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Sample records for citrus fruits induces

  1. Cell division interference in newly fertilized ovules induces stenospermocarpy in cross-pollinated citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Mesejo, Carlos; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Seedlessness is a highly desirable characteristic in fresh fruits. However, post-fertilization seed abortion of cross-pollinated citrus fruit is uncommon. The factors regulating stenospermocarpy in citrus are unknown. In this research, we induced stenospermocarpy interfering in newly fertilized ovule cell division. The research also elucidates the most sensitive stage for ovule/seed abortion in citrus. Experiments were conducted with 'Afourer' mandarin that cross-pollinates with several cultivars and species. Cross-pollinated fruitlets were treated with maleic hydrazide (MH), a systemic growth regulator that specifically interferes in cell division. MH reduced ovule growth rate, the number of cell layers in nucella and inhibited embryo sac expansion; moreover, the treatment increased callose accumulation in nucella and surrounding the embryo sac. Fruits developed an early-aborted seed type with an immature, soft and edible seed coat. Seed number (-80%) and seed weight (-46%) were reduced in mature fruits. MH also hampered cell division in ovary walls, mesocarp and endocarp, thus reducing daily fruitlet growth and increasing fruit abscission. Stenospermocarpy could only be induced for a short period of time in the progamic phase of fertilization, specifically, when ovules are ready to be fertilized (7 days after anthesis) to early stages of embryo sac development (14 days after anthesis). PMID:25017163

  2. Drinking Citrus Fruit Juice Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in Cuff-Induced Vascular Injury Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-no, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  3. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  4. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  5. Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sudip; Islam, Md Aminul; Tanvir, E M; Ahmed, Romana; Das, Sagarika; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md Sakib; Parvez, Mashud; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:27034701

  6. Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sudip; Islam, Md. Aminul; Tanvir, E. M.; Ahmed, Romana; Das, Sagarika; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Parvez, Mashud; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:27034701

  7. Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Activity of Citrus limetta Fruit Peel in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    KunduSen, Sriparna; Haldar, Pallab K.; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Kar, Biswakanth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peel (MECL) in streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 65 mg/kg b.w.) diabetic rats. Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received MECL orally at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg kg−1 p. o.) was used as reference drug. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th days of study. Serum biochemical parameters namely, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The TBARS and GSH levels of pancreas, kidney, and liver were determined. MECL significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels and serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH as compared to those of STZ control. The present paper infers that in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, C. limetta fruit peel demonstrated a potential antihyperglycemic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant property. PMID:22363893

  8. Ultrastructural and histochemical analysis reveals ethylene-induced responses underlying reduced peel collapse in detached citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Cajuste, Jacques F; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Lafuente, María T

    2011-10-01

    Fruits from many citrus cultivars develop depressed areas in the flavedo (outer part of the peel) and albedo (inner part) following detachment. Although ultrastructural analysis may provide important information about multiple plant responses to stresses and external stimuli at the cell and tissue levels, and despite the proved efficacy of ethylene in reducing peel damage in citrus fruit, cytological responses of this horticultural crop to protective ethylene concentrations have not yet been reported. We show that applying high ethylene levels (2 μL L(-1) for 14 days) causes sublethal stress as it favored the alteration of cuticle, vacuole, middle lamella and primary wall, especially in the albedo cells, but reduced peel collapse in detached mature "Navelate" oranges (C. sinensis, L. Osbeck) held under nonstressful environmental conditions (22°C and 90-95% RH). Ethylene did not induce relevant changes in lignification but favored the deposition of pectic exudates and the release of sugars from degradation of cell polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, and pectins. In contrast, inhibiting ethylene perception by applying 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) reduced these ethylene-related responses and favored degradation of cell membranes and peel damage. The overall results reflect that mature oranges tolerate high ethylene levels that might favor the activation of defense responses involving oxidative-stress related mechanisms and recycling of nutrients and carbon supply to enable cells to sustain respiration and cope with carbon deprivation stress caused by detachment. PMID:21509903

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE WOUND INDUCED MATERIAL IN CITRUS FRUIT PEEL BY CARBON-13 CP-MAS SOLID STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are conflicting views regarding the chemical composition of the induced, phloroglucinol-HCl (PG-HCl) reacting, material accumulating in injured citrus peel tissues. Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, were injured, inoculated with Peicillium digitatum and incubated under contitions favorable to the a...

  10. Low Temperature Induced Changes in Citrate Metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) Fruit during Maturation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiong; Qian, Jing; Zhao, Chenning; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Wang, Zhidong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-01-01

    Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruit, and its concentration in fruit cells is regulated mainly by the balance between synthesis and degradation. Ponkan (Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Ponkan) is one of the major citrus cultivars grew in China, and the fruit are picked before fully mature to avoid bad weather. Greenhouse production is widely used to prolong the maturation period and improve the quality of Ponkan fruit by maintaining adequate temperature and providing protection from adverse weather. In this research, Ponkan fruit cultivated in either a greenhouse or open field were used to investigate differences in the expression of genes related to citrate metabolism during maturation in the two environments. The citrate contents were higher in open field fruit, and were mainly correlated with expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4, which were significantly increased. In addition, the impacts of low temperature (LT) and water stress (WS) on citrate metabolism in Ponkan were investigated during fruit maturation. The citrate contents in LT fruit were significantly increased, by between 1.4-1.9 fold, compared to the control; it showed no significant difference in fruit with water stress treatment compared to the control fruit. Furthermore, the expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4 were significantly increased in response to LT treatment, but showed no significant difference in WS compared to the control fruit. Thus, it can be concluded that low temperature may be the main factor influencing citrate metabolism during maturation in Ponkan fruit. PMID:27249065

  11. Low Temperature Induced Changes in Citrate Metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) Fruit during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Qian, Jing; Zhao, Chenning; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Wang, Zhidong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-01-01

    Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruit, and its concentration in fruit cells is regulated mainly by the balance between synthesis and degradation. Ponkan (Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Ponkan) is one of the major citrus cultivars grew in China, and the fruit are picked before fully mature to avoid bad weather. Greenhouse production is widely used to prolong the maturation period and improve the quality of Ponkan fruit by maintaining adequate temperature and providing protection from adverse weather. In this research, Ponkan fruit cultivated in either a greenhouse or open field were used to investigate differences in the expression of genes related to citrate metabolism during maturation in the two environments. The citrate contents were higher in open field fruit, and were mainly correlated with expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4, which were significantly increased. In addition, the impacts of low temperature (LT) and water stress (WS) on citrate metabolism in Ponkan were investigated during fruit maturation. The citrate contents in LT fruit were significantly increased, by between 1.4–1.9 fold, compared to the control; it showed no significant difference in fruit with water stress treatment compared to the control fruit. Furthermore, the expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4 were significantly increased in response to LT treatment, but showed no significant difference in WS compared to the control fruit. Thus, it can be concluded that low temperature may be the main factor influencing citrate metabolism during maturation in Ponkan fruit. PMID:27249065

  12. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  13. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  14. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts as γ-globin gene expression inducers: phytochemical and functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Breveglieri, Giulia; Salvatori, Francesca; Mancini, Irene; Rossi, Damiano; Potenza, Rocco; Chiavilli, Francesco; Sacchetti, Gianni; Gambari, Roberto; Borgatti, Monica

    2009-05-27

    Epicarps of Citrus bergamia fruits from organic farming were extracted with the objective of obtaining derived products differently rich in coumarins and psoralens. The extracts were chemically characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detecting and quantifying the main constituents. Both bergamot extracts and chemical standards corresponding to the main constituents detected were then assayed for their capacity to increase erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and expression of γ-globin genes in human erythroid precursor cells. Three experimental cell systems were employed: (a) the human leukemic K562 cell line, (b) K562 cell clones stably transfected with a pCCL construct carrying green-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) under the γ-globin gene promoter, and (c) the two-phase liquid culture of human erythroid progenitors isolated from healthy donors. The results suggest that citropten and bergapten are powerful inducers of differentiation and γ-globin gene expression in human erythroid cells. These data could have practical relevance, because pharmacologically mediated regulation of human γ-globin gene expression, with the consequent induction of fetal hemoglobin, is considered to be a potential therapeutic approach in hematological disorders, including β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. PMID:19371028

  15. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...We are proposing to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of several varieties of fresh citrus fruit, as well as Citrus hybrids and the Citrus-related genus Fortunella, from Uruguay into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the fruit would have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach that would include requirements for importation......

  16. Network analysis of postharvest senescence process in citrus fruits revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2015-05-01

    Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions. PMID:25802366

  17. Betaines in fruits of Citrus genus plants.

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Bata-Csere, Andrea; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

    2011-09-14

    Numerous compounds, many of them osmolytes, were quantified in natural juices and in frozen concentrate juices from fruits of plants of the Citrus genus. L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline (hygric acid), N,N-dimethyl-L-proline (stachydrine), 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine (betonicine), 4-hydroxy-L-proline, γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), 3-carboxypropyltrimethylammonium (GabaBet), N-methylnicotinic acid (trigonelline), and choline in the fruit juices of yellow orange, blood orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), and grapefruit were analyzed by sensitive HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. It was found that the most represented osmolytes in the juices, that is, L-proline, stachydrine, and betonicine, can be quantified with minimal sample preparation and short analysis time (about 1 min) also by flow injection analysis (FIA) ESI-MS/MS with the same results as obtained by HPLC ESI-MS/MS. In all of the juices, discrete amounts of choline and trigonelline were present. Conversely, GabaBet was always below detection limits. Notably, N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine, which were discovered for the first time in the juice of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), are also present in all of the citrus juices examined. PMID:21838291

  18. Pollen–pistil interactions and early fruiting in parthenocarpic citrus

    PubMed Central

    Distefano, G.; Gentile, A.; Herrero, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims An intense pollen–pistil interaction precedes fertilization. This interaction is of particular relevance in agronomically important species where seeds or fruits are the edible part. Over time some agronomically species have been selected for the ability to produce fruit without seeds. While this phenomenon is critical for commercial production in some species, very little is known about the events behind the production of seedless fruit. In this work, the relationship between pollen–pistil interaction and the onset of fruiting was investigated in citrus mandarin. Methods Pistils were sequentially examined in hand-pollinated flowers paying attention to pollen-tube behaviour, and to cytochemical changes along the pollen-tube pathway. To evaluate which of these changes were induced by pollination/fertilization and which were developmentally regulated, pollinated and unpollinated pistils were compared. Also the onset of fruiting was timed and changes in the ovary examined. Key Results Conspicuous changes occurred in the pistil along the pollen-tube pathway, which took place in a basipetal way encompassing the timing of pollen-tube growth. However, these changes appear to be developmentally regulated as they happened in the same way and at the same time in unpollinated flowers. Moreover, the onset of fruiting occurred prior to fertilization and the very same changes could be observed in unpollinated flowers. Conclusions Pollen–pistil interaction in citrus showed similarities with unrelated species and families belonging to other taxa. The uncoupling of the reproductive and fruiting processes accounts for the parthenocarpic ability of unpollinated flowers to produce fruit in citrus. However, the maintenance of a functional reproductive process reflects the potential to produce seeded fruits, providing a basis for the understanding of the production of seeded or unseeded fruits and further understanding of the process of parthenocarpy in other

  19. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  20. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  1. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  2. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  3. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  4. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  5. Application of natural colorants on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  6. Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

  8. Salicylic acid treatment reduces the rot of postharvest citrus fruit by inducing the accumulation of H2O2, primary metabolites and lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Jiajing; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Yun, Ze; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-09-15

    To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), fruits were treated with 2mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50d and 120d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality. Furthermore, the contents of H2O2 and some defense-related metabolites, such as ornithine and threonine, in citrus pericarp, were significantly increased by SA treatment. Moreover, it was lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones, rather than flavanone glycosides, that accumulated in SA-treated fruits and these can directly inhibit pathogen development. These results suggest that the effects of SA on postharvest citrus fruit may be attributed to the accumulation of H2O2 and defense-related metabolites. PMID:27080881

  9. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  10. ASSESSING POTENTIAL OF COLLETOTRICHUM ACUTATUM WILD-TYPE AND AUXOTROPHIC MUTANTS AS BIOLOGICAL FRUIT THINNING AGENTS IN CITRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus, and two induced C. acutatum mutants (3-3 and 3-2) were tested as potential agents for reducing fruit load on Valencia (Citrus sinensis ) and 'Temple' orange (C.reticulata x C. sinensis). Wild-type C. acutatum (RST) and a C. gl...

  11. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Harisha, C. R.; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies. PMID:25861144

  12. Network Analysis of Postharvest Senescence Process in Citrus Fruits Revealed by Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Profiling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions. PMID:25802366

  13. Citrus fruit quality assessment; producer and consumer perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of citrus fruit and juices is popular with consumers worldwide and makes an important contribution to a healthy diet. Nevertheless, consumer preferences for citrus have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years and it is important to understand what consumers are looking ...

  14. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case–control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52–0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = −0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case–control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer. PMID:26426606

  15. Managing citrus canker for the fresh fruit industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of citrus canker in Florida changed the way the $400 million dollar industry grows, packs ships and stores fruit. Canker regulations have become less strict, but there is still a requirement for compliance for growers and packers to move fruit from Florida to other areas. The comp...

  16. Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tadashi; Shiura, Takehumi; Masuda, Megumi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Gato, Takeshi; Fumuro, Masahiko; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Utsunomiya, Naoki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of Citrus unshiu (CU-ext) on type IV allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) in mice. Oral administration of CU-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CU-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of PC-CD were more potent than those of CU-ext alone and prednisolone alone. Successive oral administration of hesperidin, a major flavanone glycoside of CU-ext, inhibited ear swelling during induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of hesperidin (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) were more potent than those of hesperidin alone and prednisolone alone. These results indicated that the combinations of prednisolone and CU-ext or hesperidin exerted a synergistic effect. PMID:18404324

  17. Isolation of a dehydrin cDNA from orange and grapefruit citrus fruit that is specifically induced by the combination of heat followed by chilling temperatures.

    PubMed

    Porat, Ron; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Rozentzvieg, Dafna; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Falara, Vasiliki; Samach, Alon; Lurie, Susan; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2004-02-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs; late embryogenesis abundant D-11) are a family of plant proteins induced in response to environmental stresses such as water stress, salinity and freezing or which occur during the late stages of embryogenesis. Previously, it was reported that citrus contains a small gene family encoding a unique class of dehydrins that differs from most other plant dehydrins in various respects, such as having an unusual K-segment similar to that of gymnosperms. In the present study, we identified by cDNA differential display analysis a 'Navel' orange 202-bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment, which encoded the typical plant angiosperm-type K-segment consensus sequence, and of which the expression was down-regulated by exposure to low oxygen levels. The full-length cDNA sequence of the orange DHN, designated csDHN (for Citrus sinensis DHN), was further isolated by 5'-and 3'-RACE; it had a total length of 933 bp and encoded a predicted polypeptide of 235 amino acids. In addition, the same 202-bp 'Navel' dehydrin PCR fragment was used to screen a 'Star Ruby' grapefruit flavedo cDNA library, and its full-length grapefruit homologue, designated cpDHN (for C. paradisi DHN) was isolated and found to have a total length of 1024 bp and to encode a predicted polypeptide of 234 amino acids. The defined orange and grapefruit DHN proteins were completely identical in the 196 amino acids of their N-terminus but differed in their C-terminus region. Overall, the csDHN and cpDHN proteins share 84% identity and contain the conserved dehydrin serine cluster (S-segment) and a putative nuclear localization signal, but csDHN has one conserved dehydrin K-segment consensus sequence, whereas cpDHN contains two dehydrin K-segments. Both csDHN and cpDHN represent single copy genes, in 'Navel' orange and 'Star Ruby' grapefruit genomes, respectively. We found that the cpDHN gene was consistently expressed in the fruit peel tissue at harvest, but that its message levels dramatically

  18. 78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that published on Friday, December 21, 2012, (74 FR 75509... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop... Friday, December 21, 2012. The regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus Fruit....

  19. [Rapid Determination of Seven Fungicides in Citrus Fruits].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Naoki; Hayashi, Sachiko; Inada, Tadaaki

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple determination method of seven fungicides, thiabendazole (TBZ), pyrimethanil (PYR), o-phenylphenol (OPP), fludioxonil (FLD), azoxystrobin (AZX), imazalil (IMZ) and diphenyl (DP) in citrus fruits by LC-MS and HPLC-FL was developed. The seven fungicides were extracted with acetonitrile from citrus fruits and cleaned up with Z-Sep/C18 cartridges. The LC separation was performed on a phenyl-hexyl column with methanol-acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium formate (10 : 35 : 55) as a mobile phase. The recoveries from citrus fruits fortified with the compounds at the MRLs and at 0.1 μg/g ranged from 85.4 to 106.3% and from 75.8 to 99.7%, respectively. The quantitation limits (S/N=10) were 0.03-0.07 μg/g. PMID:26537653

  20. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  1. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  2. Mechanisms for the influence of citrus rootstocks on fruit size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Li, Juan; Huang, Min; Chen, Jiezhong

    2015-03-18

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on fruit size, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto two rootstocks. The results demonstrated that trees grafted onto Canton lemon produced larger fruits through an enhancement of cell expansion in the ripening period. The difference in fruit size may be due to greater auxin levels in fruits from trees on Canton lemon, and different auxin levels may be produced by parent trees as the result of AUX1 upregulation. Rootstocks also modulate auxin signaling by affecting the transcription of several auxin response factor genes. There were higher abscisic acid concentrations in fruits of 'Shatangju'/Trifoliate orange, resulting in an inhibition of fruit growth and cell expansion through suppression of the synthesis of growth promoting hormones. Furthermore, expansins may be involved in the regulation of final fruit size by influencing cell expansion. Multiple pathways likely exist in citrus rootstocks that regulate fruit size. PMID:25693745

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Fruit Development in Three Seedy Citrus Genotypes and Their Seedless Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedlessness is desirable for most citrus fruit, and identification of spontaneous or irradiated seedless mutants is important in developing citrus cultivars. We conducted a transcriptome analysis in early fruit development of three seedy citrus types (‘Fallglo’, a largely C. reticulata hybrid; ‘Pi...

