Science.gov

Sample records for city central vietnam

  1. Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

  2. Aristolochia quangbinhensis (Aristolochiaceae), a new species from Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Do, Truong Van; Nghiem, Trong Duc; Wanke, Stefan; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aristolochia quangbinhensis T.V. Do, a new species from Central Vietnam, is described and illustrated. According to morphology, the species belongs to Aristolochia subgenus Isotrema. A detailed description, along with line drawings, photographs, ecology, distribution, conservation status as well as a comparison to morphologically similar species is provided. PMID:24526848

  3. Serological evidence of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Ngoc, Thanh Cao; Quoc Huy, Nguyen Vu; Chuong, Tran Xuan; Le Van, An; Saijo, Masayuki; Yang, Ming; Sugamata, Masami

    2015-12-01

    Pteropine orthoreovirus, potentially of bat origin, has been reported to cause respiratory tract infections among human beings in Southeast Asia. Twelve IgG ELISA-positive cases with antibodies against Pteropine orthoreovirus were detected among 272 human serum samples collected between March and June 2014 from in and around Hue City, Central Vietnam. These 12 cases were IgM ELISA negative. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected among six of these cases with the highest titer of 1:1,280 in 2 cases (both female, 32 and 68 years old, respectively). This is the first report of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam. These findings indicate the need for surveillance on Pteropine orthoreovirus infections in Southeast Asia to enable prevention and control strategies to be developed should a change in virulence occur. PMID:26010233

  4. Confirmed Plasmodium vivax Resistance to Chloroquine in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Van, Nguyen Van; Louisa, Melva; Baird, Kevin; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Hung, Le Xuan; Duong, Tran Thanh; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Speybroeck, Niko; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) is currently reported in almost all countries where P. vivax is endemic. In Vietnam, despite a first report on P. vivax resistance to chloroquine published in the early 2000s, P. vivax was still considered sensitive to CQ. Between May 2009 and December 2011, a 2-year cohort study was conducted in central Vietnam to assess the recommended radical cure regimen based on a 10-day course of primaquine (0.5 mg/kg/day) together with 3 days of CQ (25 mg/kg). Here we report the results of the first 28-day follow-up estimating the cumulative risk of P. vivax recurrences together with the corresponding CQ blood concentrations, among other endpoints. Out of 260 recruited P. vivax patients, 240 completed treatment and were followed up to day 28 according to the WHO guidelines. Eight patients (3.45%) had a recurrent P. vivax infection, at day 14 (n = 2), day 21 (n = 1), and day 28 (n = 5). Chloroquine blood concentrations, available for 3/8 recurrent infections (days 14, 21, and 28), were above the MIC (>100 ng/ml whole blood) in all of these cases. Fever and parasitemia (both sexual and asexual stages) were cleared by day 3. Anemia was common at day 0 (35.8%), especially in children under 10 years (50%), and hemoglobin (Hb) recovery at day 28 was substantial among anemic patients (median change from day 0 to 28, +1.7 g/dl; interquartile range [IQR], +0.7 to +3.2). This report, based on CQ blood levels measured at the time of recurrences, confirms for the first time P. vivax CQ resistance in central Vietnam and calls for further studies using standardized protocols for accurately monitoring the extent and evolution of P. vivax resistance to chloroquine in Vietnam. These results, together with the mounting evidence of artemisinin resistance in central Vietnam, further highlight the increasing threat of antimalarial drug resistance to malaria elimination in Vietnam. PMID:26392501

  5. Mantle Xenoliths from Central and South Vietnam: Petrology and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauzenberger, Christoph; Konzett, Juergen; Nguyen, Hoang; Nguyen, Khoi

    2014-05-01

    Mantle xenoliths, spinel lherzolites and subordinate amounts of spinel harzburgites and pyroxenites, are commonly found in alkali basalts from south-central Vietnam. The basalts are part of widespread Neogene volcanism found in southern China and Indochina regions. Samples from different localities between the cities of Ban Me Thuot and Saigon were recovered. In addition one xenolith sample from an off-shore volcano SE of Ho Chi Minh City in the South China Sea was investigated. The mineral assemblage in most samples consists of the simple lherzolitic mineral assemblage Ol-Opx-Cpx-Sp. The Ol, Cpx and Opx crystals are equigranular while Sp occurs usually as smaller sized intersertal phase or as partly oriented inclusions in Cpx. Cpx II occurs in some samples as recrystallized "spongy rim" around Cpx I. Cpx I has a a very uniform composition between different samples with a typical XMg (=Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) of 0.92 to 0.98, a XNa (=Na/(Na+Ca) of 0.10 to 0.16, a Cr2O3 content of 0.6-0.9 wt. .% and Al2O3 values of c. 6 to 8 wt.%. Cpx II has a lower XNa and Al content as well as higher XMg and Cr content compared to Cpx I. Orthopyroxene typically has a XMg of c. 0.90 to 0.93. The XMg values for Ol differ slightly between different samples but are within 0.84 to 0.94. Spinel grains have a variable composition with XMg from 0.65 to 0.92 and XCr (Cr/Cr+Al+Fe3+) of 0.08 to 0.25. The use of the Cpx-Opx thermometer (BREY & KOEHLER, 1990) and the Al and Cr in Ol thermometer (DE HOOG et al., 2010) allowed to constrain the temperature with 800 to 1100 °C. Trace and rare earth element composition of Cpx was determined by LA-ICPMS. While most Cpx compositions are slightly depleted in LREE, typical for average depleted mantle compositions, some samples are strongly enriched in LREE indicating mantle metasomatic processes. The sample displaying the highest level of LREE enrichment in Cpx has the lowest calculated temperature (T = c. 800°C) and the highest Ni content in olivine (3000 ppm

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of a municipal solid waste collection service for citizens of Hanoi City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Governments of municipalities in Vietnam experiencing dynamic economic growth and dramatic population increases have been struggling to manage increased amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the current MSW collection service for citizens of the four central districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, by conducting interviews with 200 households and 200 business entities regarding their satisfaction with the service. The survey results showed that Hanoi city provides an economical collection service with sufficient frequency and at appropriate times for citizens. However, a number of citizens complained about unsanitary conditions in the area surrounding their residence. Business entities had sufficient motivation to sell recyclable waste (RW) to the informal sector, not only to derive revenue from selling RW, but also to reduce the amount of MSW generated, thus reducing the MSW collection fee. Households were not motivated to reduce MSW by selling RW to the informal sector because they paid a fixed collection fee. As a result, an improvement in living standards in the near future is expected to contribute to increasing the amount of MSW generated from households. PMID:23315363

  7. Linkages between precipitation and discharge trends in Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souvignet, Maxime; Freer, Jim; Cloke, Hannah; Laux, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Trend detection in precipitation and river discharge datasets can provide important insights into the impacts of climatic variability and change. Regions with poor observed hydrometeorological data coverage, often coincident with developing countries, are particularly prone to affects of changes in rainfall and temperature. In such regions, e.g. Central Vietnam, which are frequently affected by floods and droughts, knowledge about climate trends and their evolution over time is essential to project potential impacts on local water availability, agricultural productivity and risk analysis. Consequently, the quantification of the impact of global climate change in poorly gauged regions is of crucial importance for stakeholders and policy makers. In this study, we analyse change in rainfall, temperature and river discharge over the last three decades in Central Vietnam. To overcome the limited data availability, the high resolution APHRODITE gridded dataset is used in addition to the existing rain gauges network. Finally, linkages between discharge changes and trends in rainfall and temperature are explored. Results are indicative of an intensification of rainfall (+15%/decade), with more extreme and longer events. A significant increase in winter rainfall and a decrease in consecutive dry days provides strong evidence for a lengthening wet season in Central Vietnam. In addition, trends based on APHRODITE suggest a strong orographic signal in winter and annual trends. These results underline the local variability in the impacts of climatic change at the global scale. Consequently, it is important that change detection investigations are conducted at the local scale. A very weak signal is detected in the trend of minimum temperature (+0.2°C/decade). River discharge trends show an increase in mean discharge (31% to 35%/decade) over the last decades. Between 54 and 74% of this increase is explained by the increase in precipitation. The maximum discharge also responds

  8. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Vietnam, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  9. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  10. Vietnam.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    Attention in this discussion of Vietnam is directed to the following: people; geography; history; government; the economy (agriculture and industry, trade and balance of payments); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Vietnam. In mid-1983 the population was estimated at 57,610,000 with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. Ethnic Vietnamese constitute almost 90% of the population. Various ethnic groups make up the remaining 10% of the population, with approximately 1.2 million Chinese being the most numerous and concentrated in southern Vietnam. The 2nd largest minority, the Montagnards (mountain tribesmen) comprise 2 main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo Polynesia and Mon-Khmer. The most important political institution in Vietnam is the Vietnamese Communisty Party. All but 4 party Politburo members concurrently hold high positions in the government. The most important powers within the Vietnamese government, as opposed to the Communisty Party, are the executive agencies. Under the overly ambitious initial 5 year plan and the more conservative 1981-85 plan, the Vietnamese have made little progress in raising output and living standards beyond the levels of the 1960s. Guidelines of the 1981-85 plan call for attaining food self sufficiency, strengthening export and consumer industries, as well as the heavy industries that support them, and improving transport and energy production. The US does not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam. PMID:12178076

