem to develop canker sores more often, as ... open sores that have a white or yellowish coating and a red "halo" around them. They tend ...

85

Detection of a phytoplasma in citrus showing Huanglongbing (yellow shoot disease) symptoms in Guangdong, P. R. China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease (ex. greening disease) is highly destructive to citrus production worldwide. Understanding the etiology of HLB is critical for managing the disease. HLB is currently known to be associated with infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in China...

86

CITRUS AND COFFEE STRAINS OF XYELLA FASTIDIOSA INDUCE PIERCE'S DISEASE IN GRAPEVINE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xyella fastidiosa causes Citrus Varigated Chlorosis (CVC) and Coffee Leaf Scorch (CLS) diseases in Brazil and Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapvine in the United States. All three diseases cause significant production problems in the respective industries. The recent establishment of the glassy-winged...

87

CITRUS AND COFFEE STRAINS OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA INDUCE PIERCES DISEASE IN GRAPEVINE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylella fastidiosa causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in Brazil and Pierces Disease of grapevines in the United States. Both of these diseases cause significant production problems in the respective industries. The recent establishment of the glassy-winged sharpshooter in California has ra...

88

Identification of citrus greening disease using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening disease, is difficult to detect in plants before visual symptoms appear, by which time the disease is likely to have spread to other nearby plants. An accurate, early detection method is needed to identify diseased plants. Current methods are both c...

89

CITRUS AND COFFEE STRAINS OF XYELLA FASTIDIOSA INDUCE PIERCE'S DISEASE IN GRAPEVINE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylella fastidiosa causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis Disease in Brazil and Pierce¿s Disease of grapevines in the United States. Both of these diseases cause significant production problems in the respective industries. The recent establishment of the glassy-winged sharpshooter in California has r...

90

Citrus Genomics  

PubMed Central

Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

2008-01-01

91

Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Black Spot1 K.-R. Chung, N. A. Peres and L. W. Timmer2  

E-print Network

unacceptable for fresh market. When disease is severe, black spot may cause extensive premature fruit dropPP 213 Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Black Spot1 K.-R. Chung, N. A. Peres and L. W. Timmer2 1 a decision-making framework to prevent their introduction and spread. This paper will discuss citrus black

Jawitz, James W.

92

Spread of citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) following incursion into Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huanglongbing (HLB) was previously known in many countries as greening disease. It is caused by the bacterium ‘Candidates Liberibacter asiaticus’ and is vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). A delimiting survey showed that the disease had become established in, and near the border town of,\\u000a Vanimo in the Sandaun Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) by

R. I. Davis; T. G. Gunua; M. F. Kame; D. Tenakanai; T. K. Ruabete

2005-01-01

93

Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum as a biocontrol agent of postharvest diseases of apple and citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two psycrotrophic yeasts isolated from the surface of lemons have been selected as biocontrol agents of the most common postharvest diseases of apples and citrus that develops during cold storage. The biocontrol yeasts were identified as Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum and Leucosporidium scottii....

94

Portable fluorescence spectroscopy platform for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus disease in situ detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the development of a portable fluorescence spectroscopy platform for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus disease in situ detection is presented. The equipment consists of an excitation blue LED light source, a commercial miniature spectrometer and embedded software. Measurements of healthy, HLB-symptomatic and HLB-asymptomatic citrus leafs were performed. Leafs were excited with the blue LED and their fluorescence spectra collected. Embedded electronics and software were responsible for the spectrum processing and classification via partial least squares regression. Global success rates above 80% and 100% distinction of healthy and HLB-symptomatic leafs were obtained.

Mota, Alessandro D.; Rossi, Giuliano; de Castro, Guilherme Cunha; Ortega, Tiago A.; de Castro N., Jarbas C.

2014-02-01

95

Genetic Structure and Biology of Xylella fastidiosa Strains Causing Disease in Citrus and Coffee in Brazil?  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa is a vector-borne, plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in citrus (citrus variegated chlorosis [CVC]) and coffee (coffee leaf scorch [CLS]) plants in Brazil. CVC and CLS occur sympatrically and share leafhopper vectors; thus, determining whether X. fastidiosa isolates can be dispersed from one crop to another and cause disease is of epidemiological importance. We sought to clarify the genetic and biological relationships between CVC- and CLS-causing X. fastidiosa isolates. We used cross-inoculation bioassays and microsatellite and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches to determine the host range and genetic structure of 26 CVC and 20 CLS isolates collected from different regions in Brazil. Our results show that citrus and coffee X. fastidiosa isolates are biologically distinct. Cross-inoculation tests showed that isolates causing CVC and CLS in the field were able to colonize citrus and coffee plants, respectively, but not the other host, indicating biological isolation between the strains. The microsatellite analysis separated most X. fastidiosa populations tested on the basis of the host plant from which they were isolated. However, recombination among isolates was detected and a lack of congruency among phylogenetic trees was observed for the loci used in the MLST scheme. Altogether, our study indicates that CVC and CLS are caused by two biologically distinct strains of X. fastidiosa that have diverged but are genetically homogenized by frequent recombination. PMID:18424531

Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Nascimento, Fernanda E.; Chau, John; Prado, Simone S.; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Lopes, Sílvio A.; Lopes, Joao R. S.

2008-01-01

96

Genetic structure and biology of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing disease in citrus and coffee in Brazil.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa is a vector-borne, plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in citrus (citrus variegated chlorosis [CVC]) and coffee (coffee leaf scorch [CLS]) plants in Brazil. CVC and CLS occur sympatrically and share leafhopper vectors; thus, determining whether X. fastidiosa isolates can be dispersed from one crop to another and cause disease is of epidemiological importance. We sought to clarify the genetic and biological relationships between CVC- and CLS-causing X. fastidiosa isolates. We used cross-inoculation bioassays and microsatellite and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches to determine the host range and genetic structure of 26 CVC and 20 CLS isolates collected from different regions in Brazil. Our results show that citrus and coffee X. fastidiosa isolates are biologically distinct. Cross-inoculation tests showed that isolates causing CVC and CLS in the field were able to colonize citrus and coffee plants, respectively, but not the other host, indicating biological isolation between the strains. The microsatellite analysis separated most X. fastidiosa populations tested on the basis of the host plant from which they were isolated. However, recombination among isolates was detected and a lack of congruency among phylogenetic trees was observed for the loci used in the MLST scheme. Altogether, our study indicates that CVC and CLS are caused by two biologically distinct strains of X. fastidiosa that have diverged but are genetically homogenized by frequent recombination. PMID:18424531

Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Nascimento, Fernanda E; Chau, John; Prado, Simone S; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Lopes, Sílvio A; Lopes, Joao R S

2008-06-01

97

Figure 1. Rapidly wilting black walnut in the final stage of thousand cankers  

E-print Network

Figure 1. Rapidly wilting black walnut in the final stage of thousand cankers disease. Figure 2 1998. Pest Alert Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut Within the past decade an unusual decline of black walnut (Juglans nigra) has been observed in several western states. Initial

98

Huanglongbing, a Systemic Disease, Restructures the Bacterial Community Associated with Citrus Roots?  

PubMed Central

To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P ? 0.01) of 237.13 versus 42.14 for the uninfected and infected clone libraries, respectively. Similarly, the Shannon index of the uninfected clone library (4.46) was significantly higher than that of the infected clone library (2.61). Comparison of the uninfected clone library with the infected clone library using LIBSHUFF statistics showed a significant difference (P ? 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the bacterial community changes not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. The relative proportions of different groups of bacteria changed significantly after infection with the pathogen. These data indicate that infection of citrus by “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots. PMID:20382817

Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

2010-01-01

99

Identification and Genomic Characterization of a New Virus (Tymoviridae Family) Associated with Citrus Sudden Death Disease  

PubMed Central

Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a new disease that has killed approximately 1 million orange trees in Brazil. Here we report the identification of a new virus associated with the disease. RNAs isolated from CSD-affected and nonaffected trees were used to construct cDNA libraries. A set of viral sequences present exclusively in libraries of CSD-affected trees was used to obtain the complete genome sequence of the new virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus is a new member of the genus Marafivirus. Antibodies raised against the putative viral coat proteins allowed detection of viral antigens of expected sizes in affected plants. Electron microscopy of purified virus confirmed the presence of typical isometric Marafivirus particles. The screening of 773 affected and nonaffected citrus trees for the presence of the virus showed a 99.7% correlation between disease symptoms and the presence of the virus. We also detected the virus in aphids feeding on affected trees. These results suggest that this virus is likely to be the causative agent of CSD. The virus was named Citrus sudden death-associated virus. PMID:15709023

Maccheroni, Walter; Alegria, Marcos C.; Greggio, Christian C.; Piazza, João Paulo; Kamla, Rachel F.; Zacharias, Paula R. A.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Assumpção, Laura C.; Camarotte, Giovana; Cardozo, Jussara; Casagrande, Elaine C.; Ferrari, Fernanda; Franco, Sulamita F.; Giachetto, Poliana F.; Girasol, Alessandra; Jordão, Hamilton; Silva, Vitor H. A.; Souza, Leonardo C. A.; Aguilar-Vildoso, Carlos I.; Zanca, Almir S.; Arruda, Paulo; Kitajima, João Paulo; Reinach, Fernando C.; Ferro, Jesus A.; da Silva, Ana C. R.

2005-01-01

100

ENHANCED DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF THE WALNUT PATHOGEN BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS: CAUSAL AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deep bark canker (DBC) of walnut is caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens which produces the red pigment rubrifacine. This disease of English walnut trees, is characterized by deep vertical cankers which exude sap laden with B. rubrifaciens. Although DBC is not observed on younger trees, ...

101

American Phytopathological Society: Plant Disease Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If Citrus Canker or Apple Scab are on your syllabus -- or worse yet, on your trees -- then this is the Web site for you. The APS Education Center has organized this very helpful online guide of plant diseases. Each excerpt is more of an information card than a detailed description, but they are very easy to use and organized well. Each Plant Disease Lesson includes: the name of the disease, the pathogen(s), and the host(s), as well as a clear picture of what an affected plant looks like. There are 17 diseases covered under the subgroups of: fungi and fungus-like organisms, nematodes, prokaryotes, and viruses.

2008-09-10

102

TPCP: Cryphonectria canker of Eucalyptus CRYPHONECTRIA CANKER OF  

E-print Network

of Eucalyptus in areas of the world where these trees are grown as exotics in plantations. Although the fungus and has already resulted in the elimination of a number of valuable Eucalyptus clones. Cracked tree crown typical of infection on older trees. SYMPTOMS AND OCCURRENCE In South Africa, Cryphonectria canker

103

Host switching between native and non-native trees in a population of the canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis  

E-print Network

Host switching between native and non-native trees in a population of the canker pathogen of this study was to test the hypothesis that Chrysoporthe cubensis on native trees in South America could Chrysoporthe canker is an economically important stem disease of plantation-grown Eucalyptus species in the tro

104

7 CFR 319.19 - Notice of quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker and Other Citrus Diseases § 319.19 Notice of quarantine...prevent the introduction into the United States of the citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri (Hasse)...

2010-01-01

105

76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7701 et seq., referred to below as the PPA), the Secretary of Agriculture may prohibit...pest within the United States. Under the PPA, the Secretary may also issue regulations...congressional findings set out in section 402 of the PPA describe USDA's responsibility to...

2011-04-27

106

78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7701 et seq., referred to below as the PPA), the Secretary of Agriculture may prohibit...pest within the United States. Under the PPA, the Secretary may also issue regulations...stock into its State. Section 436 of the PPA provides that, with very limited...

2013-10-24

107

Diagnosis and Management of Pre and Postharvest Diseases of Citrus fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus is an important fruit crop grown commercially in more than 135 countries in different agro-climatic conditions for\\u000a its diversified use and increasing demand world over with about 102.64 million tonnes total world production and probably\\u000a stands first largest among the fruit crop. The larger part of revenue by citrus producing countries is realised through fresh\\u000a fruit trade followed by

S. A. M. H. Naqvi

108

Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus  

PubMed Central

A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood. PMID:25102099

Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

109

Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

110

Expressed Genes in Asian Citrus Psyllid adults feeding on citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We created and described the first genetic data set from the Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP spread the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the citrus disease Huanglongbing, HLB, known as Citru...

111

Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

112

Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Citrus limon and Opuntia vulgaris against Newcastle disease in domestic fowl in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of a combination of Capsicum frutescens (red pepper), Citrus limon (lemon) and Opuntia vulgaris (prickly pear) against Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic fowl were evaluated. Eighty-eight broiler chickens were divided into five groups. Birds from three groups were inoculated with velogenic ND virus strain, whereas birds from two groups were left as controls. Two groups received

M. M. A. Mtambo; E. J. Mushi; L. D. B. Kinabo; A. Maeda-Machang’u; G. L. M. Mwamengele; M. G. S. Yongolo; R. P. C. Temu

1999-01-01

113

Over the past 50 years, citrus growers have faced exotic pests and diseases predicted to cause the collapse of the Florida citrus  

E-print Network

, the possibility of pesticide applications affecting bees in citrus is past. For 2008, IFAS Extension programs are emphasizing the need to complete early-season psyllid control prior to bloom- ing. In addition, evaluation of the Melitto Files in April. Colony collapse disorder exploded onto the national scene, eclipsing (albeit

Jawitz, James W.

114

Enhanced tomato resistance to bacterial canker by application of turtle oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment with oil of sea turtle Caretta caretta protected tomato plants against bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). The turtle oil was ineffective in inhibiting Cmm in an agar diffusion test, suggesting a mechanism of induced resistance. Under controlled conditions in the greenhouse, turtle oil lowered the disease index and had reduced the growth of bacteria up

Ömür Baysal; Y. Ziya Gürsoy; Hakan Örnek; Ahmet Duru

2005-01-01

115

Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment  

PubMed Central

Background From field harvest to the consumer’s table, fresh citrus fruit spends a considerable amount of time in shipment and storage. During these processes, physiological disorders and pathological diseases are the main causes of fruit loss. Heat treatment (HT) has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage; however, limited molecular information related to this treatment is currently available at a systemic biological level. Results Mature ‘Kamei’ Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were selected for exploring the disease resistance mechanisms induced by HT during postharvest storage. Proteomic analyses based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and metabolomic research based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) were conducted. The results show resistance associated proteins were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp, such as beta-1, 3-glucanase, Class III chitinase, 17.7?kDa heat shock protein and low molecular weight heat-shock protein. Also, redox metabolism enzymes were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp, including isoflavone reductase, oxidoreductase and superoxide dismutase. Primary metabolic profiling revealed organic acids and amino acids were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp; but significant accumulation of metabolites, including tetradecanoic acid, oleic acid, ornithine, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, succinic acid, turanose, sucrose, galactose, myo-inositol, glucose and fructose were detected. Noticeably, H2O2 content decreased, while, lignin content increased in heat treated pericarp compared to the control, which might increase fruit resistibility in response to external stress. Also, flavonoids, substances which are well-known to be effective in reducing external stress, were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp. Conclusions This study provides a broad picture of differential accumulation of proteins and metabolites in postharvest citrus fruit, and gives new insights into HT improved fruit disease resistance during subsequent storage of ‘Kamei’ Satsuma mandarin. Interpretation of the data for the proteins and metabolites revealed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lignin play important roles in heat treatment induced fruit resistance to pathogens and physiological disorders. PMID:23497220

2013-01-01

116

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Citrus essences on honeybee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae , the causal agent of American foulbrood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of four citrus fruit essential oils to control Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood disease (AFB) were determined. This honeybee larvae disease occurs throughout the\\u000a world and is found in many beekeeping areas of Argentina. Citrus fruit essential oils tested were those from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus nobilis)

Sandra R. Fuselli; Susana B. García de la Rosa; Martín J. Eguaras; Rosalía Fritz

2008-01-01

117

7 CFR 301.75-1 - Definitions.  

...plant disease caused by strains of the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri...that may have been contaminated with bacteria that cause citrus canker. Grove...fruit variety. Infected. Containing bacteria that cause citrus canker....

2014-01-01

118

78 FR 29049 - Streptomycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...aminoglycoside class and is produced by the bacteria streptomyces. The active pesticide...citrus canker, a disease caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas citri. Citrus canker...of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria, in consideration of factors...

2013-05-17

119

7 CFR 301.75-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...plant disease caused by strains of the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri...that may have been contaminated with bacteria that cause citrus canker. Grove...fruit variety. Infected. Containing bacteria that cause citrus canker....

2013-01-01

120

7 CFR 301.75-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plant disease caused by strains of the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri...that may have been contaminated with bacteria that cause citrus canker. Grove...fruit variety. Infected. Containing bacteria that cause citrus canker....

2010-01-01

121

7 CFR 301.75-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...plant disease caused by strains of the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri...that may have been contaminated with bacteria that cause citrus canker. Grove...fruit variety. Infected. Containing bacteria that cause citrus canker....

2012-01-01

122

7 CFR 301.75-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...plant disease caused by strains of the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri...that may have been contaminated with bacteria that cause citrus canker. Grove...fruit variety. Infected. Containing bacteria that cause citrus canker....

2011-01-01

123

Current Situation of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong, P. R. China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...

124

A phytoplasma related to 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteri' detected in citrus showing Huanglongbing (yellow shoot disease) symptoms in Guangdong, P. R. China.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease (i.e., greening disease) is highly destructive to citrus production worldwide. Understanding the etiology of HLB is critical for managing the disease. HLB is currently associated with infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' around the world, including China. However, Koch's postulates have not been fulfilled. In addition, other plant pathogens also may be involved in HLB. In a survey performed in Guangdong Province, P. R. China in 2006 and 2007, 141 citrus samples showing typical symptoms of HLB from 11 different cities were collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using phytoplasma-specific primer sets fU5/rU3 nested with primer set P1/P7 identified 110 (78.0%) positive samples. A 1,785-bp amplicon was obtained with primer set P1/P7. Analysis showed a 100% identity of this sequence in the region of 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer to three strains of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteri' (onion yellows [Japan], aster yellows 'watercress' [Hawaii], and valeriana yellows [Lithuania]). Of the 141 samples, 89 (63.1%) samples were positive for 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus'. When mixed infection was considered, 69 (48.9%) samples were positive for both 'Ca. P. asteri' and 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed low titers of both walled and wall-less bodies in the phloem sieve tubes of HLB citrus. When transmission from symptomatic citrus to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) via dodder (Cuscuta campestris) was conducted, both phytoplasma and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were detected from the affected periwinkle. In addition to yellowing/mottling, the infected periwinkle showed symptoms of virescence and phyllody which are commonly associated with phytoplasmal diseases. TEM analysis of affected periwinkle revealed pleomorphic and wall-less organisms, characteristic of phytoplasmas, filling some phloem sieve tubes. In contrast, walled bacteria were at low titer. This study showed that in addition to 'Ca. L. asiaticus', a phytoplasma related to 'Ca. P. asteri' could also be detected in citrus showing HLB symptoms in Guangdong. PMID:19203275

Chen, J; Pu, X; Deng, X; Liu, S; Li, H; Civerolo, E

2009-03-01

125

Rapid screening of huanglongbing-infected citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The citrus disease Haunglongbing (HLB or citrus greening), is one of the more serious diseases of citrus. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees suspected of infection by citrus greening pathogens is...

126

112 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 THOUSAND CANKERS PATHWAY ASSESSMENT: MOVEMENT OF  

E-print Network

of walnut, identified by state cooperators, may threaten the native range of eastern black walnut, Juglans vector is the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis (WTB). The common name for the disease and thousand cankers disease (TCD) has caused walnut mortality in Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Utah

127

Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

Gausman, H. W.

1971-01-01

128

Citrus Leprosis Virus Vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Citrus in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms\\u000a of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation,\\u000a and death of the twigs or

J. C. V. Rodrigues; E. W. Kitajima; C. C. Childers; C. M. Chagas

2003-01-01

129

Characterization of a Proposed Dichorhavirus Associated with the Citrus Leprosis Disease and Analysis of the Host Response  

PubMed Central

The causal agents of Citrus leprosis are viruses; however, extant diagnostic methods to identify them have failed to detect known viruses in orange, mandarin, lime and bitter orange trees with severe leprosis symptoms in Mexico, an important citrus producer. Using high throughput sequencing, a virus associated with citrus leprosis was identified, belonging to the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. The virus was termed Citrus Necrotic Spot Virus (CNSV) and contains two negative-strand RNA components; virions accumulate in the cytoplasm and are associated with plasmodesmata—channels interconnecting neighboring cells—suggesting a mode of spread within the plant. The present study provides insights into the nature of this pathogen and the corresponding plant response, which is likely similar to other pathogens that do not spread systemically in plants. PMID:25004279

Cruz-Jaramillo, José Luis; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Rojas-Morales, Lourdes; López-Buenfil, José Abel; Morales-Galván, Oscar; Chavarín-Palacio, Claudio; Ramírez-Pool, José Abrahán; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

2014-01-01

130

Modified citrus pectin reduces galectin-3 expression and disease severity in experimental acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Galectin-3 is a ?-galactoside binding lectin with roles in diverse processes including proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis which are dependent on different domains of the molecule and subcellular distribution. Although galectin-3 is known to be upregulated in acute kidney injury, the relative importance of its different domains and functions are poorly understood in the underlying pathogenesis. Therefore we experimentally modulated galectin-3 in folic acid (FA)-induced acute kidney injury utilising modified citrus pectin (MCP), a derivative of pectin which can bind to the galectin-3 carbohydrate recognition domain thereby predominantly antagonising functions linked to this role. Mice were pre-treated with normal or 1% MCP-supplemented drinking water one week before FA injection. During the initial injury phase, all FA-treated mice lost weight whilst their kidneys enlarged secondary to the renal insult; these gross changes were significantly lessened in the MCP group but this was not associated with significant changes in galectin-3 expression. At a histological level, MCP clearly reduced renal cell proliferation but did not affect apoptosis. Later, during the recovery phase at two weeks, MCP-treated mice demonstrated reduced galectin-3 in association with decreased renal fibrosis, macrophages, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptosis. Other renal galectins, galectin-1 and -9, were unchanged. Our data indicates that MCP is protective in experimental nephropathy with modulation of early proliferation and later galectin-3 expression, apoptosis and fibrosis. This raises the possibility that MCP may be a novel strategy to reduce renal injury in the long term, perhaps via carbohydrate binding-related functions of galectin-3. PMID:21494626

Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Price, Karen L; Winyard, Paul J; Long, David A

2011-01-01

131

Citrus Inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.

1994-01-01

132

Citrus Inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

1986-01-01

133

Endosymbiotic microbiota of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The causes of huanglongbing may be induced by more than one microbial agent. Thus, we examined the microbial community in the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP) (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Citrus greening is one of the most severe diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa and is caused by an uncu...

134

Intercropping of citrus and guava trees for management of Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies conducted in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, Japanese and Australian scientists indicate that interplanting citrus with guava negated infestations of Asian citrus psyllid and consequently huanglongbing, a serious disease caused by a bacterium vectored by the psyllid. Young citrus interplanted...

135

Citrus Orchard Management in Texas.  

E-print Network

Establishing the Young Citrus Orchard ........................ ti Location and Site Selection ..... .. ............................... I Commercial Orchard Varieties ............................... J Citrus Trees for Planting... ........................................ 1 Planting the Orchard ................................................ 5 Young Citrus Orchard Care Young Citrus Orchard Cultivation .................................... i j! ........................ Fertilization of Young Citrus Trees : I...

Hancock, Bluefford G.

1962-01-01

136

ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLID AND CITRUS GREENING - A CLOSER LOOK AT THE VECTOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae), was first found in Florida during June 1998 and is now widespread throughout much of the state. This invasive psyllid vectors the bacterium responsible for huanglongbing (HLB) (greening disease), a serious citrus disease. HL...