  4. Study of VOC distribution in citrus fruits by chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2003-07-01

    The contamination of various parts of citrus fruits by toluene (a representative of volatile organic compounds-VOCs) was analyzed. The model of contamination distribution, based on investigations of the sorption and accumulation of toluene in particular parts of citrus fruits was considered. Solvent extraction of components from fruit parts (waxy layer, cuticle, and pulp) was applied. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. The sorption time profiles for such citrus fruits as kumquats and mandarins were determined by plotting the extracted mass, or the relationship C/C(0), versus the sorption time of toluene. After the sorption process the highest concentration of toluene was observed in the flavedo, where the oil glands of kumquats and mandarins are located. The data obtained prove that the high dissolution of aromatic hydrocarbons results from the presence of essential oils in the oil glands. The diffusion coefficients of toluene for the cuticle and pulp of kumquats were also calculated. The results of model investigations were compared with the actual concentration of toluene in kumquats, citrons, mandarins and oranges from outdoor stands and orchards. PMID:12768263

  5. Omics studies of citrus, grape and rosaceae fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted. PMID:27069397

  6. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

  7. Elucidation of the biochemical basis of specificity and pathogenicity of Penicillium digitatum on citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum is the most damaging postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. This Penicillium species is specific to citrus fruit and do not cause progressive decay in any other fresh fruit or vegetable crops. While the etiology of P. digitatum is well understood, the phys...

  8. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents. PMID:26408878

  9. Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Degu, Asfaw; Hatew, Bayissa; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Shlizerman, Ludmila; Zur, Naftali; Katz, Ehud; Fernie, Alisdair R; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2011-09-01

    Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that the block in mitochondrial aconitase activity, inducing acid accumulation, is caused by citramalate. Here, we investigated the effect of citramalate and of another aconitase inhibitor, oxalomalate, on aconitase activity and regulation in callus originated from juice sacs. These compounds significantly increased citrate content and reduced the enzyme's activity, while slightly inducing its protein level. Citramalate inhibited the mitochondrial, but not cytosolic form of the enzyme. Its external application to mandarin fruits resulted in inhibition of aconitase activity, with a transient increase in fruit acidity detected a few weeks later. The endogenous level of citramalate was analyzed in five citrus varieties: its pattern of accumulation challenged the notion of its action as an endogenous inhibitor of mitochondrial aconitase. Metabolite profiling of oxalomalate-treated cells showed significant increases in a few amino acids and organic acids. The activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and aspartate kinase, as well as these of two γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-shunt enzymes, succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSAD) were significantly induced in oxalomalate-treated cells. It is suggested that the increase in citrate, caused by aconitase inhibition, induces amino acid synthesis and the GABA shunt, in accordance with the suggested fate of citrate during the acid decline stage in citrus fruit. PMID:21528417

  10. A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or exogenous ethylene treatment

  11. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  12. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  13. Regulation of cuticle formation during fruit development and ripening in 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinqiu; Sun, Li; Xie, Li; He, Yizhong; Luo, Tao; Sheng, Ling; Luo, Yi; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2016-02-01

    Fruit cuticle, which is composed of cutin and wax and biosynthesized during fruit development, plays important roles in the prevention of water loss and the resistance to pathogen infection during fruit development and postharvest storage. However, the key factors and mechanisms regarding the cuticle biosynthesis in citrus fruits are still unclear. Here, fruit cuticle of 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) was studied from the stage of fruit expansion to postharvest storage from the perspectives of morphology, transcription and metabolism. The results demonstrated that cutin accumulation is synchronous with fruit expansion, while wax synthesis is synchronous with fruit maturation. Metabolic profile of fruits peel revealed that transition of metabolism of fruit peel occurred from 120 to 150 DAF and ABA was predicted to regulate citrus wax synthesis during the development of Newhall fruits. RNA-seq analysis of the peel from the above two stages manifested that the genes involved in photosynthesis were repressed, while the genes involved in the biosynthesis of wax, cutin and lignin were significantly induced at later stages. Further real-time PCR predicted that MYB transcription factor GL1-like regulates citrus fruits wax synthesis. These results are valuable for improving the fruit quality during development and storage. PMID:26795158

  14. Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, and mandarin) together with the evaluation of their phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH˙, ORACFL, ABTS(+), FRAP and O2˙(-)) aiming for new applications of the fruits in nutrition and health was carried out. As far as we are aware, the presence of 3-O-caffeoylferuoylquinic acid and two hydrated feruloylquinic acids in orange and the presence of 3,5-diferuoylquinic acid in grapefruit have been reported for the first time. Although grapefruit showed higher contents of phytochemicals such as flavanones and vitamin C, lemon and lime showed higher potential for inhibitory effects on lipase, and lime also showed the best results for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. On the other hand, higher antioxidant capacity was reported for grapefruit, lemon and lime, which correlated well with their phytochemical composition. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Citrus fruits are of great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and consequently, a new field of interest in the food industry regarding new bioactive ingredients would be considered. PMID:24563112

  15. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

  16. Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS–S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in “Valencia” fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

  17. Molecular characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family from Citrus and the effect of fruit load on their expression

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Liron; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Zur, Naftali; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a Citrus gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factor that contained a sequence complementary to miR156. Genes of the SPL family are known to play a role in flowering regulation and phase transition. In Citrus, the mRNA levels of the gene were significantly altered by fruit load in buds; under heavy fruit load (ON-Crop trees), known to suppress next year flowering, the mRNA levels were down-regulated, while fruit removal (de-fruiting), inducing next-year flowering, resulted in its up-regulation. In the current work, we set on to study the function of the gene. We showed that the Citrus SPL was able promote flowering independently of photoperiod in Arabidopsis, while miR156 repressed its flowering-promoting activity. In order to find out if fruit load affected the expression of additional genes of the SPL family, we identified and classified all SPL members in the Citrus genome, and studied their seasonal expression patterns in buds and leaves, and in response to de-fruiting. Results showed that two additional SPL-like genes and miR172, known to be induced by SPLs in Arabidopsis, were altered by fruit load. The relationships between these factors in relation to the fruit-load effect on Citrus flowering are discussed. PMID:26074947

  18. Molecular characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family from Citrus and the effect of fruit load on their expression.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Liron; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Zur, Naftali; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a Citrus gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factor that contained a sequence complementary to miR156. Genes of the SPL family are known to play a role in flowering regulation and phase transition. In Citrus, the mRNA levels of the gene were significantly altered by fruit load in buds; under heavy fruit load (ON-Crop trees), known to suppress next year flowering, the mRNA levels were down-regulated, while fruit removal (de-fruiting), inducing next-year flowering, resulted in its up-regulation. In the current work, we set on to study the function of the gene. We showed that the Citrus SPL was able promote flowering independently of photoperiod in Arabidopsis, while miR156 repressed its flowering-promoting activity. In order to find out if fruit load affected the expression of additional genes of the SPL family, we identified and classified all SPL members in the Citrus genome, and studied their seasonal expression patterns in buds and leaves, and in response to de-fruiting. Results showed that two additional SPL-like genes and miR172, known to be induced by SPLs in Arabidopsis, were altered by fruit load. The relationships between these factors in relation to the fruit-load effect on Citrus flowering are discussed. PMID:26074947

  19. Interplay between ABA and phospholipases A(2) and D in the response of citrus fruit to postharvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Gandía, Mónica; Alférez, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The interplay between abscisic acid (ABA) and phospholipases A2 and D (PLA2 and PLD) in the response of citrus fruit to water stress was investigated during postharvest by using an ABA-deficient mutant from 'Navelate' orange named 'Pinalate'. Fruit from both varieties harvested at two different maturation stages (mature-green and full-mature) were subjected to prolonged water loss inducing stem-end rind breakdown (SERB) in full-mature fruit. Treatment with PLA2 inhibitor aristolochic acid (AT) and PLD inhibitor lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) reduced the disorder in both varieties, suggesting that phospholipid metabolism is involved in citrus peel quality. Expression of CsPLDα and CsPLDβ, and CssPLA2α and CssPLA2β was studied by real-time RT-PCR during water stress and in response to ABA. CsPLDα expression increased in mature-green fruit from 'Navelate' but not in 'Pinalate' and ABA did not counteract this effect. ABA enhanced repression of CsPLDα in full-mature fruit. CsPLDβ gene expression decreased in mature-green 'Pinalate', remained unchanged in 'Navelate' and was induced in full-mature fruit from both varieties. CssPLA2α expression increased in mature-green fruit from both varieties whereas in full-mature fruit only increased in 'Navelate'. CssPLA2β expression increased in mature-green flavedo from both varieties, but in full-mature fruit remained steady in 'Navelate' and barely increased in 'Pinalate' fruit. ABA reduced expression in both after prolonged storage. Responsiveness to ABA increased with maturation. Our results show interplay between PLA2 and PLD and suggest that ABA action is upstream phospholipase activation. Response to ABA during water stress in citrus is regulated during fruit maturation and involves membrane phospholipid degradation. PMID:23800664

  20. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic Citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive pre-harvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit ...

  1. The Citrus ABA signalosome: identification and transcriptional regulation during sweet orange fruit ripening and leaf dehydration.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Lafuente, María T; Rodrigo, María J

    2012-08-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA) signalling core in plants include the cytosolic ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCARs), the clade-A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs), and the subclass III SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). The aim of this work was to identify these ABA perception system components in sweet orange and to determine the influence of endogenous ABA on their transcriptional regulation during fruit development and ripening, taking advantage of the comparative analysis between a wild-type and a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant. Transcriptional changes in the ABA signalosome during leaf dehydration were also studied. Six PYR/PYL/RCAR, five PP2CA, and two subclass III SnRK2 genes, homologous to those of Arabidopsis, were identified in the Citrus genome. The high degree of homology and conserved motifs for protein folding and for functional activity suggested that these Citrus proteins are bona fide core elements of ABA perception in orange. Opposite expression patterns of CsPYL4 and CsPYL5 and ABA accumulation were found during ripening, although there were few differences between varieties. In contrast, changes in expression of CsPP2CA genes during ripening paralleled those of ABA content and agreeed with the relevant differences between wild-type and mutant fruit transcript accumulation. CsSnRK2 gene expression continuously decreased with ripening and no remarkable differences were found between cultivars. Overall, dehydration had a minor effect on CsPYR/PYL/RCAR and CsSnRK2 expression in vegetative tissue, whereas CsABI1, CsAHG1, and CsAHG3 were highly induced by water stress. The global results suggest that responsiveness to ABA changes during citrus fruit ripening, and leaf dehydration was higher in the CsPP2CA gene negative regulators than in the other ABA signalosome components. PMID:22888124

  2. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  3. [Analysis of thiabendazole in citrus fruits and bananas].

    PubMed

    Romminger, K; Hoppe, H

    1976-01-01

    With regard to routine analyses in market control, the authors recommend two methods (according to the expected amounts of active principle) for the determination of thiabendazole residues on citrus fruits and bananas. The ultraviolet spectrophotometric method is preferable in determining thiabendazole contents of more than 1 p.p.m., if the cleaning operations described are respected. For the detection of thiabendazole and for the determination of amounts of less than 1 p.p.m. (the tolerance limit being 0.2 p.p.m. for pomes, berries, stone fruits, kernel fruits and also for potatoes) the thin-layer chromatographic method seems likewise to be suited (also in considering that it is semi-quantitative by nature); especially since the spectrophotometric method yields values by 0.2 p.p.m. too high (due to the measurement of residual absorption of vegetable constituents). The authors are of opinion that such an error must be considered to be too high for contents lower than 1 p.p.m. PMID:950991

  4. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... documents for each fruit type and age of trees, within a citrus fruit crop, times the coverage level percent... acreage is changed, you must report, by the sales closing date, the following: (1) The age and fruit type... information we request in order to establish your amount of insurance. (d) We will reduce acreage or...

  5. Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-A; Park, Jae Sin; Kim, Ki Deok; Jeun, Yong Chull

    2015-01-01

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing 1×107 cfu/ml of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The D10 value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits. PMID:26672670

  6. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Lemons; (7) Limes; and (8) Any other citrus fruit commodity designated in the actuarial documents. Citrus... must be set out on or before April 15 of the calendar year); (3) Of “Meyer Lemons,” “Sour Oranges,” or... oranges and temples; (iv) April 30 for lemons and limes; (v) May 15 for murcotts; and (vi) June 30...

  7. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Friday, December 21, 2012 (74 FR 75509-75521). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus..., 2012, (74 FR 75509-75521). Need for Correction As published, the final regulation contained errors that... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit...

  8. Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides.

    PubMed

    Di Donna, Leonardo; De Luca, Giuseppina; Mazzotti, Fabio; Napoli, Anna; Salerno, Raffaele; Taverna, Domenico; Sindona, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl neohesperidosides of hesperetin (brutieridin, 1) and naringenin (melitidin, 2) were isolated and detected from the fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:19572741

  9. Bioactive molecules as authenticity markers of Italian Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) fruits and beverages.

    PubMed

    Protti, Michele; Valle, Francesco; Poli, Ferruccio; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Mercolini, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) is a uncommon fruit belonging to the Citrus genus, mainly cultivated in small areas of the Italian territory, where the main use concerns the eponymous drink, marketed with the name of "Chinotto". The lack of information about this fruit highlights the usefulness of nutraceutical compound characterization, as well as the need to identify genuineness markers in derived commercial products. An analytical strategy based on SPE-HPLC-F was developed to identify and quantify different bioactive compounds in Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) fruits and commercial beverages. The method was fully validated and successfully applied to the analysis of nutraceutical compounds in Chinotto fruits of Italian origin and in some Chinotto-based beverages, granting reliable and consistent data. The obtained results provided preliminary key information about the bioactive profiling of Citrus×myrtifolia and proved the suitability of the selected compounds as authenticity markers of derived commercial soft drinks. PMID:25482848

  10. Gibberellin reactivates and maintains ovary-wall cell division causing fruit set in parthenocarpic Citrus species.

    PubMed

    Mesejo, Carlos; Yuste, Roberto; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Bermejo, Almudena; Germanà, M Antonietta; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Citrus is a wide genus in which most of the cultivated species and cultivars are natural parthenocarpic mutants or hybrids (i.e. orange, mandarin, tangerine, grapefruit). The autonomous increase in GA1 ovary concentration during anthesis was suggested as being the stimulus responsible for parthenocarpy in Citrus regardless of the species. To determine the exact GA-role in parthenocarpic fruit set, the following hypothesis was tested: GA triggers and maintains cell division in ovary walls causing fruit set. Obligate and facultative parthenocarpic Citrus species were used as a model system because obligate parthenocarpic Citrus sp (i.e. Citrus unshiu) have higher GA levels and better natural parthenocarpic fruit set compared to other facultative parthenocarpic Citrus (i.e. Citrus clementina). The autonomous activation of GA synthesis in C. unshiu ovary preceded cell division and CYCA1.1 up-regulation (a G2-stage cell cycle regulator) at anthesis setting a high proportion of fruits, whereas C. clementina lacked this GA-biosynthesis and CYCA1.1 up-regulation failing in fruit set. In situ hybridization experiments revealed a tissue-specific expression of GA20ox2 only in the dividing tissues of the pericarp. Furthermore, CYCA1.1 expression correlated endogenous GA1 content with GA3 treatment, which stimulated cell division and ovary growth, mostly in C. clementina. Instead, paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor) negated cell division and reduced fruit set. Results suggest that in parthenocarpic citrus the specific GA synthesis in the ovary walls at anthesis triggers cell division and, thus, the necessary ovary growth rate to set fruit. PMID:27095396

  11. Expression of polyamine biosynthesis genes during parthenocarpic fruit development in Citrus clementina.

    PubMed

    Trénor, Marta; Perez-Amador, Miguel A; Carbonell, Juan; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2010-05-01

    Polyamines have been attributed a general role in fruit development in several plants like pea and tomato. To investigate the involvement of these compounds in parthenocarpic fruit development in Citrus clementina, we have isolated three genes encoding aminopropyl transferases in this species: CcSPDS, CcSPM1 and CcACL5. The unambiguous identity of the proteins encoded by these genes was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis and by heterologous expression in yeast mutants deficient in aminopropyl transferase activity. The expression of these genes in C. clementina is not restricted to ovaries and fruits, but it is also detectable all throughout the plant. More importantly, gibberellin-induced parthenocarpic fruit set caused a decrease in CcSPDS expression in ovaries, paralleled by a decrease in spermidine; while the expression of CcSPM1 and CcACL5 was basically unaffected, resulting in the maintenance of spermine concentration during early fruit development. In addition, the variation in putrescine content was paralleled by changes in the expression of one of the two putative CcODC paralogs. PMID:20336313

  12. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit. PMID:25948248

  13. Distinct Carotenoid and Flavonoid Accumulation in a Spontaneous Mutant of Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Results in Yellowish Fruit and Enhanced Postharvest Resistance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Xu, Kunyang; Luo, Yi; Chen, Jiajing; Sheng, Ling; Wang, Jinqiu; Han, Jingwen; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jianmin; Wu, Qun; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-09-30

    As the most important fresh fruit worldwide, citrus is often subjected to huge postharvest losses caused by abiotic and biotic stresses. As a promising strategy to reduce postharvest losses, enhancing natural defense by potential metabolism reprogramming in citrus mutants has rarely been reported. The yellowish spontaneous mutant of Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) (YP) was used to investigate the influence of metabolism reprogramming on postharvest performance. Our results show that reduced xanthophyll accumulation is the cause of yellowish coloring of YP and might be attributed to the reduced carotenoid sequestration capacity and upregulated expression of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes. Constantly higher levels of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) during the infection and the storage stage might make significant contribution to the more strongly induced resistance against Penicillium digitatum and lower rotting rate. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of applying bud mutants to improve the postharvest performance of citrus fruits. PMID:26329679

  14. Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

  15. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2015-10-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  16. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model ( R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  17. 76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... cherries and citrus fruit. We considered those comments and, in a notice dated August 4, 2010 (75 FR 46901..., 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 53424-53430, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0140) a proposal... approved irradiation dose for Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) of 100 gray. Our analysis affirming...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-59 - Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NPPO must keep records of fruit fly detections for each trap and make the records available to APHIS... concern and has been produced in accordance with the requirements of the systems approach in 7 CFR 319.56... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay. 319.56-59 Section...