  11. Vietnam to Central America: A Case of Educational Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe; Staley, George

    1983-01-01

    Vietnam and El Salvador can serve as models depicting the failure of American education to teach students to critically and objectively examine a current event. Only a decade after the Vietnam debacle, public schools are once again equating critical inquiry into the formulation of American foreign policy with anti-Americanism. (RM)

  12. The Policy Cycle and Vernacular Globalization: A Case Study of the Creation of Vietnam National University--Hochiminh City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minh Ngo, Thanh; Lingard, Bob; Mitchell, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the policy cycle and vernacular globalization in the context of higher education reform in Vietnam. Through an analysis of the development of the Vietnam National University--Hochiminh City as part of the post-1986 reconstruction of Vietnamese higher education, the article considers the complex interrelationship between…

  13. A fluvial and pluvial probabilistic flood hazard analysis for Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martinez, Oriol; Thi Chinh, Do; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2014-05-01

    Can Tho city is the largest city and the economic heart of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Due to its economic importance and envisaged development goals the city grew rapidly in population size and extend over the last two decades. Large parts of the city are located in flood prone areas, and also the central parts of the city recently experienced an increasing number of flood events, both of fluvial and pluvial nature. As the economic power and asset values are constantly increasing, this poses a considerable risk for the city. The the aim of this study is to perform a flood hazard analysis considering both fluvial and pluvial floods and to derive probabilistic flood hazard maps. This requires in a first step an understanding of the typical flood mechanisms. Fluvial floods are triggered by a coincidence of high water levels during the annual flood period in the Mekong Delta with high tidal levels, which cause in combination short term inundations in Can Tho. Pluvial floods are triggered by typical tropical convective rain storms during the monsoon season. These two flood pathways are essentially independent in its sources and can thus be treated in the hazard analysis accordingly. For the fluvial hazard analysis we propose a bivariate frequency analysis of the Mekong flood characteristics, the annual maximum flood discharge Q and the annual flood volume V at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta, the gauging station Kratie. This defines probabilities of exceedance of different Q-V pairs, which are transferred into synthetic flood hydrographs. The synthetic hydrographs are routed through a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mekong Delta in order to provide boundary conditions for a detailed hazard mapping of Can Tho. This downscaling step is necessary, because the huge complexity of the river and channel network does not allow for a proper definition of boundary conditions for Can Tho city by gauge data alone. In addition the available gauge data around Can Tho

  14. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots. PMID:20623031

  15. Circulation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Pigs and Mosquito Vectors within Can Tho City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Johanna F.; Ståhl, Karl; Chirico, Jan; Boqvist, Sofia; Thu, Ho Thi Viet; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in pigs. JEV is present in large parts of Asia, where urbanization is high. Households within and outside Can Tho city, South Vietnam, were selected to monitor circulation of JEV. A nested RT-PCR was established to detect the presence of JEV in mosquitoes whereas sera from pigs belonging to households within the province were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to JEV. A total of 7885 mosquitoes were collected and divided into 352 pools whereof seven were JEV-positive, six of which were collected within the city. Fragments from four pools clustered with JEV genotype III and three with genotype I. Of the 43 pigs sampled inside the city 100% had JEV antibodies. Our study demonstrates exposure to JEV in pigs, and co-circulation of JEV genotype I and III in mosquitoes within an urban environment in South Vietnam. Thus, although JEV has mainly been considered a rural disease, the potential for transmission in urban areas cannot be ignored. PMID:23593520

  16. The legacy of Agent Orange: empirical evidence from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    This paper seeks to provide a socio-economic impact assessment for Vietnamese victims of the principal US military herbicide, Agent Orange, used during the Vietnam War in the period 1961-71. The study is based on a field survey of 30 affected and 30 unaffected households in Quang Tri province. With this assessment, the paper attempts to address the broader issues of compensation currently available to victims. The coverage and composition of current benefits are deemed inadequate as an effective redress. In view of this, revision of current compensation, the mobilization of an international donor fund and spurred non-governmental support is strongly recommended. PMID:15589674

  17. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2014-05-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

  18. Characterization of mangrove species using ALOS-2 PALSAR in Hai Phong city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat Pham, Tien; Yoshino, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Hai Phong city is located in the Northern coast of Vietnam where the mangroves are distributed between zone I and zone II among the four mangrove zones in Vietnam. This city is vulnerable to rising sea levels associated with climate change and tropical cyclones, which are forecasted to become more severe due to the impact of climate change. In the past, mangrove forests in this city have decreased markedly because of over expansion of shrimp farming. Thus, identification of mangrove forests is important to monitor and support mangrove conservation and management in the coastal zone. The objectives of this research were to identify the locations of mangrove and characterize mangrove species in Hai Phong using HH and HV backscatters of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) with enhanced Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Image segmentation was used to identify the locations of mangrove forests. Moreover, Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to update current status of mangrove species in 2015. The results showed that the means of HH and HV backscatter coefficients of K. obovata are lower than S. caseolaris. K. obovata has HH value around -13.9 dB until -10.3 dB and HV value around -20.6 dB until -16.2 dB. Higher HH values between about -14.9 dB and -6.8 dB and HV values between roughly -20.6 dB and -14.3 dB have observed by S. caseolaris. The total area of mangrove forest in Hai Phong in the year 2015 was around 4084 hectares, of which S. caseolaris occupied over 68% and mixed mangrove species was approximately 25.6%. This research indicates the potential for the use of L-band ALOS-2 PALSAR in characterizing mangrove forest species in the coastal zone.

  19. Epidemiological urinalysis of children from kindergartens of Can Gio, Ho Chi Minh City - Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies on Vietnamese children have shown that kidney diseases are not detected early enough to prevent chronic renal failure. The dipstick test is a simple and useful tool for detecting urinary abnormalities, especially in isolated or remote areas of Vietnam, where children have limited access to health care. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 at seven kindergartens in Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Two thousand and twelve children, aged 3 to 5, were enrolled. Morning mid-stream urine samples were examined by dipstick. Children with abnormal findings were re-examined with a second dipstick and underwent further investigations. Results Urinalysis was available for 1,032 boys and 980 girls. Mean age was 4.4 ± 0.8 years. Urinary abnormalities were detected in 108 (5.5%) of the subjects. Among them, nitrituria and leucocyturia accounted for more than 50%. Positive fractions of proteinuria, hematuria, nitrituria, leucocyturia, and combined nitrituria and leucocyturia after two dipsticks were 0.1%, 0.1%, 2%, 1% and 0.3%, respectively. Abnormal findings were more common in girls than boys (p < 0.001), and higher in communes with very low (< 50 persons/km2) population density (14.3% vs 4.1%, p < 0.001). A renal ultrasound detected four cases of hydronephrosis and one case of duplication of ureter. Conclusions The prevalence of urinary abnormalities in asymptomatic children in South Vietnam demonstrates the need for hygiene education among parents. Training for dipstick usage for all medical staff at health stations, especially in remote areas and in places with very low population density, is also clearly necessary. Routine urinalysis can be set up if a close control is conducted at locations. PMID:24206763

  20. Food as a source of dioxin exposure in the residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Quynh, Hoang Trong; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Malisch, Rainer; Constable, John D

    2003-08-01

    Recently, elevated dioxin levels, over 5 parts per trillion (ppt) 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), from Agent Orange was reported in 95% of 43 selected residents of Bien Hoa City, a city in southern Vietnam near a former air base used for Agent Orange-spraying missions. Agent Orange herbicide, contaminated with TCDD, was sprayed in Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 primarily for use as a defoliant. Typical blood TCCD levels are 2 ppt in Vietnamese, but levels are as high as 413 ppt in Bien Hoa City. Elevated TCDD was found in children born many years after Agent Orange spraying ended and in immigrants from non-Agent Orange-sprayed parts of Vietnam, which documented new exposures. Extremely elevated soil TCDD samples, over 1 million ppt, and elevated TCDD in sediment were found in some nearby areas such as Bien Hung Lake. The primary route of intake of almost all dioxins in humans is food. However, in our prior studies in Bien Hoa, food was unavailable for dioxin analysis so the route of intake was not confirmed. In the 1970s, while Agent Orange was still being sprayed, elevated human milk TCDD levels as high as 1850 were detected in milk from Vietnamese people living in Agent Orange-sprayed areas where consumption of fish was high. Furthermore, also in the 1970s, elevated TCDD levels (up to 810 ppt) were found in fish and shrimp from the same area as the milk donors. In the 1980s, we found elevated TCDD and also other organohalogen levels in human tissue, pork, fish, a turtle, and a snake in Southern Vietnam. For these reasons, we recently collected food from Bien Hoa and analyzed it for dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and other organochlorines. We found marked elevation of TCDD, the dioxin characteristic of Agent Orange, in some of the food products, including ducks with 276 ppt and 331 ppt wet weight, chickens from 0.031-15 ppt wet weight, fish from 0.063-65 ppt wet weight, and a toad with 56 ppt wet weight. Usual TCDD

  1. Application of the Water Needs Index: Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moglia, Magnus; Neumann, Luis E.; Alexander, Kim S.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Sharma, Ashok K.; Cook, Stephen; Trung, Nguyen H.; Tuan, Dinh D. A.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryProvision of urban water supplies to rapidly growing cities of South East Asia is difficult because of increasing demand for limited water supplies, periodic droughts, and depletion and contamination of surface and groundwater. In such adverse environments, effective policy and planning processes are required to secure adequate water supplies. Developing a Water Needs Index reveals key elements of the complex urban water supply by means of a participatory approach for rapid and interdisciplinary assessment. The index uses deliberative interactions with stakeholders to create opportunities for mutual understanding, confirmation of constructs and capacity building of all involved. In Can Tho City, located at the heart of the Mekong delta in Vietnam, a Water Needs Index has been developed with local stakeholders. The functional attributes of the Water Needs Index at this urban scale have been critically appraised. Systemic water issues, supply problems, health issues and inadequate, poorly functioning infrastructure requiring attention from local authorities have been identified. Entrenched social and economic inequities in access to water and sanitation, as well as polluting environmental management practices has caused widespread problems for urban populations. The framework provides a common language based on systems thinking, increased cross-sectoral communication, as well as increased recognition of problem issues; this ought to lead to improved urban water management. Importantly, the case study shows that the approach can help to overcome biases of local planners based on their limited experience (information black spots), to allow them to address problems experienced in all areas of the city.