137

PURIFICATION OF VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES FROM CITRUS CHLOROTIC DWARF INFECTED CITRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus chlorotic dwarf (CCD) is a new disease of citrus having been found in Turkey in the mid 1980s. Disease symptoms in the field consist of chlorotic leaf patterns, crinkling, leaf distortion, shoot malformation and stunting in young trees. CCD is vectored by the bayberry whitefly and is graft ...

138

HUANGLONGBING, CITRUS GREENING: PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB), more commonly known as citrus greening disease, was found in Florida in August 2005; Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the Asian citrus psyllid and insect vector of HLB, was found in Florida in 1998. Since the initial discovery, the presence of HLB has been confirmed by polymerase cha...

139

Asian citrus psyllid, genetic basis of immunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We successfully used a genomics approach to determine some of the genes which function in immunity, stress, and insecticide resistance in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). These psyllids are vectors of the devastating disease, Huanglongbing, now affecting citrus in F...

140

Enhancement or attenuation of disease by deletion of genes from Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport resu...

141

DISEASE DEVELOPMENT AND SYMPTOM EXPRESSION OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI IN VARIOUS CITRUS PLANT TISSUES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experimental inoculations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) in different tissues of Tahiti lime and Pineapple sweet orange were conducted monthly under natural conditions in Réunion Island. The interactions between a set of environmental and epidemic variables associated with disease express...

142

Citrus aurantium  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Citrus aurantium has enjoyed a rich history of uses in food, cosmetics, and medicine Recent misuse of this product for weight loss, however,\\u000a is threatening to tarnish the holistic reputation of this fruit Manufacturers are isolating and concentrating the synephnne\\u000a content from the 0 33 mg\\/g contained in the pulp of whole fruit to 20 mg\\/g in some dietary supplements,

Anders Westanmo

143

Citrus huanglongbing shapes the structure of bacterial community associated with citrus roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the effect of pathogen on the diversity and structure of plant associated bacterial community, we carried out a molecular based analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as host-disease model. 16S rDNA clone library analysis of the citrus roots revealed shifts in the microbial diversity in ...

144

Symmetric and asymmetric hybridization in citrus spp.  

E-print Network

of ?Hamlin? sweet orange and 13 ?Singapura? pummelo with potential to be used as blight, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerant rootstocks. Khan and Grosser (2004) fused C. micrantha, a progenitor of lime, with sweet...

Bona, Claudine M.

2009-05-15

145

Enhancement of the citrus immune system provides effective resistance against Alternaria brown spot disease.  

PubMed

In addition to basal defense mechanisms, plants are able to develop enhanced defense mechanisms such as induced resistance (IR) upon appropriate stimulation. We recently described the means by which several carboxylic acids protect Arabidopsis and tomato plants against fungi. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hexanoic acid (Hx) in the control of Alternaria brown spot (ABS) disease via enhancement of the immune system of Fortune mandarin. The application of 1mM Hx in irrigation water to 2-year-old Fortune plants clearly reduced the incidence of the disease and led to smaller lesions. We observed that several of the most important mechanisms involved in induced resistance were affected by Hx application. Our results demonstrate enhanced callose deposition in infected plants treated with Hx, which suggests an Hx priming mechanism. Plants treated with the callose inhibitor 2-DDG were more susceptible to the fungus. Moreover, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene expression was rapidly and significantly upregulated in treated plants. However, treatment with Hx decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected plants. Hormonal and gene analyses revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was activated due to a greater accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and JA along with a rapid accumulation of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Furthermore, we observed a more rapid accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), which could act as a positive regulator of callose deposition. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that both enhanced physical barriers and the JA signaling pathway are involved in hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to Alternaria alternata. PMID:23260526

Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Vicedo, Begonya; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

2013-01-15

146

University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oranges and other citrus plants have been grown in Florida for well over a century, and there has always been a vital relationship between the universities in the state and the citrus industry. The University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) helps foster these valuable relationships, and they have a facility in Lake Alfred, Florida that includes 600 acres of groves, greenhouses, a fresh fruit packinghouse, and more than 40 laboratories. On their website, visitors can learn about their research into hurricane recovery, advanced citrus production, and plant cell physiology in the "Research" section. Over in the "Extension" area, visitors can learn about the diseases the affect citrus crops, read their free "Citrus Pest Management Guide", and also learn about various pesticides. The site also includes links for the media, along with their in-house "Citrus Leaves" newsletter.

147

76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of citrus. Caused by a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, CVC causes severe...researchers did note, however, that the bacterium causing HLB remained at a very low titer...disease. However, titer levels of the bacterium were low, and the plants remained...

2011-02-15

148

Chemical compounds effective against the citrus huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide, and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. The new antibiotic combination of penicillin and streptomycin (...

149

First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

150

Investigations of the feasibility for managing the Asian citrus pysllid using Isaria fumosorosea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri, transmits one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, the plant pathogenic bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is strongly associated with the occurrence of huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. In Florida, g...

151

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

E-print Network

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus agricole, Ministère de l'Agriculture. Abstract We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus

Perreault, Jean-Pierre

152

Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.  

PubMed

Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker. PMID:25443842

Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

2014-12-01

153

Establishment of Asian citrus psllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new cell line was developed from the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), as a novel approach to culture the bacteria associated with huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. Methods to culture the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus L...

154

Citrus Grove Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

1980-01-01

155

Genetic variation and host specificity of Phytophthora citrophthora isolates causing branch cankers in Clementine trees in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable tree losses have been observed during the past few years in Spain due to Phytophthora branch canker of clementines\\u000a caused by Phytophthora citrophthora. The emergence of this disease led to the speculation that either the pathogen has evolved increasing its aggressiveness\\u000a or specificity to clementines. A total of 134 isolates of P. citrophthora collected from 2003 to 2005 in

Luis Armando Alvarez; Maela León; Paloma Abad-Campos; José García-Jiménez; Antonio Vicent

2011-01-01

156

Distribution of Geotrichum candidum citrus race in citrus groves and non-citrus fields in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence ofGeotrichum candidum citrus race, the citrus sour rot pathogen, was examined in soils of citrus groves and non-citrus fields of Japan. Soil samples were collected from 223 sites (118 sites in citrus groves, and 105 sites in fields cultivated with 33 species of non-citrus plants and in evergreen broad-leaved forest) in 11 main citrus-growing prefectures, and Hokkaido, a

Dewa Ngurah Suprapta; Kei Arai; Hisashi Iwai

1995-01-01

157

Electron microscopic investigations and indexing studies of psorosis and citrus ringspot virus of citrus / by Margaret Atchison Barkley  

E-print Network

on the following pages follow the style of the Journal of the American Societ for Horticultural Science. disease affecting mature citrus trees in Texas (1) and Florida (35) (Figs. 1 and Z). The development of budwood certification programs and the in- creasing... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Horticulture ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS AND INDEXING STUDIES OF PSOROSIS AND CITRUS RINGSPOT VIRUS OF CITRUS A Thesis by MARGARET ATCHISON BARKLEY Approved as to style and content...

Barkley, Margaret Atchison

2012-06-07

158

Citrus Stubborn Severity is Associated with Spiroplasma Citri Titer but Not with Bacterial Genotype.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of citrus stubborn disease (CSD), caused by Spiroplasma citri, on citrus production is associated with symptom severity of infected citrus trees. To assess whether symptom severity was associated with spiroplasma titer in the plant, 58 S. citri strains were cultivated from severely and mi...

159

Dramatic Change in Citrus tristeza virus populations in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus and has been an important concern for the citrus industry in the Dominican Republic. Earlier studies documented widespread distribution of mild isolates of the T30 genotype, which caused no disease in the infected trees, an...

160

Vigour and behaviour of fifteen citrus varieties against tristeza in the forest zone of Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen varieties or combinations of citrus (lime, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, mandarin and hybrids) were characterized in the forest zone of Cameroon. Characterization was carried out based on the behaviour of these citrus varieties against citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Foliar and cortical symptoms were evaluated. Six years old plants did not show any immune reaction against the disease. Unusual mild symptoms

Ndongo Bekolo; Belibi Messanga Louis; Ongono Yvette

161

Lack of Evidence of Transmission of 'Candidatus' Liberibacter Asiaticus Through Citrus Seed Taken From Affected Fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing disease, putatively caused by the associated bacterium Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus is the greatest threat to the world citrus industry today. The bacterium is spread locally and regionally by the citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can also be disseminated by grafting...

162

Complete Genome sequence of citrus huanglongbing bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ obtained through metagenomics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. It is spread by the citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri and Trioza erytreae), and is associated with low-titer, phloem-limited infections by any of the three uncultured species of a-Proteobacteria: 'Candidatus Liberibact...

163

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all

Marcelo L Laia; Leandro M Moreira; Juliana Dezajacomo; Joice B Brigati; Cristiano B Ferreira; Ana CR Silva; Jesus A Ferro; Julio CF Oliveira

2009-01-01

164

Floral nectar chemical composition of floral nectar in conventional and transgenic sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, expressing an antibacterial peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral nectar chemical composition of conventional and transgenic sweet orange trees expressing the antibacterial peptide\\u000a sarcotoxin IA (Stx IA), which has been shown to efficiently inhibit in vitro growth of the bacteria responsible for citrus\\u000a canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri), is reported. The nectar contents of primary metabolites (sugars, amino acids, proteins, triacylglycerides) and\\u000a of the secondary metabolites (total purine

V. Sala Junior; V. R. Celloto; L. G. E. Vieira; J. E. Gonçalves; R. A. C. Gonçalves; A. J. B. de Oliveira

2008-01-01

165

Autoinflammatory Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment, a synthetic form of human IL-1Ra. Behçet’s Disease Behçet’s disease causes canker sores or ulcers in the ... of the digestive tract, brain, and spinal cord. Behçet’s disease is common in the Middle East, Asia, ...

166

Citrus Waste Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

2007-01-30

167

Assessing quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in Brassica napus (oilseed rape) in young plants.  

PubMed

Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases. PMID:24454767

Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J; Fitt, Bruce D L

2014-01-01

168

Reclassification of the butternut canker fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, into the genus Ophiognomonia.  

PubMed

Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Sc-j), which causes a canker disease on butternut, is largely responsible for the decline of this tree in the United States and Canada. The original description of the species was based on anamorphic characters because the teleomorph is unknown. Recent phylogenetic investigations have found that Sc-j is not a member of the genus Sirococcus, and accurate taxonomic classification is required. The objective of this study is to use sequence data to determine the phylogenetic placement of Sc-j within the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales. Isolates were recovered from infected Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis (heartnut), Juglans cinerea (butternut), and Juglans nigra (black walnut) in Ontario and the eastern United States. The genes coding for ?-tubulin, actin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha from 28 isolates of Sc-j and representatives of the major lineages within the Gnomoniaceae were evaluated. There was no difference in the sequences of the five genes among the isolates of Sc-j studied, indicating a recent introduction followed by asexual reproduction and spread via conidia. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrate this fungus does not belong to the genus Sirococcus, and provides strong support (99% MP and 100% NJ bootstrap values, and 100% Bayesian posterior probabilities) for its inclusion in the genus Ophiognomonia, thereby supporting a reclassification of the butternut canker fungus to Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum. PMID:21215957

Broders, K D; Boland, G J

2011-01-01

169

Use of a climatic rule and fuzzy sets to model geographic distribution of climatic risk for European canker (Neonectria galligena) of apple.  

PubMed

A rule-based model was developed to assess climatic risk of European canker (Neonectria galligena), which is a major disease of apple in some temperate zones. A descriptive rule was derived from published observations on climatic conditions favorable for European canker development. Fuzzy set theory was used to evaluate the descriptive rule quantitatively. The amount and frequency of rainfall and the average number of hours between 11 and 16°C/day were used as input variables whose values were matched with terms in the rule, e.g., 'high' or 'low'. The degree of a term, e.g., the state of being high or low, to a given input value was determined using a membership function that converts an input value to a number between 0 and 1. The rule was evaluated by combining the degree of the terms associated with monthly climate data. Monthly risk index values derived using the rule were combined for pairs of consecutive months over 12 months. The annual risk of European canker development was represented by the maximum risk index value for 2 months combined. The membership function parameters were adjusted iteratively to achieve a specified level of risk at Talca (Chile), Loughgall (Northern Ireland), East Malling (UK), and Sebastopol (USA), where European canker risk was known. The rule-based model was validated with data collected from Canada, Ecuador, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the Pacific Northwest (USA), where European canker has been reported to occur. In these validation areas, the model's risk prediction agreed with reports of disease occurrence. The rule-based model also predicted high risk areas more reliably than the climate matching model, CLIMEX, which relies on correlations between the spatial distribution of a species and climatic conditions. The combination of a climatic rule and fuzzy sets could be used for other applications where prediction of the geographic distribution of organisms is required for climatic risk assessment. PMID:21809979

Kim, Kwang Soo; Beresford, Robert M

2012-02-01

170

Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum  

PubMed Central

There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

2014-01-01

171

Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.  

PubMed

There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

2014-01-01

172

XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI: FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL ERADICATION OF CITRUS CANKER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taxonomic status: Bacteria, Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision, Xanthomodales, Xanthomonas group, axonopodis DNA homology group, X. axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Microbiological properties: Gram negative, slender, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile by a single polar flagellum, produces slo...

173

Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Diaphorina citri and its importance in the management of Citrus Huanglongbing in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is a highly destructive disease that has been spreading in both Florida and Brazil. Its psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, has spread to Texas and Mexico thus threatening the future of citrus production elsewhere in North America. Even though, sensitive d...

174

Development of primers and probes for detection of citrus "Candidatus Liberibacter species" by real-time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is the most threatening bacterial disease of Citrus spp. Three uncultured Candidatus Liberibacter spp. are usually detected by conventional PCR or real-time PCR using species specific primers and probes based on the 16S rRNA gene. Recent molecular analy...

175

Guide for Citrus Production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.  

E-print Network

Citrus 14 Rootstocks-Their Tolerance and Commercic Value 15 NURSERY TREES 15 Diseases and Insects 15 Tree Size and Form 16 GROVE ESTABLISHMENT 16 Tree Spacing 16 Planting and Initial Care 16 Fertilizing and Watering Trees 17 Pruning and Training... Trees CARE OF BEARING TREES Fertilization Mechanical Cultivation Diseases from Fungus and Virus Physiological Disorders Nematodes Citrus Mites and Insects Mites Armored Scales Unarmored Scales Miscellaneous Insects Water Requirements...

Maxwell, Norman P. (Norman Paul); Bailey, Morris A.

1963-01-01

176

Summer heat and low soil organic matter influence severity of hazelnut Cytospora canker.  

PubMed

Cytospora canker, caused by the fungus Cytospora corylicola, is present in hazelnut production areas worldwide. The disease is widespread throughout the main production areas of Italy. The causal agent is considered to be a secondary invader of damaged tissue that attacks mainly stressed plants. However, little is known of disease severity and stress factors that predispose plants to infection. In particular, the role of pedoclimatic factors was investigated. Direct survey indicated that disease severity varied across several study sites. Geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation between disease severity index and summer heat (r = 0.80 and 0.91 for July and August, respectively) and strong negative correlation between disease severity index and soil organic matter (r = -0.78). A moderate positive correlation between disease severity index and magnesium/potassium ratio (r = 0.58) and moderate negative correlations between disease severity index and total soil nitrogen (r = -0.53), thermal shock (r = -0.46), and rainfall (r = -0.53) were determined. No significant correlation between disease severity index and soil aluminum (r = -0.35), soil pH (r = -0.01), and plant age (r = -0.38) was found. PMID:24168042

Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Varvaro, Leonardo

2014-04-01

177

Quantitative distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the aerial parts of the field grown HLB-infected citrus trees in Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayanna, one of the vectors for citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) has been present in Texas for over a decade, but the detection of the disease is recent. HLB has been confirmed in only two adjacent commercial citrus groves of grapefruit and...

178

Invasive Plants, Species and Conditions Fact Sheets: Cheatgrass Brome, Bamboo Reed, Butternut Canker, Dutch Elm, Chestnut Blight, Asian Cycad Scale, Crazy Ant, Red Fox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive plants, species and conditions which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The plants, species and conditions described here are cheatgrass brome, bamboo reed, butternut canker, dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, Asian cycad scale, crazy ant and red fox. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

2013-06-12

179

Differences in secondary metabolites in leaves from orange trees (Citrus sinensis L.) affected with greening disease (Huanglongbing) (HLB)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preliminary analyses by HPLC-MS of methanolic extracts of two sets of orange leaves that are symptomatic of the Greening Disease (HLB) have shown several consistent differences. The main flavonoids in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic leaves were monitored in the HPLC chromatograms at 330 nm, and signi...

180

ISOLATION OF AN EFFECTIVE PROMOTER FROM CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS FOR EXPRESSION OF DISEASE RESISTANT GENES IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial diseases caused by Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Ralstonia spp. often result in significant loses in the production and quality of ornamental crops, and are very difficult to control. The use of genetically engineered crops offers a novel, cost effective and environ...

181

BARK CANKER OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY DEVELOPING ON PECAN CARYA ILLINOENSIS TREES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pecan trees in a five-year-old orchard of 17 cultivars had symptoms of an unusual bark canker first noticed in October, 2002. Symptoms appeared from ground line up to 3 meters on the central leader and most likely were initiated during the summer of 2002. Cankers developed around buds of the trunk...

182

Genome sequence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the casual agent of citrus huanglongbing (greening)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter: Ca. L. asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. africanus. We first detected and identified Las bacterium from HLB-infected...

183

MULTIPLEX TAQMAN-BASED PCR FOR SENSITIVE AND ACCURATE QUANTIFICATION OF CITRUS HLB AND CVC PATHOGENS; CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER AND XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening disease) and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) are caused by Candidatus Liberibacter (CL) and Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) respectively. Both pathogens were listed as plant bio-threat agents in 2002 US Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act. Citr...

184

Proteome of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a global expression profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by Xantomonas citri subsp.citri (Xac), and has emerged as one of the major threats to the worldwide citrus crop because it affects all commercial citrus varieties, decreases the production and quality of the fruits and can spread rapidly in citrus growing areas. In this work, the first proteome of Xac was analyzed using

Márcia R Soares; Agda P Facincani; Rafael M Ferreira; Leandro M Moreira; Julio CF de Oliveira; Jesus A Ferro; Rogério Meneghini; Fábio C Gozzo

2010-01-01

185

Anticancer and health protective properties of citrus fruit components.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies indicates that there is a low risk of degenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cataract, stroke and, in particular, cancers in people with a high intake of fruit and vegetables. This protective effect is assumed to be associated mainly with the antioxidant activities of either individual or interacting bioactive components present in the fruits and vegetables, and with other biochemical and physical characteristics of the identified and unknown bioactive components. The implicated bioactive components present in citrus fruits include vitamin C, beta-carotene, flavonoids, limonoids, folic acid, and dietary fibre. A high intake of citrus fruits may reduce the risk of degenerative diseases. PMID:11890643

Silalahi, Jansen

2002-01-01

186

COMPARISON OF DNA AMPLIFICATION METHODS FOR IMPROVED DETECTION OF CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER SPECIES ASSOCIATED WTIH CITRUS HUANGLONGBING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglonbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide, has Asian, African and American forms caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Ca. L. africanus and Ca. L. americanus, respectively. The presumably low concentration and uneven distribution of the pathogens in citru...

187

Midgut gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Diaphorina citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We produced a gene expression dataset from the midgut tissues of the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP is the primary vector of the bacterium associated with a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). The occurrence and spread of the AsCP ...

188

Distribution and Management of Citrus in California: Implications for Management of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemiology of Pierce’s disease of grape in California has changed over the last 10 years due to the introduction of an exotic vector, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar). Although this insect is highly polyphagous, citrus is considered a preferred host of H. vitripennis and proximity to citrus h...

189

Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study, we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids ...

190

Detection and characterization of a novel reovirus in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We successfully used a genomics approach to discover viral pathogens in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). These psyllids are vectors of the devastating disease, Huanglongbing, now affecting citrus in the USA, and world wide. Discovery of viral pathogens of psyllids m...

191

Acoustic signals in the courtship of male and female Asian citrus psyllids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was discovered in Broward County, Florida in 1998, and has since spread through most of the state. It is an important vector of Huanglongbing, an economically devastating disease of citrus; consequently, researchers and regulators are trying to d...

192

Global gene expression of Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus sunki and their hybrids under infection of Phytophthora parasitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R), and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S) to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible

Leonardo P Boava; Mariângela Cristofani-Yaly; Valéria S Mafra; Karen Kubo; Luciano T Kishi; Marco A Takita; Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves; Marcos A Machado

2011-01-01

193

Citrus Leafminer Mating Disruption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mating disruption targets a specific pest and has no negative impact on natural enemies, the environment, or agricultural workers. A flowable wax dispenser was tested for releasing the female sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella. These dispensers are biodegradable, inexpens...

194

All five host-range variants of Xanthomonas citri carry one pthA homolog with 17.5 repeats that determines pathogenicity on citrus, but none determine host-range variation.  

PubMed

Citrus canker disease is caused by five groups of Xanthomonas citri strains that are distinguished primarily by host range: three from Asia (A, A*, and A(w)) and two that form a phylogenetically distinct clade and originated in South America (B and C). Every X. citri strain carries multiple DNA fragments that hybridize with pthA, which is essential for the pathogenicity of wide-host-range X. citri group A strain 3213. DNA fragments that hybridized with pthA were cloned from a representative strain from all five groups. Each strain carried one and only one pthA homolog that functionally complemented a knockout mutation of pthA in 3213. Every complementing homolog was of identical size to pthA and carried 17.5 nearly identical, direct tandem repeats, including three new genes from narrow-host-range groups C (pthC), A(w) (pthAW), and A* (pthA*). Every noncomplementing paralog was of a different size; one of these was sequenced from group A* (pthA*-2) and was found to have an intact promoter and full-length reading frame but with 15.5 repeats. None of the complementing homologs nor any of the noncomplementing paralogs conferred avirulence to 3213 on grapefruit or suppressed avirulence of a group A* strain on grapefruit. A knockout mutation of pthC in a group C strain resulted in loss of pathogenicity on lime, but the strain was unaffected in ability to elicit an HR on grapefruit. This pthC- mutant was fully complemented by pthA, pthB, or pthC. Analysis of the predicted amino-acid sequences of all functional pthA homologs and nonfunctional paralogs indicated that the specific sequence of the 17th repeat may be essential for pathogenicity of X. citri on citrus. PMID:17722697

Al-Saadi, Abdulwahid; Reddy, Joseph D; Duan, Yong P; Brunings, Asha M; Yuan, Qiaoping; Gabriel, Dean W

2007-08-01

195

Establishment of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). Commonly referred to as citrus greening disease in the USA, HLB causes reduced fruit yields, quality, and ultimately tree death and is considered the most serious citrus disease. HLB has become a major limiting factor to the production of citrus worldwide. Studies of HLB have been impeded by the fact that C. Liberibacter has not yet been cultured on artificial nutrient media. After being acquired by a psyllid, C. Liberibacter asiaticus is reported to replicate within the psyllid and is retained by the psyllid throughout its life span. We therefore hypothesized that C. Liberibacter asiaticus could be cultured in vitro using psyllid cell cultures as the medium and investigated the establishment of a pure culture for AsCP cells. Several commercially available insect cell culture media along with some media we developed were screened for viability to culture cells from AsCP embryos. Cells from psyllid tissues adhered to the plate and migration was observed within 24 h. Cells were maintained at 20 degrees C. We successfully established primary psyllid cell cultures, referred to as DcHH-1, for D. citri Hert-Hunter-1, with a new media, Hert-Hunter-70. PMID:19440802

Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G

2009-01-01

196

A model of Cellular Automata for the spatial and temporal analysis of Citrus Sudden Death with the fuzzy parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus Sudden Death (CSD) is a disease that has affected sweet orange trees grafted on Rangpur lime in the south of Minas Gerais state and in the north of São Paulo state (Brazil). This is a worrying characteristic because the Rangpur lime responds to 85% of the Brazilian citrus rootstocks. This disease is believed to be caused by a virus

Magda da Silva Peixoto; Laécio Carvalho de Barros; Rodney Carlos Bassanezi

2008-01-01

197

Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

198

Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia.  