  19. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references.

  20. Chlorophyll catabolism in senescing plant tissues: In vivo breakdown intermediates suggest different degradative pathways for Citrus fruit and parsley leaves.

    PubMed

    Amir-Shapira, D; Goldschmidt, E E; Altman, A

    1987-04-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate chlorophyll derivatives in acetone extracts from senescing Citrus fruit peel, autumnal Melia azedarach L. leaves, and dark-held detached parsley (Petroselinum sativum L.) leaves. Chlorophyllide a and another polar, dephytylated derivative accumulated in large amounts in senescing Citrus peel, particularly in fruit treated with ethylene. Ethylene also induced a 4-fold increase in the specific activity of Citrus chlorophyllase (chlorophyll chlorophyllidohydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14). Detailed kinetics based on a hexane/acetone solvent partition system showed that the in vivo increase in dephytylated derivatives coincided with the decrease in total chlorophyll. Polar, dephytylated derivatives accumulated also in senescing Melia leaves. Senescing parsley leaves revealed a very different picture. The gradual disappearance of chlorophyll a was accompanied by an increase in pheophytin a and by the transient appearance of several phytylated derivatives. Only pheophytin a and an adjacent peak were left when all the chlorophyll a had disappeared. The pathways for breakdown of chlorophyll in the Citrus and parsley senescence systems are discussed. PMID:16593821

  1. Quantification of applied dose in irradiated citrus fruits by DNA Comet Assay together with image analysis.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Nurcan; Ercin, Demet; Özvatan, Sümer; Erel, Yakup

    2016-02-01

    The experiments were conducted for quantification of applied dose for quarantine control in irradiated citrus fruits. Citrus fruits exposed to doses of 0.1 to 1.5 kGy and analyzed by DNA Comet Assay. Observed comets were evaluated by image analysis. The tail length, tail moment and tail DNA% of comets were used for the interpretation of comets. Irradiated citrus fruits showed the separated tails from the head of the comet by increasing applied doses from 0.1 to 1.5 kGy. The mean tail length and mean tail moment% levels of irradiated citrus fruits at all doses are significantly different (p < 0.01) from control even for the lowest dose at 0.1 kGy. Thus, DNA Comet Assay may be a practical quarantine control method for irradiated citrus fruits since it has been possible to estimate the applied low doses as small as 0.1 kGy when it is combined with image analysis. PMID:26304361

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Kinds of Fungicides in Citrus Fruits by Gas Chromatograghy/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hideo; Hirao, Akiho; Tokuda, Yuuki; Uruta, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    A simple and accurate procedure was developed for the determination of seven fungicides, azoxystrobin (AZO), diphenyl (DP), fludioxonil (FLUDI), imazalil (IMZ), o-phenylphenol (OPP), pyrimethanil (PYRI) and thiabendazole (TBZ), in citrus fruits. The citrus fruit sample was extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up with a graphite carbon/aminopropyl silanized silica gel solid-phase extraction cartridge using acetonitrile-toluene (3 : 1, v/v) as the eluent. Triphenylene was used as an internal standard (I.S.) at the concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The sample solution was subjected to GC-MS utilizing the matrix-matched standard solution method. The recoveries of AZO, FLUDI, IMZ, OPP, PYRI and TBZ spiked in domestic citrus fruits (Satsuma mandarin) at the level of 0.01-10.0 μg/g were 72.8-104% and the limits of quantification were 0.01 μg/g. The recoveries of DP spiked in domestic citrus fruits at the level of 0.01-70.0 μg/g were 70.8-80.4% and the limit of quantification was 0.01 μg/g. The proposed method was applied to the determination of fungicides in citrus fruits purchased in various markets. PMID:27558228

  3. Residue level, persistence and safety of spirodiclofen-pyridaben mixture in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dali; Zhu, Yanmei; Pang, Junxiao; Zhou, Zhiqin; Jiao, Bining

    2016-03-01

    A sample pretreatment method was established to analyze the residues of spirodiclofen-pyridaben mixture in citrus fruits using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A mixed formulation of 27% spirodiclofen-pyridaben suspension concentrates was sprayed on citrus in field conditions at 1- or 1.5-fold recommended dose. The dissipation of spirodiclofen-pyridaben mixture in whole citrus follows the first-order dynamic equation with half-lives of 4.56-13.1d at three locations. Residues of spirodiclofen-pyridaben mixture are mainly distributed in peel, followed by whole citrus and pulp. Risk assessment showed that spirodiclofen exerts much higher chronic risk than acute risk, while pyridaben exerts relatively lower chronic risk than acute risk. However, both chronic and acute risks of this mixed pesticide in citrus fruits are relatively low to humans irrespective of dosages, frequency of applications, and pre-harvest intervals. The residue dynamics information will support label-claim for use of this mixed pesticide in citrus fruits. PMID:26471621

  4. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8′-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7′,8′ double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7′,8′ double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  5. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced. PMID:26705419

  6. Characterization of the wound-induced material in Citrus paradisi fruit peel by carbon-13 CP-MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Simona; Lai, Adolfo; Stange, Richard R; McCollum, T Greg; Schirra, Mario

    2003-05-01

    Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, were injured, inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and incubated under conditions favourable for the accumulation of defence related material. Histochemical examination revealed that tissues adjacent to inoculated injuries contained phloroglucinol-HCl (PG-HCl) reactive material. Solvent washed cell wall preparations of intact and injured-inoculated peel were further purified using a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes. Samples from injured inoculated tissue contained PG-HCl reactive globular material in addition to the fragments of xylem and cuticle found in controls. The principal chemical moieties of the material that accumulates in grapefruit injuries during wound-healing were studied by solid state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR. A complete assignment of the NMR signals was made. From the analysis evidence was found that cellulose and hemicellulose are the biopolymers present in the intact peel samples, in addition, relevant quantities of cutin were found in the residues of enzyme digest. The NMR difference spectrum intact- wounded peels showed resonances which were attributed to all major functional groups of the aromatic-aliphatic suberin polyester of new material produced by the wounds. Information on the latter polyester was obtained by analyzing the T(1)rho (1H) relaxation. PMID:12711139

  7. Determination of oryzalin in water, citrus fruits, and stone fruits by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    West, Sheldon D; Hastings, Michael J; Shackelford, Darcy D; Dial, George E

    2004-09-22

    A new methodology is described for rapidly determining the herbicide oryzalin in water, citrus fruits, and stone fruits by liquid chromatography with negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Oryzalin is extracted from water using a polymeric sorbent solid phase extraction (SPE) column and from fruit using methanol. The water samples require no further purification, but an aliquot of the fruit sample extracts is diluted with water and purified using a polymeric 96 well SPE plate. Purified extracts are concentrated prior to determination by LC/MS/MS at m/z 345 (Q1) and m/z 281 (Q3) using an external standard for calibration. The validated limits of quantitation were 0.05 microg/L in water (drinking water, surface water, and groundwater) and 0.01 microg/g in citrus fruits (oranges and lemons) and stone fruits (peaches and cherries). Recoveries averaged 102% for water samples and 85-89% for the various types of fruit samples. For all fortification levels combined, the relative standard deviations ranged from 4 to 6% for water and from 2 to 4% for fruit. PMID:15366820

  8. Citrus fruit and fabacea secondary metabolites potently and selectively block TRPM3

    PubMed Central

    Straub, I; Mohr, F; Stab, J; Konrad, M; Philipp, SE; Oberwinkler, J; Schaefer, M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The melastatin-related transient receptor potential TRPM3 is a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel that can be activated by the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) and heat. TRPM3-deficient mice show an impaired perception of noxious heat. Hence, drugs inhibiting TRPM3 possibly get in focus of analgesic therapy. Experimental Approach Fluorometric methods were used to identify novel TRPM3-blocking compounds and to characterize their potency and selectivity to block TRPM3 but not other sensory TRP channels. Biophysical properties of the block were assessed using electrophysiological methods. Single cell calcium measurements confirmed the block of endogenously expressed TRPM3 channels in rat and mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. Key Results By screening a compound library, we identified three natural compounds as potent blockers of TRPM3. Naringenin and hesperetin belong to the citrus fruit flavanones, and ononetin is a deoxybenzoin. Eriodictyol, a metabolite of naringenin and hesperetin, was still biologically active as a TRPM3 blocker. The compounds exhibited a marked specificity for recombinant TRPM3 and blocked PregS-induced [Ca2+]i signals in freshly isolated DRG neurones. Conclusion and Implications The data indicate that citrus fruit flavonoids are potent and selective blockers of TRPM3. Their potencies ranged from upper nanomolar to lower micromolar concentrations. Since physiological functions of TRPM3 channels are still poorly defined, the development and validation of potent and selective blockers is expected to contribute to clarifying the role of TRPM3 in vivo. Considering the involvement of TRPM3 in nociception, TRPM3 blockers may represent a novel concept for analgesic treatment. PMID:23190005

  9. Involvement of CitCHX and CitDIC in Developmental-Related and Postharvest-Hot-Air Driven Citrate Degradation in Citrus Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Li, Shaojia; Dong, Wencheng; Feng, Chao; Yin, Xueren; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is the predominant organic acid associated with taste in citrus fruit. Although citrate metabolism has been widely studied in recent years, the potential contributions of transport proteins to citrate content remain unclear. In the present study, high-acid citrus fruit Gaocheng (‘GC’, Citrus sp.) and low-acid citrus fruit Satsuma mandarin (‘SM’, Citrus unshiu Marc.) were selected for study, and the degradation of citrate was deduced to be the main cause of the difference in acidity in fully mature fruits. RNA-seq analysis was carried out on ‘GC’ and ‘SM’ fruit samples over the same time course, and the results indicated that citrate degradation occurred mainly through the glutamine pathway, catalyzed by CitAco3-CitGS2-CitGDU1, and also two transport-related genes, CitCHX and CitDIC, were shown to be associated with citrate degradation. These results were confirmed by real-time PCR. In postharvest ‘GC’ fruit, the expressions of these two transport-related genes were induced by 2-fold under hot air treatment, accompanied by a reduction of 7%-9% in total acid degradation. Transient expression of CitCHX and CitDIC in tobacco leaves was performed, and the citrate content was reduced by 62%, 75% and 78% following CitCHX, CitDIC and CitCHX plus CitDIC treatments, respectively, as compared with expression of an empty vector. Overall, these data indicated that two transport proteins, CitCHX and CitDIC, are not only involved in citrate degradation during fruit development, but also involved in postharvest hot air triggered citrate reduction. PMID:25738939

  10. Detection of thiabendazole applied on citrus fruits and bananas using surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Müller, Csilla; David, Leontin; Chiş, Vasile; Pînzaru, Simona Cintă

    2014-02-15

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a chemical fungicide and parasiticide largely used in food industry against mold and blight in vegetables and fruits during transportation and long term deposit. We investigated the possibility to detect and monitor the TBZ from the chemically treated bananas and citrus fruits available on Romanian market, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a compact, portable, mini-Raman spectrometer. To assess the potential of the technique for fast, cheap and sensitive detection, we report the first complete vibrational characterization of the TBZ in a large pH and concentration range in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the relative intensity of the specific SERS bands as a function of concentration, we estimated a total amount of TZB as 78 mg/kg in citrus fruits, 13 times higher than the maximum allowed by current regulations, whereas in banana fruit the value was in the allowed limit. PMID:24128550

  11. Penicillium digitatum suppresses production of hydrogen peroxide in host tissue during infection of citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the development of green mold disease (Penicillium digitatum) on citrus fruit, there is little evidence of a host resistance response against the invading fungus. This suggests that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. Current knowledge of plant-fungal interactions indica...

  12. Potassium sorbate residue levels and persistence in citrus fruit as detected by a simple colorimetric method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest applications of potassium sorbate (PS) to fresh citrus fruit control fungal decay pathogens, such as Penicillium digitatum, cause of green mold. Although PS effectiveness has been examined repeatedly, little is known about PS residues. A colorimetric method that employed extraction of th...

  13. New genetic tools to improve citrus fruit quality and drive consumer demand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical and genomic dissection of important components underlying fruit quality has led toward the development of new tools to make the creation and selection of citrus cultivars improved in quality attributes more targeted and efficient. The use of SNP platforms and other technologies have resulte...

  14. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  15. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas...

  16. Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

  17. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas...

  18. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas...

  19. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas...

  20. Sample preparation for single cell transcriptomics: essential oil glands in Citrus fruit peel as an example.

    PubMed

    Voo, Siau Sie; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2014-01-01

    Many plant natural products are synthesized in specialized cells and tissues. To learn more about metabolism in these cells, they have to be studied in isolation. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation of epithelial cells that surround secretory cavities in Citrus fruit peel. Cells isolated using laser microdissection are suitable for RNA isolation and downstream transcriptome analyses. PMID:24777799

  1. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. PMID:24629952

  2. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background From field harvest to the consumer’s table, fresh citrus fruit spends a considerable amount of time in shipment and storage. During these processes, physiological disorders and pathological diseases are the main causes of fruit loss. Heat treatment (HT) has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage; however, limited molecular information related to this treatment is currently available at a systemic biological level. Results Mature ‘Kamei’ Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were selected for exploring the disease resistance mechanisms induced by HT during postharvest storage. Proteomic analyses based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and metabolomic research based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) were conducted. The results show resistance associated proteins were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp, such as beta-1, 3-glucanase, Class III chitinase, 17.7 kDa heat shock protein and low molecular weight heat-shock protein. Also, redox metabolism enzymes were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp, including isoflavone reductase, oxidoreductase and superoxide dismutase. Primary metabolic profiling revealed organic acids and amino acids were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp; but significant accumulation of metabolites, including tetradecanoic acid, oleic acid, ornithine, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, succinic acid, turanose, sucrose, galactose, myo-inositol, glucose and fructose were detected. Noticeably, H2O2 content decreased, while, lignin content increased in heat treated pericarp compared to the control, which might increase fruit resistibility in response to external stress. Also, flavonoids, substances which are well-known to be effective in reducing external stress, were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp. Conclusions This study provides a broad picture of differential

  3. The epidemiological significance of post-packinghouse survival of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri for dissemination of Asiatic citrus canker via infected fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of introduction of Xanthomonas citri spp. citri (Xcc) to new, unaffected citrus producing areas is a major concern for those citrus industries attempting to remain free of citrus canker. Citrus fruit, as a potential pathway for Xcc to enter and become established in these areas, is assumed...

  4. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R; Alvares, Clayton A; Sentelhas, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R (2) = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease. PMID:26493198

  5. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Terol, Javier; Conesa, Ana; Colmenero, Jose M; Cercos, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Agustí, Javier; Alós, Enriqueta; Andres, Fernando; Soler, Guillermo; Brumos, Javier; Iglesias, Domingo J; Götz, Stefan; Legaz, Francisco; Argout, Xavier; Courtois, Brigitte; Ollitrault, Patrick; Dossat, Carole; Wincker, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael; Talon, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis) and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata) differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST) collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known

  6. Seasonal Abundance and Suppression of Fruit-Piercing Moth Eudocima phalonia (L.) in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February) when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June) which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural mineral oil (HMO) on the citrus fruit damage caused by fruit-piecing moths was also determined. The percent fruit damage was significantly lowest (P≤0.05) in HMO-treated plots (8.4), followed by Dimethoate-treated plots (11.6) and untreated plots (22.5). However, there was no significant difference between HMO and Dimethoate treated plots indicating HMO is effective in reducing percent fruit damage. PMID:22203789

  7. Isolation and characterization of wound-induced compounds from the leaves of Citrus hassaku.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomonori; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Ishihara, Atsushi; Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro

    2016-08-01

    Citrus plants are world widely cultivated as horticultural tree crops, and nowadays their pharmacological activities have been well studied. Since research of defense responses in citrus plants have been mainly focused on the post-harvested fruits because of their commercial importance, defense mechanisms during their developmental stages have not been well understood. In the present study, two wound-induced compounds were isolated from leaves of Citrus hassaku, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution electron spray ionization mass spectra (HRESIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. One of these compounds was identified as a known flavanone, hesperetin. The other was characterized as a novel furofuran lignan, and was named 'biscitrusnin-A'. Their antimicrobial activities were also evaluated. PMID:26852089

  8. Involvement of an ethylene response factor in chlorophyll degradation during citrus fruit degreening.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xue-Ren; Xie, Xiu-Lan; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Yu, Jing-Quan; Ferguson, Ian B; Giovannoni, James J; Chen, Kun-Song

    2016-06-01

    Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, as degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for chlorophyll degradation. An ethylene response factor, CitERF13, was isolated and its transcriptional changes were closely correlated with fruit peel degreening during development or in response to ethylene. Dual-luciferase and yeast one-hybrid assays, as well as motif mutation, indicated that CitERF13 directly binds to the CitPPH promoter and enhances its activity. Transient and stable over-expression of CitERF13 resulted in rapid chlorophyll degradation in Nicotiana tabacum leaves and led to accumulation of pheophorbide (Pheide) a, a metabolite of pheophorbide hydrolase (PPH). Similar results were observed from transient transformation of CitERF13 in citrus fruit peel. Moreover, this function of CitERF13 was conserved within Arabidopsis and tomato, as the homologs AtERF17 and SlERF16 similarly acted as activators of PPH genes and accelerators of chlorophyll degradation. PMID:27037684

  9. Development of polysaccharides-based edible coatings for citrus fruits: a layer-by-layer approach.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Hadar; Granit, Rina; Porat, Ron; Poverenov, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable coatings for citrus fruits that would replace the currently used polyethylene-based waxes, are of great interest. Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings were examined on the most sensitive citrus fruit model: mandarins. Among the examined polysaccharides, CMC provided mandarins with the best firmness, lowest weight loss and satisfying gloss, while not affecting natural flavour and the respiration process. To enhance coating performance, glycerol, oleic acid and stearic acid were added; however, mandarin quality generally deteriorated with these additives. Then, a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied. LbL coatings, based on a combination of two polysaccharides, CMC as an internal layer and chitosan as an external layer, gave the best performance. Different concentrations of chitosan were examined. The LbL coatings notably improved all quantified parameters of fruit quality, proving that polysaccharide-based edible coating may offer an alternative to synthetic waxes. PMID:25053081