  2. Decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam modulated by the East Pacific-North Pacific (EP-NP) teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Truong, L. H.; Cho, C.

    2015-02-01

    Autumn precipitation over Central Vietnam is associated with an increase in the occurrence of tropical cyclones that lead to frequent flooding and pose a significant threat to lives and property. The present analyses reveal a pronounced decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam within the 8-11 year frequency band that is modulated by the East Pacific-North Pacific (EP-NP) teleconnection. The negative phase of the EP-NP pattern is associated with a positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the South China Sea (SCS) that induces low-level convergence, enhances convection, and increases precipitation over Central Vietnam and adjacent islands including Hainan (China) and the Philippines. This circulation feature around the SCS is embedded in a large-scale circulation associated with SST anomalies across the Pacific Ocean—i.e., cooling in the Eastern and Central tropical Pacific sandwiched by warming in the North and South Pacific as well as the Western Pacific Ocean. The positive phase of the EP-NP features opposite SST and circulation anomalies, with the result being reduced rainfall in Central Vietnam. This out-of-phase relationship and shared decadal spectral coherence between the EP-NP index and autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam might be useful for future climate predictions and flood management.

  3. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in Four Rural Communities in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Thanh, Pham Vinh; Van den Eede, Peter; Guetens, Pieter; Binh, Nguyen Thi Huong; Phuc, Bui Quang; Duong, Tran Thanh; Van Geertruyden, Jean Pierre; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of malaria in Vietnam has drastically reduced, prompting the National Malaria Control Program to officially engage in elimination efforts. Plasmodium vivax is becoming increasingly prevalent, remaining a major problem in the country's central and southern provinces. A better understanding of P. vivax genetic diversity and structure of local parasite populations will provide baseline data for the evaluation and improvement of current efforts for control and elimination. The aim of this study was to examine the population genetics and structure of P. vivax isolates from four communities in Tra Leng commune, Nam Tra My district in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax mono infections collected from 234 individuals between April 2009 and December 2010 were successfully analyzed using a panel of 14 microsatellite markers. Isolates displayed moderate genetic diversity (He = 0.68), with no significant differences between study communities. Polyclonal infections were frequent (71.4%) with a mean multiplicity of infection of 1.91 isolates/person. Low but significant genetic differentiation (FST value from -0.05 to 0.18) was observed between the community across the river and the other communities. Strong linkage disequilibrium (IAS = 0.113, p < 0.001) was detected across all communities, suggesting gene flow within and among them. Using multiple approaches, 101 haplotypes were grouped into two genetic clusters, while 60.4% of haplotypes were admixed. Conclusions/Significance In this area of Central Vietnam, where malaria transmission has decreased significantly over the past decade, there was moderate genetic diversity and high occurrence of polyclonal infections. Local human populations have frequent social and economic interactions that facilitate gene flow and inbreeding among parasite populations, while decreasing population structure. Findings provide important information on parasites populations circulating in the

  4. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided. PMID:27489493

  5. Air pollution and risk of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations in the most populous city in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Hien, To Thi; Linh, Ho Nhut; Luong, Ly M T; Morawska, Lidia; Chu, Cordia; Binh, Nguyen Duy; Thai, Phong K

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution has become an alarming issue in Vietnam recently; however, there was only one study so far on the effects of ambient air pollution on population health. Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of air pollutants including PM10, NO2, SO2, and O3 on respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the largest city in Vietnam. Data on hospitalization from the two largest hospitals in HCMC and daily records of PM10, NO2, SO2, O3 and meteorological data were collected from February 2004 to December 2007. A time-series regression analysis with distributed lag model was applied for data analysis. Changes in levels of NO2 and PM10 were strongly associated with hospital admissions for both respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (CVD); whereas levels of SO2 were only moderately associated with respiratory and CVD hospital admissions and O3 concentration was not associated with any of them. For a 10μg/m(3) increase of each air pollutant, the risk of respiratory admissions increased from 0.7% to 8% while the risk of CVD admissions increased from 0.5% to 4%. Females were found to be more sensitive than males to exposure to air pollutants in regard to respiratory diseases. In regard to CVD, females (RR, 1.04, 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) had a slightly higher risk of admissions than males (RR, 1.03, 95% CI, 1-1.06) to exposure to NO2. In contrast, males (RR, 1.007, 95%CI, 1-1.01) had a higher risk of admission than females (RR, 1.004, 95%CI, 1.001-1.007) to exposure to PM10. People in the age group of 5-65year-olds had a slightly higher risk of admissions caused by air pollutants than the elderly (65+years old) except for a significant effect of PM10 on the risk of cardiovascular admissions was found for the elderly only. PMID:27016680

  6. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2011-12-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, and also to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) climate change-driven sea-level rise and tidal effect, (ii) increase river runoff due to climate change, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven micro-climatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to assess the future impact of the combination of these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land-use simulation model (Dinamica-EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land-surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood risk resulting from the changes. The results show that, if the city develops as predicted, the maximum of inundation depth and area in Can Tho will increase by about 20%. The impact of climate change on inundation is more serious than that of urbanization. The worse case may occur if the sea level rises 100 cm and the flow from

  7. [Evaluation of malaria vector control measures in central Vietnam (1976-1991)].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T V; Bui, D B; Mai, V S; Ta, V T; Nguyen, T Q; Tan, N; Nguyen, T

    1996-01-01

    Activities used to control malaria transmission in the pilot station of Vanh Canh in the Binh Dinh Province of central Vietnam from 1976 to 1991 have been evaluated. These activities were: spraying DDT in and around the houses in the villages and the settlements in the fields; spraying lambdacyalothrin in the houses; and use of bed-nets impregnated with permethrin. Their efficacy was measured by the number of fever episodes due to malaria infections among the population. The spraying of DDT in the houses was followed by a reduction of malaria infection by more than 90%. However, spraying of the settlements was not advantageous. The termination of DDT spraying was not followed by an increase of malaria infections. Spraying with lambdacyalothrin was slightly more effective than with pyrimiphos and DDT. The use of pesticide-impregnated bed-nets was efficient, especially in the villages far away from the forest. Thus, these activities can contribute to the control of the malaria endemic in central Vietnam. PMID:8705136

  8. Prevalence of Fasciola in cattle and of its intermediate host Lymnaea snails in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Van Nguyen, Thoai; Huynh, Vu Vy; Le, Duc Quyet; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of natural Fasciola infections in both the definitive hosts (cattle) and the intermediate hosts (Lymnaea snails) in central Vietnam. A total of 1,075 fecal samples, randomly collected from cattle in Binh Dinh, Khanh Hoa, and Phu Yen provinces, were examined for Fasciola eggs by a sedimentation method. The overall prevalence of Fasciola was 45.3 %. A subset of the animals (235) was also screened for antibodies against Fasciola by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 46.3 % of these animals were shedding Fasciola eggs while 87.2 % were Fasciola seropositive. A lower prevalence of Fasciola was observed in calves ≤ 2 years of age (37.6 %) compared to that in cattle >2 years of age (53.7 %) (p < 0.05). The prevalence in the rainy season (50.8 %) was significantly different to that in the dry season (38.1 %) (p < 0.05). Of the 3.269 Lymnaea viridis and 1.128 Lymnaea swinhoei examined, 31 (0.95 %) and seven (0.62 %), respectively, were found to be infected with Fasciola. This appears to be the first epidemiological survey of the prevalence of Fasciola in cattle and snails in these three provinces in central Vietnam. PMID:22549769

  9. The effects of high temperature on cardiovascular admissions in the most populous tropical city in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Guo, Yuming; Thai, Phong; Rutherford, Shannon; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Alam, Noore; Chu, Cordia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of temperature on cardiovascular hospital admissions (CHA) in the largest tropical city in Southern Vietnam. We applied Poisson time-series regression models with Distributed Lag Non-Linear Model (DLNM) to examine the temperature-CHA association while adjusting for seasonal and long-term trends, day of the week, holidays, and humidity. The threshold temperature and added effects of heat waves were also evaluated. The exposure-response curve of temperature-CHA reveals a J-shape relationship with a threshold temperature of 29.6 °C. The delayed effects temperature-CHA lasted for a week (0-5 days). The overall risk of CHA increased 12.9% (RR, 1.129; 95%CI, 0.972-1.311) during heatwave events, which were defined as temperature ≥ the 99th percentile for ≥2 consecutive days. The modification roles of gender and age were inconsistent and non-significant in this study. An additional prevention program that reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in relation to high temperatures should be developed. PMID:26092390