PubMed

The pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis (formerly Cryphonectria cubensis) is best known for the important canker disease that it causes on Eucalyptus species. This fungus is also a pathogen of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), which is native to Indonesia, and like Eucalyptus, is a member of Myrtaceae. Furthermore, C. cubensis has been found on Miconia spp. native to South America and residing in Melastomataceae. Recent surveys have yielded C. cubensis isolates from new hosts, characterized in this study based on DNA sequences for the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions. These hosts include native Clidemia sericea and Rhynchanthera mexicana (Melastomataceae) in Mexico, and non-native Lagerstroemia indica (Pride of India, Lythraceae) in Cuba. Isolates from these hosts and areas group in the sub-clade of C. cubensis accommodating the South American collections of the fungus. This sub-clade also includes isolates recently collected from Eucalyptus in Cuba, which are used to epitypify C. cubensis. New host records from Southeast Asia include exotic Tibouchina urvilleana from Singapore and Thailand and native Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Consistent with their areas of occurrence isolates from the latter collections group in the Asian sub-clade of C. cubensis. DNA sequence comparisons of isolates from Tibouchina lepidota in Colombia revealed that they represent a new sub-clade within the greater Chrysoporthe clade. Isolates in this clade are described as Chrysoporthe inopina sp. nov., based on distinctive morphological differences. PMID:16876702

Gryzenhout, Marieka; Rodas, Carlos A; Portales, Julio Mena; Clegg, Paul; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

2006-07-01

199

Potential nutritional benefits of current citrus consumption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus contains various nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are currently consumed. We then compared the amount of citrus and citrus-derived compounds that have been use...

200

Antifungal activity of lemon ( Citrus lemon L.), mandarin ( Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi L.) and orange ( Citrus sinensis L.) essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to study the effect of the essential oils of lemon (Citrus lemon L.), mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.) and orange (Citrus sinensis L.) on the growth of moulds commonly associated with food spoilage: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium verrucosum, using the agar dilution method. All the oils showed

M. Viuda-Martos; Y. Ruiz-Navajas; J. Fernández-López; J. Pérez-Álvarez

2008-01-01

201

75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rutaceae known to be hosts of citrus greening and/or CVC from countries in which one or...importation of seed of host genera of citrus greening from those countries, as well...importation of seeds of hosts of CVC from those two countries into the...

2010-04-06

202

Use of carnauba based carrier for copper sprays reduces infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Diaporthe citri in Florida commercial grapefruit groves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), a bacterial disease of citrus, was first documented on Florida citrus in the early 1900’s. At that time the disease was managed, only to return in the 1980’s and 90’s and to finally remain uncontrolled in 2004. Xcc is most active ...

203

REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOASSAY FOR THE DEEP BARK CANKER PATHOGEN, BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deep Bark Canker (DBC), caused by the bacterium Brennaria rubrifaciens afflicts English walnut cultivars and is characterized by late onset of symptoms in trees greater than 15 years old. These symptoms include deep bleeding vertical cankers along the trunk and larger branches that exude a bacteria...

204

DETECTION OF CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER ASIATICUS FROM CITRUS HUANGLONGBING SAMPLES IN CHINA BY NESTED CONVENTIONAL AND REAL-TIME PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is one of the three known bacterial Candidatus species causing citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease. HLB is highly destructive in citrus cultivation and is currently known to presence in Asia, Africa, South and North America. Pathogen detection plays a...

205

Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the causal agent of citrus huanglongbing in Murraya paniculata and Diaphorina citri in Thailand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a preferred alternative host for the Asian citrus psyllid, the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) disease caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). M. paniculata plant samples and psyllids on the Murraya plants from ten diverse geographical...

206

Current situation of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" in Guangdong, P.R. China, where citrus huanglongbing was first described  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong Province, Peoples’ Republic of China in the late 1800s and is endemic there, particularly in the coastal Chaoshan and Pearl River Delta plains. Since the 1990s, the center of citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shif...

207

Control of citrus postharvest decay by ammonia gas fumigation and its influence on the efficacy of the fungicide imazalil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most important citrus postharvest diseases of arid citrus production areas, green mold and blue mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively, were effectively controlled by fumigations with ammonia alone at 3000 to 6000 µl/liter or at 1500 µl/liter when applied to fruit pr...

208

Comparative Genomics and Phylogenetic Analyses of Newly Cloned Genomic Regions From the Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB)-associated Bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease, caused by Candidatus Liberibacter species, is a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. The pathogen is a gram negative, unculturable, phloem-limited bacterium, with little known genomic information. Here, we report cloning and characterizatio...

209

Multispectral sensing of citrus young tree decline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer processing of MSS data to identify and map citrus trees affected by young tree decline is analyzed. The data were obtained at 1500-feet altitude in six discrete spectral bands covering regions from 0.53 to 1.3 millimicrons as well as from instrumental ground truths of tree crowns. Measurable spectral reflectance intensity differences are observed in the leaves of healthy and diseased trees, especially at wavelengths of 500 to 600 nm and 700 to 800 nm. The overall accuracy of the method is found to be 89%.

Edwards, G. J.; Ducharme, E. P.; Schehl, T.

1975-01-01

210

Ethanol attracts scolytid beetles to Phytophthora ramorum cankers on coast live oak.  

PubMed

Ethanol in sapwood was analyzed along vertical transects, through small spot cankers and larger basal cankers, of Phytophthora ramorum-infected stems of Quercus agrifolia at three sites in California. Trees with large basal cankers, known to attract scolytid beetles, had a 4.3 times higher ethanol level than trees with spot cankers that attract fewer beetles. Ethanol concentrations inside cankers, where scolytid beetles preferentially attack, varied by about four orders of magnitude among samples, with a median level of 16.0 ?g.g(-1) fresh mass. This concentration was 4.3 and 15.5 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations at 1 cm or 15-30 cm outside the canker boundaries. In the laboratory, we demonstrated that ethanol escaped through the bark of a Q. garryana log just 3 days after it was added to the sapwood. At the three study sites, traps baited with ethanol captured more Xyleborinus saxesenii, Pseudopityophthorus pubipennis, and Monarthrum dentiger (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) than traps baited with ethanol plus (-)-?-pinene, or ethanol plus 4-allylanisole (4AA). Logs of Q. agrifolia with a 50 % ethanol solution added to the sapwood were placed at the study sites, with or without additional bark treatments above the ethanol. The number of scolytid beetle gallery holes above the ethanol-infused sapwood was 4.4 times greater than that on the opposite side of the log where no ethanol was added. Attachment of ultra-high release (-)-?-pinene pouches to the bark surface above the 50 % ethanol solution reduced scolytid attacks to a density of 19.1 % that of logs without this treatment. We conclude that ethanol in P. ramorum cankers functions as a primary host attractant for scolytid beetles and is an important link in colonization of these cankers and accelerated mortality of Q. agrifolia. The results of this research shed light on the chemical ecology behind the focused scolytid attacks on P. ramorum-infected coast live oaks, and lay the groundwork for future efforts to prolong the survival of individual trees of this keystone species. PMID:23525941

Kelsey, Rick G; Beh, Maia M; Shaw, David C; Manter, Daniel K

2013-04-01

211

Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks, functional enrichment analysis and gene expression information provide opportunities to infer gene function in citrus. We present a publicly accessible tool, Network Inference for Citrus Co-Expression (NICCE, http://citrus.adelaide.edu.au/nicce/home.aspx), for the gene co-expression analysis in citrus. PMID:25023870

2014-01-01

212

Nested PCR is essential for the detection of extremely low titer of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from citrus and its vector psyllid Diaphorina citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), transmitted by the psyllids Diaphorina citri and Trioza erytreae, is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter: Ca. L. asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. africanu...

213

Identifiction and Characterization of Huanglongbing Bacterium in Pummelo [citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] from Multiple Locations in Guangdong, P.R. China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease, caused by Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is highly destructive to citrus production in Asia, Africa, and South America. The disease has recently been found in North America (Florida). While primarily affecting sweet orange and mandarin, HLB has been sus...

214

Dispersal of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri bacteria downwind from harvested, infected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri , Xac) is a bacterial disease that severely damages citrus crops. Its recent introduction to Florida has created difficulties with international and domestic trade and movement of citrus material. This study examined the potential dispersal of bacteri...

215

DETECTION OF BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER (DBC)OF WALNUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DBC afflicts English walnut cultivars and is characterized by late onset in trees greater than 15 years old. Symptoms include deep bleeding vertical cankers that exude a bacterial-laden reddish brown sap. We have developed a robust PCR-based technique to detect B. rubrifaciens in soil and symptomles...

216

Canker and twig dieback of blueberry caused by Pestalotiopsis spp. and a Truncatella sp. in Chile  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has great economic importance in Chile, currently with about 8,500 ha being cultivated. Recently, the presence of canker and dieback symptoms has been observed along the productive blueberry zone of Chile extending from the V Region (32º49´ South lat.) in the north to the ...

217

Endophytic and canker-associated Botryosphaeriaceae occurring on non-native Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae  

E-print Network

regarding the occurrence and species diversity of Botryosphaeriaceae in native Myrtaceae forests or what. nov. are novel species found only on native myrtaceous hosts. Pathogenicity tests showed that isolatesEndophytic and canker-associated Botryosphaeriaceae occurring on non-native Eucalyptus and native

218

Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest

Huirong Xu; Yibin Ying

2004-01-01

219

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

220

Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

221

SCREENING OF ANTI-BACTERIAL PEPTIDES IN CITRUS TREES FOR ACTIVITY AGAINST CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER ASIATICUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus huanglongbing disease (HLB) has been recently reported from both Brazil and Florida. Because of the uniquely destructive nature of the disease, and the present lack of options to control the disease, new approaches are needed. The bacterium that causes HLB, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, ...

222

Guide to managing vineyard trunk diseases in Lodi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All vineyards in California are likely to become infected with trunk diseases (a.k.a. wood-canker diseases). The main trunk diseases are Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback. The infections are chronic and accumulate over time. Farming vines with trunk diseases becomes...

223

Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.  

PubMed

The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. PMID:24306677

Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

2014-04-01

224

Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

225

A comparison of nitrogen use efficiency definitions in Citrus rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) definitions, commonly used in literature, are evaluated in response to nitrate availability in four citrus rootstocks, Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) (RL), Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) (SwO), Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.) (CM) and Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) (SO). The application of diverse definitions determine different characterizations in N-efficiency among rootstocks.

Agostino Sorgonà; Maria Rosa Abenavoli; Pietro Giorgio Gringeri; Giovanni Cacco

2006-01-01

226

Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds

V. Hernández-Montoya; M. A. Montes-Morán; M. P. Elizalde-González

2009-01-01

227

Detection and damage assessment of citrus tree losses with aerial color infrared photography /ACIR/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection and disease damage assessment of citrus tree losses in a Florida citrus grove were made by establishing a registration (grove site location) coordinate system, developing a damage assessment system, and testing sequential aerial color infrared (ACIR) photography at the scale of 1 in. = 333 ft (2.5 cm = 100 m) during the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 1978 and spring of 1979. Spring photography was the easiest to photo interpret, showed the greatest differences between healthy and diseased trees, and had the least shadow and background interference for photo interpretation. Trees showing slight disease damage were detected in ACIR before they were found in ground surveys.

Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.; Edwards, G. J.

1981-01-01

228

7 CFR 905.31 - Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. 905.31...Administrative Bodies § 905.31 Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. It shall be the duty of the Citrus Administrative Committee:...

2010-01-01

229

Treponemes-Infected Canker in a Japanese Racehorse: Efficacy of Maggot Debridement Therapy  

PubMed Central

A 3-year-old thoroughbred colt presented with canker on its left hind foot. Subsequent development of cottage cheese-like horns and dermatitis disturbed healing, despite the use of miscellaneous orthodox treatment approaches to the lesions. Histological examination revealed exudative and suppurative dermatitis, and proliferatively suppurative epidermitis infected with helically coiled treponemes. Total debridement under general anesthesia led to a temporary improvement, but the ground surface regenerated abnormal epidermis similar to that observed initially after surgery. Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) was attempted, which removed all the abnormal tissue. After MDT, general farriery trimming helped to correct the distorted ground surface, and the horse returned to constant training and eventually raced. This case shows that MDT was successfully used for treatment of an intractable and treponemes-infected canker. PMID:24833994

KUWANO, Atsutoshi; NIWA, Hidekazu; HIGUCHI, Tohru; MITSUI, Hideya; AGNE, Robert A.

2012-01-01

230

Asian citrus psyllid viral pathogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A newly discovered viral pathogen of Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Psyllidae: Hemiptera) was classified as a Reoviridae. This virus may serve as a biological control agent for AsCP. The AsCP is an efficient vector of the plant-infecting bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter as...

231

PHYTOSANITARY STATUS OF CALIFORNIA CITRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The certification/registration program for citrus nursery stock in California is one of the oldest in the world and has served as a model for other programs. Although this program functions efficiently in its present form, new challenges sometimes arise that force modifications or improvements to th...

232

Etiology of the resinous stem canker of Chamaecyparis obtusa: Cistella japonica as the causal agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to confirm the pathogenicity ofCistella japonica, inoculation experiments were conducted onto several coniferous trees. Resinous lesions similar to those of the resinous\\u000a stem canker developed by the inoculation withCi. japonica only onChamaecyparis obtusa. Chamaecyparis trees were heavily affected when inoculated with the fungus in November, but slightly in May and August. Resin flows occurred\\u000a when inocula ofCi. japonica

Yasuo Suto

1997-01-01

233

Double pruning to prevent trunk diseases in Washington vineyards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trunk diseases (aka wood-canker diseases) present a serious challenge to vineyard productivity and longevity. There are four main trunk diseases: Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback. The causal fungi (e.g., Eutypa lata, Neofusicoccum parvum) establish chronic infectio...

234

Bacterial canker on kiwifruit in Italy: anatomical changes in the wood and in the primary infection sites.  

PubMed

The bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biology and epidemiology still require in-depth investigation. The infection by and spread of P. syringae pv. actinidiae in xylem and phloem was investigated by carrying out artificial inoculation experiments with histological and dendrochronological analyses of naturally diseased plants in Italy. We found that the bacterium can infect host plants by entering natural openings and lesions. In naturally infected kiwifruit plants, P. syringae pv. actinidiae is present in the lenticels as well as in the dead phloem tissue beneath the lenticels, surrounded by a lesion in the periderm which appears to indicate the importance of lenticels to kiwifruit infection. Biofilm formation was observed outside and inside plants. In cases of advanced stages of P. syringae pv. actinidiae infection, neuroses of the phloem occur, which are followed by cambial dieback and most likely by infection of the xylem. Anatomical changes in wood such as reduced ring width, a drastic reduction in vessel size, and the presence of tyloses were observed within several infected sites. In the field, these changes occur only a year after the first leaf symptoms are observed suggesting a significant time lapse between primary and secondary symptoms. It was possible to study the temporal development of P. syringae pv. actinidiae-induced cambial dieback by applying dendrochronology methods which revealed that cambial dieback occurs only during the growing season. PMID:22713076

Renzi, Marsilio; Copini, Paul; Taddei, Anna R; Rossetti, Antonio; Gallipoli, Lorenzo; Mazzaglia, Angelo; Balestra, Giorgio M

2012-09-01

235

Effect of Citrus paradisi extract and juice on arterial pressure both in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) consumption is considered as beneficial and it is popularly used for the treatment of a vast array of diseases, including hypertension. In the present study, the coronary vasodilator and hypotensive effects of Citrus paradisi peel extract were assessed in the Langendorff isolated and perfused heart model and in the heart and lung dog preparation. In both models, Citrus paradisi peel extract decreased coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure when compared with control values (60 +/- 15 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) vs 100 +/- 10 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) and 90 mmHg vs 130 +/- 15 mmHg, respectively). These decreases in coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure were blocked when isolated and perfused hearts and mongrel dogs were pre-treated with L-NAME. In humans, Citrus paradisi juice decreased diastolic arterial pressure and systolic arterial pressure both in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Citrus paradisi juice produced a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure when compared with Citrus sinensis juice, cow milk and a vitamin C-supplemented beverage. However, more detailed studies are required to isolate, purify and evaluate the chemical compounds responsible for this pharmacological effect and to clarify its possible role for treating hypertension. PMID:19153985

Díaz-Juárez, J A; Tenorio-López, F A; Zarco-Olvera, G; Valle-Mondragón, L Del; Torres-Narváez, J C; Pastelín-Hernández, G

2009-07-01

236

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) isolates from recent bacterial canker of kiwifruit outbreaks belong to the same genetic lineage.  

PubMed

Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

Mazzaglia, Angelo; Studholme, David J; Taratufolo, Maria C; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S; Vinatzer, Boris A; Balestra, Giorgio M

2012-01-01

237

Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits

Bhupesh C. Roy; M. Sasaki; M. Goto

2005-01-01

238

Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

239

Diphenylurea Derivatives Induce Somatic Embryogenesis in Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research investigates the possibility that three diphenylurea (DPU) derivatives, N-phenyl-N?-benzothiazol-6-ylurea (PBU), N,N?-bis-(2,3-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (2,3-MDPU) and N,N?-bis-(3,4-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (3,4-MDPU), stimulate the induction of somatic embryogenesis in three Citrus species. The hypothetical embryogenic activity was assessed using stigma and styles of Citrus myrtifolia Raf., Citrus madurensis Lour. and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. The three compounds influenced the production of somatic embryos differently

Angela Carra; Fabio De Pasquale; Ada Ricci; Francesco Carimi

2006-01-01

240

Stylet Morphometrics and Citrus Leaf Vein Structure in Relation to Feeding Behavior of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri, Vector of Citrus Huanglongbing Bacterium  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled ‘fibrous ring’ (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80–90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10–20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports. PMID:23555830

Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

2013-01-01

241

Microarray analysis of Etrog citron (Citrus medica L.) reveals changes in chloroplast, cell wall, peroxidase and symporter activities in response to viroid infection.  

PubMed

Viroids are small (246-401 nucleotides), single-stranded, circular RNA molecules that infect several crop plants and can cause diseases of economic importance. Citrus are the hosts in which the largest number of viroids have been identified. Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease, induces considerable losses in citrus crops. Changes in the gene expression profile during the early (pre-symptomatic) and late (post-symptomatic) stages of Etrog citron infected with CEVd were investigated using a citrus cDNA microarray. MaSigPro analysis was performed and, on the basis of gene expression profiles as a function of the time after infection, the differentially expressed genes were classified into five clusters. FatiScan analysis revealed significant enrichment of functional categories for each cluster, indicating that viroid infection triggers important changes in chloroplast, cell wall, peroxidase and symporter activities. PMID:22420919

Rizza, Serena; Conesa, Ana; Juarez, José; Catara, Antonino; Navarro, Luis; Duran-Vila, Nuria; Ancillo, Gema

2012-10-01

242

Host Status of Citrus and Citrus Relatives to Tylenchulus graminis.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted on the host suitability of four citrus rootstocks--rough lemon (Citrus limon), sour orange (C. aurantium), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata cv. Argentina), and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata)--to Tylenchulus graminis which was previously considered a "grass" race of T. semipenetrans. In an uncultivated field, sour orange seedlings grown with T. graminis-infected broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were not infected with this nematode after 18-month's exposure to T. graminis population densities ranging from < 0.01 to 0.4 second-stage juveniles (J2)/cm(3) soil. In a greenhouse test, two T. graminis populations from two Florida locations did not infect sour orange seedlings grown for 2 years in soil naturally infested with 0.3 and 1.3 J2/cm(3). Rough lemon, trifoliate orange, and Swingle citrumelo seedlings suppressed T. graminis initial population densities of 7 to final values of < 0.1 J2/cm(3) soil. Final values of > 70.0 J2/cm(3) occurred in soil with broomsedge. These findings provide conclusive evidence that T. graminis is a specific parasite of grasses and does not infect citrus. PMID:19287668

Inserra, R N; O'Bannon, J H; Keen, W M

1989-10-01

243

Effect of blending Huanglongbing (HLB) disease affected orange juice with juice from healthy oranges on flavor quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, has been a concern for the citrus industry as it progressively damages and ultimately kills citrus trees. While this disease does not affect human health, it is associated with bitter off-flavor for orange juice. The objective of this study was to determine...

244

DEVELOPMENT OF A PCR-BASED METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS; THE CAUSAL AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER OF WALNUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deep Bark Canker (DBC), caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens (previously known as Erwinia rubrifaciens), afflicts English walnut cultivars and is characterized by late onset of symptoms in trees greater than 15 years old. These symptoms include deep bleeding vertical cankers throughout th...

245

[Environmental regulation of Citrus photosynthesis].  

PubMed

Recent researches on the mechanisms of environmental regulation of citrus photosynthesis showed that the photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by strong light or ultraviolet radiation was related to the inactiveness of PS II reaction center, and photorespiration and xanthophyll cycle played a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic apparatus. Under temperature stress, lower CO2 assimilation was mainly due to the decrease of RuBPCase activity and the inactiveness of PS II reaction center, and species sensitivity existed. The decline of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation under high water stress was due to non-stomatal limitation, while that under low water stress was due to stomatal limitation. The citrus growth, yield and quality could be increased by increasing photosynthesis under elevated CO2 concentration. The mechanisms of photosynthesis regulation by minerals such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron, as well as the effects of salt stress on photosynthesis were discussed, and the directions for future research were suggested. PMID:16724758

Hu, Meijun; Guo, Yanping; Shen, Yungang; Zhang, Liangcheng

2006-03-01

246

High codon adaptation in citrus tristeza virus to its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the genus Closterovirus within the family Closteroviridae, is the causal agent of citrus tristeza disease. Previous studies revealed that the negative selection, RNA recombination and gene flow were the most important forces that drove CTV evolution. However, the CTV codon usage was not studied and thus its role in CTV evolution remains unknown. Results A detailed comparative analysis of CTV codon usage pattern was done in this study. Results of the study show that although in general CTV does not have a high degree of codon usage bias, the codon usage of CTV has a high level of resemblance to its host codon usage. In addition, our data indicate that the codon usage resemblance is only observed for the woody plant-infecting closteroviruses but not the closteroviruses infecting the herbaceous host plants, suggesting the existence of different virus-host interactions between the herbaceous plant-infecting and woody plant-infecting closteroviruses. Conclusion Based on the results, we suggest that in addition to RNA recombination, negative selection and gene flow, host plant codon usage selection can also affect CTV evolution. PMID:22698086

2012-01-01

247

AN OVERVIEW OF THE XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) is responsible for citrus canker disease, one of the most serious of diseases of citrus. As a member of the genus Xanthomonas, it shares basic mechanisms of pathogenicity as well as underlying genomic sequence organization with other members of the genus. The ...

248

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

249

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.  

PubMed

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications. PMID:23211617

Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

250

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro by some citrus fruit juices.  