  10. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage performance of postharvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-02-01

    The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production. PMID:27596402

  11. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = -0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case-control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer. PMID:26426606

  12. Spatio-temporal distribution and natural variation of metabolites in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouchuang; Tu, Hong; Wan, Jian; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xianqing; Luo, Jie; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-05-15

    To study the natural variation and spatio-temporal accumulation of citrus metabolites, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolome analysis was performed on four fruit tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs) and different Citrus species (lemon, pummelo and grapefruit, sweet orange and mandarin). Using a non-targeted metabolomics approach, more than 2000 metabolite signals were detected, from which more than 54 metabolites, including amino acids, flavonoids and limonoids, were identified/annotated. Differential accumulation patterns of both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites in various tissues and species were revealed by our study. Further investigation indicated that flavedo accumulates more flavonoids while juice sacs contain more amino acids. Besides this, cluster analysis based on the levels of metabolites detected in 47 individual Citrus accessions clearly grouped them into four distinct clusters: pummelos and grapefruits, lemons, sweet oranges and mandarins, while the cluster of pummelos and grapefruits lay distinctly apart from the other three species. PMID:26775938

  13. Flavonoids rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels reduces proinflammatory cytokine production and attenuates malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Shilpa; Maurya, Anil K; Jyotshna; Saxena, Archana; Shanker, Karuna; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of possible pharmacological effects along with characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in peels may have a key role in converting the fruit waste materials into therapeutic value added products. Extracts prepared from the Citrus limetta fruit peels were studied for antioxidant and anti- inflammatory activity using in-vitro bioassays. Among all, ClEt an ethanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peels has shown promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. ClEt was further validated to ensure its safety evaluation at 2000mg/kg and anti-malarial efficacy at 100, 250, 500 mg/kg body weight with special reference to inflammatory mediators involved in malaria pathogenesis. In-vivo study revealed that ClEt was safe at higher dose and showed promising anti-malarial activity by inhibiting the parasitaemia and inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6) involved in malaria pathogenesis, able to improve the haemoglobin and glucose level and increase the survival time. Chemical fingerprint of ClEt revealed the presence of flavonoids. Results suggested the suitability of ClEt, a flavonoid rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels as a candidate for further investigation towards the management of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25860065

  14. Expression and functional analysis of two lycopene β-cyclases from citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Shirai, Yuki; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, two LCYb genes (CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2) were isolated from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.) and their functions were analyzed by the color complementation assay in lycopene-accumulating E. coli cells. The results showed that CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 shared high identity at the amino acid level among the three citrus varieties. The N-terminal region of the two proteins encoded by CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 was predicted to contain a 51-residue chloroplastic transit peptide, which shared low similarity. In Satsuma mandarin, the secondary structures of the CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 encoding proteins without the transit peptide were quite similar. Moreover, functional analysis showed that both enzymes of CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 participated in the formation of β-carotene, and when they were co-expressed with CitLCYe, α-carotene could be produced from lycopene in E. coli cells. However, although CitLCYb2 could convert lycopene to α-carotene in E. coli cells, its extremely low level of expression indicated that CitLCYb2 did not participate in the formation of α-carotene during the green stage in the flavedo. In addition, the high expression levels of CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 during the orange stage played an important role in the accumulation of β,β-xanthophylls in citrus fruits. The results presented in this study might contribute to elucidate the mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in citrus fruits. PMID:22729824

  15. Efficient detection of citrus fruits in the tree canopy under variable illumination conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Sang, Nong

    2013-10-01

    This paper focuses on the detection of citrus fruits in the tree canopy under variable illumination and different degree occlusion. We applied a novel segmentation method to detect the visible parts of fruits by fusing the segmentation results of chromatic aberration map, normalized RGB model, and illumination map. This fusion method can detect the highlights, shadows and diffuse zones of fruit targets. The 3-D surface topography of the visible parts of fruits were recovered by the classical algorithm of shade from shading, the fruit targets were recovered by sphere fitting using these point cloud data, and the valid ones were chosen out by validity check. The results showed that the occlusion zones of targets were effectively recovered under various light conditions integrally using the proposed method.

  16. Comparative evaluation of 12 immature citrus fruit extracts for the inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoform activities.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tadashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Niwa, Toshiro; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Masuda, Megumi; Matsuda, Hideaki; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-05-01

    In a previous study we found that 50% ethanol extracts of immature fruits of Citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin) have anti-allergic effects against the Type I, II and IV allergic reactions. However, many adverse interactions between citrus fruit, especially grapefruit juice, and drugs have been reported due to the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the competitive inhibitory effects of extracts from immature citrus fruit on CYP activity. Extracts were prepared from 12 citrus species or cultivars, and were tested against three kinds of major CYPs, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes. We also estimated the amounts of flavonoids (narirutin, hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin) and furanocoumarins (bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin) in each extract using HPLC. Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) showed the greatest inhibition of CYP activities, while Citrus unshiu which has an antiallergic effect, showed relatively weak inhibitory effects. Extracts having relatively strong inhibitory effects for CYP3A4 tended to contain higher amounts of naringin, bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. These results, providing comparative information on the inhibitory effects of citrus extracts on CYP isoforms, suggest that citrus extracts containing high levels of narirutin and hesperidin and lower levels of furanocoumarins such as C. unshiu are favorable as antiallergic functional ingredients. PMID:18451520

  17. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management. PMID:23667805

  18. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Md. Rakib; Hossain, Md. Monir; Sarker, Arjyabrata; Hasan, A.H.M. Nazmul; Islam, A.F.M. Mahmudul; Chowdhury, Mohd. Motaher H.; Rana, Md. Sohel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr.fruit in α-amylase inhibitory activity (in vitro) and hypoglycemic activity in normal and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (in vivo). Methods Fruits of Citrus macroptera without rind was extracted with pure methanol following cold extraction and tested for presence of phytochemical constituents, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats. Results Presence of saponin, steroid and terpenoid were identified in the extract. The results showed that fruit extract had moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity [IC50 value=(3.638±0.190) mg/mL] as compared to acarbose. Moreover at 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg doses fruit extract significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) reduced fasting blood glucose level in normal rats as compared to glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). In oral glucose tolerance test, 500 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.05) at 2 h but 1 000 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level at 2 h and 3 h (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) whereas glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced glucose level at every hour after administration. Overall time effect is also considered extremely significant with F value=23.83 and P value=0.0001 in oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusion These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agent. PMID:25182949

  19. Dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Luis, A; Oliveira, M E M; Bordon, Y; Siqueira, D L; Tominaga, S; Guardiola, J L

    2002-12-01

    The vascularization of the pedicel in Marisol clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tanaka) has been characterized in relation to fruit growth. Phloem and xylem formation occurred during the first half of the period of fruit growth. Phloem cross-sectional area reached its maximum value by the end of fruitlet abscission, 78 d after anthesis (DAA), shortly after the rate of accumulation of dry matter in fruitlets reached its maximum value. Secondary xylem formation occurred until day 93, well after the end of fruitlet abscission. At fruit maturity, xylem accounted for 42-46 % of the cross-section of the pedicel. Vessels differentiated in this late-formed xylem. Formation of phloem and early xylem was directly related to fruitlet size (and growth rate). Differences in the rate of formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel of the developing fruitlets followed rather than preceded the differences in growth rate. Specific mass transfer (SMT) in the phloem was highest in the fastest growing fruitlets, and peaked during the late stages of fruitlet abscission (72-78 DAA) and during the main period of fruit growth (107-121 DAA). Application of a synthetic auxin to developing fruits, either at the end of flowering (2,4-D) or by day 64 after flowering (2,4-DP), increased the growth rate of the fruit and fruit size at maturity (8-13 % increase in fruit diameter at maturity). These auxin applications also enhanced the formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel, with a specific effect on phloem formation. Applying auxin at flowering resulted in a reduction in the phloem SMT by days 72-78, whereas auxin application on day 64 increased this parameter. Despite this difference in behaviour, which resulted from the different time-course of the growth response of the fruit to auxin applications, these applications increased fruit size to a similar extent. Severing 37 % of the phloem of the pedicel during the main period of fruit growth resulted in an increase in the specific

  20. Transcriptome analysis of a spontaneous mutant in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Andan; Chai, Lijun; Zhou, Wenjing; Yu, Keqin; Ding, Jian; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2009-01-01

    Bud mutations often arise in citrus. The selection of mutants is one of the most important breeding channels in citrus. However, the molecular basis of bud mutation has rarely been studied. To identify differentially expressed genes in a spontaneous sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] bud mutation which causes lycopene accumulation, low citric acid, and high sucrose in fruit, suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis were performed to decipher this bud mutation during fruit development. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 267 non-redundant transcripts were obtained and 182 (68.2%) of them shared homology (E-value ≤1×10−10) with known gene products. Few genes were constitutively up- or down-regulated (fold change ≥2) in the bud mutation during fruit development. Self-organizing tree algorithm analysis results showed that 95.1% of the differentially expressed genes were extensively coordinated with the initiation of lycopene accumulation. Metabolic process, cellular process, establishment of localization, response to stimulus, and biological regulation-related transcripts were among the most regulated genes. These genes were involved in many biological processes such as organic acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, and pyruvate metabolism, etc. Moreover, 13 genes which were differentially regulated at 170 d after flowering shared homology with previously described signal transduction or transcription factors. The information generated in this study provides new clues to aid in the understanding of bud mutation in citrus. PMID:19218315

  1. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshigai, Emi; Machida, Toru; Okuyama, Tetsuya; Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota; Okumura, Tadayoshi; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nishino, Hoyoku; Nishizawa, Mikio

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  2. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study. PMID:25588695

  3. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

  4. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  5. Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kuramochi, Kouji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of β-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans-citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24682420

  6. Naringin and Neohesperidin Levels during Development of Leaves, Flower Buds, and Fruits of Citrus aurantium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Julian; Benavente, Obdulio; del Río, José A.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of the flavanones naringin and neohesperidin has been analyzed during the development of the leaves, flower buds, and fruits of Citrus aurantium. These flavonoids are at maximum concentration in the organs studied during the logarithmic phase of growth, gradually decreasing until the organs reach maximum development. However, this decrease in the naringin and neohesperidin concentration in leaves, flower buds, and fruits is due to a dilution of the flavonoids caused by cell growth, because total content per organ continues to increase. The levels of neohesperidin are always greater than those of naringin, although the ratio between the relative concentrations is different in the three organs studied. Leaves have the highest ratios, varying between 8.83 and 5.18, followed by flowers (3.15-1.85), and fruits (2.23-1.02). These observations suggest different relationships between the respective enzymic activities in their biosynthetic pathway. PMID:16668885

  7. Activity of citrus canker lesions on leaves, shoots and fruit of grapefruit in a Florida orchard from June 2010 to January 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesions of citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), on citrus fruit preclude export to certain markets. Characterizing the population dynamics of bacteria in canker lesions in commercial orchards can help gauge risk associated with diseased fruit entering fresh markets. The aim...

  8. A survey of survival and activity of citrus canker lesion populations on foliage, fruit and shoots in a Florida grapefruit orchard in 2009 and 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc)) can infect several species of citrus. The disease can develop on the leaves, shoots and fruit, causing erumpent lesions, that on fruit precludes sale to the fresh market. We assessed lesion activity in orchard-grown grapefruit to provide informa...

  9. Imazalil residue loading on citrus fruit as affected by formulation, solution pH and exposure time in aqueous dip treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum is responsible for major postharvest fruit losses on the South African fresh citrus export market. Some of these losses, as well as fungicide resistance development, can be attributed to sub-optimal imazalil (IMZ) residue loading on citrus fruit, i.e. <2 µ...

  10. Citrus phenylpropanoids and defence against pathogens. Part II: gene expression and metabolite accumulation in the response of fruits to Penicillium digitatum infection.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Teresa Lafuente, M; González-Candelas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of infection of Citrus sinensis (var. Navelina) fruits with Penicillium digitatum was studied at gene expression and metabolite levels. In this study, expression of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied in the flavedo (outer coloured part of the peel) and albedo (inner white part) in response to pathogen infection. Results of the time-course experiment showed that maximal expression of 10 out of 17 phenylpropanoid genes analysed occurred at 48h post-inoculation, when decay symptoms started to appear, and mRNA levels either kept constant or decreased after 72h post-inoculation. To further investigate the putative involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the defence of citrus fruit, changes in the metabolic profile of both tissues infected with P. digitatum was studied by means of HPLC-PDA-FD. Metabolite accumulation levels along the time course suggest that flavanones, flavones, polymethoxylated flavones and scoparone are induced in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, although with different trends depending on the tissue. PMID:23017425

  11. Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of citrus fruit, to improve understanding of the effect of low temperature on maintaining fruit quality during lengthy post-harvest storage

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ze; Jin, Shuai; Ding, Yuduan; Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Huijun; Pan, Zhiyong; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit quality is a very complex trait that is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Generally, low temperature (LT) is used to delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit quality during post-harvest storage but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis × C. paradis) fruit were chosen to explore the mechanisms that maintain citrus fruit quality during lengthy LT storage using transcriptome and proteome studies based on digital gene expression (DGE) profiling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), respectively. Results showed that LT up-regulated stress-responsive genes, arrested signal transduction, and inhibited primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and the transportation of metabolites. Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)–CBL-interacting protein kinase complexes might be involved in the signal transduction of LT stress, and fruit quality is likely to be regulated by sugar-mediated auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling. Furthermore, ABA was specific to the regulation of citrus fruit senescence and was not involved in the LT stress response. In addition, the accumulation of limonin, nomilin, methanol, and aldehyde, together with the up-regulated heat shock proteins, COR15, and cold response-related genes, provided a comprehensive proteomics and transcriptomics view on the coordination of fruit LT stress responses. PMID:22323274

  12. Dry Matter Accumulation in Citrus Fruit is Not Limited by Transport Capacity of the Pedicel

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA‐LUIS, A.; OLIVEIRA, M. E. M.; BORDÓN, Y.; SIQUEIRA, D. L.; TOMINAGA, S.; GUARDIOLA, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    The vascularization of the pedicel in Marisol clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tanaka) has been characterized in relation to fruit growth. Phloem and xylem formation occurred during the first half of the period of fruit growth. Phloem cross‐sectional area reached its maximum value by the end of fruitlet abscission, 78 d after anthesis (DAA), shortly after the rate of accumulation of dry matter in fruitlets reached its maximum value. Secondary xylem formation occurred until day 93, well after the end of fruitlet abscission. At fruit maturity, xylem accounted for 42–46 % of the cross‐section of the pedicel. Vessels differentiated in this late‐formed xylem. Formation of phloem and early xylem was directly related to fruitlet size (and growth rate). Differences in the rate of formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel of the developing fruitlets followed rather than preceded the differences in growth rate. Specific mass transfer (SMT) in the phloem was highest in the fastest growing fruitlets, and peaked during the late stages of fruitlet abscission (72–78 DAA) and during the main period of fruit growth (107–121 DAA). Application of a synthetic auxin to developing fruits, either at the end of flowering (2,4‐D) or by day 64 after flowering (2,4‐DP), increased the growth rate of the fruit and fruit size at maturity (8–13 % increase in fruit diameter at maturity). These auxin applications also enhanced the formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel, with a specific effect on phloem formation. Applying auxin at flowering resulted in a reduction in the phloem SMT by days 72–78, whereas auxin application on day 64 increased this parameter. Despite this difference in behaviour, which resulted from the different time‐course of the growth response of the fruit to auxin applications, these applications increased fruit size to a similar extent. Severing 37 % of the phloem of the pedicel during the main period of fruit growth resulted in an

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

  14. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

  15. High Incidence of Preharvest Colonization of Huanglongbing-Symptomatic Citrus sinensis Fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and Exacerbation of Postharvest Fruit Decay by That Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,” is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = −0.838 for Hamlin; R = −0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

  16. Improving the antioxidant functionality of Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) fruit juice by underwater shockwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kuraya, Eisuke; Nakada, Shina; Touyama, Akiko; Itoh, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma, and hence, yuzu juice is used in a number of Japanese foods. We herein evaluated the functional compounds of yuzu juice to investigate whether underwater shockwave pretreatment affects its functionality. Employing the shockwave pretreatment at an increased discharge and energy of 3.5kV and 4.9kJ, respectively, resulted in an increase in the flavanone glycoside content and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The ORAC value of yuzu juice cultivated in Rikuzentakata increased approximately 1.7 times upon underwater shockwave pretreatment. The treatment method proposed herein exhibited reliable and good performance for the extraction of functional and antioxidant chemicals in yuzu fruits, and was comparable with traditional squeezing methods. The high applicability and reliability of this technique for improving the antioxidant functionality of yuzu fruit juice was demonstrated, confirming the potential for application to a wide range of food extraction processes. PMID:27596400

  17. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels.

    PubMed

    Martos, María A; Zubreski, Emilce R; Garro, Oscar A; Hours, Roque A

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

  18. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    PubMed Central

    Martos, María A.; Zubreski, Emilce R.; Garro, Oscar A.; Hours, Roque A.

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

  19. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. PMID:25872450

  20. Pathogenicity of Penicillium digitatum is associated with the suppression of the defense-related hydrogen peroxide burst in citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high susceptibility of citrus fruit to green mold disease and lack of resistance responses suggest that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. The current study demonstrated that during infection, P. digitatum suppresses the defense-related oxidative burst in host cells. In co...

  1. Notice to fruit growers and nurserymen relative to the naming and release of the US-942 citrus roostock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new citrus rootstock, US-942 is hereby released by the Agricultural Research Service to nurserymen and growers. This rootstock selection originated from a cross of Sunki mandarin × Flying Dragon Trifoliate Orange. US-942 rootstock yields semi-dwarf and productive trees that have excellent fruit ...