  10. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2013-01-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium oocysts shedding in pigs in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Honma, Hajime; Geurden, Thomas; Ikarash, Makoto; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Huynh, Vu Vy; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium oocysts shedding in pigs in Central Vietnam. A total of 740 single fecal samples collected from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs on 89 farms were screened by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Prevalence at the animal and the farm levels were 18.1% (134/740) and 71.9% (64/89), respectively. Risk factors for the infection were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results revealed that age, sanitary condition and topography were significantly associated with oocyst shedding (P<0.05). Pre-weaned piglets were at the highest risk for infection, followed by post-weaners, sows and finishing pigs. Good sanitary conditions showed positive effects in decreasing oocysts shedding. Topographically, Cryptosporidium was more common in mountainous zone than that in coastal delta zone. There was an association between the occurrence of diarrhea and the level of Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion within infected pigs. This is the first epidemiological investigation of prevalence and risk factors of Cryptosporidium in pigs in Vietnam. PMID:22342125

  12. Bovine fasciolosis in the human fasciolosis hyperendemic Binh Dinh province in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T G T; Le, T H; Dao, T H T; Tran, T L H; Praet, N; Speybroeck, N; Vercruysse, J; Dorny, P

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on bovine fasciolosis was conducted in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam that was previously identified as hyperendemic for human fasciolosis. In Vietnam, both pure Fasciola gigantica and hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liverflukes bearing genetic material from both Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica infect humans and animals. In this study, 825 cattle were randomly selected from 8 of the 11 provincial districts for faecal collection; blood samples were taken from 400 of these animals. Fasciola eggs and antibodies against Fasciola were detected by a quantitative sedimentation method and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, respectively. Overall, 54.9% of the animals were shedding Fasciola eggs while 72.2% were Fasciola seropositive. Animals under two years showed lower Fasciola infection rates than older animals. There were no differences in infection rates between districts. These results indicate a very high prevalence of Fasciola infections in cattle in Binh Dinh province. It is concluded that a fasciolosis control programme should be designed in this region aiming at reducing infection in both cattle and humans. PMID:20920452

  13. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  14. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H. ); Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  15. Clinical features of HIV/AIDS patients presenting to an inner city clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Nguyen, Hao Cong; Van Pham, Tam; Nguyen, Liem Thanh; Ngo, Dong Thi Anh; Vu, Son Nhoc

    2007-07-01

    An outpatient HIV clinic was opened in March 2005 in Binh Thanh District, a poor section of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Over 1500 patients were seen in the first year. The average age of patients was 27 years. Men represented 77% of the clinic population, women, 23% and children under the age of 16 years of age, 5% of the population. The most common risk factor among men was being an injecting drug user (IDU), 76%, and among women, being married to an IDU HIV-positive man, 35%. Physical signs of disease were uncommon: lymphadenopathy in 24% and hepatomegaly and splenomegaly in 4% and 3%, respectively. Men and women were anaemic at presentation, with a mean haemoglobin of 11.9 g/dL and 11.1 g/dL, respectively. An overwhelming majority of patients had profound immunodeficiency. The mean CD4+ cell count was 164 cells/mL and the median was 69 cells/mL. No correlation was found between the World Health Organization's stage of disease and the CD4+ cell count. Thus, the former is a poor predictor of immunity in this population. Data regarding opportunistic infections diagnosed at the first visit were studied. Candidiasis of the oral pharynx, oesophagus or vagina was found in 34.5% of the patients, and pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis was found in 32% of the patients. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was diagnosed in only 3% of the patients. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is advocated for HIV-infected Vietnamese, but the incidence of PCP is negligible and resources could be spent elsewhere. The various opportunistic infections seen in this resource-poor clinic setting is likely to be a pattern of presentation of HIV-infected Vietnamese for some time to come. PMID:17623507

  16. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus. PMID:27212880

  17. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus. PMID:27212880

  18. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons

  19. Mantle xenoliths from Central Vietnam: evidence for at least Meso-Proterozoic formation of the lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proßegger, Peter; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ackerman, Lukáš; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Intraplate Cenozoic basalts that are widely dispersed along the continental margin of East Asia belong to the Western Pacific "diffuse" igneous province. They consist mainly of alkali basalts, basanites,rarely nephelinites, which are mantle xenolith-bearing, potassic rocks and quartz tholeiites. The volcanism in this area has been attributed to the continental extension caused by the collision of India with Asia and by the subduction of the Pacific Ocean below Asia. We studied a suite of 24 mantle xenoliths from La Bang Lake, Dak Doa district and Bien Ho, Pleiku city in the Gia Province, Central Vietnam. They are predominantly spinel lherzolites (19) but spinel harburgites (3) and two garnet pyroxenites are present as well. The sizes of the xenoliths range from 5 to 40 cm in diameter with medium to coarse-grained protogranular textures. Whole rock major and trace element analyses display a wide range of compositions. The MgO concentration varies from 36.0 to 45.8 wt% whereas Al2O3 and CaO range from 0.63 to 4.36 wt% and from 0.52 to 4.21 wt% (with one sample having CaO of 6.63 wt%) respectively. Both CaO and Al2O3 positively correlate with MgO most likely indicating that the sampled rocks were derived from a common mantle source experienced variable degrees of partial melting. Mineral analyses show that the rock forming minerals are chemically homogeneous. The Fo contents of olivine vary between 89.2 and 91.2 and the Mg# of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene range from 89 to 92 and 89 to 94 respectively. The range of Cr# for spinel is 0.06-0.26. Model calculations in both whole rock and clinopyroxenes show that lithospheric mantle underneath Central Vietnam experienced melt extractions that vary between 2-7, 12-15 and 20-30%. The majority of the primitive mantle-normalized whole rock and clinopyroxene REE patterns are parallel to each other indicating that clinopyroxene is the main repository of the trace elements. Clinopyroxenes are divided into two groups: group A

  20. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  1. A striking new species of phytotelm-breeding tree frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Dau, Vinh Quang; Hoang, Huy Duc; Cao, Trung Tien

    2014-01-01

    We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9-41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845-2160 m elevation. PMID:24872168

  2. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  3. Characterization of smallholder pig breeding practices within a rural commune of North Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Nahoko; Van Bui, Quang; Nguyen, Nga Thi Duong; Lapar, Lucy; Marshall, Karen

    2015-08-01

    This case study focused on a pig production system in a rural area of North Central Vietnam, with a focus on describing household pig breeding practices and estimating herd demographic parameters, particularly on reproduction. One hundred five households undertaking small-scale piglet production were surveyed, with information gathered on 3268 individual pigs. Pig keeping contributed variably to the overall household livelihood portfolio, with female household members as the main decision makers, contributors to labor, and beneficiaries of income from the pig enterprise. All households kept between one and four young or adult sows, with 69% of these sows of a local breed type (predominantly Mong Cai), 28% a cross between a local sow and an exotic sow (predominantly Large White), and the remainder (3%) as exotic sows. Eighty-eight percent of the piglets produced were cross-bred, while 12% were local breed. No adult males were kept by the surveyed households, reflecting the common use of artificial insemination for mating purposes. The most common breeding system practiced-the keeping of Mong Cai females and production of cross-bred piglets-capitalizes on the small body size and high fecundity of the sows and the fast growth rate and leanness of the cross-bred piglets. The survey tool used, which was based on farmer recall of events over the preceding 12-month period, appeared to give reasonable results although some recall bias could be detected. This case study will serve as an entry point to planned broader scale characterization and development of pig breeding systems in North Central Vietnam. PMID:25947237

  4. A qualitative study of stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thi, Mai Doan Anh; Brickley, Deborah Bain; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Colby, Donn J; Sohn, Annette H; Trung, Nguyen Quang; Giang, Le Truong; Mandel, Jeffrey S

    2008-07-01

    Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are a pressing problem in Vietnam, in particular because of propaganda associating HIV with the "social evils" of sex work and drug use. There is little understanding of the causes and sequelae of stigma and discrimination against PLHIV in Vietnam. Fifty-three PLHIV participated in focus group discussions in Ho Chi Minh City. Nearly all participants experienced some form of stigma and discrimination. Causes included exaggerated fears of HIV infection, misperceptions about HIV transmission, and negative representations of PLHIV in the media. Participants faced problems getting a job, perceived unfair treatment in the workplace and experienced discrimination in the healthcare setting. Both discrimination and support were reported in the family environment. There is a need to enforce laws against discrimination and provide education to decrease stigma against PLHIV in Vietnam. Recent public campaigns encouraging compassion toward PLHIV and less discrimination from healthcare providers who work with PLHIV have been encouraging. PMID:18360743

  5. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle. PMID:24551251

  6. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST; CITY OF CHICAGO CENTRAL OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST; CITY OF CHICAGO CENTRAL OFFICE BUILDING (1913) TO THE RIGHT - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Clarke Street, Spanning Chicago River at Clarke Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END; CITY OF CHICAGO CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END; CITY OF CHICAGO CENTRAL OFFICE BUILDING (1913) SEEN IN CENTER - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, LaSalle Street, Spanning Chicago River at North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.