PubMed

This study sought to characterize the effects of some citrus fruit juices (shaddock [Citrus maxima], grapefruit [Citrus paradisii], lemon [Citrus limoni], orange [Citrus sinensis], and tangerine [Citrus reticulata]) on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. The total phenolic content, radical scavenging abilities, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats brain homogenate in vitro were also assessed. Orange had significantly (P<.05) higher phenolic content than the other juices. The juices scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner with orange having the highest scavenging ability. Furthermore, the juices inhibited Fe(2+)-induced MDA production in rat brain homogenate in a dose-dependent manner with shaddock having the highest inhibitory ability. Acetylcholinesterase activity was also inhibited in vitro by the juices in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant properties of the citrus juices could make them a good dietary means for the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22400910

Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oboh, Ganiyu

2012-05-01

251

Purification and Properties of a New Carboxypeptidase from Citrus Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been found that a Carboxypeptidase (or a mixture of various carboxypeptidases) occurs in the peel of citrus fruit, for example, of the orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus medica), and grapefruit (Citrus maxima). This peptidase differs in specificity and in other properties from the known carboxypeptidases A (ref. 1) and B (ref. 2) of the pancreas and from the

H. Zuber

1964-01-01

252

Estimating citrus rust mite densities on fruit: Some sampling considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus rust mites continue to be key pests of citrus fruit in most Florida groves, particularly in fruit grown for the fresh market. There are two different species, the citrus rust mite and the pink citrus rust mite, and the currently the same scouting and management programs are used to manage bo...

253

Citrus Viruses in Guatemala: Application of Laboratory-Based Assays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In preparation for a citrus certification in Guatemala, there was an urgent need to determine which graft transmissible citrus pathogens were present. Because of the lack of biological indicator plants, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent for citrus variegated chlorosis...

254

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Citrus, melon, berries Table A3. Citrus, melon, berries: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

255

CURRENT EPIDEMIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF CITRUS HUANGLONGBING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive citrus pathosystem worldwide. Previously known primarily from Asia and Africa it was introduced into the Western hemisphere in 2004. All infected commercial citrus industries continue to decline due to inadequate current control methods. HLB increase an...

256

BIOAVAILABILITY OF CITRUS LIMONOIDS TO HUMANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus limonoids occur in significant quantities in citrus fruit and juice as water-soluble limonoid glucosides. They have demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity in animal and cancer cell screens. In this study we examined the plasma of four groups of four healthy male and female subjects (n...

257

Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic contents of five citrus peels (Yen Ben lemon, Meyer lemon, grapefruit, mandarin and orange) extracted by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction were evaluated using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The main parameters that affected the yield of phenolics include the condition of the peels, temperature of the extraction, types of enzymes, enzyme concentration and species of citrus. Generally, grapefruit peel had

B. B. Li; B. Smith

2006-01-01

258

Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic contents of five citrus peels (Yen Ben lemon, Meyer lemon, grapefruit, mandarin and orange) extracted either by ethanol or by simple aqueous extraction were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and compared. The main parameters that affected the yield of phenolics included the condition of the peels, temperature of the extraction, solvent concentration and species of citrus. Generally,

B. B. Li; B. Smith

2006-01-01

259

Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides

Didier Ortelli; Patrick Edder; Claude Corvi

2005-01-01

260

Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

261

Citrus Community College District Mentor Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Citrus College faculty and staff addressed the problem of lower career aspirations among women by establishing a support group, Citrus Women in Higher Education (CWHE). In addition to group meetings and special programs of interest, the CWHE has developed a mentor program to address the problem of blocked careers faced by women. The goals of…

Hinds, Diane; Sprague, Caroline

262

Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule for Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut (TCD) will be effective  

E-print Network

://www.thousandcankerdisease.com/ Phil Marshall, State Entomologist/Forest Health Specialist, pmarshall@dnr.in.gov Division of Entomology and we will assist you in the movement. The rule regulates Juglans logs, green lumber, stumps, roots

263

Quantitative association of bark beetles with pitch canker fungus and effects of verbenone on their semiochemical communication in Monterey pine forests in Northern Spain.  

PubMed

The association between 11 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) with the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell, was determined by crushing beetles on selective medium and histone H3 gene sequencing. Pityophthorus pubescens (Marsham) (25.00%), Hylurgops palliatus (Gyllenhal) (11.96%), Ips sexdentatus (Börner) (8.57%), Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood (7.89%), Hylastes attenuatus Erichson (7.40%), and Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (2.73%) were found to carry the inoculum. In addition, the root weevil Brachyderes incanus L. (14.28%) had the second highest frequency of occurrence of the fungus. The responses of the insects to a range of verbenone doses were tested in field bioassays using funnel traps. Catches of P. pubescens, a species colonizing branch tips of live trees, were significantly reduced in a log-linear dose-dependent relationship. Catches of I. sexdentatus, an opportunistic species normally attacking fresh dead host material, were also gradually reduced with increasing verbenone dose. Catches of Tomicus piniperda L., O. erosus, Dryocoetes autographus (Ratzeburg), H. eruditus, Xyleborus dryographus (Ratzeburg), Hylastes ater (Paykull), Hylurgus ligniperda (F.), H. attenuatus, and B. incanus were not significantly affected by verbenone. The effects of verbenone were consistent with differences in host-age preference. Semiochemical disruption by verbenone in P. pubescens and I. sexdentatus could represent an integrated pest management strategy for the prevention of the spread of pitch canker disease between different stands. However, several species associated with F. circinatum were unaffected by verbenone, not supporting this compound for prevention of the establishment of potential vectors in Northern Spain. PMID:17716465

Romón, Pedro; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Gibson, Ken; Lindgren, B Staffan; Goldarazena, Arturo

2007-08-01

264

BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF REPLANT DISORDER AND LETHAL PHYTOPHTHORA CANKER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research concerns biology and management of replant disease (RD), a complex problem that complicates an important process--orchard replacement. Orchard replacement forces difficult management decisions, including some related to scheduling (i.e., at what age should replacement occur, whether ti...

265

Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired plant fruits of family Rutaceae revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins. The fruits of C. sinensis and C. anrantifolia exhibited the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins, while the fruits of C. limonum indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpinedes, and tannins. The fruits of selected plants were also subjected to antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay against ascorbic acid at various concentrations. Among the tested plants, C. sinensis showed promising antiradical effect (84.81%) which was followed by C. Anrantifolia (80.05%) at 100 ?g/ml against ascorbic acid (96.36%). The C. limonum showed low antioxidant activity among the three selected plants of family Rutaceae. Conclusions The current finding is baseline information in the use of the fruits of selected plants as food supplement which may be due to the presence of antioxidant molecules in the family Rutaceae. Further research is needed in this area to isolate the phenolic constituents which possess ideal antiradical potential. PMID:25024932

2014-01-01

266

The plastome of Citrus . Physical map, variation among Citrus cultivars and species and comparison with related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical plastome map was constructed for Citrus aurantium, and the plastomes of species and cultivars of Citrus and of two Citrus relatives were analysed by Southern blot-hybridisation of labelled total tobacco cpDNA to digests of total Citrus DNA. A resemblance was found between the plastomes of cultivars of C. limon (lemon), C. sinensis (orange), C. aurantium (sour orange), C.

R. M. Green; A. Vardi; E. Galun

1986-01-01

267

Effect of Lime on Criconemella xenoplax and Bacterial Canker in Two California Orchards  

PubMed Central

In a peach orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.9, preplant application of 0, 13.2, 18.2, 27.3, or 54.2 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.8-7.3) but did not affect numbers of Criconemella xenoplax or tree circumference. Liming also failed to reduce the incidence of bacterial canker, which affected 17% of the trees by the sixth year after planting. Four years after planting, numbers of C. xenoplax exceeded 400/100 cm³ soil, regardless of treatment. Trees with higher densities of C. xenoplax had a higher incidence of canker. The nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was not detected until the fourth year. Thereafter, the incidence of H. rhossiliensis and percentage C. xenoplax parasitized by H. rhossiliensis increased, but the increases lagged behind increases in numbers of nematodes. In an almond orchard with an initial soil pH of 4.6, preplant application of 0, 6.4, 12.8, or 25.0 kg lime/tree site altered soil pH (range after 1 year = 4.7-7.1). Numbers of C. xenoplax remained low (<20/100 cm³ soil), whereas numbers of Paratylenchus sp. increased to high levels (>500/100 cm³ soil), regardless of treatment. Low levels (<20/100 cm³ soil) of H. rhossiliensis -parasitized Paratylenchus sp. were detected. No bacterial canker occurred, but tree circumference was greater after 6 years if soil pH was intermediate (6.0-7.0). PMID:19279934

Underwood, T.; Jaffee, B. A.; Verdegaal, P.; Norton, M. V. K.; Asai, W. K.; Muldoon, A. E.; McKenry, M. V.; Ferris, H.

1994-01-01

268

7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement...TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product...

2010-01-01

269

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2013-01-01

270

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2011-01-01

271

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2012-01-01

272

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2014-01-01

273

7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149...149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as...

2010-01-01

274

First report of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infecting citrus in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Real-time and conventional PCR were used to amplify sequences from the 16S rDNA and the outer membrane protein (omp) gene from nucleic acid extracts from 16 citrus samples from the Dominican Republic which displayed symptoms of the huanglungbing disease caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacte...

275

Heptamethoxyflavone, a citrus flavonoid, suppresses inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone resorption.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus flavonoid on inflammatory bone resorption. HMF suppressed the osteoclast formation and PGE2 production induced by IL-1. In mouse calvarial organ cultures, HMF attenuated the bone resorption elicited by LPS. HMF suppressed bone resorption in the mandibular alveolar bone. HMF may protect against inflammatory bone loss such as periodontal disease. PMID:25175163

Matsumoto, Chiho; Inoue, Hiroki; Tominari, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

2015-01-01

276

Penicillium digitatum suppresses production of hydrogen peroxide in host tissue during infection of citrus fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the development of green mold disease (Penicillium digitatum) on citrus fruit, there is little evidence of a host resistance response against the invading fungus. This suggests that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. Current knowledge of plant-fungal interactions indica...

277

July/August 2007 ListProc Newsletter Feeding Winter Bees Seedless Citrus  

E-print Network

______________________________________________________________________________ ListProc Newsletter Feeding Winter Bees Seedless Citrus Disease Resistance in HB New Bee Diets of the list and your first and last names followed on the next line by hyphens. Viruses and Bees Although trying to cover everything about honey bee viruses would require writing a book, the publications are out

Ferrara, Katherine W.

278

Structural and Physiological Analyses of the Alkanesulphonate-Binding Protein (SsuA) of the Citrus Pathogen Xanthomonas citri  

PubMed Central

Background The uptake of sulphur-containing compounds plays a pivotal role in the physiology of bacteria that live in aerobic soils where organosulfur compounds such as sulphonates and sulphate esters represent more than 95% of the available sulphur. Until now, no information has been available on the uptake of sulphonates by bacterial plant pathogens, particularly those of the Xanthomonas genus, which encompasses several pathogenic species. In the present study, we characterised the alkanesulphonate uptake system (Ssu) of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306 strain (X. citri), the etiological agent of citrus canker. Methodology/Principal Findings A single operon-like gene cluster (ssuEDACB) that encodes both the sulphur uptake system and enzymes involved in desulphurisation was detected in the genomes of X. citri and of the closely related species. We characterised X. citri SsuA protein, a periplasmic alkanesulphonate-binding protein that, together with SsuC and SsuB, defines the alkanesulphonate uptake system. The crystal structure of SsuA bound to MOPS, MES and HEPES, which is herein described for the first time, provides evidence for the importance of a conserved dipole in sulphate group coordination, identifies specific amino acids interacting with the sulphate group and shows the presence of a rather large binding pocket that explains the rather wide range of molecules recognised by the protein. Isolation of an isogenic ssuA-knockout derivative of the X. citri 306 strain showed that disruption of alkanesulphonate uptake affects both xanthan gum production and generation of canker lesions in sweet orange leaves. Conclusions/Significance The present study unravels unique structural and functional features of the X. citri SsuA protein and provides the first experimental evidence that an ABC uptake system affects the virulence of this phytopathogen. PMID:24282519

Tófoli de Araújo, Fabiano; Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M.; Pereira, Cristiane T.; Sanches, Mario; Oshiro, Elisa E.; Ferreira, Rita C. C.; Chigardze, Dimitri Y.; Barbosa, João Alexandre Gonçalves; de Souza Ferreira, Luís Carlos; Benedetti, Celso E.; Blundell, Tom L.; Balan, Andrea

2013-01-01

279

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.  

PubMed

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

2014-01-01

280

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L.; Shelby, Kent S.; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R.; Shatters, Robert G.; Hall, David G.; Davis, Paul H.; Hunter, Wayne B.

2014-01-01

281

A new Real-time PCR-method for the quantification of the Pine Pitch Canker fungus Fusarium circinatum.  

E-print Network

A new Real-time PCR-method for the quantification of the Pine Pitch Canker fungus Fusarium 3 4 5 spores (log 10) Thresholdcycle(Ct) Env. samples Calculate spores/m2 Real-time PCR with primer Method 3: Filter paper + Real-time PCR RESULTS We developed a specific primer pair (CIRC1A-CIRC4A

California at Berkeley, University of

282

Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis) and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata) differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST) collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known to affect fruit quality were represented in the unigene set. Overall, the similarity analyses indicated that the sequences of the genes belonging to these varieties and rootstocks were essentially identical, suggesting that the differential behaviour of these species cannot be attributed to major sequence divergences. This Citrus EST assembly contributes both crucial information to discover genes of agronomical interest and tools for genetic and genomic analyses, such as the development of new markers and microarrays. PMID:17254327

Terol, Javier; Conesa, Ana; Colmenero, Jose M; Cercos, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Agustí, Javier; Alós, Enriqueta; Andres, Fernando; Soler, Guillermo; Brumos, Javier; Iglesias, Domingo J; Götz, Stefan; Legaz, Francisco; Argout, Xavier; Courtois, Brigitte; Ollitrault, Patrick; Dossat, Carole; Wincker, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael; Talon, Manuel

2007-01-01

283

Isolation and characterization of an Isaria fumosorosea isolate infecting the Asian citrus psyllid in Florida.  

PubMed

A fungal pathogen that killed adult Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Asian citrus psyllid) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida citrus groves during the fall of 2005 was identified and characterized. Investigation of this pathogen is important because D. citri vectors citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing), which was reported in Florida in 2005. The morphological and genetic data generated herein support identification of the fungus as Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Ifr) (=Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) from the Asian citrus psyllid (Ifr AsCP). Koch's postulates were fulfilled after the fungus was isolated in vitro and transmitted to healthy psyllids, which then exhibited a diseased-phenotype similar to that observed in the field. Both in vitro growth characteristics and two Ifr AsCP-specific molecular markers discriminated the psyllid pathogen from another local Ifr isolate, Ifr 97 Apopka. These molecular markers will be useful to track the dynamics of this disease in D. citri populations. The potential for utilizing Ifr to complement existing psyllid pest management strategies is discussed. PMID:18433768

Meyer, Jason M; Hoy, Marjorie A; Boucias, Drion G

2008-09-01

284

75 FR 34419 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery...eradicate, suppress, control, prevent, or retard...interstate. The interstate movement of regulated nursery...currently approved by OMB control numbers 0579-0317...Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

2010-06-17

285

Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

2004-10-01

286

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

287

Characterization of the microbial community structure in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics in the field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. There are no effective control measures for this newly emerging and century-old disease. Previously, we reported a combination of Penicillin G and Streptomycin were effective in eliminating or suppressing the HLB bacter...

288

Identification and molecular characterization of nuclear Citrus leprosis virus, a member of the proposed Dichorhavirus genus infecting multiple citrus species in Mexico.  

PubMed

Citrus leprosis is one of the most destructive diseases of Citrus spp., and is associated with two unrelated virus groupes that produce particles primarily in either the cytoplasm or nucleus of infected plant cells. Symptoms of leprosis, including chlorotic spots surrounded by yellow haloes on leaves and necrotic spots on twigs and fruits, were observed on leprosis-affected Mandarin and Navel navel sweet orange trees in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. Serological and molecular assays showed that the cytoplasmic types of citrus leprosis viruses (CiLV-Cs) often associated with leprosis symptomatic tissues were absent. However, using transmission electron microscopy bullet-shaped rhabdovirus-like virions were observed in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the citrus leprosis infected leaf tissues. An analysis of small RNA populations from symptomatic tissue was carried out to determine the genome sequence of the rhabdovirus-like particles observed in the citrus leprosis samples. The complete genome sequence showed that the nuclear type of CiLV (CiLV-N) present in the samples consisted of two negative sense RNAs, a 6268 nt long RNA1 and a 5847 nt long RNA2, excluding the poly(A) tails. CiLV-N had a genome organization identical to that of Orchid fleck virus (OFV) with the exception of shorter 5?-UTRs in RNA1 (53 vs 205 nt) and RNA2 (34 vs 182 nt). Phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) and glycoproteins (G) and the RNA polymerase (L protein) showed that CiLV-N clusters with OFV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of N protein established CiLV-N as a member of the unassignedproposed genus Dichorhavirus. RT-PCR primers for the detection of CiLV-N were designed based on the sequence of the N-gene and the assay was optimized and tested to detect the presence of CiLV-N in both diseased and symptom-free plants. PMID:25423071

Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew L; Shao, Jonathan; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William; Brlansky, Ronald H

2014-11-25

289

Population changes of nematodes associated with Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two economically important species of Citrus fruits viz., orange, Citrus reliculata and lemon, C. aurantifolia were selected for studying the changes in the population of plant parasitic nematodes around their roots. The nematode population of Hoplolaimus indicus, Helicotylenchus indicus, Xiphinema americanum, Pratylenchus coffeae, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Hemicriconemoides mangiferae was observed at 10?cm (upper layer) followed by 20?cm (middle) and 40?cm

Mansoor A Siddiqui

2005-01-01

290

Evaluation of citrus somatic hybrids for tolerance to Phytophthora nicotianae and citrus tristeza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybridization is a biotechnology tool that can be used in citrus breeding programs to produce somatic hybrids with the complete genetic combination of both parents. The goal of this work was to test the reaction of citrus somatic hybrids that may be useful as rootstocks to trunk and root infections caused by Phytophthora nicotianae van Breda de Haan (P.

Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho; Rafael Pio; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Fernando Alves de Azevedo; Evandro Henrique Schinor; Fábio Albuquerque Entelmann; André Siqueira Rodrigues Alves; Tatiana Eugenia Cantuarias-Avilés

2008-01-01

291

Citrus County Schools Copyright Guidelines Recommended by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains copyright guidelines determined appropriate for the Citrus County School System (Florida) by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists in May, 1992. These guidelines are based on interpretation and understanding of current copyright law as applied to education and implemented in school districts in the United…

Citrus County School District, Inverness, FL.

292

Highly polymorphic markers reveal the establishment of an invasive lineage of the citrus bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri in its area of origin.  

PubMed

Investigating the population biology of plant pathogens in their native areas is essential to understand the factors that shape their population structure and favour their spread. Monomorphic pathogens dispatch extremely low genetic diversity in invaded areas, and native areas constitute a major reservoir for future emerging strains. One of these, the gammaproteobacterium Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, causes Asiatic canker and is a considerable threat to citrus worldwide. We studied its population genetic structure by genotyping 555 strains from 12 Vietnam provinces at 14 tandem repeat loci and insertion sequences. Discriminant analysis of principal components identified six clusters. Five of them were composed of endemic strains distributed heterogeneously across sampled provinces. A sixth cluster, VN6, displayed a much lower diversity and a clonal expansion structure, suggesting recent epidemic spread. No differences in aggressiveness on citrus or resistance to bactericides were detected between VN6 and other strains. VN6 likely represents a case of bioinvasion following introduction in a native area likely through contaminated plant propagative material. Highly polymorphic markers are useful for revealing migration patterns of recently introduced populations of a monomorphic bacterial plant pathogen. PMID:24373118

Vernière, Christian; Bui Thi Ngoc, Lan; Jarne, Philippe; Ravigné, Virginie; Guérin, Fabien; Gagnevin, Lionel; Le Mai, Nhat; Chau, Nguyen M; Pruvost, Olivier

2014-07-01

293

Citrus flavanones: what is their role in cardiovascular protection?  

PubMed

Flavanones, including hesperidin and naringin, are polyphenolic compounds highly and almost exclusively present in citrus. Epidemiological studies reported an inverse relationship between their intake and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical and experimental data further showed their antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties, which could explain their antiatherogenic action in animal models. Although flavanones may be promising compounds that are particularly active in cardiovascular disease prevention, clinical data are still scarce and most in vitro data have been obtained under nonphysiologically relevant conditions. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible for flavanone action are not fully elucidated. Therefore, further research is needed to better evaluate and understand the protective effects of flavanones in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22574825

Chanet, Audrey; Milenkovic, Dragan; Manach, Claudine; Mazur, Andrzej; Morand, Christine

2012-09-12

294

Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1?-treated hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan) [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)] [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan) [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan) [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

2013-09-13

295

Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

296

Temperature Studies with the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri: Cold Hardiness and Temperature Thresholds for Oviposition  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. The psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathogens responsible for citrus greening disease, Huanglongbing, considered the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri was first found in Florida during 1998, and the disease was discovered during 2005. Little was known regarding cold hardiness of D. citri, but Florida citrus is occasionally subjected to notable freeze events. Temperature and duration were each significant sources of variation in percent mortality of D. citri subjected to freeze events. Relatively large percentages of adults and nymphs survived after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -5 to -6° C. Relatively large percentages of eggs hatched after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -8° C. Research results indicated that adult D. citri become cold acclimated during the winter through exposure to cooler winter temperatures. There was no evidence that eggs became cold acclimated during winter. Cold acclimation in nymphs was not investigated. Research with adult D. citri from laboratory and greenhouse colonies revealed that mild to moderate freeze events were usually nonlethal to the D. citri irrespective of whether they were cold acclimated or not. Upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition were investigated because such information may be valuable in explaining the geographic distribution and potential spread of the pest from Florida as well as how cooler winter temperatures might limit population growth. The estimated lower and upper thresholds for oviposition were 16.0 and 41.6° C, respectively; the estimated temperature of peak oviposition over a 48 h period was 29.6° C. PMID:21870969

Hall, David G.; Wenninger, Erik J.; Hentz, Matthew G.

2011-01-01

297

Canker Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... SLS is a foaming agent found in most toothpastes and mouthwashes. Finally, not getting the right nutrition, ... you brush your teeth . Brush and rinse with toothpastes and mouthwashes that don't contain sodium lauryl ...

298

Seed transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in periwinkle and dodder resulted in low bacterial titer and very mild disease in periwinkle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canadidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the most widely-distributed of three species of Liberibacter that are associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), a lethal disease of citrus worldwide. In addition to citrus, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) and dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) are two experime...

299

Cryopreservation of Citrus shoot tips using micrografting for recovery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 888 unique accessions representing 132 taxa of Citrus, Fortunella, and Citrus wild species relatives within field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections. We have ident...

300

Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most

Burhan Ozkan; Handan Akcaoz; Feyza Karadeniz

2004-01-01

301

Converting citrus waste to ethanol and other co-products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conversion of citrus processing waste (CPW) generated during juice production into value added co-products is an important aspect of the juice industry as it offers a solution to waste disposal issues. Currently the practice of drying citrus waste to produce citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as catt...

302

Identification of two chilling-regulated 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate synthase genes from citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 °C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of

Wai Shing Wong; Wen Ning; Pei Lin Xu; Shain Dow Kung; Shang Fa Yang; Ning Li

1999-01-01

303

Functional analysis of unfermented and fermented citrus peels and physical properties of citrus peel-added doughs for bread making.  