  2. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides obtained from B. subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level ...

  3. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses. PMID:26300904

  4. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses. PMID:26300904

  5. Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

    2009-01-01

    Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of

  6. Tissue-specific transcriptome profiling of the citrus fruit epidermis and subepidermis using laser capture microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Antonio J.; Agustí, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Talón, Manuel; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of the biochemical and regulatory pathways that are associated with, and control, fruit expansion and ripening are based on homogenized bulk tissues, and do not take into consideration the multiplicity of different cell types from which the analytes, be they transcripts, proteins or metabolites, are extracted. Consequently, potentially valuable spatial information is lost and the lower abundance cellular components that are expressed only in certain cell types can be diluted below the level of detection. In this study, laser microdissection (LMD) was used to isolate epidermal and subepidermal cells from green, expanding Citrus clementina fruit and their transcriptomes were compared using a 20k citrus cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. The results show striking differences in gene expression profiles between the two cell types, revealing specific metabolic pathways that can be related to their respective organelle composition and cell wall specialization. Microscopy provided additional evidence of tissue specialization that could be associated with the transcript profiles with distinct differences in organelle and metabolite accumulation. Subepidermis predominant genes are primarily involved in photosynthesis- and energy-related processes, as well as cell wall biosynthesis and restructuring. By contrast, the most epidermis predominant genes are related to the biosynthesis of the cuticle, flavonoids, and defence responses. Furthermore, the epidermis transcript profile showed a high proportion of genes with no known function, supporting the original hypothesis that analysis at the tissue/cell specific levels can promote gene discovery and lead to a better understanding of the specialized contribution of each tissue to fruit physiology. PMID:20519339

  7. The necessity of an observational study on the interactions between allergic history and citrus fruit intake for the prevention of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2015-01-01

    While the main product of Jeju Island is citrus fruit and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among the students who live there is relatively high, the incidence of pancreatic cancer is lowest in Korea. Systematic reviews reporting allergic history and intake of citrus fruit as protective factors against pancreatic cancer (PCC) were published in 2005 and 2008, respectively. Although there were discrepancies in the results of the subgroup analyses between case-control and cohort studies, it is necessary to evaluate an interaction effect between allergic history and intake of citrus fruits on PCC risk. PMID:26206474

  8. Citrus Bioflavonoids Ameliorate Hyperoxaluria Induced Renal Injury and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badrinathan, Sridharan; Shiju, Micheal Thomas; Arya, Ramachandran; Rajesh, Ganesh Nachiappa; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Citrus is considered as a medically important plant from ancient times and the bioflavonoids of different variety of citrus fruits were well explored for their biological activities. The study aim was to explore the effect of citrus bioflavonoids (CB) to prevent and cure hyperoxaluria induced urolithiasis. Methods: Twenty four Wistar rats were segregated into 4 Groups. Group 1: Control; Group 2: Urolithic (EG-0.75%); Group 3: Preventive study (EG+CB, day 1-50); Group 4: Curative study (EG+CB, day 30-50). Animals received CB orally (20mg/kg body weight) after performing a toxicity study. Results: Urinary risk factors and serum renal function parameters were significantly reduced by CB administration in both preventive and curative study (p<0.001). Hematoxylin & Eosin and von Kossa staining demonstrated that renal protection was offered by CB against EG insult. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed over expression and abnormal localization of THP and NF-κB in urolithic rats, while it was effectively regulated by CB supplementation. Conclusion: CB prevented and significantly controlled lithogenic factors and CaOx deposition in rats. We propose CB as a potential therapy in management of urolithiasis. PMID:26504765

  9. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of Citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally.

    PubMed

    Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of "epa-ijebu" in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink, water, ethanol and fermented water from 3 days soaked milled maize known as "ekan-ogi" or "omidun" in the Yoruba dialect. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion. The clinical isolates used included Anaerobic facultative bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Streptococcus faecalis, Citrobacter spp, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Escherichia coli; Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans; and Anaerobes which includes Bacteroides spp, Porphyromonas spp, and Clostridium spp. Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. The anaerobes and the gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32 mg/ml-128 g/ml. The activity against the fungi showed only the oil extract potent for A. niger, while Candida albicans was susceptible to all the extracts with MIC ranging from 256 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. The gram-negatives have MIC ranging from 64 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged between 32 mg/ml to 512 mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. The oil and palm-wine extract of "epa-ijebu" showed greater activity than the other extracts. The killing rate of the schnapps extract on S. aureus and E. coli was 1 and 3.5 hours respectively. PMID:20162090

  10. Effects of rootstock/scion combinations on the flavor of citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Gili; Tietel, Zipora; Porat, Ron

    2013-11-27

    We examined sensory quality, total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity levels, and aroma volatiles compositions of 'Or' and 'Odem' mandarins grafted on sour orange (SO), Volkamer lemon (Volka), and US-812 rootstocks; 'Valencia' oranges grafted on SO, Volka, and ×639 rootstocks; and a new pummelo × grapefruit hybrid cv. 'Redson' grafted on SO, Volka, and macrophylla rootstocks. TSS and acidity levels of all species were lower in juice of fruits on Volka than on SO. Sensory quality evaluations revealed that 'Odem' mandarins and 'Redson' fruits grown on SO were preferred to those on Volka but the rootstocks had no notable effects on flavor perception of 'Or' mandarins and 'Valencia' oranges. Chromatographic analysis revealed that contents of aroma volatiles, especially terpenes, in homogenized segments of 'Odem' and 'Redson' but not of 'Or' and 'Valencia' were significantly lower on Volka than on SO. Overall, the effects of rootstocks on citrus fruit flavor depended on specific rootstock/scion interactions. Furthermore, the flavor of some varieties grown on Volka was inferior to that on SO because of lower TSS and acidity levels and lower aroma volatiles contents. PMID:24219601

  11. Photosynthesis, respiration and translocation in green fruit of normal and mutant grapefruit. [Citrus paradisi Macf

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, K.E.; Yen, C.R.; Avigne, W.T.

    1986-04-01

    Gas exchange, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation/and subsequent photosynthate translocation were followed during a 24h light/dark period in green grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) detached after 2.5 mo. growth. Fruit photosynthesis could account for net fixation of less than 1% of the daily dry weight increase recorded for fruit at this stage of development, but a comparison of light/dark CO/sub 2/ exchange indicated that as much as 27% of this daily gain was maintained by refixation of respiratory CO/sub 2/ during daylight hours. Approximately 10% of photosynthates labeled in the outer peel (flavedo) were translocated to segment epidermis and juice vesicles of normal fruit during 1 + 23h pulse-chase experiments. This process typically continues for 4 to 5 days and refixation products would presumably follow the same path. In a low-acid mutant believed to differ only in acid/sugar ratio of juice vesicles, however, inward translocation of /sup 14/C-photosynthates from flavedo was restricted primarily to the inner peel (albedo).

  12. Hydrolysates of citrus plants stimulate melanogenesis protecting against UV-induced dermal damage.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wen; Hsiao, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2011-04-01

    The sun-tanning process occurs as a spontaneous response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UV will induce tanning and DNA damage, processes that can lead to photoaging and skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and cancer. The pigment melanin protects skin from UV damage; therefore, an efficient melanin-promoting suntan lotion could be highly beneficial. In this study, a process was developed to increase the content of naringenin in citrus extracts and to determine whether a higher naringenin content of citrus would induce melanogenesis. Melanin content and tyrosinase expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells were assayed after treatment with citrus plant extracts and their hydrolysates. The results indicate that hydrolysis increased the naringenin content in citrus extracts and that citrus preparations stimulated cellular melanogenesis and tyrosinase expression. It is suggested that this method is applicable to the industrial production of melanin-promoting suntan lotions with antiphotocarcinogenic properties derived from citrus rind and citrus products. PMID:20857432

  13. Field Evaluation of Plant Defense Inducers for the Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyun; Trivedi, Pankaj; Wang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently the most economically devastating disease of citrus worldwide and no established cure is available. Defense inducing compounds are able to induce plant resistance effective against various pathogens. In this study the effects of various chemical inducers on HLB diseased citrus were evaluated in four groves (three with sweet orange and one with mandarin) in Florida (United States) for two to four consecutive growing seasons. Results have demonstrated that plant defense inducers including β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTH), and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), individually or in combination, were effective in suppressing progress of HLB disease. Ascorbic acid (AA) and the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DDG) also exhibited positive control effects on HLB. After three or four applications for each season, the treatments AA (60 to 600 µM), BABA (0.2 to 1.0 mM), BTH (1.0 mM), INA (0.1 mM), 2-DDG (100 µM), BABA (1.0 mM) plus BTH (1.0 mM), BTH (1.0 mM) plus AA (600 µM), and BTH (1.0 mM) plus 2-DDG (100 µM) slowed down the population growth in planta of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the putative pathogen of HLB and reduced HLB disease severity by approximately 15 to 30% compared with the nontreated control, depending on the age and initial HLB severity of infected trees. These treatments also conferred positive effect on fruit yield and quality. Altogether, these findings indicate that plant defense inducers may be a useful strategy for the management of citrus HLB. PMID:26390185

  14. Inhibitory effects of citrus fruits on cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Hidaka, Muneaki; Takamura, Norito; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2003-09-01

    The capacities of citrus fruits to inhibit midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) expressed in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight citrus fruits such as ama-natsu, banpeiyu, Dekopon, hassaku, hyuga-natsu, completely matured kinkan (Tamatama), takaoka-buntan and unshu-mikan were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and grapefruit juice (white, Tropicana-Kirin). The addition of a fruit juice prepared from banpeiyu, hassaku, takaoka-buntan or Tamatama caused the inhibition of the microsomal CYP3A activity. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (2.5 and 5.0%, v/v). The fruit juice from banpeiyu showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a banpeiyu juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity to about 20% of control without a fruit juice. The elongation of the preincubation period of a fruit juice from banpeiyu (5.0%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction (5 to 15 min) led to the enhancement of the CYP3A inhibition (5% of control). Thus, we discovered ingredients of banpeiyu to be inhibitor(s) or mechanism-based inhibitor(s) of human CYP3A activity, but the inhibitory effects of them were somewhat lower than those of grapefruit. PMID:12951492

  15. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    PubMed

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  16. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  17. Metal analysis in citrus sinensis fruit peel and psidium guajava leaf.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-07-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's 't' test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  18. Citrus Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

  19. Determination of origin and sugars of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm, correspondence analysis and partial least square combined with fiber optic NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Jagdish C; Dixit, Vivechana; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Malik, Kamal A

    2008-12-01

    The capacity to confirm the variety or origin and the estimation of sucrose, glucose, fructose of the citrus fruits are major interests of citrus juice industry. A rapid classification and quantification technique was developed and validated for simultaneous and nondestructive quantifying the sugar constituent's concentrations and the origin of citrus fruits using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using genetic algorithm, Chemometrics and Correspondences Analysis (CA). To acquire good classification accuracy and to present a wide range of concentration of sucrose, glucose and fructose, we have collected 22 different varieties of citrus fruits from the market during the entire season of citruses. FT-NIR spectra were recorded in the NIR region from 1,100 to 2,500 nm using the fiber optic probe and three types of data analysis were performed. Chemometrics analysis using Partial Least Squares (PLS) was performed in order to determine the concentration of individual sugars. Artificial Neural Network analysis was performed for classification, origin or variety identification of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm. Correspondence analysis was performed in order to visualize the relationship between the citrus fruits. To compute a PLS model based upon the reference values and to validate the developed method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed. Spectral range and the number of PLS factors were optimized for the lowest standard error of calibration (SEC), prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient (R(2)). The calibration model developed was able to assess the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in unknown citrus fruit up to an R(2) value of 0.996-0.998. Numbers of factors from F1 to F10 were optimized for correspondence analysis for relationship visualization of citrus fruits based on the output values of genetic algorithm. ANN and CA analysis showed excellent

  20. Determination of origin and sugars of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm, correspondence analysis and partial least square combined with fiber optic NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Jagdish C.; Dixit, Vivechana; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Malik, Kamal A.

    2008-12-01

    The capacity to confirm the variety or origin and the estimation of sucrose, glucose, fructose of the citrus fruits are major interests of citrus juice industry. A rapid classification and quantification technique was developed and validated for simultaneous and nondestructive quantifying the sugar constituent's concentrations and the origin of citrus fruits using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using genetic algorithm, Chemometrics and Correspondences Analysis (CA). To acquire good classification accuracy and to present a wide range of concentration of sucrose, glucose and fructose, we have collected 22 different varieties of citrus fruits from the market during the entire season of citruses. FT-NIR spectra were recorded in the NIR region from 1100 to 2500 nm using the fiber optic probe and three types of data analysis were performed. Chemometrics analysis using Partial Least Squares (PLS) was performed in order to determine the concentration of individual sugars. Artificial Neural Network analysis was performed for classification, origin or variety identification of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm. Correspondence analysis was performed in order to visualize the relationship between the citrus fruits. To compute a PLS model based upon the reference values and to validate the developed method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed. Spectral range and the number of PLS factors were optimized for the lowest standard error of calibration (SEC), prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient ( R2). The calibration model developed was able to assess the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in unknown citrus fruit up to an R2 value of 0.996-0.998. Numbers of factors from F1 to F10 were optimized for correspondence analysis for relationship visualization of citrus fruits based on the output values of genetic algorithm. ANN and CA analysis showed excellent classification

  1. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

  2. Citrus blight research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With HLB now occurring throughout Florida citrus groves, citrus blight has been getting less attention even though the problem still exists. In fact, the combination of HLB and citrus blight has compounded the problem that the citrus industry is facing with decreased yields, small fruit size and tre...

  3. Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

  4. Lack of Evidence of Transmission of 'Candidatus' Liberibacter Asiaticus Through Citrus Seed Taken From Affected Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing disease, putatively caused by the associated bacterium Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus is the greatest threat to the world citrus industry today. The bacterium is spread locally and regionally by the citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can also be disseminated by grafting...

  5. Effect of PGRs and fungicides on huanglongbing-related preharvest fruit drop of citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The severe citrus disease Huanglongbing (HLB) in Florida has resulted in widespread tree decline, and overall citrus production is now the lowest it has been in 50 years. More than 80 percent of Florida citrus trees are huanglongbing-affected, and most growers attempt to sustain production on infect...

  6. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. Result: The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment. The inhibition of the radicle growth was more after 72 h (87.42%). At a dose of 5% (v/v), the juice showed a slightly significant (P < 0.05) effect affect after 72 h; however, there was no significant effect at 48 h. The juice at doses of 10% and 20% (v/v) showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment; however, the percentage inhibitions were higher at 72 h. At 72 h, the percentage inhibition for juice at 10% (v/v) was 72.37% and at 20% (v/v) was 91.96%. The concentrations of 40% and 60% (v/v) showed cytostatic effects as no appreciable growth of the radicles of the seeds was observed throughout the experiment. The percentage inhibition for 40% (v/v) was 100% and 99.72% for 48 and 72 h, respectively, while that for the juice concentration of 60% (v/v) was 100% throughout the study. Conclusion: The experiment has shown that C. sinensis fruit juice has a potential for causing both anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects on fast proliferating cells and hence cancerous cells. PMID:25298937

  7. Orthophenylphenol and phenylhydroquinone residues in citrus fruit and processed citrus products after postharvest fungicidal treatments with sodium orthophenylphenate in California and Florida.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G D; Harsy, S G; Geronimo, J; Wise, J M

    2001-05-01

    Sodium orthophenylphenate (SOPP) has been used extensively for >40 years to control postharvest diseases of citrus fruits. Studies of the metabolism of [(14)C]SOPP have identified orthophenylphenol (OPP) as the major metabolite with phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) as a minor metabolite. The whole-fruit tolerance in the United States for OPP is 10 ppm. This study was conducted to quantify terminal OPP and PHQ residues in whole Navel oranges, grapefruit, and lemons following SOPP applications at maximum application rates and following commercial application and fruit storage practices. OPP and PHQ residues also were determined in products processed from treated Navel oranges. OPP residues in lemons, Navel oranges, and grapefruit treated with SOPP using foamer wash and shipping wax applications remained below the 10 ppm tolerance, and PHQ residues were all < or =0.439 ppm. PHQ residues in whole fruit increased with time in commercial storage. OPP residues in all Navel orange matrices except oil remained relatively stable with time in commercial storage; residues in oil declined substantially while in storage. PMID:11368626

  8. Chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of "naringenin," a flavanone present in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of deaths in developed countries and is emerging as a major public health burden in developing countries too. Changes in cancer prevalence patterns have been noticed due to rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. One of the major concerns is an influence of dietary habits on cancer rates. Approaches to prevent cancer are many and chemoprevention or dietary cancer prevention is one of them. Therefore, nutritional practices are looked at as effective types of dietary cancer prevention strategies. Attention has been given to identifying plant-derived dietary agents, which could be developed as a promising chemotherapeutic with minimal toxic side effects. Naringenin, a phytochemical mainly present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, is a frequent component of the human diet and has gained increasing interest because of its positive health effects not only in cancer prevention but also in noncancer diseases. In the last few years, significant progress has been made in studying the biological effects of naringenin at cellular and molecular levels. This review examines the cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic effects of naringenin in an organ-specific format, evaluating its limitations, and its considerable potential for development as a cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic agent. PMID:25514618

  9. Routine application using single quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to pesticides analysis in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Mañes, Jordi; Picó, Yolanda

    2005-09-23

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method has been developed for the routine analysis of buprofezin, bupirimate, hexaflumuron, tebufenpyrad, fluvalinate and pyriproxyfen in citrus fruits. Extracts were obtained by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) using C18 as dispersant and dichloromethane-methanol (80:20, v/v) as eluent. Matrix effects were tested for all matrices by addition of standard to sample blank extracts (samples containing no detectable residues). Mean recoveries obtained at fortification levels between 0.01 and 5 mg kg(-1) were 57-97% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 5 to 19%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.01-0.2 mg kg(-1) and lower than maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Spanish legislation. The MSPD was compared with conventional ethyl acetate extraction, showing equivalent recoveries and precision. Although the sample is more concentrated (5-fold) by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) with ethyl acetate than by MSPD, LOQs obtained by both techniques, were almost equal, because MSPD reduces matrix effects, baseline noise, and interfering peaks from the matrix. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of selected pesticides in real samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and triple quadrupole (TQ) have been used as confirmatory tool for positive samples according to a recent No. SANCO/10476/2003 European Union Guideline. PMID:16130755