    The cumulative adverse impact of residential white flight from large central cities on the residual population has led policy makers to be wary of instituting programs which will further exacerbate the process. Recent policy debates have evolved over the question of whether white city-to-suburb movement is affected more significantly by…

  9. Central City School Administrative Policy: Systematically Passing Undeserving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasington, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Many view central-city schools as bloated, inefficient institutions that pass students through the system regardless of performance. A least-squares analysis of 602 Ohio schools upholds this view. Although inner-city schools depress standardized test scores, more students graduate than expected. Social promotion may be responsible. (27 references)…

  10. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection. PMID:26872984

  11. Parameters of productivity and metabolism of coral reef ecosystems off central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.

    1991-09-01

    Primary production of phytoplankton in coastal waters off central Vietnam (20-100 mg C m -2 day -1) was depleted over the shallow coral reefs (1-5 mg C m -3 day -1). Planktonic bacteria totalled 0·2-2 × 10 6 cells ml -1, wet biomass was 50-1250 mg m -3, and productivity was 50-200 mg m -3 day -1 of wet biomass (or 10-40 mg C m -3 day -1). The biomass of planktonic protozoa (ciliates and zooflagellates) in waters off the reefs was 100-300 mg m -3 with depletion by grazing over the reefs being 1-5 mg m -3. Total respiration rates of microplankton were within the range 0·2-1 mg O 2l -1 day -1, respiration of bacteria comprising 80-90% of the total. The stock of labile (potentially utilizable by planktonic microflora) organic matter in coastal waters varied from 0·3 to 3 mg C l -1, higher values corresponding with waters over the active coral reef. The excretion of organic matter by corals as well as the respiration and photosynthesis rates in different components of bottom biotopes were measured. The roles of bacteria, algae and planktonic protozoa in coral reef trophodynamics are discussed.

  12. PCDD/Fs in sediments of Central Vietnam coastal lagoons: in search of TCDD.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Rossano; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Mugnai, Cristian; Cu, Nguyen Huu; Nhon, Dang Hoai; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Frignani, Mauro

    2010-12-01

    Samples from nine Central Vietnam coastal lagoons, together with three soils and sediments collected in two freshwater reservoirs of the Thua Thien-Hué province, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total concentrations are low, from 192 to 2912 pg g(-1) and depth profiles in Tam Giang-Cau Hai (TG-CH) sediment cores show only minor changes over time in PCDD/F input and composition. Octachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) is the prevailing congener (approximately 90%), indicating combustion as the main PCDD/F source to these coastal systems, whereas natural formation might be partly responsible for the presence at depth. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), largely sprayed together with Agent Orange over the study areas during the war (1961-1971), is absent or very low. This result supports the hypothesis of strong degradation soon after spraying. Multivariate statistical analyses account for the presence of local, short-range sources as observed in the northern part of the TG-CH lagoon. PMID:20952038

  13. Village-based primary health care in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Barrett, B; Ladinsky, J; Volk, N

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes the first year of an ongoing village health care and economic development project in the Krong Buk district of Dak Lak province in Vietnam's Central Highlands. The project serves 21 villages with a total population of just over 15,000. Most belong to ethnic minority groups. Physicians from the province capital of Boun Me Thuot were trained by a multi-disciplinary team of American health care workers to be trainers and supervisors of 21 village health care workers (VHWs). Two months later, a VHW from each village was trained in primary and preventive health care by the physician-supervisors. Since this initial training, each VHW has been provided with materials, medicines and monthly supervision by the physician-supervisors. The health care component has been complemented by an economic development project based on a system of small loans. Data from the first year of monthly reports and from a baseline survey are presented in this paper. PMID:11297190

  14. Investigating drought over the Central Highland, Vietnam, using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Minh Tue; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Pham, Duc Minh; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2015-07-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been computed based on the monthly precipitation for different observed and modelled datasets over the Central Highland, Vietnam during the period 1990-2005. Station data from a total of 13 stations were collected from the study region and used for benchmarking to compare gridded observation data and two regional climate models (RCMs). Various characteristics of drought across the study region were analyzed using spatial and temporal distributions, number of drought events, their frequency and their deficit. The RCMs were able to capture the SPI temporal distributions of station data fairly well. The analysis from RCMs showed close estimation for the number of drought events to station data and gridded observations. In terms of Drought Deficit and frequency, the RCMs matched the station data better than gridded observations. The drought trend was carried out using a Modified Mann-Kendall trend test which yielded no clear trends that suggested the need for longer records of data. The results also highlight uncertainties in gridded data and the need for robust station data quality and record lengths. The regional climate models proved to be appropriate tools in assessing drought over the study area as they can serve as good proxies over data sparse regions, especially in developing countries, for studying detailed climate features at sub regional and local scales.

  15. Coastal evolution between two giant rivers: The Chan May embayment in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A.; Bristow, C.; Pham, D. T.; Mauz, B.; Pile, J.; Doan, L. D.; Hoang, Q. D.; Ngo, C. K.; Dao, N.; Polivka, P.; Soria, L.; Lee, Y.; Sloss, C.; Hoang, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal landscapes of Vietnam are dominated in the north and south by the very large Red and Mekong rivers. Central Vietnam, in contrast, has few large rivers that flow to the coastal zone. This coupled with the high relief (>1500 m) of the granitic Truong Son Range and shallow gradient continental shelf, has produced two different coastal geomorphologies. The first is a shallow basin infilled with a sequence of parallel, arcuate beach ridges, and the second includes the development of shore-parallel spits and coastal lagoons. All systems are Holocene in age and we present evidence of the Holocene evolution of the northward-facing, beach ridge strandplain located in the Chan May embayment, approximately 35 km north of Danang. This embayment is relatively small (5 km long at the beach and with a beach ridge sequence that spans 11 km from the modern beach to the base of the Truong Son Range) compared to other beach ridge strandplains to the north and south and serves as an analogue for the evolution of these larger systems. The Holocene evolution of the embayment was resolved using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), high-resolution sedimentological analysis and quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence were used to investigate the internal stratigraphy and chronological development of the beach ridges at Chan May. The strandplain contains uniform, clean quartz-rich sediment interspersed by thin heavy mineral rich bands forming shallow-gradient beach ridges that have steadily prograded seaward during the regression after the mid-Holocene sea level highstand. As the beach ridges prograded seaward, a small river feeding directly from the Truong Son Range meandered across the strandplain and significantly modified the embayment. Recently, the river has become much reduced due to anthropogenic modification of the river and landscape. Prior to the Holocene marine highstand, the area was similarly characterized by a surface of prograding beach ridges that were eroded by

  16. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Colby, Donn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nguyen, Thi; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    There is little data on the burden of HIV and other infections that affect male sex workers (MSW) in Vietnam. We conducted behavioral and biological sexual health surveys with 300 MSW in Ho Chi Minh City. Generalized estimating equation models were built to assess factors associated with HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Of 300 MSW, 19 (6.3 %) were diagnosed seropositive for HIV, 11 (3.7 %) had hepatitis C, and 26 (8.7 %) had at least one prevalent STI. In a multivariable model, opiate use was significantly associated with HIV infection (aOR 6.46, 95 % CI 1.28-32.7) and hepatitis C (aOR = 19.6, 95 % CI 2.35-163.6). Alcohol dependency was associated with increased odds of hepatitis C (aOR = 4.79, 95 % CI 1.02-22.5) and decreased odds of other STI (aOR = 0.30, 95 % CI 0.10-0.97). These findings suggest that MSW in Vietnam would benefit from regular HIV and STI testing, as well as linkage to care and substance use rehabilitation services. PMID:26563761

  17. Identification of the prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, a Mekong Delta area in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Manh, Cuong Do

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is highly vulnerable to climate change and a dengue endemic area in Vietnam. This study aims to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence and to identify the best climate prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. We used three different regression models comprising: standard multiple regression model (SMR), seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA), and Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence over the period 2003-2010. We validated the models by forecasting dengue cases for the period of January-December, 2011 using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to analyze the sensitivity of the forecast of a dengue outbreak. The results indicate that temperature and relative humidity are significantly associated with changes in dengue incidence consistently across the model methods used, but not cumulative rainfall. The Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) performs the best prediction of dengue incidence for a 6, 9, and 12-month period and diagnosis of an outbreak however the SARIMA model performs a better prediction of dengue incidence for a 3-month period. The simple or standard multiple regression performed highly imprecise prediction of dengue incidence. We recommend a follow-up study to validate the model on a larger scale in the Mekong Delta region and to analyze the possibility of incorporating a climate-based dengue early warning method into the national dengue surveillance system. PMID:25447266