PubMed

Several studies have indicated citrus peels (CP) contain specific methoxy flavones, e.g. nobiletin and tangeretin, which have been shown to prevent numerous diseases. However, research reports regarding their application as food additive in healthy baked products is scarce. In our study, both unfermented (UF) and fermented (F) citrus peels were processed under different dry hot-air temperatures to make four citrus peel powders , UF-100 °C,UF-150 °C, F-100 °C, F-150 °C, respectively. The analysis of the basic components and nutraceuticals as well as antioxidant activity were conducted. Various percentages of CP were added to dough and toast bread for physical property and sensory evaluations. The results indicated the contents of crude proteins (3.3-4.3 mg/g) and fibers (10.9-14.9 %) among the four samples were similar. The UF extracts showed better antioxidant activities than F extracts. HPLC analysis indicated the contents of hesperidine, nobiletin and tangeretin in CP extracts were UF-150 °C?>?UF-100 °C. Farinograph analysis indicated a linear relation between CP powder content and the parameters of the physical properties of dough. A high percentage of fibrous CP powder in dough increases the water adsorption capacity of the dough, resulting in a decrease in its stability The sensory evaluation results indicated a greater acceptability of UF-added toast bread relative to the F-added one. Among these, according to the statistical anaylsis, the UF-150 °C 4 % and UF-100 °C 6 % groups were the best and F-150 °C 2 % group was the poorest in overall acceptability. PMID:25477647

Shyu, Yung-Shin; Lu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Chuan

2014-12-01

304

TPCP: Pitch canker PITCH CANKER  

E-print Network

to commercial forestry in South Africa today. In the past seven years, Fusarium subglutinans f.sp. pini or FSP successful control. Insects such as Ips spp., Pityophthorus spp., Pissodes sp. and Conophthorus spp. have

305

Odorants for Surveillance and Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)  

PubMed Central

Background The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB), a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. Results In this study, we performed single-unit electrophysiology to identify odorants that are strong activators, inhibitors, and prolonged activators of ACP odorant receptor neurons (ORNs). We identified a suite of odorants that activated the ORNs with high specificity and sensitivity, which may be useful in eliciting behavior such as attraction. In separate experiments, we also identified odorants that evoked prolonged ORN responses and antagonistic odorants able to suppress neuronal responses to activators, both of which can be useful in lowering attraction to hosts. In field trials, we tested the electrophysiologically identified activating odorants and identified a 3-odor blend that enhances trap catches by ?230%. Conclusion These findings provide a set of odorants that can be used to develop affordable and safe odor-based surveillance and masking strategies for this dangerous pest insect. PMID:25347318

Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Forster, Lisa; Guda, Tom; Ray, Anandasankar

2014-01-01

306

Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

2004-03-01

307

Comparison of several plant nutrient elements in conventionally and organically grown citrus orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic citrus production has been increasing recently in Turkey. In this study, we compared several nutri-elements concentrations of organically (ORG) and conventionally (CON) grown citrus orchards in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The samples included Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu L.) and Washington navel and Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), which were grafted on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.). In

Turan Hakan Demirkeser; Mustafa Kaplankiran; Celil Toplu; Necat Aca; Ercan Yildiz; Sedat Serçe

308

Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene emissions among all Citrus species are dominated by ocimenes, ?-caryophyllene, and linalool, respectively. In addition to utilizing our reported emission factors in BVOC emission models, we recommend that future BVOC emission models consider additional emissions from flowering and harvest, which occur seasonally and may have a significant impact on regional atmospheric chemistry.

Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

2011-09-01

309

Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans.  

PubMed

Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

Verdejo-Lucas, S; McKenry, M V

2004-12-01

310

Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans  

PubMed Central

Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

Verdejo-Lucas, S.; McKenry, M. V.

2004-01-01

311

75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7701 et seq., referred to below as the PPA), the Secretary of Agriculture may prohibit...prior to movement. In accordance with the PPA, we are amending ``Domestic Quarantine...pursuant to APHIS' authority under the PPA.) Quarantined areas; citrus...

2010-06-17

312

EVALUATION OF A ON-SITE, ONE-HOUR REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY FOR DETECTING THE CITRUS CANKER BACTERIUM IN PLANT SAMPLES AT PORT FACILITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The expanding global economy, free trade agreements, and increased air travel make the interception of accidentally and deliberately introduced plant pathogens of great importance. To determine if PCR assays are useful for on-site detection of bacteria in plant samples at port facilities, we evalua...

313

Modelling the effect of an alternative host population on the spread of citrus Huanglongbing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to model the spread of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) considering the presence of a population of alternative hosts (Murraya paniculata). We developed a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delays in the latency and incubation phases of the disease in the plants and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of HLB in Brazil. The results of numerical simulations indicate that alternative hosts should not play a crucial role on HLB dynamics considering a typical scenario for the Recôncavo Baiano region in Brazil . Also, the current policy of removing symptomatic plants every three months should not be expected to significantly hinder HLB spread.

d'A. Vilamiu, Raphael G.; Ternes, Sonia; Laranjeira, Francisco F.; de C. Santos, Tâmara T.

2013-10-01

314

INITIAL SURVEY FOR SPIROPLASMA CITRI, A LEAFHOPPER-TRANSMITTED PATHOGEN INFECTING CITRUS AND OTHER CROPS IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, Gram positive prokaryote lacking a true cell wall, is the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease. The vectors of S. citri in California are reported to be leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and includes the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus, and Scaphytop...

315

The destructive citrus pathogen, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ encodes a functional flagellin characteristic of a pathogen-associated molecular pattern  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huanglongbing (HLB) is presently the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. As an intracellular plant pathogen and insect symbiont, the HLB bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) retains the entire flagellum-encoding gene cluster in its significantly reduced genome. Las encodes a...

316

The Effects of DBCP on Citrus Root Nematode and Citrus Growth and Yield in Iraq.  

PubMed

In lraq, treatment of producing citrus trees with a 75% emulsifiable formulation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), applied in irrigation water at rates of 66-88 kg (a.i.)/hectare, gave excellent control of the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) greatly improved tree vigor, and increased the fruit yield for at least 3 years after treatment. Applications made during the spring gave much better results than those made in the fall. PMID:19308170

Natour, R M; Allow, J M; Katcho, Z A

1975-07-01

317

Alemow ( Citrus macrophylla Wester.), compared with six other rootstocks for nucellar ‘Minneola’ tangelo ( Citrus paradisi Macf. X Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alemow may cause dwarfing of old-line citrus trees when used as rootstock. However, during 18 years, nucellar trees budded on this rootstock were vigorous, with no signs of dwarfing or decline. Yields on this rootstock were outstanding, and exceeded the yields of all other rootstocks, with a cumulative yield 40% larger than the second best rootstock, which, under our conditions

Y. Levy; J. Lifshitz

1995-01-01

318

Reduction of Legionella spp. in water and in soil by a citrus plant extract vapor.  

PubMed

Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by Legionella spp., organisms often isolated from environmental sources, including soil and water. Legionella spp. are capable of replicating intracellularly within free-living protozoa, and once this has occurred, Legionella is particularly resistant to disinfectants. Citrus essential oil (EO) vapors are effective antimicrobials against a range of microorganisms, with reductions of 5 log cells ml(-1) on a variety of surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a citrus EO vapor against Legionella spp. in water and in soil systems. Reductions of viable cells of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii, and an intra-amoebal culture of Legionella pneumophila (water system only) were assessed in soil and in water after exposure to a citrus EO vapor at concentrations ranging from 3.75 mg/liter air to 15g/liter air. Antimicrobial efficacy via different delivery systems (passive and active sintering of the vapor) was determined in water, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the antimicrobial components (linalool, citral, and ?-pinene) was conducted. There was up to a 5-log cells ml(-1) reduction in Legionella spp. in soil after exposure to the citrus EO vapors (15 mg/liter air). The most susceptible strain in water was L. pneumophila, with a 4-log cells ml(-1) reduction after 24 h via sintering (15 g/liter air). Sintering the vapor through water increased the presence of the antimicrobial components, with a 61% increase of linalool. Therefore, the appropriate method of delivery of an antimicrobial citrus EO vapor may go some way in controlling Legionella spp. from environmental sources. PMID:25063652

Laird, Katie; Kurzbach, Elena; Score, Jodie; Tejpal, Jyoti; Chi Tangyie, George; Phillips, Carol

2014-10-01

319

Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

The diversity and stability of bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere heavily influence soil and plant quality and ecosystem sustainability. The goal of this study is to understand how ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (known to cause Huanglongbing, HLB) influences the structure and functional potential of microbial communities associated with the citrus rhizosphere. Clone library sequencing and taxon/group-specific quantitative real-time PCR results showed that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus rhizosphere. Within the bacterial community, phylum Proteobacteria with various genera typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers were significantly greater in clone libraries from healthy samples, whereas phylum Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, typically more dominant in the bulk soil were higher in ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected samples. A comprehensive functional microarray GeoChip 3.0 was used to determine the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on the functional diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities. GeoChip analysis showed that HLB disease has significant effects on various functional guilds of bacteria. Many genes involved in key ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation, phosphorus utilization, metal homeostasis and resistance were significantly greater in healthy than in the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere. Our results showed that the microbial community of the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus rhizosphere has shifted away from using more easily degraded sources of carbon to the more recalcitrant forms. Overall, our study provides evidence that the change in plant physiology mediated by ‘Ca. L. asiaticus' infection could elicit shifts in the composition and functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities. In the long term, these fluctuations might have important implications for the productivity and sustainability of citrus-producing agro-ecosystems. PMID:21796220

Trivedi, Pankaj; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Albrigo, Gene; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Nian

2012-01-01

320

7 CFR 457.121 - Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...REGULATIONS § 457.121 Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions. The Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...

2013-01-01

321

7 CFR 457.121 - Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...REGULATIONS § 457.121 Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions. The Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...

2012-01-01

322

7 CFR 457.121 - Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...REGULATIONS § 457.121 Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions. The Arizona-California citrus crop insurance provisions...

2011-01-01

323

7 CFR 319.56-59 - Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay.  

...Vegetables § 319.56-59 Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), lemons (C. limon (L.) Burm... (g) Treatment. (1) Citrus fruit other than lemons may be imported into the...

2014-01-01

324

78 FR 17606 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Insurance Regulations; Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal...Insurance Regulations, Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended...revising Sec. 457.121 Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions, to be...

2013-03-22

325

40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. 407.30 ...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

326

78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction...regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus Fruit. DATES: Effective April 16, 2013...these corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that...

2013-04-16

327

7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower...Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to § 905.14, the citrus districts and membership allotted...

2010-01-01

328

78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction...regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus Fruit. DATES: Effective Date: January...these corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that...

2013-01-22

329

Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.  

PubMed

A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene). PMID:19807162

Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

2009-10-14

330

Carotenoids of the rind of citrus fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied in detail the composition of the carotenoids of the rinds of mandarins of the Unshiu shirokolistnyi variety and oranges of the Mestnyi variety, the large-scale harvesting of which amounts to 90% of the total crop of this citrus fruits. The sum of the carotenoids of these samples were separated by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography [2] into

G. M. Fishman; D. M. Chikovani

1987-01-01

331

Asian Citrus Psyllid, Genetic Basis of Immunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic bases of D. citri immunity, identifying in particular genes associated with environmental and biological stresses. Only a few insecticides are being used to manage the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), to...

332

Advances in nitrogen fertigation of citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Advances in micro irrigation techniques, i.e. drip and under the tree sprinklers, have facilitated greater adoption of fertigation especially for perennial crops including citrus. It is generally believed that fertigation improves nutrient uptake efficiency, and increases the yield as well as crop q...

333

Brenneria populi sp. nov., isolated from symptomatic bark of Populus×euramericana canker.  

PubMed

Five Gran-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, bacterial strains were isolated from symptomatic bark tissue of Populus×euramericana canker. Strains grew at 4-41 °C, pH 4-10 and 0-6?% (w/v) salinity. They were positive with respect to catalase activity and negative for oxidase activity, nitrate reduction and the Voges-Proskauer reaction. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these five poplar isolates belong to the genus Brenneria, having highest sequence similarity of 95.98?% with Brenneria goodwinii LMG 26270(T). These five isolates formed a single cluster based on multilocus sequence analysis, indicating that they all belong to a single taxon within the genus Brenneria, which was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization. The DNA G+C content was 54.9-55.7 mol%, and the main fatty acids were C16?:?0, C18?:?1?7c, C17?:?0 cyclo and C16?:?1?7c/iso-C15?:?0 2-OH. Based on these results, we describe a novel species of the genus Brenneria with the proposed name Brenneria populi sp. nov. The type strain is D9-5(T) (?=?CFCC 11963(T)?=?KCTC 42088(T)). PMID:25385993

Li, Yong; Fang, Wei; Xue, Han; Liang, Wen-Xing; Wang, Lai-Fa; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo; Lin, Cai-Li; Li, Xia; Piao, Chun-Gen

2015-02-01

334

7 CFR 301.75-9 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-9...by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of citrus canker, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing,...

2010-01-01

335

Functional Characterization of Citrus Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

  A cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (SaiPGIPA) was identified from the citrus cultivar Sainumphung (Citrus sp.), one of the most popular cultivars in northern Thailand. SaiPGIPA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the functional properties of citrus PGIP were analyzed. The PGIP fusion protein inhibited by a maximum of about\\u000a 60% of the endopolygalacturonase activity, and a mixture

Sarunya NALUMPANG; Yukie GOTOH; Hiroyuki TSUBOI; Kenji GOMI; Hiroyuki YAMAMOTO; Kazuya AKIMITSU

2002-01-01

336

Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Star's captain used his vessel to ram the cutter after he was ordered to stop and submit to inspection by a boarding team. Citrus was not seriously damaged in the collision. U.S. Coast Guard personnel recovered a large amount of marijuana from the wreckage - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter CITRUS, Coos Bay, Coos County, OR

337

Development of Integrated Pest Management in Texas Citrus.  

E-print Network

to develop a more effective and less expensive pest management program. HISTORY OF PEST PROBLEMS California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), ",as the most destructive citrus pest in the LRGV until 1933 (7). Citrus spray oil was the principal... (mainly in dust form) as the controlling agent for citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ash mead). However, the continued use of sulfur resulted in increased populations of armored scales (6, 30). As far back as 1929, parasites and predators had...

Dean, H.A.; French, J. Victor; Meyerdirk, Dale

1983-01-01

338

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all areas where citrus canker has been detected. Like most phytobacterioses, there is no efficient way to control citrus canker. Considering the importance of the disease worldwide, investigation is needed to accurately detect which genes are related to the pathogen-host adaptation process and which are associated with pathogenesis. Results Through transposon insertion mutagenesis, 10,000 mutants of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 (Xcc) were obtained, and 3,300 were inoculated in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) leaves. Their ability to cause citrus canker was analyzed every 3 days until 21 days after inoculation; a set of 44 mutants showed altered virulence, with 8 presenting a complete loss of causing citrus canker symptoms. Sequencing of the insertion site in all 44 mutants revealed that 35 different ORFs were hit, since some ORFs were hit in more than one mutant, with mutants for the same ORF presenting the same phenotype. An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. Among the 8 mutants with no canker symptoms are the hrpB4 and hrpX genes, two genes that belong to type III secretion system (TTSS), two hypothetical ORFS and, surprisingly, the htrA gene, a gene reported as involved with the virulence process in animal-pathogenic bacteria but not described as involved in phytobacteria virulence. Nucleic acid hybridization using labeled cDNA probes showed that some of the mutated genes are differentially expressed when the bacterium is grown in citrus leaves. Finally, comparative genomic analysis revealed that 5 mutated ORFs are in new putative pathogenicity islands. Conclusion The identification of these new genes related with Xcc infection and virulence is a great step towards the understanding of plant-pathogen interactions and could allow the development of strategies to control citrus canker. PMID:19149882

2009-01-01

339

In vitro susceptibility of Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et. al. to Citrus maxima essential oil.  

PubMed

Regulatory constraints and environmental and human health concerns have promoted the search for alternative bio-control strategies of fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants which produces serious losses in apple and pear orchards all over the world. The aim of this study was to establish the antimicrobial activity of Citrus maxima essential oil against Erwinia amylovora. An agar diffusion method was used for the screening of the inhibitory effect of Citrus maxima essential oil on bacterial strains growth. The quantitative inhibitory effect of pomelo oil on in vitro biofilm development was established by a microtiter colorimetric assay. In order to investigate the ability of pomelo oil to interfere with bacterial adherence and subsequent biofilm development on leaves obtained from different pomaceous fruit trees species and cultivars: Pyrus (Napoca, Williams), Malus (Golden Delicious) and Cydonia (Aromate), leaves were immersed in pomelo oil for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 minutes before exposing them to bacterial colonization. The architecture of bacterial biofilms developed on leaf surface was analyzed using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM). Our results showed that Citrus maxima essential oil inhibited the development of bacterial biofilms on leaves, pomelo oil being more active on Cydonia (Aromate) leaves when the leaves were treated for 5 minutes. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the development of new bio-control agents as alternative strategies to protect fruit trees from fire blight disease. PMID:20583476

M?ru?escu, Lumini?a; Saviuc, Crina; Oprea, Eliza; Savu, Bogdan; Bucur, Marcela; Stanciu, Gheorghe; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Laz?r, Veronica

2009-01-01

340

7 CFR 305.11 - Miscellaneous chemical treatments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chemical treatments. (a) CC1 for citrus canker. The fruit must be thoroughly...sodium hypochlorite. (b) CC2 for citrus canker. The fruit must be thoroughly...visible foaming action. (c) CC3 for citrus canker. The fruit must be...

2010-01-01

341

Prophage-mediated dynamics of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations, the destructive bacterial pathogens of citrus huanglongbing.  

PubMed

Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development. PMID:24349235

Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping

2013-01-01

342

Prophage-Mediated Dynamics of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Populations, the Destructive Bacterial Pathogens of Citrus Huanglongbing  

PubMed Central

Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development. PMID:24349235

Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A.; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping

2013-01-01

343

Citrus transformation using juvenile tissue explants.  

PubMed

The most frequently used method for production of citrus transgenic plants is via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tissues found on explants obtained from juvenile seedlings. Within the last decade and especially within the last 5-6 years, this robust method was employed to produce thousands of transgenic plants. With the newly applied screening methods that allow easier and faster detection of transgenic shoots, estimates of transformation rate for some cultivars have gone up making this approach even more attractive. Although adjustments have to be made regarding the (varietal) source of the starting material and Agrobacterium strain used in each experiment preformed, the major steps of this procedure have not changed significantly if at all. Transgenic citrus plants produced this way belong to cultivars of rootstocks, sweet oranges, grapefruits, mandarins, limes, and lemons. PMID:25416263

Orbovi?, Vladimir; Grosser, Jude W

2015-01-01

344

Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.  

PubMed

Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML. PMID:25465994

Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

2015-04-15

345

Producing And Marketing Texas Citrus.  

E-print Network

300 to 1,200 ppm total salts. With proper management practices, water of this quality is not a limiting factor on well-drained land with trees budded on sour orange rootstock. Water allotments from irrigation districts in the ,Valley often... to salt, boron, alkalinity, disease, cold, fruit production and quality and general adaptability to soil types. Three main limiting factors in the Valley usually are salt, disease and cold tolerance. Two rootstocks, a sour orange and Cleopatra mandarin...

Lyons, Calvin G. Jr; Maxwell, Norman P.; Dean, Herbert; Deer, James A.; Hart, William G.; Amador, Jose M.; Powell, Gordon

1978-01-01

346

Comparison of evapotranspiration rates for flatwoods and ridge citrus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Florida citrus groves are typically grown in two regions of the state: flatwoods and ridge. The southern flatwoods citrus area has poorly drained fine textured sands with low organic matter in the shallow root zone. Ridge citrus is located in the northern ridge citrus zone and has fine to coarse textured sands with low water-holding capacity. Two commercial citrus groves, selected from each region, were studied from 15 July 2004 to 14 July 2005. The flatwoods citrus (FC) grove had a grass cover and used drainage ditches to remove excess water from the root zone. The ridge citrus (RC) grove had a bare soil surface with weeds periodically eliminated by tillage. Citrus crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates at the two citrus groves were measured by the eddy correlation method, and components in the energy balance were also examined and compared. The study period had higher than average rainfall, and as a result, the two locations had similar annual ETc rates (1069 and 1044 mm for RC and FC, respectively). The ETc rates were 59% (RC) and 47% (FC) of the rainfall amounts during the study period. The annual reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) rates were 1180 mm for RC and 1419 mm for FC, estimated using the standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. The citrus crop coefficients (Kc, ratio of ETc to ET o) were different between the two locations because of differences in latitude, ground cover, and rainfall amounts. The Kc values ranged from 0.70 between December and March to 1.05 between July and November for RC, and from 0.65 between November and May to 0.85 between June and October for FC. The results are consistent with other Kc values reported from field studies on citrus in both Florida and elsewhere using these and alternate methods.

Jia, X.; Swancar, A.; Jacobs, J.M.; Dukes, M.D.; Morgan, K.

2007-01-01

347

Polyembryony in non-apomictic citrus genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Adventitious embryony from nucellar cells is the mechanism leading to apomixis in Citrus sp. However, singular cases of polyembryony have been reported in non-apomictic genotypes as a consequence of 2x × 4x hybridizations and in vitro culture of isolated nucelli. The origin of the plants arising from the aforementioned processes remains unclear. Methods The genetic structure (ploidy and allelic constitution with microsatellite markers) of plants obtained from polyembryonic seeds arising from 2x × 4x sexual hybridizations and those regenerated from nucellus culture in vitro was systematically analysed in different non-apomictic citrus genotypes. Histological studies were also conducted to try to identify the initiation process underlying polyembryony. Key Results All plants obtained from the same undeveloped seed in 2x × 4x hybridizations resulted from cleavage of the original zygotic embryo. Also, the plants obtained from in vitro nucellus culture were recovered by somatic embryogenesis from cells that shared the same genotype as the zygotic embryos of the same seed. Conclusions It appears that in non-apomictic citrus genotypes, proembryos or embryogenic cells are formed by cleavage of the zygotic embryos and that the development of these adventitious embryos, normally hampered, can take place in vivo or in vitro as a result of two different mechanisms that prevent the dominance of the initial zygotic embryo. PMID:20675656

Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

2010-01-01

348

A model for Huanglongbing spread between citrus plants including delay times and human intervention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to present a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delay in the disease's incubation phase in the plants, and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the most important HLB insect vector in Brazil. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the possible impacts of human detection efficiency of symptomatic plants, as well as the influence of a long incubation period of HLB in the plant.

Vilamiu, Raphael G. d'A.; Ternes, Sonia; Braga, Guilherme A.; Laranjeira, Francisco F.

2012-09-01

349

Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of citrus auraptene.  

PubMed

Auraptene is the most abundant naturally occurring geranyloxycoumarin. It is primarily isolated from plants in the Rutaceae family, many of which, like citrus fruits, are used as food in many countries. Auraptene is a biologically active secondary metabolite with valuable properties. The aim of our study was to identify novel properties of auraptene with potential for managing periodontal diseases, an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin affecting the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. In vitro assays showed that auraptene decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 as well as key inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5 secreted by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells. Using gingival fibroblasts, auraptene showed a significant (P<.05) wound healing effect by its capacity to increase cell migration. In conclusion, auraptene shows promise for promoting wound healing and controlling periodontal diseases through its capacity to interfere with inflammatory mediator secretion. PMID:24070132

La, Vu Dang; Zhao, Lei; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Grenier, Daniel

2013-10-01

350

First New World Documentation of an Old World Citrus Pest, the Lime Swallowtail  

E-print Network

demoleus, invasive species, citrus pest. P apilio demoleus L., commonly known as the lemon, lime, citrusFirst New World Documentation of an Old World Citrus Pest, the Lime Swallowtail Papilio demoleus Boyce, and Brian D. Farrell Abstract. Papilio demoleus L., a well-known citrus pest in the Old World

Farrell, Brian D.