  10. Identification and functional analysis of Penicillium digitatum genes putatively involved in virulence towards citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Mario; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The fungus Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould rot, is the most destructive post-harvest pathogen of citrus fruit in Mediterranean regions. In order to identify P. digitatum genes up-regulated during the infection of oranges that may constitute putative virulence factors, we followed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA macroarray hybridization approach. The origin of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was determined by comparison against the available genome sequences of both organisms. Genes coding for fungal proteases and plant cell wall-degrading enzymes represent the largest categories in the subtracted cDNA library. Northern blot analysis of a selection of P. digitatum genes, including those coding for proteases, cell wall-related enzymes, redox homoeostasis and detoxification processes, confirmed their up-regulation at varying time points during the infection process. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to generate knockout mutants for two genes encoding a pectin lyase (Pnl1) and a naphthalene dioxygenase (Ndo1). Two independent P. digitatum Δndo1 mutants were as virulent as the wild-type. However, the two Δpnl1 mutants analysed were less virulent than the parental strain or an ectopic transformant. Together, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the putative determinants of the virulence mechanisms of P. digitatum. PMID:25099378

  11. Effectiveness of gene silencing induced by viral vectors based on Citrus leaf blotch virus is different in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Jesus; Vives, María del Carmen; Velázquez, Karelia; Pina, José Antonio; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, Jose

    2014-07-01

    Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective technology for gene function analysis in plants. We assessed the VIGS effectiveness in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants of different Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV)-based vectors, using insets of the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene. While in N. benthamiana the silencing phenotype was induced only by the construct carrying a 58-nt pds hairpin, in citrus plants all the constructs induced the silencing phenotype. Differences in the generation of secondary small interfering RNAs in both species are believed to be responsible for differential host-species effects. The ability of CLBV-based vectors to silence different endogenous citrus genes was further confirmed. Since CLBV-based vectors are known to be stable and induce VIGS in successive flushes for several months, these vectors provide an important genomic tool and it is expected that they will be useful to analyze gene function by reverse genetics in the long-lived citrus plants. PMID:25010281

  12. Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2014-12-01

    Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker. PMID:25443842

  13. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; (6) Citrus VI—Lemons and Limes; (7) Citrus VII—Grapefruit for which freeze damage will be adjusted on... must be set out on or before April 30 of the calendar year); (3) Of “Meyer Lemons” and oranges commonly... for all other tangelos; (iii) March 31 for mid-season and temple oranges; (iv) April 30 for...

  14. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; (6) Citrus VI—Lemons and Limes; (7) Citrus VII—Grapefruit for which freeze damage will be adjusted on... must be set out on or before April 30 of the calendar year); (3) Of “Meyer Lemons” and oranges commonly... for all other tangelos; (iii) March 31 for mid-season and temple oranges; (iv) April 30 for...

  15. Determination of abamectin in citrus fruits using SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Saleh, Abolfazl; Abdollahzadeh, Yaser; Naeeni, Mohammad Hosein; Fattahi, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    A new pretreatment method, SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was proposed for the determination of abamectin in citrus fruit samples for the first time. In this method, fruit samples were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by SPE. Then, the SPE was used as a disperser solvent in the next dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step for further purification and enrichment of abamectin. The effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency of the proposed method were investigated and optimized. Good linearity of abamectin was obtained from 0.005 to 10.0 mg/kg for B1a and from 0.05 to 10.0 mg/kg for B1b with correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.998 for B1a and 0.991 for B1b, respectively. The LODs were 0.001 and 0.008 mg/kg (S/N = 3) for B1a and B1b, respectively. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels were ranged from 87 to 96% with the RSD less than 11% (n = 3). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of abamectin in citrus fruit samples. PMID:23913592

  16. Relevance of the transcription factor PdSte12 in Penicillium digitatum conidiation and virulence during citrus fruit infection.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Laura; Teixidó, Neus; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Torres, Paloma

    2016-10-17

    Green mould, resulting from Penicillium digitatum, is the most important postharvest disease of citrus. In a previous study, the PdSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and disruption mutants were obtained. In the present study, the ΔPdSte12 mutants generated through gene replacement showed significantly reduced virulence during citrus fruit infection. Virulence was affected not only in mature fruit but also in immature fruit, and disease severity was markedly reduced when the oranges were stored at 20 or 4°C. In addition, the ΔPdSte12 mutants were defective in asexual reproduction, producing few conidia. The conidiophores of these mutants had longer metulae with fewer branches at the tip of the hyphae. Gene expression analysis revealed that PdSte12 might act as a negative regulator of several transporter-encoding genes and a positive regulator of two sterol demethylases, all of which are involved in fungicide resistance and fungal virulence. Moreover, PdSte12 exhibited the negative regulation of another transcription factor PdMut3, putatively involved in fungal pathogenesis but with no effect on the MAPK SLT2 P. digitatum orthologue belonging to different transcription pathways relevant to cell integrity. These results indicate the PdSte12 transcription factor is functionally conserved in P. digitatum for infection and asexual reproduction, similar to other Ste12 fungal plant pathogens. PMID:27479695

  17. Characterisation of free and bound volatile compounds from six different varieties of citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing-Nan; Tai, Ya-Nan; Dong, Man; Shao, Jin-Hui; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Free volatile compounds in six varieties of citrus juices were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bound fractions were isolated and extracted with methanol and Amberlite XAD-2 resin and then hydrolyzed by almond β-glucosidase. A total of 43 free and 17 bound volatile compounds were identified in citrus. Free volatile contents in sweet orange were the most abundant, followed by those in grapefruits and mandarins. Among free volatiles, terpenes were the most abundant in citrus juice. Sensory analysis results showed that the flavor of the same citrus cultivars was similar, but the flavor of different cultivars varied. Among bound volatiles, benzenic compounds were the most abundant in these citrus juices. Bound volatiles also significantly differed among cultivars. In addition, only p-vinylguaiacol were detected in all of the samples. PMID:25952837

  18. Biocontrol ability and putative mode of action of yeasts against Geotrichum citri-aurantii in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Luriany Pompeo; Cunha, Tatiane da; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Sour rot is a major postharvest disease of citrus fruit and is caused by the fungal pathogen Geotrichum citri-aurantii. A lack of chemicals certified for the control of this disease has led to the consideration of alternative methods and strategies, such as the use of yeasts as biocontrol agents. The purpose of the present study was to test the ability of yeasts isolated from leaves, flowers, fruit, and soil, and six Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates to control citrus sour rot, to assess the mechanisms of action of the yeast isolates that were demonstrated to be effective for biocontrol, and to identify the most effective yeast isolates for the biocontrol of G. citri-aurantii. In in vivo assays, three yeast isolates (ACBL-23, ACBL-44, and ACBL-77) showed a potential for controlling sour rot in citrus fruits, both preventatively and curatively. Most of the eight yeast isolates that were assessed for a mechanism of action did not produce antifungal compounds in an amount sufficient to inhibit the growth of the pathogen. Additionally, nutrient competition among the yeast strains was not found to be a biocontrol strategy. Instead, killer activity and hydrolytic enzyme production were identified as the major mechanisms involved in the biocontrol activity of the yeasts. Isolates ACBL-23, ACBL-44, and ACBL-77, which controlled sour rot most effectively, were identified as Rhodotorula minuta, Candida azyma, and Aureobasidium pullulans, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the potential of C. azyma as a biological control agent against a postharvest pathogen and its ability to produce a killer toxin. PMID:27296964

  19. Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application.

    PubMed

    Ramful, Deena; Bahorun, Theeshan; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Tarnus, Evelyne; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2010-11-28

    The flavedo extracts of twenty-one varieties of citrus fruits (oranges, satsumah, clementine, mandarins, tangor, bergamot, lemon, tangelos, kumquat, calamondin and pamplemousses) grown in Mauritius were examined for their total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities. Total phenolics correlated strongly with the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging activity assays (r > 0.85). Based on their antioxidant activities in these three assays nine citrus fruits namely, one orange, clementine, tangor and pamplemousse variety, two tangelo varieties and three mandarin varieties, were further characterized for their flavanone, flavonol and flavone levels by HPLC and their antioxidant activities were assessed by the copper-phenanthroline and iron chelation assays. The flavanone, hesperidin, was present at the highest concentrations in all flavedo extracts except for pamplemousses where it was not detected. Contents in hesperidin ranged from 83 ± 0.06 to 234 ± 1.73 mg/g FW. Poncirin, didymin, diosmin, isorhoifolin and narirutin were also present in all extracts whereas naringin was present only in one mandarin variety. The nine flavedo extracts exhibited good DNA protecting ability in the cuphen assay with IC₅₀ values ranging from 6.3 ± 0.46 to 23.0 ± 0.48 mg FW/mL. Essentially the flavedos were able to chelate metal ions however, tangor was most effective with an IC₅₀ value of 9.1 ± 0.08 mg FW/mL. The flavedo extracts of citrus fruits represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants with potential prophylactic properties for the development of functional foods. PMID:20100535

  20. Prenylfuranocoumarin-HMGA-flavonol glucoside conjugates and other constituents of the fruit peels of Citrus hystrix and their anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Seeka, Chonticha; Sutthivaiyakit, Pakawadee; Youkwan, Juthamanee; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Sutthivaiyakit, Somyote

    2016-07-01

    Sixteen compounds including dihydroxy prenylfuranocoumarins/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid conjugates and dihydroxy prenylfuranocoumarins/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid/1-O-flavonyl-β-d-glucopyranoside conjugates, together with other dihydroxyprenylfuranocoumarins conjugates, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit peels of Citrus hystrix. Some of the isolates were evaluated for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity, but only one compound possessing a 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-6,8,3'-trimethoxyflavonol nucleus in the prenylfuranocoumarin-HMGA conjugate showed strong activity. PMID:26995149

  1. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata) as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Wasim Ahmad; Jahangir, Muhammad; Qaisar, Muhammad; Khan, Sher Aslam; Mahmood, Talat; Saeed, Muhammad; Farid, Abid; Liaquat, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco) for a period of 120 days (85%-90% relative humidity) at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C. PMID:26694344

  2. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia. PMID:26950105

  3. In vitro antiallergic effects of aqueous fermented preparations from Citrus and Cydonia fruits.

    PubMed

    Huber, Roman; Stintzing, Florian Conrad; Briemle, Daniel; Beckmann, Christiane; Meyer, Ulrich; Gründemann, Carsten

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory and antiallergic properties of preparations from lemon, Citrus medica L. (citrus), and quince, Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Cydonia), which are used in pharmaceutical products to treat patients suffering from allergic disorders. Preparations were analyzed with respect to their impact on the degranulation capacity from basophilic cells as well as mediator release from activated human mast cells in vitro, including IL-8 and TNF- α secretion. The results show that the degranulation of basophilic cells was diminished only in the presence of Citrus, and this effect was compared to the synthetic drug azelastine. Furthermore, Citrus and Cydonia both inhibited the production of IL-8 and TNF- α from human mast cells, and at low concentrations additive effects were observed. As a positive inhibition control, dexamethasone was used. LC-MS analyses showed that the major phenolic components in extracts from Citrus and Cydonia are eriocitrin and neochlorogenic acid, respectively. Nevertheless, these compounds do not show biological effects at concentration levels detected in their corresponding extracts. In conclusion, the present data provide a rational base for the use of the single pharmaceutical preparations from Citrus and Cydonia in a differentiated treatment of allergic disorders in part by the regulation of soluble allergic mediators from basophilic cells and mast cells. PMID:22193979

  4. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), β-pinene (0.63–31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

  5. Inhibiting ethylene perception with 1-methylcyclopropene triggers molecular responses aimed to cope with cell toxicity and increased respiration in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Establés-Ortiz, Beatriz; Romero, Paco; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Lafuente, María T

    2016-06-01

    The ethylene perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been critical in understanding the hormone's mode of action. However, 1-MCP may trigger other processes that could vary the interpretation of results related until now to ethylene, which we aim to understand by using transcriptomic analysis. Transcriptomic changes in ethylene and 1-MCP-treated 'Navelate' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) oranges were studied in parallel with changes in ethylene production, respiration and peel damage. The effects of compounds modifying the levels of the ethylene co-product cyanide and nitric oxide (NO) on fruit physiology were also studied. Results suggested that: 1) The ethylene treatment caused sub-lethal stress since it induced stress-related responses and reduced peel damage; 2) 1-MCP induced ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent responsive networks; 3) 1-MCP triggered ethylene overproduction, stress-related responses and metabolic shifts aimed to cope with cell toxicity, which mostly affected to the inner part of the peel (albedo); 4) 1-MCP increased respiration and drove metabolism reconfiguration for favoring energy conservation but up-regulated genes related to lipid and protein degradation and triggered the over-expression of genes associated with the plasma membrane cellular component; 5) Xenobiotics and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) might act as signals for defense responses in the ethylene-treated fruit, while their uncontrolled generation would induce processes mimicking cell death and damage in 1-MCP-treated fruit; 6) ROS, the ethylene co-product cyanide and NO may converge in the toxic effects of 1-MCP. PMID:26990405

  6. Auraptene in the Peels of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachi Bankan) Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kana; Mori, Hirotomo; Toyoda, Nobuki; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Sugawara, Kuniaki; Sudo, Masahiko; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    Examination of the dried peel powder of Citrus kawachiensis, one of the citrus products of Ehime, Japan, showed that it contained naringin (NGIN; 44.02 ± 0.491 mg/g), narirutin (NRTN; 4.46 ± 0.0563 mg/g), auraptene (AUR; 4.07 ± 0.033 mg/g), and 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF; 0.27 ± 0.0039 mg/g). When this dried peel powder was orally preadministered at the dose of 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg/day for 7 days into lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) injected mice, an animal model of systemic inflammation, it suppressed (1) LPS-induced loss of body weight and abnormal behavior in the open field, (2) LPS-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus, and (3) LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, which were coexpressed in astrocytes of these mice. When NGIN or AUR was preadministered to LPS-injected mice at an amount similar to that in the peel powder, AUR, but not NGIN, had the ability to suppress the LPS-induced inflammation in the brain of these model mice. The dried powder of flavedo tissue (the outer colored layer of the mesocarp of a citrus fruit) and juice, which contained sufficient amounts of AUR, also had anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that AUR was the main ingredient responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of the dried peels of C. kawachiensis. PMID:24955102

  7. Comprehensive insights on how 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid retards senescence in post-harvest citrus fruits using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiaoli; Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Zhang, Li; Wei, Qingjiang; Cheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Lingling; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Auxin-like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a high-efficiency anti-stalling agent for the post-harvest fresh fruit industry, has had its use restricted due to environmental concerns. However, no other substitutes for 2,4-D are available to the post-harvest industry. Insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of 2,4-D on fruit quality preservation will provide a theoretical basis for exploring new safe and effective anti-stalling agents. This study comprehensively analysed changes in the peel of Olinda Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] induced by 500 ppm 2,4-D using 'omic'-driven approaches. Transcriptional profiling revealed that transcriptional factor (mainly AP2/ERF, WRKY, and NAC family members), transport, and hormone metabolism genes were over-represented and up-regulated within 24h post-treatment (HPT). Stress defence genes were up-regulated, while cell wall metabolism genes were down-regulated after 48 HPT. However, secondary metabolism genes, especially phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis-related genes, were over-represented at all the time points. Comparative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of proteins implicated in stress responses (25%), hormone metabolism, and signal transduction (12%) significantly accumulated at the post-transcriptional level. Hormone levels detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 2,4-D significantly increased, while ethylene production (detected by gas chromatography) decreased after 2,4-D treatment. In addition, lignin and water content in the fruit peel also increased and the epicuticle wax ultrastructure was modified. In conclusion, 2,4-D retarded fruit senescence by altering the levels of many endogenous hormones and by improving stress defence capabilities by up-regulating defence-related genes and proteins. PMID:24215076

  8. Comprehensive insights on how 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid retards senescence in post-harvest citrus fruits using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yunjiang

    2014-01-01

    Auxin-like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a high-efficiency anti-stalling agent for the post-harvest fresh fruit industry, has had its use restricted due to environmental concerns. However, no other substitutes for 2,4-D are available to the post-harvest industry. Insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of 2,4-D on fruit quality preservation will provide a theoretical basis for exploring new safe and effective anti-stalling agents. This study comprehensively analysed changes in the peel of Olinda Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] induced by 500 ppm 2,4-D using ‘omic’-driven approaches. Transcriptional profiling revealed that transcriptional factor (mainly AP2/ERF, WRKY, and NAC family members), transport, and hormone metabolism genes were over-represented and up-regulated within 24h post-treatment (HPT). Stress defence genes were up-regulated, while cell wall metabolism genes were down-regulated after 48 HPT. However, secondary metabolism genes, especially phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis-related genes, were over-represented at all the time points. Comparative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of proteins implicated in stress responses (25%), hormone metabolism, and signal transduction (12%) significantly accumulated at the post-transcriptional level. Hormone levels detected by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 2,4-D significantly increased, while ethylene production (detected by gas chromatography) decreased after 2,4-D treatment. In addition, lignin and water content in the fruit peel also increased and the epicuticle wax ultrastructure was modified. In conclusion, 2,4-D retarded fruit senescence by altering the levels of many endogenous hormones and by improving stress defence capabilities by up-regulating defence-related genes and proteins. PMID:24215076

  9. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).