  18. A prospective multi-center observational study of children hospitalized with diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Phan, My V T; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Rabaa, Maia A; Duy, Pham Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Jenkins, Claire; Duong, Vu Thuy; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Vinh, Ha; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Campbell, James I; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,419; 46.8%), followed by norovirus (293/1,419; 20.6%). The bacterial pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shigella were cumulatively isolated from 204/1,419 (14.4%) diarrheal children and exhibited extensive antimicrobial resistance, most notably to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. We suggest renewed efforts in generation and implementation of policies to control the sale and prescription of antimicrobials to curb bacterial resistance and advise consideration of a subsidized rotavirus vaccination policy to limit the morbidity due to diarrheal disease in Vietnam. PMID:25802437

  19. A Prospective Multi-Center Observational Study of Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Phan, My V. T.; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Rabaa, Maia A.; Duy, Pham Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Jenkins, Claire; Duong, Vu Thuy; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Vinh, Ha; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Campbell, James I.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009–2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,419; 46.8%), followed by norovirus (293/1,419; 20.6%). The bacterial pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shigella were cumulatively isolated from 204/1,419 (14.4%) diarrheal children and exhibited extensive antimicrobial resistance, most notably to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. We suggest renewed efforts in generation and implementation of policies to control the sale and prescription of antimicrobials to curb bacterial resistance and advise consideration of a subsidized rotavirus vaccination policy to limit the morbidity due to diarrheal disease in Vietnam. PMID:25802437

  20. Mobile Devices for Community-Based REDD+ Monitoring: A Case Study for Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M.; Ribbe, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery. PMID:23344371

  1. 41 CFR 102-83.115 - What is a central city?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is a central city? 102-83.115 Section 102-83.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.115 What is a central city? Central cities are those central cities...

  2. 41 CFR 102-83.115 - What is a central city?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is a central city? 102-83.115 Section 102-83.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.115 What is a central city? Central cities are those central cities...

  3. 41 CFR 102-83.115 - What is a central city?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is a central city? 102-83.115 Section 102-83.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.115 What is a central city? Central cities are those central cities...

  4. 41 CFR 102-83.115 - What is a central city?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.115 What is a central city? Central cities are those central cities defined... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a central city? 102-83.115 Section 102-83.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  5. 41 CFR 102-83.115 - What is a central city?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.115 What is a central city? Central cities are those central cities defined... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is a central city? 102-83.115 Section 102-83.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  6. Homalium glandulosum (Salicaceae), a new species from Vu Quang National Park, North Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Son, Hoang Thanh; Toyama, Hironori; Yang, Chen-Jui; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homalium glandulosum Tagane & V. H. Nguyen, from Vu Quang National Park in northern Vietnam, is newly described. This species is characterized by distinct glands, often stalked, at the base of the lamina and along the margin of the stipules and bracteoles. Illustrations, DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, and a key to the species of Homalium in Vietnam are also provided. PMID:26884709

  7. Viral seroprevalence in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) derived from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xu; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Jin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-07-01

    Non-human primates are natural virus reservoirs, whether wild or domestic. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of common viruses by ELISA in a northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) colony derived from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. A total of 20 types of virus which are commonly selected as target microorganisms for specific-pathogen-free colonies, or which have zoonotic potential were included in this study. The results showed only 2 in 90 northern pig-tailed macaques were seronegative for all the detected viruses, and at least 16 out of the total 20 types of virus tested were prevalent in this colony, so these macaques were commonly infected by various viruses. These macaques should be carefully assessed for viral seroprevalence in order to prevent zoonotic diseases from being transferred to human beings. PMID:26993123

  8. Knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients regarding HIV transmission and treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Don; Dinh, An T; Groce, Nora; Sullivan, Lynn E

    2015-03-01

    Patient education concerning HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) medications is important for optimal outcomes. The authors assessed the knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients in an ARV education program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Of 185 patients, 64 (35%) receiving ARV medications, nearly 80% correctly answered questions regarding HIV. Correct responses were associated with higher education (P < .05) and longer duration of HIV diagnosis (P < .05). A lack of knowledge was observed in 40% of respondents who believed HIV and AIDS were the same and 70% of respondents who believed ARV medications cured HIV. Greater embarrassment of living with HIV was associated with female gender (P < .05) and lower education (P < .05). Patients were concerned over ARV medication use (27%) and its side effects (38%). The study population's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and ARV medications, perceived stigmatization, and areas of knowledge deficits underscore the need for effective patient education programs addressing poorly understood issues around HIV/AIDS. PMID:22199151

  9. Seasonal change in the atmospheric concentration of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Mio, Chihiro; Fujimori, Keiichi; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Shibutani, Yasuhiko; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We analyzed atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for 19 months. The average concentrations of total PAHs at dry and rainy seasons were 4.28 +/- 2.83 and 15.71 +/- 8.21 ng m(-3), respectively. The use of motorcycles without catalytic converters, estimated to be main emission sources of PAHs, would be higher during the dry season. PAH concentrations show a negative correlation with sunshine duration (r = -0.51). Furthermore, the ratio of average PAH concentration in the dry season to that in the rainy season shows a positive correlation with photolytic half-life (r = 0.94). Thus, seasonal changes in PAH concentrations are attributable to their photolytic degradation. PMID:19471847

  10. Separation of land-use change induced signals from noise by means of evaluating perturbed RCM ensembles: Assessing the potential impacts of urbanization and deforestation in Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laux, Patrick; Nguyen, Phuong N. B.; Cullmann, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) comprise both terrestrial and atmospheric compartments and thereby allowing to study land atmosphere feedbacks, and in particular the land-use and climate change impacts. In this study, a methodological framework is developed to separate the land use change induced signals in RCM simulations from noise caused by perturbed initial boundary conditions. The framework is applied for two different case studies in SE Asia, i.e. an urbanization and a deforestation scenario, which are implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The urbanization scenario is produced for Da Nang, one of the fastest growing cities in Central Vietnam, by converting the land-use in a 20 km, 14 km, and 9 km radius around the Da Nang meteorological station systematically from cropland to urban. Likewise, three deforestation scenarios are derived for Nong Son (Central Vietnam). Based on WRF ensemble simulations with perturbed initial conditions for 2010, the signal to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated to identify areas with pronounced signals induced by LULCC. While clear and significant signals are found for air temperature, latent and sensible heat flux in the urbanization scenario (SNR values up to 24), the signals are not pronounced for deforestation (SNR values < 1). Albeit statistically significant signals are found for precipitation, low SNR values hinder scientifically sound inferences for climate change adaptation options. It is demonstrated that ensemble simulations with more than at least 5 ensemble members are required to derive robust LULCC adaptation strategies, particularly if precipitation is considered. This is rarely done in practice, thus potentially leading to erroneous estimates of the LULCC induced signals of water and energy fluxes, which are propagated through the regional climate - hydrological model modeling chains, and finally leading to unfavorable decision support.

  11. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2013-04-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.

  12. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Tran, Dao T A; Frankham, Greta J; Dekker, Anthony H; Le, Duong T T; Nguyen, Truong Q; Dau, Vinh Q; Hoang, Huy D

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  13. Metamorphic evolution of pelitic-semipelitic granulites in the Kon Tum massif (south-central Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tích, Vu Van; Leyreloup, Andrey; Maluski, Henry; Lepvrier, Claude; Lo, Chinh-hua; Vượng, Nguyễn V.

    2013-09-01

    Pelitic and semipelitic anatectic granulites form one of the major lithological units in Kan Nack complex of the Kon Tum massif (in south-central Vietnam), which comprises HT metamorphic and magmatic rocks including granulites and charnockites is classically regarded as the older part of the Gondwana-derived Indosinia terrain. Metamorphic evolution study of pelitic granulite, the most abundant among granulites exposed in this massif, facilitates to understand that tectonic setting take place during the Indosinian time. The paragenetic assemblages, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and P-T evolution path of pelitic-semipelitic granulites from Kon Tum massif has been studied in detail. Petrographic feature demonstrates that the pelitic granulite experienced prograde history, from pregranulitic conditions in the amphibolite facies up to the peak granulitic assemblages. Successive prograde reactions led to the temperature-climax giving rise to assemblages with cordierite-hercynite and cordierite-hercynite-K-feldspar. Then, as attested by the mineralogic association occurring in cordieritic coronas, these rocks have been affected by retrograde conditions coeval with a decrease of the pressure. Thermobarometic results show that the highest temperature obtained by ksp/pl thermometry is 850 °C and the highest pressure obtained by GASP (Garnet Alumino-Silicate Plagioclase) is 7.8 kbar. The obtained clockwise P-T evolution path involving heating decompression, then nearly isothermal decompression and nearly isobar cooling conditions shows that high temperature-low pressure metamorphism of the studied pelitic anatectic granulites of Kan Nack complex occurred possibly in extensional setting during the Indosinian orogeny of 260-240 Ma in age.

  14. Undiagnosed Cryptic Diversity in Small, Microendemic Frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jodi J. L.; Tran, Dao T. A.; Frankham, Greta J.; Dekker, Anthony H.; Le, Duong T. T.; Nguyen, Truong Q.; Dau, Vinh Q.; Hoang, Huy D.