351

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character

Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

352

Global gene expression of Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus sunki and their hybrids under infection of Phytophthora parasitica  

PubMed Central

Background Gummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R), and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S) to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible hybrids in comparison with their parents 48 hours after P. parasitica inoculation. We proposed that genes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible parents and between their resistant and susceptible hybrids provide promising candidates for identifying transcripts involved in disease resistance. A microarray containing 62,876 UniGene transcripts selected from the CitEST database and prepared by NimbleGen Systems was used for analyzing global gene expression 48 hours after infection with P. parasitica. Results Three pairs of data comparisons (P. trifoliata/C. sunki, Pool R/C. sunki and Pool R/Pool S) were performed. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 3.0, 21 UniGene transcripts common to the three pairwise comparative were found to be up-regulated, and 3 UniGene transcripts were down-regulated. Among them, our results indicated that the selected transcripts were probably involved in the whole process of plant defense responses to pathogen attack, including transcriptional regulation, signaling, activation of defense genes participating in HR, single dominant genes (R gene) such as TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4 and switch of defense-related metabolism pathway. Differentially expressed genes were validated by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant plants and between inoculated and uninoculated control plants Conclusions Twenty four UniGene transcripts were identified as candidate genes for Citrus response to P. parasitica. UniGene transcripts were likely to be involved in disease resistance, such as genes potentially involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, intracellular osmotic adjustment, signal transduction pathways of cell death, oxidative burst and defense gene expression. Furthermore, our microarray data suggest another type of resistance in Citrus-Phytophthora interaction conferred by single dominant genes (R gene) since we encountered two previously reported R genes (TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4) upregulated in the resistant genotypes relative to susceptible. We identified 7 transcripts with homology in other plants but yet unclear functional characterization which are an interesting pool for further analyses and 3 transcripts where no significant similarity was found. This is the first microarray study addressing an evaluation of transcriptional changes in response to P. parasitica in Citrus. PMID:21241495

2011-01-01

353

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

354

Ethanol and other products from citrus processing waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greater than 80 percent of citrus produced in Florida is processed for juice production. The bulk of this waste material is dried as citrus pulp and sold as a cattle feed by-product, often at a price lower than the cost of production. While not profitable, this does solve the problem of waste dispos...

355

EVALUATION OF WASTE CITRUS ACTIVATED SLUDGE IN POULTRY FEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted on chick broilers and hens to determine the metabolizable energy of citrus sludge. A determination of metabolizable energy values showed that the values decreased as the level of citrus sludge in the diet increased. A series of protein levels were fed t...

356

Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. We determined the synephrine concentration in the juices of C. unshiu mandarins harvested fro...

357

Application of functional citrus by-products to meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers are increasingly aware of diet related health problems and therefore demanding natural ingredients which are expected to be safe and health-promoting. By-products of citrus fruits processing industries represent a serious problem, but they are also promising sources of materials which may be used in the food industry because of their valuable technological and nutritional properties. Two types of citrus

J. Fernández-López; J. M. Fernández-Ginés; L. Aleson-Carbonell; E. Sendra; E. Sayas-Barberá; J. A. Pérez-Alvarez

2004-01-01

358

New enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation of citrus waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The expense involved to dry citrus processing waste into citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as a cattle feed continues to increase with rising fuel costs. While there have also been recent increases in the value of CPP, this value fluctuates considerably and does not always cover processing costs. Th...

359

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

360

Application and evaluation of entomopathogens for citrus pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus is an important crop that harbors various insect pests. A number or these pests may be amenable to microbial control agents particularly nematodes, fungi and viruses. This chapter summarizes techniques used to evaluate field efficacy of microbial control agents in citrus. Insect pests that...

361

Transgenic Resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in Grapefruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, tr...

362

AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS TO CLEAN CITRUS FRUIT SURFACES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A move away from harsh chemicals towards more natural or organic postharvest treatments for citrus has prompted interest in alternate sanitizers for cleaning citrus in packinghouses. In this study we compare the efficiency of sanitizing methods on oranges. The oranges were collected from the field...

363

21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD...SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a...more than 10 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 1...

2010-04-01

364

Discovery of a viral pathogen in the Asian citrus psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We used a Metagenomics approach and discovered an insect-infecting virus in adult Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus in North America. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect tha...

365

Molecular Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates from Panama  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from the main citrus growing regions in Panama and characterized at the molecular level. The CTV coat protein gene (CPG) was amplified by RT-PCR, and the amplified PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequences analyses showed the ...

366

Effects of Mefenoxam, Phosphonate, and Paclobutrazol on In Vitro Characteristics of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola and on Canker Size of European Beech  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora citricola and P. cactorum cause bleeding cankers that lead to the death of mature European beech in the northeastern United States. Because of the economic value placed on these trees, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two fungicides and a plant growth regulator ...

367

Transmission of Citrus leprosis virus C by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) to Alternative Host Plants Found in Citrus Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The equivalent of US$ 75 million is spent each year in Brazil to control Brevipalpus phoenicis, a mite vector of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C). In this study we investigated the possibility that hedgerows, windbreaks, and weeds normally found in citrus orchards could host CiLV-C. Mites reared on ...

368

Antennal response of the Asian citrus psyllid to citrus volatiles and their degradation product  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asian citrus psyllid antennae reacted strongly when stimulated with citral and ocimene stimulus tubes that had been aged for 3-5 days. When 20 µl of neat ocimene or citral were aged on filter paper strips in sealed Pasteur pipette stimulus tubes for 6 days on the laboratory bench, voltage changes we...

369

Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: Grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus×aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)

Rafaela Guimarães; Lillian Barros; João C. M. Barreira; Ana Maria Carvalho; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

2010-01-01

370

Geographic Distribution of Habitat, Development, and Population Growth Rates of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion. PMID:24735280

López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J.; Robles-García, Pedro L.; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

2013-01-01

371

Transcriptional and Microscopic Analyses of Citrus Stem and Root Responses to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In this study, we compared the gene expression levels of stems and roots of healthy plants with those in Ca. L. asiaticus infected plants using microarrays. Affymetrix microarray analysis showed a total of 988 genes were significantly altered in expression, of which 885 were in the stems, and 111 in the roots. Of these, 551 and 56 were up-regulated, while 334 and 55 were down-regulated in the stem and root samples of HLB diseased trees compared to healthy plants, respectively. Dramatic differences in the transcriptional responses were observed between citrus stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection, with only 8 genes affected in both the roots and stems. The affected genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, biotic and abiotic stress responses, signaling and transcriptional factors, transportation, cell organization, protein modification and degradation, development, hormone signaling, metal handling, and redox. Microscopy analysis showed the depletion of starch in the roots of the infected plants but not in healthy plants. Collapse and thickening of cell walls were observed in HLB affected roots, but not as severe as in the stems. This study provides insight into the host response of the stems and roots to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. PMID:24058486

Aritua, Valente; Achor, Diann; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Albrigo, Gene; Wang, Nian

2013-01-01

372

Bacterial Diversity Analysis of Huanglongbing Pathogen-Infected Citrus, Using PhyloChip Arrays and 16S rRNA Gene Clone Library Sequencing? †  

PubMed Central

The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized for citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarrays and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition for symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria in 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs, while 20 orders in 8 phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs than in asymptomatic midribs. “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis results were further verified by sequencing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. PMID:19151177

Sagaram, Uma Shankar; DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Trivedi, Pankaj; Andersen, Gary L.; Lu, Shi-En; Wang, Nian

2009-01-01

373

Study on Citrus Response to Huanglongbing Highlights a Down-Regulation of Defense-Related Proteins in Lemon Plants Upon ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ Infection  

PubMed Central

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited ?-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citruslimon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants. Furthermore, there was a 6% increase (P > 0.05) in K concentration in leaves of lemon plants upon Las infection, which support results from previous studies and might represent a common response pattern of citrus plants to Las infection. Interestingly, contrary to reports from prior studies, this study showed a general reduction in the production of defense-related pathogen-response proteins but a 128% increase in Zn concentration in lemon plants in response to Las infection. Taken together, this study sheds light on general and intra-species specific responses associated with the response of citrus plants to Las. PMID:23922636

Nwugo, Chika C.; Duan, Yongping; Lin, Hong

2013-01-01

374

Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains  

PubMed Central

Background The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other molecular tools, have been used to estimate the evolutionary history of the group and provide clues to understand the capacity of Xf to infect different hosts, causing a variety of symptoms. Nonetheless, although significant amounts of information have been generated from Xf strains, a large proportion of these efforts has concentrated on the study of North American strains, limiting our understanding about the genomic composition of South American strains – which is particularly important for CVC-associated strains. Results This paper describes the first genome-wide comparison among South American Xf strains, involving 6 distinct citrus-associated bacteria. Comparative analyses performed through a microarray-based approach allowed identification and characterization of large mobile genetic elements that seem to be exclusive to South American strains. Moreover, a large-scale sequencing effort, based on Suppressive Subtraction Hybridization (SSH), identified 290 new ORFs, distributed in 135 Groups of Orthologous Elements, throughout the genomes of these bacteria. Conclusion Results from microarray-based comparisons provide further evidence concerning activity of horizontally transferred elements, reinforcing their importance as major mediators in the evolution of Xf. Moreover, the microarray-based genomic profiles showed similarity between Xf strains 9a5c and Fb7, which is unexpected, given the geographical and chronological differences associated with the isolation of these microorganisms. The newly identified ORFs, obtained by SSH, represent an approximately 10% increase in our current knowledge of the South American Xf gene pool and include new putative virulence factors, as well as novel potential markers for strain identification. Surprisingly, this list of novel elements include sequences previously believed to be unique to North American strains, pointing to the necessity of revising the list of specific markers that may be used for identification of distinct Xf strains. PMID:18154652

da Silva, Vivian S; Shida, Cláudio S; Rodrigues, Fabiana B; Ribeiro, Diógenes CD; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; Nunes, Luiz R; de Oliveira, Regina Costa

2007-01-01

375

Characterization of Citrus Rootstock Responses to Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb).  

PubMed

Citrus rootstocks which significantly limited the reproduction of Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb) "Citrus" and "Poncirus" biotypes responded to infection by producing a hypersensitive-type response in the root hypodermis, wound periderm and/or cavities in the root cortex, and/or abnormal vacuoles in nurse cell cytoplasm. Rootstocks which limited nematode reproduction also had significantly fewer nematodes in the rhizoplane within 8 d of inoculation than did rootstocks which did not limit reproduction. Germplasm sources of the cellular responses which limited citrus nematode reproduction were identified. PMID:19300795

Kaplan, D T

1981-10-01

376

Microclimate patterns on the leeside of single-row tree windbreaks during different weather conditions in Florida farms: implications for improved crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida citrus and vegetable crops generate billions of dollars in revenue every year. However, wind, freezing temperatures,\\u000a hurricanes, and diseases negatively impact production. Windbreaks located perpendicular to the prevailing wind can increase\\u000a farm production simply by reducing wind and modifying microclimate. Windbreaks can also help in managing pathogens such as\\u000a citrus canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri). To study the modification

Bijay TamangMichael; Michael G. Andreu; Donald L. Rockwood

2010-01-01

377

What You Should Know About Plant Diseases.  

E-print Network

of photosynthesis may be limited by the amount ltrients and water it receives. Therefore, if food production iitecl, plant growth is limited. ptoms of Plant vlsea. Symptoms are the effects produced by a disease organism on a plant. This is the appearance... portions of the plants. This usually results in the general killing of leaves, flowers and stems. Examples of this are the bacterial disease, fire blight, on pears and bac- terial blight of cotton. CANKER-A dead area on a stem surrounded by living...

Horne, C. Wendell; Smith, Harlan E.

1962-01-01

378

Infectivity of two biotypes of the citrus nematode on citrus and on some other hosts.  

PubMed

The infectivity and development of two biotypes of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) were compared on highly resistant Poncirus trifoliata selection 'Pomeroy,' moderately susceptible 'Troyer' citrange, and highly susceptible sweet orange selection 'Homosassa' small seedlings in a glasshouse. Biotype-1 was more infective on the above hosts and developed faster on sweet orange and on 'Troyer' citrange than Biotype-2. The differences in infectivity were interpreted to reflect differences in the ability of the nematodes to penetrate the epidermis and hypodermis and become established in host roots. Poncirus selections 'Pomeroy,' 'Webber-Fawcett,' and 'Rubidoux' seedlings were highly resistant to the citrus nematode in California, but seedlings of 'Pomeroy' and 'Rubidoux' were only moderately resistant in Japan. These differences in degree of infection may indicate different biotypes of the nematode. Host range tests with California Biotype-1 indicate that it differs from those occurring in Israel. PMID:19325669

Baines, R C; Miyakawa, T; Cameron, J W; Small, R H

1969-04-01

379

USING PCR FOR DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI IN WIND DRIVEN SPLASH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An eradication program has been developed to remove citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, Xac) from Florida (1,4). The eradication program is based on knowledge of the disease epidemiology. Additional information on the spread of Xac bacteria in wind blown splash will provide fur...

380

The Genetic Structure of an Invasive Pest, the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)  

PubMed Central

The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is currently the major threat to the citrus industry as it is the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease (HLB). D. citri is native to Asia and now colonizes the Americas. Although it has been known in some countries for a long time, invasion routes remain undetermined. There are no efficient control methods for the HLB despite the intensive management tools currently in use. We investigated the genetic variability and structure of populations of D. citri to aid in the decision making processes toward sustainable management of this species/disease. We employed different methods to quantify and compare the genetic diversity and structure of D. citri populations among 36 localities in Brazil, using an almost complete sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Our analyses led to the identification of two geographically and genetically structured groups. The indices of molecular diversity pointed to a recent population expansion, and we discuss the role of multiple invasion events in this scenario. We also argue that such genetic diversity and population structure may have implications for the best management strategies to be adopted for controlling this psyllid and/or the disease it vectors in Brazil. PMID:25545788

Guidolin, Aline S.; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando L.

2014-01-01

381

Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

382

WORKER REENTRY IN FLORIDA CITRUS PESTICIDES IN THE AGRICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmental behavior of five organophospate insecticides in Florida citrus are reported. Parathion disappearance rate from fruit, leaf, and soil surfaces was the same. Potential worker exposure to parathion was leaf surface, soil surface, fruit surface, and a minor componen...

383

Modulation of Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis by Citrus Polymethoxylated Favones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus polymethoxylated flavones modulate the biosynthesis of cholesterol and triacylglycerols via multiple mechanisms. Tangeretin was shown to inhibit the activities of diacylglycerol acyltransferase and of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein as well as activate the membrane peroxisome prolif...

384

Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups  

PubMed Central

Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

Harper, S. J.

2013-01-01

385

Insecticidal Suppression of Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens.  

PubMed

Diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause 'huanglongbing' or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. Vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. Efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. Insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i) labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005-2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i) or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i) to control D. citri in citrus. A combined effect of nymphal and adult suppression in response to sprays of 23 insecticides representing 9 modes of action (MoA) groups and 3 unknown MoA provided more than 90% reduction of adult D. citri over 24-68 days. Observable effects on nymphs were generally of shorter duration due to rapid maturation of flush. However, reduction of 76-100% nymphs or adults over 99-296 days was seen on young trees receiving drenches of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or clothianidin (MoA 4A) and a novel anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole (MoA 28). Effective products identified for foliar sprays to control D. citri provide sufficient MoA groups for rotation to delay evolution of insecticide resistance by D. citri and other pests. However, cyantraniliprole is now the only available alternative for rotation with neonicotinoids in soil application to young trees. Sprays of up to eight of the most effective insecticides could be rotated over a year without repetition of any MoA and little or no recourse to neonicotinoids or cyantraniliprole, so important for protection of young trees. Other considerations effecting decisions of what and when to spray include prevalence of huanglongbing, pest pressure, pre-harvest intervals, overall budget, equipment availability, and conservation of beneficial arthropods. Examples of spray programs utilizing broad-spectrum and relatively selective insecticides are provided to improve vector management and may vary depending on individual or regional assessment of all factors. PMID:25437858

Qureshi, Jawwad A; Kostyk, Barry C; Stansly, Philip A

2014-01-01

386

Chlorophyllase activity in chlorophyll-free citrus chromoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromoplast fractions from mature, chlorophyll-less ‘Valencia’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) flavedo (= the outer coloured layer of citrus peel) showed considerable chlorophyllase activity. Acetone powders prepared from chromoplast fractions had 2.5× higher specific activity than those prepared from whole flavedo. Exposure of mature, chlorophyll-less fruit to ethylene caused a 2.5 to 4.0 fold increase in chlorophyllase activity. Juice chromoplasts

K. R. Hirschfeld; E. E. Goldschmidt

1983-01-01

387

Methods and Cost of Handling Texas Citrus, 1946-51.  

E-print Network

10 percent to 32 percent for oranges. Introduction of special bag- handling equipment in some packing houses accompanied the increase in use of these bags. Truck movement of fresh citrus from the Lower Rio Grande Valley increased from 20 percent... expansion in the western half of the United States indicates opportunities for new markets for Texas citrus in that area. Costs of packing oranges and grapefruit in 1-3/5 wirebound boxes increased about 36 percent dur- ing the postwar period, Volume...

Sorensen, H. B.; Baker, C. K.

1953-01-01

388

Survival, growth, and target canker infection of black walnut families 15 years after establishment in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The survival, growth, and rate of target canker infection of 34 black walnut (Juglans nigra) families were evaluated 15 years after establishment in north-central West Virginia. The progenies originated at locations in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina. There were significant differences between families in survival, incidence of target-canker infection, total height, and diameter at breast height. The North Carolina and Tennessee sources were less suitable for the growing conditions of the test site, local and slightly more northern sources seem more suitable. Near the northern extremity of the range of black walnut, maintaining a viable native population of this species and using local seed sources in artificial regeneration activities are recommended.

Schuler, T.M.

1993-07-01

389

Characterization of the microbial community structure in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics in the field  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is a worldwide devastating disease of citrus. There are no effective control measures for this newly emerging but century-old disease. Previously, we reported a combination of Penicillin G and Streptomycin was effective in eliminating or suppressing the associated bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). Results Here we report the bacterial composition and community structure in HLB-affected citrus plants during a growing season and while being treated with antibiotic combinations PS (Penicillin G and Streptomycin) and KO (Kasugamycin and Oxytetracycline) using the Phylochip™ G3 array. Both antibiotic treatments resulted in significantly lower Las bacterial titers (Pr<0.05) and hybridization scores. Of the 50,000+ available operational taxonomic units (OTUs) on PhyloChip™ G3, 7,028 known OTUs were present in citrus leaf midribs. These OTUs were from 58 phyla, of which five contained 100 or more OTUs, Proteobacteria (44.1%), Firmicutes (23.5%), Actinobacteria (12.4%), Bacteroidetes (6.6%) and Cyanobacteria (3.2%). In the antibiotic treated samples, the number of OTUs decreased to a total of 5,599. The over-all bacterial diversity decreased with the antibiotic treatments, as did the abundance of 11 OTUs within Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. Within the Proteobacteria, ten OTUs representing the class ?-proteobacteria increased in abundance after four months of treatment, when the Las bacterium was at its lowest level in the HLB-affected citrus field plants. Conclusions Our data revealed that Proteobacteria was constantly the dominant bacterial phylum recovered from citrus leaf midribs, with the ?-proteobacterial and the ?-proteobacterial classes vying for prevalence. In addition, the level of bacterial diversity found in the leaf midribs of field citrus was greater than previously described. Bacterial cells in close proximity may be able to modify their microenvironment, making the composition of the microbial community an important factor in the ability of Las to cause HLB progression. A low Las level was seen as an annual fluctuation, part of the bacterial population dynamics, and as a response to the antibiotic treatments. PMID:23701743

2013-01-01

390

Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrates with high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates in which 24% and 35% dried citrus pulp were included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and saturation of meat after blooming (P<0.01). Regardless of the level of supplementation, dietary dried citrus pulp strongly reduced meat lipid oxidation over 6 days of aerobic storage (P<0.001), while colour parameters did not change noticeably over storage and their variation rate was not affected by the diet. In conclusion, replacing cereals with dried citrus pulp in concentrate-based diets might represent a feasible strategy to naturally improve meat oxidative stability and to promote the exploitation of this by-product. PMID:24440744

Inserra, L; Priolo, A; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Bognanno, M; Gravador, R; Luciano, G

2014-04-01

391

Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54?meg/kg and 0.77?mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province) and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil. PMID:25136460

Reazai, Mohammad; Mohammadpourfard, Issa; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Jahanbakhsh, Mahdi; Shiri, Leila

2014-01-01

392

Quantitative Association of Bark Beetles with Pitch Canker Fungus and Effects of Verbenone on Their Semiochemical Communication in Monterey Pine Forests in Northern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between 11 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) with the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and OÕDonnell, was determined by crushing beetles on selective medium and histone H3 gene sequencing. Pityophthorus pubescens (Marsham) (25.00%), Hylurgops palliatus (Gyllenhal) (11.96%), Ips sexden- tatus (Borner) (8.57%), Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood (7.89%), Hylastes attenuatus Erichson (7.40%), and

Pedro Romón; Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia; Ken Gibson; B. Staffan Lindgren; Arturo Goldarazena

2007-01-01

393

The antiallergic mechanisms of Citrus sunki and bamboo salt (K-ALL) in an allergic rhinitis model.  

PubMed

The antiallergic effects of traditional medicines have long been studied. Traditional Korean medicine, Citrus sunki and bamboo salt, has been used for the treatment of allergic diseases in Korea. K-ALL, composed of Citrus sunki and bamboo salt, is a newly prepared prescription for allergic patients. To develop the new antiallergic agent, we examined the effects of K-ALL through in vivo and in vitro models. K-ALL and naringin (an active compound of K-ALL) significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. This inhibitory effect of K-ALL on histamine release was higher than effects from other known histamine inhibitors such as bamboo salt, Citrus sunki or disodium cromoglycate. K-ALL significantly inhibited systemic anaphylactic shock induced by the compound 48/80 and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced by the IgE. K-ALL also inhibited production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 on HMC-1 cells (a human mast cell line). In the ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis animal model, rub scores, histamine, IgE, inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cell counts were all reduced by the oral or nasal administration of K-ALL (pre and posttreatment). These results indicate the great potential of K-ALL as an active immune modulator for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. PMID:24131540

Oh, Hyun-A; Kim, Myong-Jo; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

2014-01-01

394

Effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease on orange juice flavor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The disease, Huanglongbing (HLB), also called greening or yellow dragon disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. This is a serious disease of citrus that can kill the tree in 5-10 years. It has also been rumored that the disease causes off-flavor in the fruit and subsequent juice that has be...

395

MONITORING STUDY OF URINARY METABOLITES AND SELECTED SYMPTOMATOLOGY AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS WORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A cross-sectional monitoring study was made of citrus fieldworkers employed during an entire citrus growing season in Florida. A survey questionnaire was administered to 1811 fieldworkers employed as applicators, mixers, loaders, tractor drivers, general combination workers, and ...

396

THE OCCURRENCE OF PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CITRUS WEEVIL EGGS ON ST. LUCIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three species of hymenopteran egg parasitoid were found attacking citrus weevil eggs on the island of St. Lucia including Haeckeliania sperata Pinto (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), Baryscapus fennahi Schauff, and Quadrastichus haitiensis Gahan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Overall, 12% of citrus weev...

397

77 FR 30497 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations...or retard the spread of plant pests (such as citrus canker) new or widely distributed throughout...

2012-05-23

398

7 CFR 301.75-2 - General prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations...be moved interstate into any commercial citrus-producing area, except as follows...articles may be moved through a commercial citrus-producing area if they are...