    PubMed

    Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

    2014-11-15

    Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10μM MJ, 2mM SA or 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD. PMID:25216124

  10. Comparing the Use of Laboratory-Reared and Field-Collected Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae for Demonstrating Efficacy of Postharvest Cold Treatments in Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Moore, S D; Kirkman, W; Albertyn, S; Hattingh, V

    2016-08-01

    Some of South Africa's export markets require postharvest cold treatment of citrus fruit for phytosanitary risk mitigation for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). An alternative to a standalone cold treatment may be a reduced intensity cold treatment as a step in a systems approach. For cold treatment trials, large numbers of larvae are required. Due to recent dramatic improvement of T. leucotreta control in the field, sufficient naturally infested citrus fruit are no longer available. Artificial infestation of fruit is not viable due to rapid decay of the fruit. Consequently, it is necessary to use laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet. In trials, field-collected larvae from the Eastern Cape were at least as cold-tolerant as those from other regions. Larvae in Navel oranges showed the median level of susceptibility in a range of citrus types evaluated at 6°C, and their use in trials was considered acceptable due to their greater natural susceptibility to T. leucotreta infestation. We demonstrated that larvae at high density in artificial diet were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae at lower densities. When exposed to 2°C for 18 d or longer, larvae in artificial diet as used in the trials were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae in fruit. Very few surviving larvae from fruit completed development, with no subsequent generation. Consequently, it is considered justifiable to conduct cold-treatment trials with laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet without risk of underestimating the effect of cold on feral larvae in citrus fruit. PMID:27341890

  11. Antimicrobial Action of Some Citrus Fruit Oils on Selected Food-Borne Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dabbah, Roger; Edwards, V. M.; Moats, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils, terpineol, and orange oil, in particular, varied according to the type of bacteria tested. Terpineol and other terpeneless fractions of citrus oils appeared to have greater inhibitory effect on food-borne bacteria than the other citrus oils or derivatives. Gram-positive bacteria were, in general, more sensitive to essential oils than gram-negative bacteria. Terpineol extended the shelf life of commercially pasteurized skim milk, low-fat milk, and whole milk for more than 56 days at 4 C. Orange oil extended the shelf life of skim milk and low-fat milk for the same period. PMID:4905947

  12. Fine QTL mapping of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit characters using high-throughput SNP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedlessness, flavor, and color are top priorities for mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) cultivar improvement. Given long juvenility, large tree size, and high breeding cost, marker-assisted selection (MAS) may be an expeditious and economical approach to these challenges. The objectives of this s...

  13. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Honey Oranges (also known as Honey Tangerines) and Temple Oranges; (6) Citrus VI—Lemons and Limes; (7... must be set out on or before April 30 of the calendar year); (3) Of “Meyer Lemons” and oranges commonly... for all other tangelos; (iii) March 31 for mid-season and temple oranges; (iv) April 30 for...

  14. Extending the use of ultraviolet light for fruit quality sorting in citrus packinghouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illumination with ultraviolet light (UV) is commonly used in citrus packinghouses as a means to aid in the identification and removal of decayed oranges from the packline. This technique is effective because areas of decay strongly fluoresce under UV illumination. It was observed that oranges often ...

  15. Identification of large masses of citrus fruit and rice fields in eastern Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desagredo, F. L.; Salinas, F. G.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery has been successfully used for the identification of large areas of citrus groves and rice fields in the Valencia region of Eastern Spain. Results are encouraging and will facilitate the elaboration of a land use map with a fair degree of definition once methods prove to be fully operational.

  16. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0. PMID:19283047

  17. Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of benzoylurea insecticides in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, A I; Picó, Y; Font, G

    2000-01-01

    A liquid chromatography (LC) method for the quantitative determination of three benzoylurea insecticide residues (diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron and hexaflumuron) in citrus fruits is described. Residues were successfully separated on a C18 column by methanol/water gradient elution. Detection was by negative-ion, selected-ion monitoring atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS); the main ions were [M - H]-, and the secondary fragment ions were [M - H - HF]-. Useful confirmatory information can thus be obtained at low extraction voltages from losses of HF. Detection limits for standard solutions were 10 fg injected and good linearity and reproducibility were obtained. The optimum LC/APCI-MS conditions were applied to the analysis of benzoylureas in oranges. Samples were extracted using matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD), in which orange samples were homogenized with Cs, placed onto a glass column and eluted with dichloromethane. Detection limits of 2 microg kg(-1) in the crop were obtained. Average recoveries from citrus fortified with approximately (25-1000 microg kg(-1)) ranged from 87 to 102%. The method was applied to field-treated orange samples and benzoylureas were sometimes detected at concentration levels lower than maximum residue limits. PMID:10775090

  18. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix. PMID:27333959

  19. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  20. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  1. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  2. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  3. 7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b) Citrus paradisi, MacFadyen, commonly called “grapefruit”; (c) Citrus...

  4. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2012-05-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

  5. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves (‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’) and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY ‘Hamlin’, HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY ‘Valencia’, the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY ‘Valencia’ JV than in SY ‘Hamlin’ JV. More genes were also affected in AS ‘Valencia’ FF and VT than in AS ‘Valencia’ JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

  6. Data on morphological features of mycosis induced by Colletotrichum nymphaeae and Lecanicillium longisporum on citrus orthezia scale.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Guarín-Molina, Juan Humberto; Arthurs, Steven Paul; Humber, Richard Alan; de Andrade Moral, Rafael; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Delalibera, Ítalo

    2016-09-01

    We describe symptoms of mycosis induced by two native fungal entomopathogens of the citrus orthezia scale, Praelongorthezia praelonga (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), an important pest of citrus orchards. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Seasonal prevalence of the insect pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum nymphaeae in Brazilian citrus groves under different chemical pesticide regimes" [1]. The endemic fungal pathogen, C. nymphaeae, emerges through the thin cuticular intersegmental regions of the citrus orthezia scale body revealing orange salmon-pigmented conidiophores bearing conidial masses, as well as producing rhizoid-like hyphae that extend over the citrus leaf. By contrast, nymphs or adult females of this scale insect infected with Lecanicillium longisporum exhibit profuse outgrowth of bright white-pigmented conidiophores with clusters of conidia emerging from the insect intersegmental membranes, and mycosed cadavers are commonly observed attached to the leaf surface by hyphal extensions. These morphological differences are important features to discriminate these fungal entomopathogens in citrus orthezia scales. PMID:27274531

  7. Within-tree and temporal distribution of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) nymphs in citrus canopies and their influence on premature fruit abscission.

    PubMed

    Planes, Laura; Catalan, Jose; Urbaneja, Alberto; Tena, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has recently become a pest of citrus whose nymphs feed on the surface of young fruitlets. This feeding habit causes patches or rings of tissue scar around the apex as fruit mature. Currently, little is known about the distribution of P. kellyanus nymphs. Further knowledge would allow the development of an appropriate sampling protocol and targeted pesticide application. In our first experiment, the abundance of first- and second-generation P. kellyanus nymphs was surveyed in a citrus orchard at different times of day to characterize their spatial and temporal distributions. The distribution of damaged fruit was also measured at harvest. Our results showed that P. kellyanus nymphs tended to be present in the upper half of the canopy and mainly damaged the fruit located in this area of the canopy. However, P. kellyanus nymphs were uniformly distributed among the four cardinal directions of the canopy and throughout the day. Consequently, cardinal direction and time of the day seem to be less important when developing a sampling plan or in improving targeting or timing of insecticidal spray applications. In our second experiment, we tracked the presence of P. kellyanus nymphs in labeled fruit daily. These data were used to determine how many days the nymphs occupied a fruit and to relate occupancy and premature fruit abscission. The nymphs of P. kellyanus remained on the same fruit for only 1 d. The rate of fruit abscission in June was significantly higher in fruit occupied by first-generation P. kellyanus nymphs than in nonoccupied fruit. PMID:24874156

  8. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  9. Signature chemicals for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. Ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small sa...

  10. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

  11. COMPARATIVE DISAPPEARANCE OF DIOXATHION, MALATHION, OXYDEMETONMETHYL AND DIALIFOR FROM FLORIDA CITRUS LEAF AND FRUIT SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface residue disappearance rates of dioxathion, malathion, and oxydemetonmethyl, and dialifor were the same for fruit and leaves, and they increase with temperature. Disappearance rates were in the order of malation, oxydemetonmethyl, dialifor, dioxathion (from largest to smal...

  12. Comparative study of the effect of auxiliary energies on the extraction of Citrus fruit components.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2015-11-01

    A comparative study of methods for ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and superheated liquid extraction (SHLE) of compounds from citrus has been performed. The suited conditions for each method were evaluated to maximize the concentration of 10 representative compounds (sugars, carboxylic acids, phenolic acids and flavonoids) by a desirability function approach based on the chromatographic peaks obtained by LC-DAD. Extracts obtained under the suited conditions were analyzed by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The ANOVA on the molecular entities showed 232 significant entities (p<0.01), and pairwise comparison revealed that USAE and MAE methods are the most similar (50 different entities), and USAE and SHLE the most dissimilar (224 different entities). A discrimination test by PCA showed a clear discrimination among the extraction methods, explaining 78.51% of the total variability. Similarities in the abundance of the monitored compounds was tested by ANOVA showing that the extraction of carboxylic acids (malic and citric acids) was equal by all methods; while for each of the other eight compounds, at least one extraction method is different from the others. Under the evaluated conditions the SHLE method is the less favorable to extract metabolites from citrus, being the best the USAE method. PMID:26452857

  13. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).

    PubMed

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage. PMID:24293695

  14. Suppressive Effect on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Citrus aurantium L. in Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells via NF-κB Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Rim; Han, Dae-Yong; Park, Kwang-Il; Park, Hyeon-Soo; Cho, Yong-Bae; Lee, Hu-Jang; Lee, Won-Sup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Ha, Yeong Lae; Lee, Do Hoon; Kim, Jin A.; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Citrus fruits have been used as an edible fruit and a traditional medicine since ancient times. In particular, the peels of immature citrus fruits are used widely in traditional herbal medicine in Korea, as they are believed to contain bioactive components exerting anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined whether the crude methanol extract of Citrus aurantium L. (CME) has a suppressive effect on inducible enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of CME (5, 10, 20, and 50 μg/mL) and then treated with LPS (1 μg/mL). The results showed that CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL) inhibited the LPS- (1 μg/mL) induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS in macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, the expression of COX-2 was inhibited at the mRNA and protein levels by CME in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, were markedly reduced by CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL). Moreover, CME clearly suppressed the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunits, which was correlated with its inhibitory effect on I-κB phosphorylation. These results suggest that CME has anti-inflammatory properties by modulating the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells via the NF-κB pathway. PMID:20953420

  15. Citrus fruit bitter flavors: isolation and functional characterization of the gene Cm1,2RhaT encoding a 1,2 rhamnosyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the bitter flavonoids of citrus.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Ahuva; Weisshaus, Oori; Bar-Peled, Maor; Huhman, David V; Sumner, Lloyd W; Marin, Francisco R; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fluhr, Robert; Gressel, Jonathan; Eyal, Yoram

    2004-10-01

    Species of the genus Citrus accumulate large quantities of flavanones that affect fruit flavor and have been documented to benefit human health. Bitter species, such as grapefruit and pummelo, accumulate bitter flavanone-7-O-neohesperidosides responsible, in part, for their characteristic taste. Non-bitter species, such as mandarin and orange, accumulate only tasteless flavanone-7-O-rutinosides. The key flavor-determining step of citrus flavanone-glycoside biosynthesis is catalyzed by rhamnosyltransferases; 1,2 rhamnosyltransferases (1,2RhaT) catalyze biosynthesis of the bitter neohesperidosides, while 1,6 rhamnosyltransferases (1,6RhaT) catalyze biosynthesis of the tasteless rutinosides. We report on the isolation and functional characterization of the gene Cm1,2RhaT from pummelo which encodes a citrus 1,2RhaT. Functional analysis of Cm1,2RhaT recombinant enzyme was conducted by biotransformation of the substrates using transgenic plant cell culture. Flavanones and flavones, but not flavonols, were biotransformed into 7-O-neohesperidosides by the transgenic BY2 tobacco cells expressing recombinant Cm1,2RhaT. Immunoblot analysis established that 1,2RhaT protein was expressed only in the bitter citrus species and that 1,6RhaT enzyme, whose activity was previously documented in non-bitter species, was not cross-reactive. Expression of Cm1,2RhaT at the RNA level was prominent in young fruit and leaves, but low in the corresponding mature tissue, thus correlating well with the developmental pattern of accumulation of flavanone-neohesperidosides previously established. Phylogenetic analysis of the flavonoid glycosyltransferase gene family places Cm1,2RhaT on a separate gene cluster together with the only other functionally characterized flavonoid-glucoside rhamnosyltransferase gene, suggesting a common evolutionary origin for rhamnosyltransferases specializing in glycosylation of the sugar moieties of flavonoid glucosides. PMID:15361143

  16. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control. PMID:27092171

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  18. Detection of Anomalies in Citrus Leaves Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Ehsani, Reza; Morgan, Kelly T

    2015-08-01

    Nutrient assessment and management are important to maintain productivity in citrus orchards. In this study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for rapid and real-time detection of citrus anomalies. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected from citrus leaves with anomalies such as diseases (Huanglongbing, citrus canker) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc), and compared with those of healthy leaves. Baseline correction, wavelet multivariate denoising, and normalization techniques were applied to the LIBS spectra before analysis. After spectral pre-processing, features were extracted using principal component analysis and classified using two models, quadratic discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM). The SVM resulted in a high average classification accuracy of 97.5%, with high average canker classification accuracy (96.5%). LIBS peak analysis indicated that high intensities at 229.7, 247.9, 280.3, 393.5, 397.0, and 769.8 nm were observed of 11 peaks found in all the samples. Future studies using controlled experiments with variable nutrient applications are required for quantification of foliar nutrients by using LIBS-based sensing. PMID:26163130

  19. Effects of laser labeling on the quality of citrus fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Etching the required information on fruit and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser etches the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for pathogen entry. Studies were conducted to measur...

  20. Influence of deficit irrigation timing on the fruit quality of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mac.).

    PubMed

    Navarro, Josefa M; Botía, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Juan G

    2015-05-15

    The irrigation necessities for grapefruit production are very high. Due to the scarcity of water resources, growers use deficit irrigation (DI) - which could affect the fruit quality. Different DI strategies were studied: Control (irrigated at 100% ETc) and T1, T2 and T3 (50% ETc at phases I, II and III of fruit growth, respectively). Strategy T1 only delayed external maturation depending on the duration of the water stress. High water stress in T2 delayed fruit maturation, increased acidity and reduced the sugar concentration. Under T2, trees suffering moderate water stress showed increased flavonoid and phenolic contents but decreased lycopene levels. External maturation was delayed in T3 when severe stress occurred during the first part of phase III. Strategy T3 advanced internal ripening when moderate water stress occurred during the first 40 days of phase III, increasing sugar accumulation, promoted by the high acidity of the fruits. Moderate water stress also increased β-carotene, flavonoids and phenolics levels. PMID:25577088

  1. Laser labeling and its effect on the storage quality of citrus fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Etching the required information on the skins of fruits and vegetables is an alternative way to label produce. A low energy CO2 laser beam etches the outermost layer of the epidermis revealing the contrasting underneath layer while forming alphanumerical characters. These etched areas represent brea...

  2. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. PMID:27529064

  3. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee; Roh, Seong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. PMID:27529064

  4. Sensitive assay of hexythiazox residue in citrus fruits using gold nanoparticles-catalysed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Khajvand, Tahereh; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2015-04-15

    A new sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) procedure for the detection of hexythiazox (HXTZ) is presented, based on the quenching effect of the HXTZ in the luminol-H2O2 system using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a catalyst. The Box-Behnken design matrix and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied in designing the experiments for studying the interactive effects of the three most important variables pH, luminol, and H2O2 concentrations on the CL intensity of luminol catalysed by GNPs. Under the optimal conditions, the CL intensity was linear with HXTZ concentration in the range of 0.017-0.42 μg mL(-1), and the limit of detection (LoD) was 0.011 μg mL(-1). The procedure has been successfully applied to the detection of HXTZ residues in citrus fruits and water samples at trace levels. Mean recoveries obtained were between 84.0% and 95.3%, with a repeatability precision of <6%. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism of the inhibited CL intensity was discussed. PMID:25466053

  5. Effect of the citrus lycopene β-cyclase transgene on carotenoid metabolism in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Zhou, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiancheng; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene β-cyclase (LYCB) is the key enzyme for the synthesis of β-carotene, a valuable component of the human diet. In this study, tomato constitutively express Lycb-1 was engineered. The β-carotene level of transformant increased 4.1 fold, and the total carotenoid content increased by 30% in the fruits. In the transgenic line, the downstream α-branch metabolic fluxes were repressed during the three developmental stages while α-carotene content increased in the ripe stage. Microarray analysis in the ripe stage revealed that the constitutive expression of Lycb-1 affected a number of pathways including the synthesis of fatty acids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids, the degradation of limonene and pinene, starch and sucrose metabolism and photosynthesis. This study provided insight into the regulatory effect of Lycb-1 gene on plant carotenoid metabolism and fruit transcriptome. PMID:22384184

  6. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit. PMID:20184327

  7. A proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts isolated from sweet orange fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Ding, Yuduan; Zhu, Andan; Cao, Hongbo; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2011-11-01

    Here, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts purified from sweet orange using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation is reported. A GeLC-MS/MS shotgun approach was used to identify the proteins of pooled chromoplast samples. A total of 493 proteins were identified from purified chromoplasts, of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses. Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins, a large proportion (∼60%) of the chromoplast proteome of sweet orange is constituted by proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid/protein synthesis, and secondary metabolism. Of note, HDS (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase), PAP (plastid-lipid-associated protein), and psHSPs (plastid small heat shock proteins) involved in the synthesis or storage of carotenoid and stress response are among the most abundant proteins identified. A comparison of chromoplast proteomes between sweet orange and tomato suggested a high level of conservation in a broad range of metabolic pathways. However, the citrus chromoplast was characterized by more extensive carotenoid synthesis, extensive amino acid synthesis without nitrogen assimilation, and evidence for lipid metabolism concerning jasmonic acid synthesis. In conclusion, this study provides an insight into the major metabolic pathways as well as some unique characteristics of the sweet orange chromoplasts at the whole proteome level. PMID:21841170

  8. Integrated Management of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2012, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  9. The citrus flavonone naringenin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory pain and leukocyte recruitment by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Mizokami, Sandra S; Borghi, Sergio M; Bordignon, Juliano; Silva, Rangel L; Cunha, Thiago M; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major structural component of Gram-negative bacteria cell wall and a highly pro-inflammatory toxin. Naringenin is found in Citrus fruits and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of NF-κB activation but its effects in LPS-induced inflammatory pain and leukocyte recruitment were not investigated yet. We investigated the effects of naringenin in mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and leukocyte recruitment induced by intraplantar injection of LPS in mice. We found that naringenin reduced hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli, myeloperoxidase (MPO, a neutrophil and macrophage marker) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, a macrophage marker) activities, oxidative stress and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) production in the paw skin. In the peritoneal cavity, naringenin reduced neutrophil and mononuclear cell recruitment, and abrogated MPO and NAG activity, cytokine and superoxide anion production, and lipid peroxidation. In vitro, pre-treatment with naringenin inhibited superoxide anion and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) production by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Finally, we demonstrated that naringenin inhibited NF-κB activation in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, naringenin is a promising compound to treat LPS-induced inflammatory pain and leukocyte recruitment. PMID:27260463

  10. Cybrids between Dancy tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanca) and Ruby Red grapefruit (C. paradisi Mafc.) for improvement of citrus fruit traits [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cybridization, new combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes result in a unique genotype that may bring cellular, physical, physiological and biochemical changes to the plant. This has been demonstrated in cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplasts in two independent experiments....