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, “cryptic” species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  15. The effect of participatory community communication on HIV preventive behaviors among ethnic minority youth in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, socially marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities in mountainous areas are often difficult to engage in HIV research and prevention programs. This intervention study aimed to estimate the effect of participatory community communication (PCC) on changing HIV preventive ideation and behavior among ethnic minority youth in a rural district from central Vietnam. Methods In a cross-sectional survey after the PCC intervention, using a structured questionnaire, 800 ethnic minority youth were approached for face-to-face interviews. Propensity score matching (PSM) technique was then utilized to match these participants into two groups-intervention and control-for estimating the effect of the PCC. Results HIV preventive knowledge and ideation tended to increase as the level of recall changed accordingly. The campaign had a significant indirect effect on condom use through its effect on ideation or perceptions. When intervention and control group statistically equivalently reached in terms of individual and social characteristics by PSM, proportions of displaying HIV preventive knowledge, ideation and condom use were significantly higher in intervention group than in matched control counterparts, accounting for net differences of 7.4%, 12.7% and 5%, respectively, and can be translated into the number of 210; 361 and 142 ethnic minority youth in the population. Conclusions The study informs public health implications both theoretically and practically to guide effective HIV control programs for marginalized communities in resources-constrained settings like rural Vietnam and similar contexts of developing countries. PMID:22401660

  16. Report of the Fifth AREB Meeting Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 17-20 November 2008.

    PubMed

    Dodet, B

    2009-04-21

    The fifth annual Asian Rabies Expert Bureau (AREB) meeting, held in Vietnam, addressed how to increase rabies awareness and to improve rabies prevention and control. Active participation of Ministries of Health and Education was identified as crucial for the success of rabies programs, and World Rabies Day was considered as one of the best opportunities to increase rabies awareness. AREB strongly recommend implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for children living in rabies endemic areas. A review of national and international guidelines concerning rabies prophylaxis and their application in the Asian situation showed that some issues require further evaluation or clarification. PMID:19368779

  17. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated. PMID:20490914

  18. Promoting self-help activities for people living with HIV / AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Huu Luyen; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Narimani, P

    1999-01-01

    The rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City presents new challenges for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention in Vietnam. Most HIV/AIDS cases are found south of the country and this puts a burden on the Ho Chi Minh City AIDS Committee. Building on experiences from other countries, the AIDS Committee successfully implemented measures such as needle-exchange programs, condom distribution, peer education, and outreach activities. It also established a meeting place, the Cafe Hy Vong, for female sex workers and intravenous drug users. From the beginning, the Committee regarded meeting the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) as important prevention activities, and encouraged PHA to discuss their concerns with the committee. The PHA formed the Friend-to-Friend group in October 1995, where the Ho Chi Minh AIDS Committee gave its full support. The group organizes meetings and social gatherings where they can share their feelings and experiences, as well as get information and counseling. PMID:12349769

  19. Monitoring land subsidence process in the urban area of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using multi-temporal SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Xuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Le, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence has become the most common hazard in urban area that could led to cracking buildings and infrastructures, extending the flooding area or even change the river path. Despite deriving precise information, conventional subsidence monitoring techniques are considered as costly, man-power consuming and lack of comprehensive information. Recently, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has become a widely used geodetic technique for monitoring the deformation of the Earth's surface, especially methods based on the use of a multi-temporal dataset. In this study, we use a stack of 18 SAR images acquired from L-band PALSAR sensor onboard the ALOS satellite to derive the subsidence information of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam over the period of December 2006 to December 2010. The Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI) approach is chosen to take advantages of both the persistent scatterers and the distributed scatterers, which could be used as monitoring points to measure the subsidence process. Assume the subsidence in this area mostly corresponds to vertical components, we found subsidence patterns along Saigon river and in the South of the city. Maximum subsidence rate reaches up to -66 mm/year in vertical direction. Finally, InSAR derived result and previous levelling data are taken into comparison to find the correlation between the two results.

  20. Black Representation on Central City School Boards Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ted; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This article is an extension of Welch and Karnig's (1978) school board study analyzing Black representation. The sample size was increased from the original 43 to 75 central cities. Unlike Welch and Karnig, new results showed that at-large electoral systems significantly reduce proportionally based equitable Black representation. (Author/AM)

  1. Bringing Peace to the Central City: Forgiveness Education in Milwaukee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassin, Elizabeth A.; Enright, Robert D.; Knutson, Jeanette A.

    2005-01-01

    The last 2 decades have seen a flowering of scholarly and applied work in the area of forgiveness, a skill important to the development of peaceful people and communities. We describe a forgiveness intervention designed to help children in a central-city environment. Such environments put children at risk for various psychological and social…

  2. Viral Aetiology of Central Nervous System Infections in Adults Admitted to a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Southern Vietnam over 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; Thai, Le Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chuong, Ly Van; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Hien, Vo Minh; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important diseases in both children and adults worldwide. The spectrum of infections is broad, encompassing bacterial/aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Viruses are regarded as the most common causes of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Better understanding of the viral causes of the diseases is of public health importance, in order to better inform immunization policy, and may influence clinical management. Methodology/Principal Findings Study was conducted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, a primary, secondary, and tertiary referral hospital for all southern provinces of Vietnam. Between December 1996 and May 2008, patients with CNS infections of presumed viral origin were enrolled. Laboratory diagnostics consisted of molecular and serological tests targeted at 14 meningitis/encephalitis-associated viruses. Of 291 enrolled patients, fatal outcome and neurological sequelae were recorded in 10% (28/291) and 27% (78/291), respectively. Mortality was especially high (9/19, 47%) amongst those with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis which is attributed to the limited availability of intravenous acyclovir/valacyclovir. Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses were the most common viruses detected, responsible for 36 (12%), 19 (6.5%), 19 (6.5%) and 8 (2.7%) respectively, followed by rubella virus (6, 2%), varicella zoster virus (5, 1.7%), mumps virus (2, 0.7%), cytomegalovirus (1, 0.3%), and rabies virus (1, 0.3%). Conclusions/Significance Viral infections of the CNS in adults in Vietnam are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite extensive laboratory testing, 68% of the patients remain undiagnosed. Together with our previous reports, the data confirm that Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses are the leading identified causes of CNS viral infections in Vietnam, suggest that the

  3. Sustainability and Cost of a Community-Based Strategy Against Aedes aegypti in Northern and Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Brian H.; Tuyet Hanh, Tran T.; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Quy, Tran Minh; Nam, Vu Sinh; Hang, Phan V. D.; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Hill, Peter S.; Vos, Theo; Ryan, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported a new community-based mosquito control that resulted in the elimination of Aedes aegypti in 40 of 46 communes in northern and central Vietnam. During 2007 and 2008, we revisited Nam Dinh and Khanh Hoa provinces in northern and central Vietnam, respectively, to evaluate whether or not these programs were still being maintained 7 years and 4.5 years after formal project activities had ceased, respectively. Using a previously published sustainability framework, we compared 13 criteria from Tho Nghiep commune in Nam Dinh where the local community had adopted our community-based project model using Mesocyclops from 2001. These data were compared against a formal project commune, Xuan Phong, where our successful intervention activities had ceased in 2000 and four communes operating under the National Dengue Control Program with data available. In Khanh Hoa province, we compared 2008 data at Ninh Xuan commune with data at project completion in 2003 and benchmarked these, where possible, against an untreated control commune, Ninh Binh, where few control activities had been undertaken. The three communes where the above community-based strategy had been adopted were rated as well-sustained with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of $0.28–0.89 international dollars per person. PMID:20439962

  4. Sustainability and cost of a community-based strategy against Aedes aegypti in northern and central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kay, Brian H; Tuyet Hanh, Tran T; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Quy, Tran Minh; Nam, Vu Sinh; Hang, Phan V D; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Hill, Peter S; Vos, Theo; Ryan, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    We previously reported a new community-based mosquito control that resulted in the elimination of Aedes aegypti in 40 of 46 communes in northern and central Vietnam. During 2007 and 2008, we revisited Nam Dinh and Khanh Hoa provinces in northern and central Vietnam, respectively, to evaluate whether or not these programs were still being maintained 7 years and 4.5 years after formal project activities had ceased, respectively. Using a previously published sustainability framework, we compared 13 criteria from Tho Nghiep commune in Nam Dinh where the local community had adopted our community-based project model using Mesocyclops from 2001. These data were compared against a formal project commune, Xuan Phong, where our successful intervention activities had ceased in 2000 and four communes operating under the National Dengue Control Program with data available. In Khanh Hoa province, we compared 2008 data at Ninh Xuan commune with data at project completion in 2003 and benchmarked these, where possible, against an untreated control commune, Ninh Binh, where few control activities had been undertaken. The three communes where the above community-based strategy had been adopted were rated as well-sustained with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of $0.28-0.89 international dollars per person. PMID:20439962

  5. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  6. Agent Orange footprint still visible in rural areas of central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Banout, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Musil, Vojtech; Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968-1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  7. The balancing act: exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities. PMID:25555192

  8. The balancing act: Exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Colby, Donn J.; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S.; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers (MSWs) engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment, and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilized stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimize exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities. PMID:25555192