2010-01-01

399

Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus phylogeny was investigated using RAPD, SCAR and cpDNA markers. The genotypes analyzed included 36 accessions belonging\\u000a to Citrus together with 1 accession from each of the related genera Poncirus, Fortunella, Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Phylogenetic analysis with 262 RAPDs and 14 SCARs indicated that Fortunella is phylogenetically close to Citrus while the other three related genera are distant from Citrus

E. Nicolosi; Z. N. Deng; A. Gentile; S. La Malfa; G. Continella; E. Tribulato

2000-01-01

400

DYNAMICS OF NUTRIENT UPTAKE DURING ROOT AND SHOOT GROWTH IN THREE DIVERSE CITRUS ROOTSTOCK CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To reduce the risk of nutrient contamination of surface and groundwater in citrus production fields, research was initiated to better define nutrient requirements of citrus and the relationship between method of fertilization (i.e., soil vs. foliar applied) and citrus growth. Nutrient uptake patter...

401

Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (entantiomers of ?- and ?-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.).

Antonios Michaelakis; Dimitrios Papachristos; Athanasios Kimbaris; George Koliopoulos; Athanasios Giatropoulos; Moschos G. Polissiou

2009-01-01

402

Reducing chilling injury and decay of stored citrus fruit by hot water dips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hot water dips (53 °C, 2–3 min) on chilling injury (CI) and decay of various citrus fruits was compared with the effect of curing (36 °C, 72 h). Experiments were conducted with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., cv. Marsh), lemon (Citrus limon. Burm., cv. Eureka), oroblanco (C. grandis Osb. × C. paradisi, cv. Oroblanco, syn. Sweety) and kumquat

V. Rodov; S. Ben-Yehoshua; R. Albagli; D. Q. Fang

1995-01-01

403

Interactions between Citrus Cachexia Viroid and Closely Related Sequence Variants May Impair Expression of Cachexia Symptoms  

E-print Network

lemon'. Cachexia can affect most tangelos, some mandarins, many mandarin hybrids, sweet lime and Citrus macrophylla. Infected rough lemon may also show mild symptoms. It is especially severe on Citrus macrophylla401 Interactions between Citrus Cachexia Viroid and Closely Related Sequence Variants May Impair

Perreault, Jean-Pierre

404

76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2008-0140] Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and...Treatment Manual for certain species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the...sweet cherries and certain species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into...

2011-03-30

405

Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The abundance and spatial dispersion of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, were studied in thirty-four grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) and six sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) orchards from March to August 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern Texas. Although flush shoot inf...

406

Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

407

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2011-01-01

408

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2014-01-01

409

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2012-01-01

410

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2010-01-01

411

7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15...for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated...receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of...

2013-01-01

412

Digestibility by Dairy Cows of Monosaccharide Constituents in Total Mixed Rations Containing Citrus Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten lactating cows were divided into two groups and individually fed ad libitum one of two experimental total mixed rations (TMR) as follows: 1) a TMR con- taining 20% corn grain and 10% dry citrus pulp (high corn); and 2) a TMR containing 21% citrus pulp and 9% corn grain (high citrus pulp). Both TMR also con- tained corn silage

J. Miron; E. Yosef; D. Ben-Ghedalia; L. E. Chase; D. E. Bauman; R. Solomon

2002-01-01

413

Phylogenetic analysis of Citrus based on sequences of six nuclear genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus has a long history of cultivation. The phylogenetic relationships between the different cultivars of citrus are not clearly understood because of hybridization, nucellar embryony and somatic mutations. Earlier studies on citrus taxonomy and phylogeny were based on isozymes analyses, microsate...

414

HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

415

Effects of the nematicide 1,3-dichloropropene on weed populations and stem canker disease severity in potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) has been used in the UK for the control of potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera pallida (Stone) and Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber), but its potential herbicidal activity has not been extensively investigated in this country. Field and glasshouse studies were therefore conducted to evaluate the potential of 1,3-D for the control of weeds in potatoes, and

Patrick P. J. Haydock; Thomas Deliopoulos; Ken Evans; Stephen T. Minnis

2010-01-01

416

Diurnal patterns in flight activity and effects of light on host finding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States. The psyllid feeds and reproduces primarily on new flush growth of citrus and other rutaceous plants. Because it vectors the bacterial causal agents of the deadly citrus green...

417

Chemical composition of commercial citrus fruit essential oils and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation reports on the chemical composition of three commercial citrus fruit essential oils (orange [Citrus sinensis], lemon [Citrus lemon] and Mandarin [Citrus reticulata]) from Spain, and examines their antimicrobial activity against spoiling and pathogenic microorganisms, as well as possible synergistic lethal effects in combination with mild heat. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis allowed for the identification of 65 compounds

Laura Espina; María Somolinos; Susana Lorán; Pilar Conchello; Diego García; Rafael Pagán

2011-01-01

418

Weedy hosts and prevalence of potential leafhopper vectors (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) of a phytoplasma (16SrIX group) associated with Huanglongbing symptoms in citrus groves.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in São Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stål), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stål)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards. PMID:22606800

Marques, R N; Teixeira, D C; Yamamoto, P T; Lopes, J R S

2012-04-01

419

Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by ?-aminobutyric acid in citrus.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (?-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri. PMID:23590847

Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2013-10-01

420

Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus.  

PubMed

In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T

1990-10-01

421

False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.  

PubMed

In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary ?-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits. PMID:24502328

Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

2014-09-01

422

Resveratrol and its combination with ?-tocopherol mediate salt adaptation in citrus seedlings.  

PubMed

Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in red wine, has the potential to impact a variety of human diseases but its function in plants exposed to stressful conditions is still unknown. In the present study the effect of exogenous application of resveratrol (Res), ?-tocopherol (?-Toc) and their combination (Res+?-Toc) in salt adaptation of citrus seedlings was investigated. It was found that Res, ?-Toc or Res+?-Toc treatments reduced NaCl-derived membrane permeability (EL), lipid peroxidation (MDA) and pigments degradation, whereas companied Res and ?-Toc application also reduced H2O2 accumulation in leaves and restored the reduction of photosynthesis induced by NaCl. Application of Res under salinity retained Cl- in roots while Res+?-Toc reduced the translocation of Na+ and Cl- to leaves. Carbohydrates and proline, phenols, total ascorbic acid and glutathione were remarkably affected by NaCl as well as by chemical treatments in leaves and roots of citrus. NaCl treatment increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves while SOD and POD activities were decreased in roots by this treatment. Also, Res, ?-Toc or Res+?-Toc treatments displayed tissue specific activation or deactivation of the antioxidant enzymes. Overall, this work revealed a new functional role of Res in plants and provided evidence that the interplay of between Res and ?-Toc is involved in salinity adaptation. PMID:24602773

Kostopoulou, Zacharoula; Therios, Ioannis; Molassiotis, Athanassios

2014-05-01

423

Citrus transformation using mature tissue explants.  

PubMed

Mature tissue protocol for production of transgenic Citrus plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation uses explants derived from branches of mature, fruit-bearing trees. Through the multiple cleaning steps consisting of grafting of apical tip meristems on rootstock plants grown under sanitary conditions, "mother" plants are produced that will serve as a source of budding material. These buds are grafted onto rootstock plants grown under the same, highly sanitary conditions. Newly obtained, one meter tall, young grafted plants serve as a source of explants for co-incubation experiments with Agrobacterium. Following successful transformation with Agrobacterium, selected transgenic shoots are micrografted onto rootstock plants in vitro where they are allowed to grow for a couple of months. Grafted transgenic plantlet together with the associated rootstock plant is taken out of culture tubes, severed from the root, and regrafted in terra on a 1-year-old rootstock plant. With the application of proper horticultural techniques, such a plant will yield first fruit about 12-15 months later. PMID:25416264

Orbovi?, Vladimir; Shankar, Alka; Peeples, Michael E; Hubbard, Calvin; Zale, Janice

2015-01-01

424

Developmental Toxicity of Citrus aurantium in Rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Ephedra was commonly used in herbal products marketed for weight loss until safety concerns forced its removal from products. Even before the ban, manufacturers had begun to replace ephedra with other compounds, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. The major component in the bitter orange extract is synephrine which is chemically similar to ephedrine. The purpose of this study was to determine if relatively pure synephrine or synephrine present as a constituent of a bitter orange extract produced developmental toxicity in rats. METHOD Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage with one of several different doses of synephrine from one of two different extracts. Caffeine was added to some doses. Animals were sacrificed on GD 21, and fetuses were examined for the presence of various developmental toxic endpoints. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION At doses up to 100 mg synephrine/kg body weight, there were no adverse effects on embryolethality, fetal weight or incidences of gross, visceral or skeletal abnormalities. There was a decrease in maternal weight at 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight when given as the 6% synephrine extract with 25 mg caffeine/kg body weight; there was also a decrease in maternal weight in the caffeine only group. This decrease in body weight may have been due to decreased food consumption which was also observed in these two groups. Overall, doses of up to 100 mg synephrine/kg body weight did not produce developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:21594979

Hansen, Deborah K.; Juliar, Beth E.; White, Gene E.; Pellicore, Linda S.

2011-01-01

425

Sampling Citrus Fibrous Roots and Tylenchulus semipenetrans.  

PubMed

Sampling precision was investigated for Tylenchulus semipenetrans juveniles and males in soil and females from roots and for citrus fibrous root mass density. For the case of two composite samples of 15 cores each, counts of juvenile and male nematodes were estimated to be within 40% of mu, at P < 0.06 (alpha) in orchards where x > 1,500 nematodes/100 cm(3) soil. A similar level of alpha was estimated for measurements of fibrous root mass density, but at a precision level of 25% of mu. Densities of female nematodes were estimated with less precision than juveniles and males. Precision estimates from a general sample plan derived from Taylor's Power Law were in good agreement with estimates from individual orchards. Two aspects involved in deriving sampling plans for management advisory purposes were investigated. A minimum of five to six preliminary samples were required to appreciably reduce bias toward underestimation of sigma. The use of a Student's t value rather than a standard normal deviate in formulae to estimate sample size increased the estimates by an average of three units. Cases in which the use of z rather than Student's t is appropriate for these formulae are discussed. PMID:19279914

Duncan, L W; El-Morshedy, M M; McSorley, R

1994-12-01

426

An ergonomics approach to citrus harvest mechanization.  

PubMed

Due to the increase of production costs in manual harvesting, strategies must be developed in order to overcome these effects, such as the attempts in implementing agricultural machines in harvest activities, whether being totally or partially mechanized. This study brings a qualitative and quantitative comparison on the impacts in work conditions and productivity in Brazilian orchards caused by the use of semi-mechanized harvesting systems, such as multiplatforms. The results come from the application of Ergonomic Work Analysis method, which focuses in the activity, quantifying and analyzing times and frequencies of the harvesting cycle, as well as the amount of movements. To achieve this, footage, interviews and a stopwatch were used in the observation 12 pickers' work cycles, six for each method of harvesting. The data interpretation pointed to improvement in working conditions with a reduction in the amount of movements performed by the picker, and increase of up to 60% in productivity with the use of semi-mechanized harvesting. Thus, the found results indicate the viability of this harvesting method. However, other variables must be observed in future studies in order to complete the guidelines for a healthy progress in the area of citrus harvesting in Brazil. PMID:22317498

Costa, Simone Emmanuelle Alves; Camarotto, João Alberto

2012-01-01

427

Freezing Tolerance of Citrus, Spinach, and Petunia Leaf Tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Seasonal variations in freezing tolerance, water content, water and osmotic potential, and levels of soluble sugars of leaves of field-grown Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) trees were studied to determine the ability of citrus trees to cold acclimate under natural conditions. Controlled environmental studies of young potted citrus trees, spinach (Spinacia pleracea), and petunia (Petunia hybrids) were carried out to study the water relations during cold acclimation under less variable conditions. During the coolest weeks of the winter, leaf water content and osmotic potential of field-grown trees decreased about 20 to 25%, while soluble sugars increased by 100%. At the same time, freezing tolerance increased from lethal temperature for 50% (LT50) of ?2.8 to ?3.8°C. In contrast, citrus leaves cold acclimated at a constant 10°C in growth chambers were freezing tolerant to about ?6°C. The calculated freezing induced cellular dehydration at the LT50 remained relatively constant for field-grown leaves throughout the year, but increased for leaves of plants cold acclimated at 10°C in a controlled environment. Spinach leaves cold acclimated at 5°C tolerated increased cellular dehydration compared to nonacclimated leaves. Cold acclimated petunia leaves increased in freezing tolerance by decreasing osmotic potential, but had no capacity to change cellular dehydration sensitivity. The result suggest that two cold acclimation mechanisms are involved in both citrus and spinach leaves and only one in petunia leaves. The common mechanism in all three species tested was a minor increase in tolerance (about ?1°C) resulting from low temperature induced osmotic adjustment, and the second in citrus and spinach was a noncolligative mechanism that increased the cellular resistance to freeze hydration. PMID:16666563

Yelenosky, George; Guy, Charles L.

1989-01-01

428

Influence of metalaxyl on three nematodes of citrus.  

PubMed

Metalaxyl significantly reduced population of Pratylenchus coffeae, Radopholus similis, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in roots of Citrus limon (rough lemon) under greenhouse conditions. Postinoculation treatment of rough lemon seedlings was not as effective i n reducing nematode populations as was treatment before inoculation. Fewer nematodes infected metalaxyl-treated roots than nontreated roots. However, incubation of nematodes in metalaxyl did not inhibit nematode motility or their ability to locate and infect roots. Cellular responses to nematode injection differed between treated and nontreated tissues. Metalaxyl appeared to confer nematode contraol by modifying citrus roots such that a normally susceptible rootstock became tolerant. PMID:19295833

Kaplan, D T

1983-07-01

429

Efficient Procedure for Extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from Citrus Roots.  

PubMed

Investigations were undertaken to determine the suitability of sucrose and magnesium sulphate solutions and a silica colloidal suspension with centrifugation for extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from citrus roots. The efficiency of incubation, sodium hypochlorite, centrifugation, and maceration methods was also compared. Numbers of females recovered by centrifugation with colloidal silica were greater than those from sucrose or magnesium sulphate. Incubation, sodium hypochlorite, and centrifugation methods were satisfactory for extracting eggs, second-stage juveniles, and males, whereas the maceration-sieving method was less efficient. Combining the sodium hypochlorite method with a 15-second maceration followed by centrifugation in colloidal silica reduced the recovery of T. semipenetrans females from citrus roots. PMID:19287763

Greco, N; D'Addabbo, T

1990-10-01

430

Chlorophyllase activity in chlorophyll-free citrus chromoplasts.  

PubMed

Chromoplast fractions from mature, chlorophyll-less 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) flavedo (= the outer coloured layer of citrus peel) showed considerable chlorophyllase activity. Acetone powders prepared from chromoplast fractions had 2.5× higher specific activity than those prepared from whole flavedo. Exposure of mature, chlorophyll-less fruit to ethylene caused a 2.5 to 4.0 fold increase in chlorophyllase activity. Juice chromoplasts showed negligible chlorophyllase activity. The results suggest that chlorophyllase activity as well as its induction by ethylene are not dependent upon the presence of chlorophyll in the tissue. PMID:24257977

Hirschfeld, K R; Goldschmidt, E E

1983-06-01

431

The Monofunctional Catalase KatE of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Is Required for Full Virulence in Citrus Plants  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is an obligate aerobic phytopathogen constantly exposed to hydrogen peroxide produced by normal aerobic respiration and by the plant defense response during plant-pathogen interactions. Four putative catalase genes have been identified in silico in the Xac genome, designated as katE, catB, srpA (monofunctional catalases) and katG (bifunctional catalase). Methodology/Principal Findings Xac catalase activity was analyzed using native gel electrophoresis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We demonstrated that the catalase activity pattern was regulated in different growth stages displaying the highest levels during the stationary phase. KatE was the most active catalase in this phase of growth. At this stage cells were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide as was determined by the analysis of CFU after the exposition to different H2O2 concentrations. In addition, Xac exhibited an adaptive response to hydrogen peroxide, displaying higher levels of catalase activity and H2O2 resistance after treatment with sub-lethal concentrations of the oxidant. In the plant-like medium XVM2 the expression of KatE was strongly induced and in this medium Xac was more resistant to H2O2. A XackatE mutant strain was constructed by insertional mutagenesis. We observed that catalase induction in stationary phase was lost meanwhile the adaptive response to peroxide was maintained in this mutant. Finally, the XackatE strain was assayed in planta during host plant interaction rendering a less aggressive phenotype with a minor canker formation. Conclusions Our results confirmed that in contrast to other Xanthomonas species, Xac catalase-specific activity is induced during the stationary phase of growth in parallel with the bacterial resistance to peroxide challenge. Moreover, Xac catalases expression pattern is modified in response to any stimuli associated with the plant or the microenvironment it provides. The catalase KatE has been shown to have an important function for the colonization and survival of the bacterium in the citrus plant during the pathogenic process. Our work provides the first genetic evidence to support a monofunctional catalase as a virulence factor in Xac. PMID:20520822

Tondo, María Laura; Petrocelli, Silvana; Ottado, Jorgelina; Orellano, Elena G.

2010-01-01

432

Effect of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae) on the brown citrus aphid: Preliminary assessment of a compatibility study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy (=T. citricida) is a serious pest of citrus as the vector which spreads Citrus Tristeza virus. Recently, an entomopathogenic strain of fungi, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Ifr) (= Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) was discove...

433

Psyllid biology: Expressed genes in Asian citrus psyllid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional genomics provides new insights into psyllid biology. We created and described the first genetic data set from the Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, ‘Diaphorina citri’, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The identification of these genes and proteins advances the field in understanding of the ge...

434

Chemical constituents from the peels of Citrus sudachi.  

PubMed

A methanol extract of the peels of Citrus sudachi gave five new compounds (1-5) and 27 known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were assayed for antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori, and sudachitin (6) and 3'-demethoxysudachitin (7) were the most active. PMID:16933871

Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Shibata, Hirofumi; Higuti, Tomihiko

2006-08-01

435

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of limonoid glucosides from citrus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an investigation into the application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) for the analysis of limonoid glucosides in a citrus seed extract. MECC based on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used to provide highly efficient separations of the closely related structures. A phosphate-borate buffer containing SDS was used to optimize the separation conditions for

Vinayagum E. Moodley; Dulcie A. Mulholland; Mark W. Raynor

1995-01-01

436

Study of pulsed electric field treated citrus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, applied in a continuous system, on physical and chemical properties of freshly squeezed citrus juices (grapefruit, lemon, orange, tangerine) was studied. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of PEF technology on pH, Brix°, electric conductivity, viscosity, nonenzymatic browning index (NEBI), hydroxymethylfurfurol (HMF), color, organic acid content, and

Zs. Cserhalmi; Á. Sass-Kiss; M. Tóth-Markus; N. Lechner

2006-01-01

437

The Chemical Composition of Some Mediterranean Citrus Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the regional variations of the quantitative chemical composition, some Mediterranean citrus oils (lemon, sweet orange, bitter orange, and mandarin) from Italy and Spain have been studied. Over 100 constituents were identified in the various oils, from which 80 components could be quantified.No significant differences were found in the concentrations of the main constituents of sweet orange oils from

Mans H. Boelens; Rafael Jimenez

1989-01-01

438

Potential perchlorate exposure from Citrus sp. irrigated with contaminated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus produced in the southwestern United States is often irrigated with perchlorate-contaminated water. This irrigation water includes Colorado River water which is contaminated with perchlorate from a manufacturing plant previously located near the Las Vegas Wash, and ground water from wells in Riverside and San Bernardino counties of California which are affected by a perchlorate plume associated with an aerospace

C. A. Sanchez; R. I. Krieger; N. R. Khandaker; L. Valentin-Blasini; B. C. Blount

2006-01-01

439

Citrus County Professional Orientation Program, 1992-93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Citrus County (Florida) Professional Orientation Program is designed to increase student learning by providing a set of supervised support services for teachers in the first year(s) of teaching that will assist them in their continuing professional development. The program provides for the development, demonstration, and documentation of…

Citrus County Board of Public Instruction, Inverness, FL.

440

HEALTHY PRODUCTS FROM CITRUS JUICE PROCESSING WASTE STREAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus waste streams contain significant amounts of simple sugars, flavonoids and dietary fiber as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. A process has been developed to convert sugars and cellulose (after enzyme hydrolysis) into ethanol through fermentation for use as a biofuel. Pectin is hydrolyz...

441

Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae  

PubMed Central

Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppress mosquito larval population. Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used. Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis) was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm), % mortality (97%) and LT50 (18.49 hours) then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate) with LC50 (377.4 ppm), % mortality (88%) and LT50 (31 hours), While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm) than limonin (382.22 ppm) after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 ?g/ml and 21.19 ?g/ml) than freutrall early (5.29 ?g/ml and 3.89 ?g/ml) respectively. Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required. PMID:23378967

Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Ali-Hassan, Soaib

2012-01-01

442

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

443

Longevity of radiofrequency identification device microchips in citrus trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term identification of individual plants in the field is an important part of many types of botanical and horticultural research. In a previous report, we described methods for using implanted radiofrequency (RFID) microchips to tag citrus trees for field research. This report provides an upd...

444

Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

445

Chemical constituents of Citrus sinensis var. Shukri from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variety ‘Shukri’ is a new hybrid of Citrus sinensis and is frequently grown for its sweet edible fruits in the southern part of Pakistan. The leaves of this hybrid variety have been investigated in search of secondary metabolites for the first time. As a result of chromatographic analysis of the methanolic extract, a new ceramide along with a flavonone

Muhammad Saleem; Ariba Farooq; Shabir Ahmad; Nusrat Shafiq; Naheed Riaz; Abdul Jabbar; Muhammad Arshad; Abdul Malik

2010-01-01

446

Cytokinin activity in Citrus seedlings colonized by mycorrhizal fungi  

E-print Network

Cytokinin activity in Citrus seedlings colonized by mycorrhizal fungi R.K. Dixon* School of roots by vesicular-arbus- cular mycorrhizal fungi or the result of improved mineral nutrition (Van fungi; and 2) isolate cytokinins with demon- strated biological activity. Materials and Methods Five

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

448

OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION AND WORK PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS HARVEST LABOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The project assesses the effect of photochemical oxidants on the work performance of twelve individual citrus pickers in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California. A model of the picker's decision problem is constructed in which oxidants influence the individual's picking ...

449

7 CFR 301.75-3 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...and hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all...The most common of these are: lemon, pummelo, grapefruit...presents a risk of spread of citrus canker and the person in...

2011-01-01

450

7 CFR 301.75-3 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...and hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all...The most common of these are: lemon, pummelo, grapefruit...presents a risk of spread of citrus canker and the person in...

2010-01-01

451

7 CFR 301.75-3 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...and hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all...The most common of these are: lemon, pummelo, grapefruit...presents a risk of spread of citrus canker and the person in...

2012-01-01

452

7 CFR 301.75-3 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...and hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all...The most common of these are: lemon, pummelo, grapefruit...presents a risk of spread of citrus canker and the person in...

2013-01-01

453

7 CFR 301.75-3 - Regulated articles.  

...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...and hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all...The most common of these are: lemon, pummelo, grapefruit...presents a risk of spread of citrus canker and the person in...

2014-01-01

454

75 FR 62498 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States. The regulations in ``Subpart-Citrus Fruit'' (7 CFR 319.28) allow the...certifying that the fruit is apparently free of citrus canker. Need and Use of the Information...that unshu oranges from Japan are free of citrus canker and to also ensure that the...