  11. Structural characterization of the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from Citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the longstanding importance for the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase (TT-PME) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. We purified TT-PME from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)...

  12. Aluminum Toxicity-Induced Alterations of Leaf Proteome in Two Citrus Species Differing in Aluminum Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Guo, Peng; Lu, Yi-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of aluminum-tolerant 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) and Al-intolerant 'sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) were fertigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl₃·6H₂O. Al toxicity-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and the decrease of total soluble protein only occurred in C. grandis leaves, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al tolerance than C. grandis. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), we obtained more Al toxicity-responsive proteins from C. sinensis than from C. grandis leaves, which might be responsible for the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. The following aspects might contribute to the Al tolerance of C. sinensis: (a) better maintenance of photosynthesis and energy balance via inducing photosynthesis and energy-related proteins; (b) less increased requirement for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and other toxic compounds, such as aldehydes, and great improvement of the total ability of detoxification; and (c) upregulation of low-phosphorus-responsive proteins. Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to RNA regulation, protein metabolism, cellular transport and signal transduction might also play key roles in the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. We present the global picture of Al toxicity-induced alterations of protein profiles in citrus leaves, and identify some new Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to various biological processes. Our results provide some novel clues about plant Al tolerance. PMID:27455238

  13. Aluminum Toxicity-Induced Alterations of Leaf Proteome in Two Citrus Species Differing in Aluminum Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huan; Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Guo, Peng; Lu, Yi-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of aluminum-tolerant ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis) and Al-intolerant ‘sour pummelo’ (Citrus grandis) were fertigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl3·6H2O. Al toxicity-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and the decrease of total soluble protein only occurred in C. grandis leaves, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al tolerance than C. grandis. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), we obtained more Al toxicity-responsive proteins from C. sinensis than from C. grandis leaves, which might be responsible for the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. The following aspects might contribute to the Al tolerance of C. sinensis: (a) better maintenance of photosynthesis and energy balance via inducing photosynthesis and energy-related proteins; (b) less increased requirement for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and other toxic compounds, such as aldehydes, and great improvement of the total ability of detoxification; and (c) upregulation of low-phosphorus-responsive proteins. Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to RNA regulation, protein metabolism, cellular transport and signal transduction might also play key roles in the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. We present the global picture of Al toxicity-induced alterations of protein profiles in citrus leaves, and identify some new Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to various biological processes. Our results provide some novel clues about plant Al tolerance. PMID:27455238

  14. Proline derivatives in fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit): presence of N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine.

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

    2011-01-12

    The content of proline and various compounds deriving from its metabolism (4-hydroxy-L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline, N,N-dimethylproline, and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine) was determined in fruits and seeds of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), growing in the Calabria region (South Italy). A HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry method, which allowed rapid determination of L-proline, 4-hydroxy-L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline, N,N-dimethylproline, and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine in juice and extracts of bergamot fruit with minimum sample preparation and short analysis time (about 10 min), is presented. Proline and 4-hydroxy-L-proline levels in the samples were also determined by HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection and the results compared to those obtained with HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. For the first time, the presence of N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine in the fruits of a plant of the Citrus genus is reported. PMID:21128667

  15. Assessment of Toxic Effects of the Methanol Extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. Fruit via Biochemical and Hematological Evaluation in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Md. Rakib; Hasan, Md. Mahadi; Hossain, Md. Monir; Alam, Md. Robiul; Hasan, Mohammad Raquibul; Islam, A. F. M. Mahmudul; Rahman, Tasmina; Rana, Md. Sohel

    2014-01-01

    Citrus macroptera Montr. (C. macroptera) is locally known as Satkara. The fruit of this plant is used as appetite stimulant and in the treatment of fever. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of the fruit extract using some biochemical and hematological parameters in rat model. The effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit administered at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were investigated on hematological and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley female rats. Moreover, histopathological study was performed to observe the presence of pathological lesions in primary body organs. The extract presented no significant effect on body weight, percent water content, relative organ weight and hematological parameters in rat. Significant decrease from control group was observed in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein; thus leading to significant decrease of cardiac risk ratio, castelli's risk index-2, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma at all doses. 500 mg/kg dose significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05), 1000 mg/kg dose significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05) and 250 mg/kg dose significantly decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin (P<0.05) from the control group. There were no significant alterations observed with other serum biochemical parameters. Histopathological study confirmed the absence of inflammatory and necrotic features in the primary body organs. Study results indicate that methanolic fruit extract is unlikely to have significant toxicity. Moreover, these findings justified the cardio-protective, moderate hepato-protective and glucose controlling activities of the fruit extract. PMID:25369061

  16. Inhibitory effects of amines from Citrus reticulata on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, XIAN-MEI; CAO, ZHEN-DONG; XIAO, NA; SHEN, QI; LI, JIAN-XIN

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal lung disease for which, thus far, there are no effective treatments. The pericarp of Citrus reticulata, as a traditional herbal drug, has been used for the clinical treatment of lung-related diseases in China for many years. In the present study, the amines from the pericarp of Citrus reticulata were isolated, and their hydrochlorides were prepared. The results of screening using cultured human embryonic lung fibroblasts (hELFs) revealed that, of the amines, 4-methoxyphenethylamine hydrochloride (designated as amine hydrochloride 1) possessed the most potent inhibitory effect. Further in vivo experiments using a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated that the oral administration of amine hydrochloride 1 significantly lowered the hydroxyproline content in both serum and lung tissue, and alleviated pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that amine hydrochloride 1 exerted its inhibitory effect against IPF through the downregulation of lung transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 protein expression. Our results demonstrated that amine hydrochloride 1 prevented the development of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Thus, our data suggest that the amines from the pericarp of Citrus reticulata have therapeutic potential for use in the treatment of IPF. PMID:26675886

  17. LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination and Quantitation of Penicillin G and Its Metabolites in Citrus Fruits Affected by Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Aldeek, Fadi; Rosana, Michael R; Hamilton, Zaid K; Crosswhite, Mark R; Burrows, Casey W; Singh, Sonal; Gerard, Ghislain; Hammack, Walter; Cook, Jo-Marie

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we developed and validated a method for the extraction, identification, and quantitation of penicillin G and its metabolites (penilloic acid and penillic acid) in a variety of citrus fruits by employing sequential liquid/liquid and solid-phase extraction techniques in conjunction with UHPLC-MS/MS. Two product ion transitions per analyte were required for identification, which contributes to a high degree of selectivity. Corrected recoveries of penicillin G using an isotopically labeled internal standard were 90-100% at fortification levels of 0.1, 0.25, 1, and 10 ng/g. Absolute recoveries for penillic acid and penilloic acid were 50-75% depending on the matrix used. The limit of detection (LOD) of penicillin G and its metabolites was found to be 0.1 ng/g when 2 g of citrus was extracted. This method is useful in determining residue levels of penicillin G and its metabolites in citrus trees infected with huanglongbing bacteria after antibiotic treatment. PMID:26072945

  18. Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms of Radioprotective Effects of Naringenin, a Phytochemical from Citrus Fruits.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effects of naringenin in vivo using Swiss albino mice as a model system. Oral administration of 50 mg/kg body weight of naringenin for 7 days prior to radiation exposure protected mice against radiation-induced DNA, chromosomal and membrane damage. Naringenin pretreatment also increased the antioxidant status of irradiated mice. Multiple factors operating at cellular and molecular levels led to increased endogenous spleen colonies and survival of mice. Although naringenin induces apoptosis in cancer cells we found that it can protect against radiation-induced apoptosis in normal cells by modulating the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. The results from the present study indicate that naringenin inhibits the NF-kB pathway and down regulates radiation-induced apoptotic proteins resulting in radioprotection at the cellular, tissue and organism levels. PMID:26881453

  19. Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Cai-Yun; Song, Rui-Qin; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8) in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa, and they have high similarity to PhPH5, AtAHA10 or AtAHA2 (from 64.6 to 80.9%). They contain 13–21 exons and 12–20 introns and were evenly distributed into four subgroups of the P3A-subfamily (CsPH1, CsPH2, and CsPH3 in Group I, CsPH4 and CsPH5 in Group II, CsPH6 in Group IV, and CsPH7 and CsPH8 in Group III together with PhPH5). A transcript analysis showed that CsPH1, 3, and 4 were predominantly expressed in mature leaves, whereas CsPH2 and 7 were predominantly expressed in roots, CsPH5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in flowers, and CsPH8 was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS). Moreover, the CsPH transcript profiles differed between orange and pummelo, as well as between high-acid and low-acid cultivars. The low-acid orange “Honganliu” exhibits low transcript levels of CsPH3, CsPH4, CsPH5, and CsPH8, whereas the acid-free pummelo (AFP) has only a low transcript level of CsPH8. In addition, ABA injection increased the citrate content significantly, which was accompanied by the obvious induction of CsPH2, 6, 7, and 8 transcript levels. Taken together, we suggest that CsPH8 seems likely to regulate citrate accumulation in the citrus fruit vacuole. PMID:25806039

  20. Fruit-induced FPIES masquerading as hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Cotugno, Giovanna; Koch, Pierluigi; Dahdah, Lamia

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) symptoms develop at first introduction of fruit during weaning. We report on an infant with suspected HFI who presented with repeated episodes of vomiting and hypotension after ingestion of fruit-containing meals. The first episode occurred at age 4 months. Despite negative genetic testing for HFI, strict avoidance of fruit ingestion resulted in lack of recurrence of symptoms. Oral-fructose-tolerance testing conducted with an apple mousse did not determine hypoglycemia or fructosuria but caused severe hypotension. Allergy evaluations were negative, and the history was diagnostic for fruit-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Because this non-immunoglobulin E-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity manifests as profuse, repetitive vomiting, often with diarrhea, leading to acute dehydration and lethargy, it may be misinterpreted as HFI. We advise pediatricians to consider food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the differential diagnosis when there is a suspicion of HFI. PMID:25002667

  1. Effects of Olfactory Stimulation from the Fragrance of the Japanese Citrus Fruit Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) on Mood States and Salivary Chromogranin A as an Endocrinologic Stress Marker

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study investigated the soothing effects of fragrance from yuzu, a Japanese citrus fruit (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), with salivary chromogranin A (CgA) used as an endocrinologic stress marker reflecting sympathetic nervous system activity. Methods: Twenty healthy women (mean age, 20.5±0.1 years) participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Participants were examined on two separate occasions—once using the yuzu scent and once using unscented water as a control—in the follicular phase. This experiment measured salivary CgA and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as a psychological index before and after the aromatic stimulation. Results: Ten-minute inhalation of the yuzu scent significantly decreased salivary CgA. At 30 minutes after the inhalation period, the salivary CgA level further decreased. In addition, POMS revealed that inhalation of the aromatic yuzu oil significantly decreased total mood disturbance, a global measure of affective state, as well as four subscores of emotional symptoms (tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, anger–hostility, and confusion), as long as 30 minutes after the olfactory stimulation. Conclusions: Yuzu's aromatic effects may alleviate negative emotional stress, which, at least in part, would contribute to the suppression of sympathetic nervous system activity. PMID:24742226

  2. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution. PMID:26432805

  3. Phytophagous mite populations on Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia, under induced drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Quiros-Gonzalez, M

    2000-01-01

    In the north-western region of Venezuela, Phyllocoptruta oleivora, Tetranychus mexicanus and Brevipalpus phoenicis are common plant-feeding mites on leaves, fruits and branches of Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia. The population dynamics of these herbivores are affected by many factors, such as weekly treatments with wettable sulphur, particularly during the wet season, maintenance pruning of plants, irrigation with microsprinklers, induction of water stress by withholding irrigation and biotic and abiotic environmental factors. During October 1994-January 1995, 31 trees in a commercial orchard were sampled weekly in order to describe population fluctuations of plant-feeding mites (mean number of mites per leaf or fruit), before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) a period of 6 weeks of drought stress (no irrigation). The population density of P. oleivora increased progressively during the last 3 weeks of the irrigation period and reached a maximum of 24 mites per fruit. In contrast, the populations of the other two species, T. mexicanus and B. phoenicis, remained at the same low density as before the withholding-irrigation period. After 6 weeks without irrigation, only T. mexicanus increased, to a high mean value of 11 mites per leaf. The withholding-irrigation practice appears to affect the population size of P. oleivora towards the end of this period and that of T. mexicanus at the beginning of the re-establishment of the water supply. The highest proportion of trees (32%) was infested by T. mexicanus after the withholding-irrigation period, when irrigation was resumed, whereas the highest levels of infestation of trees by P. oleivora and B. phoenicis were 16 and 10%, respectively, during the last week of the water-stress period. Although factors affecting the dynamics of the mites in the orchard are likely to be complex, irrigation management apparently plays an important role. PMID:11354617

  4. Partial Cold Treatment of Citrus Fruit for Export Risk Mitigation for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as Part of a Systems Approach.

    PubMed

    Moore, S D; Kirkman, W; Albertyn, S; Love, C N; Coetzee, J A; Hattingh, V

    2016-08-01

    Some of South Africa's citrus export markets require mandatory postharvest cold treatment of citrus fruit as a phytosanitary risk mitigation treatment for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). An alternative to this may be partial cold treatment as one of the final steps in a systems approach to mitigate phytosanitary risk. Consequently, the efficacy of such partial cold treatments was evaluated. It was first determined that a 2°C cold treatment was significantly more effective against fourth and fifth instars (the most cold-tolerant instars) than treatments at 3°C and 4°C for a duration of 18 d. Secondly, it was determined that 2°C for 18 d and 1°C for 16 d were similarly effective, but both treatments were significantly more effective than 1°C for 14 d. Mean mortality of fourth and fifth instars treated with 2°C for 18 d in seven replicates from four trials was 99.94%. Finally, it was determined that the inability of the majority of surviving larvae to develop to adulthood would further increase the efficacy of a 2°C for 18 d treatment to 99.96%. Inclusion of reproductive nonviability of survivors increased mortality to 99.99%. PMID:27341886

  5. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  6. Rapid screening of huanglongbing-infected citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus disease Haunglongbing (HLB or citrus greening), is one of the more serious diseases of citrus. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees suspected of infection by citrus greening pathogens is...

  7. Anti-amnesic activity of Citrus aurantium flowers extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Samira; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra; Mokhtari, Shiva; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Deris, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that mostly affects the elderly population. Learning and memory impairment as the most characteristic manifestation of dementia could be induced chemically by scopolamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Cholinergic neurotransmission mediated brain oxidative stress. Citrus aurantium (CA) has traditionally been used for the treatment of insomnia, anxiety and epilepsy. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Citrus aurantium on scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficit in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were divided into six equal groups. (1) Control (received saline), (2) SCOP (scopolamine at a dose of 1 mg/kg for 15 days), (3) and (4) SCOP + CA (scopolamine and CA extract at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg per day for 15 days), (5) and (6) intact groups (CA extract at 300 and 600 mg/kg per day for 15 days, respectively). Administration of CA flower extract significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test and also reduced escape latency during trial sessions in the Morris water maze test. Citrus aurantium flower extract significantly decreased the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Citrus aurantium flower extract has repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of AD. PMID:25367404

  8. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  9. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment. PMID:25120169

  10. Ethylene-induced differential gene expression during abscission of citrus leaves

    PubMed Central

    Merelo, Paz; Cercós, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Talón, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to identify and classify genes involved in the process of leaf abscission in Clementina de Nules (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan.). A 7 K unigene citrus cDNA microarray containing 12 K spots was used to characterize the transcriptome of the ethylene-induced abscission process in laminar abscission zone-enriched tissues and the petiole of debladed leaf explants. In these conditions, ethylene induced 100% leaf explant abscission in 72 h while, in air-treated samples, the abscission period started later and took 240 h. Gene expression monitored during the first 36 h of ethylene treatment showed that out of the 12 672 cDNA microarray probes, ethylene differentially induced 725 probes distributed as follows: 216 (29.8%) probes in the laminar abscission zone and 509 (70.2%) in the petiole. Functional MIPS classification and manual annotation of differentially expressed genes highlighted key processes regulating the activation and progress of the cell separation that brings about abscission. These included cell-wall modification, lipid transport, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and differential activation of signal transduction and transcription control pathways. Expression data associated with the petiole indicated the occurrence of a double defensive strategy mediated by the activation of a biochemical programme including scavenging ROS, defence and PR genes, and a physical response mostly based on lignin biosynthesis and deposition. This work identifies new genes probably involved in the onset and development of the leaf abscission process and suggests a different but co-ordinated and complementary role for the laminar abscission zone and the petiole during the process of abscission. PMID:18515267