2010-10-12

455

Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT treatments (mean WDTP 4 ± 4 s and 2 ± 2 s, respectively), which may be regarded as subcritical soil water repellency. Slight water repellency observed in soils under MNT treatment may be attributed to the input of hydrophobic organic compounds as a consequence of the addition of plant residues and organic manure. A further issue to be achieved is the study of geomorphological processes associated to sub-critical soil water repellency. The experimental setup within the citrus plantation is being supported by the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

2012-04-01

456

Role of imidacloprid in integrated pest management of California citrus.  

PubMed

Portions of three commercial citrus orchards were treated for 1 yr with foliar imidacloprid or for 2 yr with a systemic formulation in a replicated plot design to determine the impact of this neonicotinoid on the San Joaquin Valley California citrus integrated pest management (IPM) program. Foliar-applied imidacloprid had little effect on California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell; or citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), populations. Short-term suppression of the parasitoids Aphytis melinus DeBach and Comperiella bifasciata Howard; vedalia, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant); and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) were observed. Suppression of natural enemies allowed scales and mites to maintain higher populations in the treated areas compared with the nontreated areas. Thus, foliar imidacloprid did not exhibit control of these citrus pest species, and it disrupted biological control. Systemically applied imidacloprid suppressed California red scale and citricola scale populations 2-3 mo after treatment. Suppression of parasitoids of the California red scale also was observed. Thus, treatments of systemic imidacloprid applied in areawide management programs for invasive pests would provide a benefit of California red scale and citricola scale suppression. However, this treatment provided only single-season control of citricola scale, it was somewhat disruptive of biological control, and it did not suppress densities of either scale as low as a treatment of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos for citricola scale or the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for California red scale. Insecticides with longer periods of efficacy and greater IPM compatibility than imidacloprid should be used for a sustainable IPM approach in California citrus. PMID:18459411

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Robillard, S M; Gorden, J M

2008-04-01

457

Anti-dementia Activity of Nobiletin, a Citrus Flavonoid: A Review of Animal Studies  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, is characterized by the progressive decline of cognitive function and has a detrimental impact worldwide. Despite intensive laboratory and clinical research over the last three decades, pharmacological options for the prevention and effective long-term treatment of AD are not currently available. Consequently, successful therapeutic and preventive treatments for AD are needed. When researching materials from natural resources having anti-dementia drug activity, we identified nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from the peel of Citrus depressa. Nobiletin exhibited memory-improving effects in various animal models of dementia and exerted a wide range of beneficial effects against pathological features of AD including amyloid-? (A?) pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, cholinergic neurodegeneration and dysfunction of synaptic plasticity-related signaling, suggesting this natural compound could become a novel drug for the treatment and prevention of AD. PMID:25191498

Nakajima, Akira

2014-01-01

458

Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan) to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated

François L Luro; Gilles Costantino; Javier Terol; Xavier Argout; Thierry Allario; Patrick Wincker; Manuel Talon; Patrick Ollitrault; Raphael Morillon

2008-01-01

459

In Vitro Fermentation of Cellulose, Beet Pulp, Citrus Pulp, and Citrus Pectin Using Fecal Inoculum from Cats, Dogs, Horses, Humans, and Pigs and Ruminal Fluid from Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the influence of gas- trointestinal tract microflora from several species on fiber fermentation characteristics in vitro. Selected fibrous substrates (cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin) were incubated for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h with ruminal fluid from cattle or feces from dogs, cats, pigs, horses, or humans. When data were pooled across all substrates and

G. D. Sunvold; H. S. Hussein; G. C. Fahey; N. R. Merchen; G. A. Reinhart

2010-01-01

460

Gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid adults feeding from Florida citrus: Application to biology and vector control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic basis of D. citri biology, identifying in particular genes associated with feeding, reproduction, pathology, and insecticide resistance. The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector ...

461

"EFFECT OF SUCROSE OCTANOATE ON SURVIVAL OF ASIATIC CITRUS PSYLLID, BROWN CITRUS APHID AND SWEETPOTATO WHITEFLY B BIOTYPE".  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the insecticidal activity of a synthetic analogue of natural sugar esters (sucrose octanoate (SO) found in leaf trichomes of wild tobacco to egg, nymph and adult Asiatic citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Laboratory bioassays, greenhouse and field trial tests are presen...

462

Comparative analysis of three Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) cultivars: identification of unique citrus chemotypes and new volatile molecules.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of the peel of three cultivars of Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) were investigated: Alstonville, Judy's Everbearing and Durham's Emerald. Both qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analyses were performed on their peel solvent extract. The results showed that the unique phenotypes of finger lime are also correlated to unique molecular compositions. Each cultivar revealed a different chemotype: limonene/sabinene for cv. Alstonville, limonene/citronellal/isomenthone for cv. Judy's Everbearing, and limonene/citronellal/ citronellol for cv. Durham's Emerald. To the best of our knowledge, these chemotypes have never been reported in any other citrus species. Furthermore, the amounts of some volatile constituents (?-terpinene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, citral), which are generally the major constituents besides limonene in lime species, were surprisingly low in the three cultivars. Comparative GC-MS analysis also showed that some volatile molecules tended to be specific to one cultivar and could therefore be considered as markers. Moreover six molecules were reported for the first time in a citrus extract and confirmed by synthesis. Heart-cutting enantioselective two-dimensional GC-MS was performed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of the major chiral constituents. The combined data on three finger lime cultivars gives evidence of their divergence from other citrus species. PMID:25468539

Delort, Estelle; Jaquier, Alain; Decorzant, Erik; Chapuis, Christian; Casilli, Alessandro; Frérot, Eric

2015-01-01

463

Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

464

Genome Similarity Implies that Citrus-Parasitic Burrowing Nematodes do not Represent a Unique Species.  

PubMed

Burrowing nematodes from Central America, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were characterized for their ability to parasitize citrus, but citrus parasites were found only in Florida. Sequence tag sites originally amplified from a citrus-parasitic burrowing nematode were polymorphic among 37 burrowing nematode isolates and were not correlated with citrus parasitism, nematode isolate collection site, or amplification of a 2.4-kb sequence tag site (DK#1). Results of a RAPD analysis and characterization of the isozymes phosphoglucose isomerase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase indicated that the burrowing nematode isolates were highly similar. Citrus parasitism in Florida appears to be associated with limited changes in the burrowing nematode genome. Findings did not substantiate a previous report that R. citrophilus was present in Hawaii. Overall, these data do not support assignment of sibling species status to burrowing nematodes that differ with respect to citrus parasitism. PMID:19274179

Kaplan, D T; Opperman, C H

1997-12-01

465

Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

Not Available

1980-06-15

466

Citrus extract or natamycin treatments on "Tzatziki" - a traditional Greek salad.  

PubMed

The effect of packaging (aerobic and vacuum) either with citrus extract, natamycin individually added, or the combination of two, was studied on the shelf-life of a Greek traditional deli salad "Tzatziki" during storage under refrigeration (4°C). Irrespective of the packaging conditions and treatments, yeasts populations of approximately 4.0-6.5logcfu/g were recorded in the microflora of the salad, whereas the Pseudomonas spp. populations were lower (2-3logcfu/g). Tzatziki's overall flavour was better under vacuum, and of all the treatments examined, the addition of citrus extract, and to a letter extent the combination with natamycin, improved the taste and odour (fruity, pleasant, refreshing with reduced garlic typical flavour) of Tzatziki salad. The shelf-life of Tzatziki was extended by ca. >10days (citrus extract, citrus-natamycin) and 5-6days (natamycin, citrus and citrus-natamycin) under aerobic or vacuum, respectively, as compared to the control sample. PMID:24001860

Tsiraki, Maria I; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

2014-01-01

467

Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.  

PubMed

Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

2014-11-01

468

Quantitative real-time PCR for detection and identification of Candidatus Liberibacter species associated with citrus huanglongbing.  

PubMed

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB, ex greening) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. Different forms of the disease are caused by different Candidatus Liberobacter species, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. africanus (Laf) and Ca. L. americanus (Lam). The pathogen is transmitted by psyllid insects and by budding with contaminated plant materials. The vector psyllid Diaphorina citri can transmit both Las and Lam. Establishment of this vector into Florida, reports of Lam and Las in Brazil in 2004, and recent confirmation of HLB in Florida in September 2005 is of great concern to the citrus industry. Research on HLB has been hampered by the unculturable nature of the causal bacterium in artificial media. It has also been difficult to detect and identify the pathogens, possibly because of low concentration and uneven distribution in host plants and vector psyllids. In this study, we developed quantitative TaqMan PCR using 16S rDNA-based TaqMan primer-probe sets specific to the different Ca. Liberobacter spp. An additional primer-probe set based on plant cytochrome oxidase (COX) was used as a positive internal control to assess the quality of the DNA extracts. The assays do not cross-react with other pathogens or endophytes commonly resident in citrus plants, and are very sensitive. HLB pathogen DNA was successfully amplified from the equivalent of 20 ng of midrib tissue from symptomatic leaves. The consistent results of the assays with DNA extracted from plants infected by various Ca. Liberibacter species grown in greenhouses and in the field demonstrated a degree of reproducibility for these TaqMan assays. Inhibitors of the PCR that are frequently present in plant extracts did not affect the assay results. The population of the pathogens was estimated to be 5 x 10(7) and 2 x 10(6) cells/g of fresh midribs of symptomatic sweet orange leaves infected by Las and Lam, respectively. The ratio of pathogen DNA to host plant DNA was estimated by to be 1:13,000 (w/w) and 1:1000 (c/c: target copy/target copy) in DNA extracts obtained by a standard CTAB method. Our rapid, sensitive and specific TaqMan PCR assay for the detection, identification and quantification of Ca. Liberibacter species has been successfully used in the confirmation of HLB caused by Las in Florida, and will be very useful for a broad range of research programs as well as the regulatory response and management of HLB disease. PMID:16414133

Li, Wenbin; Hartung, John S; Levy, Laurene

2006-07-01

469

Laboratory evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogen; Isaria farinosa, on citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the main pests on citrus trees. Biological control of the pest is based on\\u000a the release of hymenopterous parasitoids and coccinellid predators at present. The effectiveness of entomopathogen fungus\\u000a Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fries ([Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales] (Syn: Paecilomyces farinosus), as an alternative biological control agent on citrus mealybug, was investigated using

Fikret Demirci; Murat Mu?tu; M. Bora Kaydan; Selma Ülgentürk

470

Allelochemicals and their transformations in the Ageratum conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercropping Ageratum conyzoides in citrus orchards may effectively suppress weeds and control other pests. Investigations showed that the inhibition of major\\u000a weeds and soil pathogenic fungi in citrus orchards was significantly correlated with the allelochemicals released into the\\u000a soil by intercropped A. conyzoides. Three flavones, ageratochromene, and its two dimers were isolated and identified from the A. conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soil.

Chuihua Kong; Wenju Liang; Fei Hu; Xiaohua Xu; Peng Wang; Yong Jiang; Baoshan Xing

2004-01-01

471

Candidatus Liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, Gram negative, uncultured bacteria named Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CaLaf), Ca. L. asiaticus (CaLas), and Ca. L. americanus (CaLam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. The Asian citrus psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, transmits CaLas and CaLam and both Liberibacter species are present in Brazil. Several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting HLB symptoms have been reported, but only for CaLas infection. This study evaluated the transcriptional reprogramming of a susceptible genotype of sweet orange challenged with CaLam, using a customized 385K microarray containing approximately 32,000 unigene transcripts. We analyzed global changes in gene expression of CaLam-infected leaves of sweet orange during the symptomatic stage of infection and compared the results with previously published microarray studies that used CaLas-infected plants. Twenty candidate genes were selected to validate the expression profiles in symptomatic and asymptomatic PCR-positive leaves infected with CaLas or CaLam. Results The microarray analysis identified 633 differentially expressed genes during the symptomatic stage of CaLam infection. Among them, 418 (66%) were upregulated and 215 (34%) were down regulated. Five hundred and fourteen genes (81%) were orthologs of genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that several of the transcripts encoded transporters associated with the endomembrane system, especially zinc transport. Among the most biologically relevant gene transcripts in GSEA were those related to signaling, metabolism and/or stimulus to hormones, genes responding to stress and pathogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidative stress and transcription factors belonging to different families. Real time PCR of 20 candidate genes validated the expression pattern of some genes in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves infected with CaLam or CaLas. Conclusions Many gene transcripts and biological processes are significantly altered upon CaLam infection. Some of them had been identified in response to CaLas infection, while others had not been previously reported. These data will be useful for selecting target genes for genetic engineering to control HLB. PMID:23586643

2013-01-01

472

ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOIDS AND HYROXYCINNAMATES IN CITRUS PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Electrospray ionization-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-HPLC-MS) greatly facilitates analyses of the complex phenolic constituents of citrus peel and associated citrus processing byproducts. The numerous flavonoid glycosides and polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in thes...

473

79 FR 51273 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From the Republic of South Africa Into the Continental United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Citrus Fruit From the Republic of South Africa Into the Continental United States...States from areas in the Republic of South Africa where citrus black spot has been...organization of the Republic of South Africa with an additional...

2014-08-28

474

Population fluctuation of three parasitic nematodes in Florida citrus.  

PubMed

In Florida, Tylenchulus semipenetrans on citrus has two high and two low population levels each year. High levels occur in April-May and November-December, and low levels, in February-March and August-September. Population increases occur about 4-5 weeks after the spring and fall flush of root growth. Populations of Pratylenchus coffeae on citrus varied widely, and were not related to season. Populations of P. brachyurus showed seasonal variation with a high in June-July and a low in March-May. Males of T. semipenetrans and P. coffeae were found throughout the year, whereas males of P. brachyurus were rare and were found only during November and December. PMID:19319266

O'Bannon, J H; Radewald, J D; Tomerlin, A T

1972-07-01

475

Some predaceous mites [ Phytoseiidae ] on citrus in the mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of phytoseiid mites were collected from citrus trees in the Mediterranean region during a survey in 1971.Amblyseius stipulatus\\u000a Athias-Henriot was the most abundant and widespread species in all countries surveyed (Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain).A. californicus (McGregor) was collected only in Spain;A. potentillae (Garman) andPhytoseiulus persimilis. A.-H. only in Italy.Typhlodromus talbii A.-H. was collected in Greece and Spain,T. athiasae

J. A. McMurtry

1977-01-01

476

Fish mortality following application of phenthoate to Florida citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida citrus growers regularly apply pesticides near bodies of water and also may pump water from nearby lakes and ditches to supply spray machines. Phenthoate (O,O-Dimethyl S-(~-ethoxycarbonylbenzyl)-phosphorodithioate) may be registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use in Florida. Phenthoate is the active ingredient in Cidial. It is highly toxic to fish with a listed 96 h LC50 of

Herbert N. Nigg; James H. Stamper; Robert M. Queen; Joseph L. Knapp

1984-01-01

477

Influence of mitochondria on gene expression in a citrus cybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of cybrids, combining nucleus of a species with alien cytoplasmic organelles, is a valuable method used for\\u000a improvement of various crops. Several citrus cybrids have been created by somatic hybridization. These genotypes are interesting\\u000a models to analyze the impact of cytoplasmic genome change on nuclear genome expression. Herein, we report genome-wide gene\\u000a expression analysis in leaves of a

Jean-Baptiste Bassene; Yann Froelicher; Luis Navarro; Patrick Ollitrault; Gema Ancillo

2011-01-01

478

Analytical monitoring of citrus juices by using capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoretic method was developed to analyze simultaneously most citrus juice components in a single procedure. After filtration, sample components are separated with an uncoated capillary tubing and a 35 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.3) containing 5% (v/v) acetonitrile. Analyses were run at 21 kV and 23 degrees C. Compounds monitored regularly were the biogenic amine synephrine, some flavonoids (didymin, hesperidin, narirutin, neohesperidin, and naringin), the polyphenol phlorin, 3 UV-absorbing amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine), ascorbic acid, an unidentified peak generated by heat and storage, and the preservatives sorbate and benzoate that can be added to citrus products. Separation can be achieved in 20 min, and each compound can be subsequently quantitated. Didymin, narirutin, and phlorin peaks were used with an artificial neural network to assess the volume of added pulp wash, a by-product of juice preparation. This method allows rapid monitoring of citrus juices, giving information on quality, freshness, and possible adulteration of the product. Similar procedures could be used to monitor other fruit juices and quantitate diverse juice blends. PMID:10028677

Cancalon, P F

1999-01-01

479

Ecological Modelling 117 (1999) 261267 Modeling bird mortality associated with the M/V Citrus oil spill  

E-print Network

/V Citrus oil spill in February 1996. Most of the islands beaches were searched on an irregular schedule estimated number of birds impacted by the M/V Citrus spill 1930. Given that oiled birds occurred in places probability; Oil spill; Persistence rate 1. Introduction On 17 February 1996 the freighter M/V Citrus collided

Rockwell, Robert F.

480

26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fiscal year taxpayer plants a citrus grove 5 weeks before the...section 278 and this section a citrus grove is defined as one or...as the orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime, citron, tangelo...maintenance, or development of a citrus or almond grove (or...

2012-04-01

481

26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fiscal year taxpayer plants a citrus grove 5 weeks before the...section 278 and this section a citrus grove is defined as one or...as the orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime, citron, tangelo...maintenance, or development of a citrus or almond grove (or...

2013-04-01

482

Genetic Diversity and Population Differentiation of the Causal Agent of Citrus Black Spot in Brazil  

PubMed Central

One of the most important diseases that affect sweet orange orchards in Brazil is the Citrus Black Spot that is caused by the fungus Guignardia citricarpa. This disease causes irreparable losses due to the premature falling of fruit, as well as its severe effects on the epidermis of ripe fruit that renders them unacceptable at the fresh fruit markets. Despite the fact that the fungus and the disease are well studied, little is known about the genetic diversity and the structure of the fungi populations in Brazilian orchards. The objective of this work was study the genetic diversity and population differentiation of G. citricarpa associated with four sweet orange varieties in two geographic locations using DNA sequence of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region from fungi isolates. We observed that different populations are closely related and present little genetic structure according to varieties and geographic places with the highest genetic diversity distributed among isolates of the same populations. The same haplotypes were sampled in different populations from the same and different orange varieties and from similar and different origins. If new and pathogenic fungi would become resistant to fungicides, the observed genetic structure could rapidly spread this new form from one population to others. PMID:22666111

Wickert, Ester; de Goes, Antonio; de Souza, Andressa; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo

2012-01-01

483

The ground beetle Pseudophonus rufipes revealed as predator of Ceratitis capitata in citrus orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a major citrus pest in Spain. Although medfly is being controlled chemically, alternative biorational strategies should be developed, like those based on conservation biological control of polyphagous predators. The ground beetle Pseudophonus rufipes (De Geer) is the most abundant carabid inhabiting the ground of citrus orchards in eastern Spain. However, little is

César Monzó; Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz; Alberto Urbaneja; Pedro Castañera

2011-01-01

484

EXAMINATION OF FLORAL NECTAR OF CITRUS, COTTON, AND ARIZONA DESERT PLANTS FOR MICROBES  

E-print Network

EXAMINATION OF FLORAL NECTAR OF CITRUS, COTTON, AND ARIZONA DESERT PLANTS FOR MICROBES Martha microbiological media. No microbes were isolated from nectar of any cotton flowers. Of 23 samples of citrus nectar no microbes, although nectar from saguaro cactus contained a few bacteria (gram-negative rods, gram

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

485

Providing assistance in development and evaluation of psyllid management programs for east coast citrus growers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We identified the most serious problems, associated with the management of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, which is the main vector spreading Huanglongbing in Florida citrus along the East Coast. Increasing insecticide use has concerns of development of insecticide resistance along with ...

486

Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucl...

487

Molecular Marker Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Samples of citrus tissue infected with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from Persian lime, mandarin, Washington navel, Valencia or grapefruit trees from various locations in the Dominican Republic. Desiccated tissue samples were re-hydrated and virions extracted by grinding samples in buff...

488

Molecular Characterization of the Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) associated bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Candidatus Liberibacter is a a-protobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), a serious threat to citrus production world-wide. We have developed a modified technique to acquire uncharacterized genomic sequences of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. africanus and Ca. L. amer...

489

Differential response of citrus rootstocks to CuEDTA concentration in sand culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Florida citrus groves that have been under continuous production for many years often have high levels of soil-fraction copper (Cu) from the use of Cu-containing fertilizers and pesticides. On such groves, citrus trees may develop Cu toxicity which negatively impacts growth and nutrition. The object...

490

Analysis of polymethoxylated flavones in citrus products by direct injection and in-line trace enrichment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analysis of the polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in citrus products has been of interest for chemotaxonomic studies and because of their biological activity. They only occur in the oil glands which are located in the peel flavedo of intact fruit. PMFs from the peel are incorporated into citrus juic...

491

7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...documents for each fruit type and age of trees, within a citrus fruit... Freeze. The formation of ice in the cells of the fruit caused...the following: (1) The age and fruit type of the interplanted...citrus crop, fruit type, and age of trees. The amount of...

2012-01-01

492

7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

...Trees in the unit are grouped by age, with each insurable age group of a particular citrus...commodity type, intended use, and age class of trees, within a citrus... Freeze. The formation of ice in the cells of the fruit...

2014-01-01

493

7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...documents for each fruit type and age of trees, within a citrus fruit... Freeze. The formation of ice in the cells of the fruit caused...the following: (1) The age and fruit type of the interplanted...citrus crop, fruit type, and age of trees. The amount of...

2011-01-01

494

7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...documents for each fruit type and age of trees, within a citrus fruit... Freeze. The formation of ice in the cells of the fruit caused...the following: (1) The age and fruit type of the interplanted...citrus crop, fruit type, and age of trees. The amount of...

2013-01-01

495

AMINO ACID SEQUENCE VARIATIONS ASSOICATED WITH APHID TRANSMISSIBILITY OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus isolates were collected from the San Joaquin Valley of California. Different transmission phenotypes were identified among these isolates with Aphis gossypii and Toxoptera citricida, the brown citrus aphid (BrCA). To investigate the differential transmissibility at the genomic ...

496

ORIGINAL PAPER Isolation of a citrus promoter specific for reproductive organs  

E-print Network

lime: the lemon promoter generated activity in the fruit endocarp, analo- gous to citrus fruit pulpORIGINAL PAPER Isolation of a citrus promoter specific for reproductive organs and its functional 2011 Ã? Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract While searching for genes expressed in acid lemon

Blumwald, Eduardo

497

Evaluation of different iron compounds in chlorotic Italian lemon trees ( Citrus lemon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe deficiency of iron or ferric chlorosis is a serious problem of most citrus trees established in calcareous soils, as a result of the low availability of iron in these soils and the poor uptake and limited transport of this nutrient in trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of chlorotic Italian lemon trees (Citrus

Patricio Rivera Ortiz; Blanca I. Castro Meza; Francisco R. de la Garza Requena; Guillermo Mendoza Flores; Jorge D. Etchevers Barra

2007-01-01

498

Oranges and lemons: clues to the taxonomy of Citrus from molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Go into any grocery store and one is confronted with an array of Citrus fruit: oranges, grapefruit, mandarins (tangerines), lemons and limes. This is rich bounty for the shopper, but taxonomists are perplexed as to how to classify the various kinds of Citrus that have existed since antiquity. Now, thanks to new genetic and molecular biological techniques, the relationships between

Gloria A. Moore

2001-01-01

499

The effect of Dry matter content on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus processing waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus processing waste (CPW) is an attractive feedstock for making fuel ethanol. In order to make ethanol production from citrus waste economically viable, it is desirable to obtain a high ethanol yield and concentration with a small amount of enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effects of ...

500

Greenhouse investigations on the effect of guava on infestations of Asian citrus psyllid in grapefruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reports from Vietnam indicate interplanting guava with citrus dramatically reduces infestations of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). We therefore conducted greenhouse studies to assess the effect of different guava cultivars on adult psyllids. The effects of cotton and tomato were also evalu...