  9. Effect of housing factors on infestation by Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse in urban Hanoi City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Ataru; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Duoc, Vu Trong; Le Nguyen, Hoang; Higa, Yukiko; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of housing factors on infestation with Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse we conducted an entomological survey and inspection of 267 urban houses in Hanoi City, Vietnam. Two hundred ten pupae and 194 adult Ae. aegypti were collected from 19 and 88 houses, respectively. One hundred eighty-one pupae and 24 adult Ae. albopictus were collected from 21 and 14 houses, respectively. The presence of a private well was associated with increasing infestation with Ae. aegypti adults (p = 0.01) and increased the risk of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus pupal presence (p = 0.04 for Ae. aegypti, p = 0.03 for Ae. albopictus). The presence of an outdoor space in the household premises was associated with a higher risk of Ae. albopictus pupal presence (p = 0.004) and a higher risk of high levels of Ae. albopictus adults (p = 0.01); however, it had no association with infestation with Ae. aegypti. The presence of an air-conditioning unit (p = 0.03) and four or more rooms in the residence (p = 0.02) were negatively and positively associated with the risk for Ae. albopictus presence, respectively. PMID:24450235

  10. Sexual practices, partner concurrency and high rates of sexually transmissible infections among male sex workers in three cities in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Giang, Le Minh; Yu, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper examines sexual practices, partner concurrency and sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV infection among male sex workers (MSWs) in Vietnam. Methods Six hundred and fifty-four MSWs, aged 16–35 years, were recruited in Hanoi, Nha Trang and Ho Chi Minh City between 2009 and 2011. Survey measures included demographic characteristics, drug use, types of sexual partners and sexual practices. Subjects were screened for STIs, including HIV. Results MSWs in Ho Chi Minh City (33%) were more likely than those from the other two sites to be current users of one or more types of illegal drugs (P < 0.001). MSWs with both male and female elective partners (compared with other partnership types) were more likely to have anal sex with male client partners (P < 0.001), elective male partners (P = 0.045) and elective female partners (P = 0.025). At last sex with a male client partner, only 30% used a condom during anal intercourse. At last sex with an elective female partner, only 31% used a condom during vaginal sex and only 3% during anal sex. Although rates of HIV are low (4%), other STIs are high, including chlamydia (17%), gonorrhoea (29%) and human papillomavirus (33%). Most (57.3%) have never been tested for HIV and only 17% have ever disclosed to a healthcare provider that they have sex with men. Conclusions Complex patterns of sexual concurrency, coupled with high rates of STIs, signal the urgent need for health services interventions among MSWs, both to improve individual health outcomes and to reduce secondary STI/HIV transmission among sexual partner networks. PMID:25622225

  11. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  12. Population-Based Incidence Rates of First-Ever Stroke in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Ngoc, Mai Quang; Huy, Tran Van; Suzuki, Motoi; Tsujino, Akira; Toizumi, Michiko; Takahashi, Kensuke; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Anh, Dang Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Tho, Le Huu; Maeda, Takahiro; Cox, Sharon E.; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke incidence data with methodologically acceptable design in Southeast Asia countries is limited. This study aimed to determine incidence of age-, sex- and subtype-specific first-ever stroke (FES) in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study, targeting all stroke cases hospitalized at a solo-provider hospital in our study site of Nha Trang from January 2009 to December 2011 with International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes I60-69. We calculated positive predictive values (PPVs) of each ICD-10-coded stroke by conducting a detailed case review of 190 randomly selected admissions with ICD-10 codes of I60-I69. These PPVs were then used to estimate annual incident stroke cases from the computerized database. National census data in 2009 was used as a denominator. Results 2,693 eligible admissions were recorded during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of total FES was 90.2 per 100,000 population (95% CI 81.1–100.2). The age-adjusted incidence of FES was 115.7 (95% CI 95.9–139.1) when adjusted to the WHO world populations. Importantly, age-adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage was as much as one third of total FES: 36.9 (95% CI 26.1–51.0). Conclusions We found a considerable proportion of FES in Vietnam to be attributable to intracerebral hemorrhage, which is as high or exceeding levels seen in high-income countries. A high prevalence of improperly treated hypertension in Vietnam may underlie the high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this population. PMID:27513471

  13. Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lindan, C P; Lieu, T X; Giang, L T; Lap, V D; Thuc, N V; Thinh, T; Lurie, P; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of annual sentinel surveillance data from Viet Nam indicates that Ho Chi Minh City is at the forefront of a new HIV epidemic. Since 1990, data on HIV cases have been collected from prenatal clinics, blood banks, centers for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and tuberculosis, and rehabilitation centers for injecting drug users and commercial sex workers. The first HIV case in Viet Nam was reported in 1990 in Ho Chi Minh City. By the end of 1996, a cumulative total of 4961 HIV cases had been documented in Viet Nam, 2774 of which were in Ho Chi Minh City. In Ho Chi Minh City, 86.5% of cumulative HIV infections involved men. The distribution of total HIV cases by group has been: injecting drug users, 86.0%; tuberculosis patients, 3.3%; sex workers, 2.5%; STD patients, 2.5%; and pregnant women, 0.6%. By 1996, 42 of Viet Nam's 53 provinces had reported HIV cases and infection rates are rising dramatically in border areas near China and Cambodia. The pattern documented in this analysis resembles that observed in Thailand a decade ago: rapidly rising HIV rates among injecting drug users and infection already established among sex workers, without dissemination to the general population. The necessary infrastructure and resources for control of the epidemic are far more limited in Viet Nam than Thailand, however. Recommended, to prevent the further spread of HIV in Viet Nam, are educational activities targeted at injecting drug users and sex workers outside of rehabilitation centers, the availability of condoms and sterile needles, establishment of anonymous testing sites, control of STDs, and the coordination of programs within southeast Asia. PMID:9376101

  14. Are women as likely to take risks and compete? Behavioural findings from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Fletschner, Diana; Anderson, C Leigh; Cullen, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Using controlled experiments to compare the risk attitude and willingness to compete of husbands and wives in 500 couples in rural Vietnam, we find that women are more risk averse than men and that, compared to men, women are less likely to choose to compete, irrespective of how likely they are to succeed. Relevant to development programmes concerned with lifting women out of poverty, our findings suggest that women may be more reluctant to adopt new technologies, take out loans, or engage in economic activities that offer higher expected returns, in order to avoid setups that require them to be more competitive or that have less predictable outcomes. PMID:21125722

  15. High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

  16. Chemical composition of runoff water in Raipur city, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Balram

    2015-03-01

    Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.

  17. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  18. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  19. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  20. Thermal footprints in groundwater of central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Blum, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric thermal pollution in densely populated areas is recognized as a severe problem with consequences for human health, and considerable efforts are being taken to mitigate heat stress in cities. However, anthropogenic activities also influence the thermal environment beneath the ground level, with commonly growing temperatures that affect groundwater ecology and geothermal use efficiency. In our work, we identify the controlling mechanisms for the long-term evolution of such urban heat islands. The shallow groundwater temperatures in several central European cities such as Cologne, Karlsruhe, Munich, Berlin and Zurich were mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution. Thermal anomalies were found to be highly heterogeneous with local hot spots showing temperatures of more than 20°C. Accordingly, these urban regions show a considerable groundwater warming in comparison to undisturbed temperatures of 8-11°C. Examination of potential heat sources by analytical modelling reveals that increased ground surface temperatures and basements of buildings act as dominant drivers for the anthropogenic heat input into the groundwater. The factors are revealed to be case-specific and they may have pronounced local or regional effects. Typical local factors are for example buried district heating networks. In selected cities we find that the average urban heat flux is around one order of magnitude higher than the elevated ground heat flux due to recent climate change. Additionally, such as observed in Zurich, naturally controlled temperature variations can be substantial and they are shown to wash out anthropogenic thermal footprints.

  1. Designing a Community Engagement Framework for a New Dengue Control Method: A Case Study from Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Darlene; Duong, Thi Thu Huong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. Conclusions/Significance Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for releases Wolbachia

  2. Determinants of marginalization and inequitable maternal health care in North–Central Vietnam: a framework analysis

    PubMed Central

    Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Lien, Pham T. L.; Hoa, Dinh T. P.; Målqvist, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Vietnam has achieved great improvements in maternal healthcare outcomes, but there is evidence of increasing inequity. Disadvantaged groups, predominantly ethnic minorities and people living in remote mountainous areas, do not gain access to maternal health improvements despite targeted efforts from policymakers. Objective This study identifies underlying structural barriers to equitable maternal health care in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Experiences of social inequity and limited access among child-bearing ethnic and minority women are explored in relation to barriers of care provision experienced by maternal health professionals to gain deeper understanding on health outcomes. Design In 2012, 11 focus group discussions with women and medical care professionals at local community health centers and district hospitals were conducted using a hermeneutic–dialectic method and analyzed for interpretation using framework analysis. Results The social determinants ‘limited negotiation power’ and ‘limited autonomy’ orchestrate cyclical effects of shared marginalization for both women and care professionals within the provincial health system’s infrastructure. Under-staffed and poorly equipped community health facilities refer women and create overload at receiving health centers. Limited resources appear diverted away from local community centers as compensation to the district for overloaded facilities. Poor reputation for low care quality exists, and professionals are held in low repute for causing overload and resulting adverse outcomes. Country-wide reforms force women to bear responsibility for limited treatment adherence and health insight, but overlook providers’ limited professional development. Ethnic minority women are hindered by relatives from accessing care choices and costs, despite having advanced insight about government reforms to alleviate poverty. Communication challenges are worsened by non-existent interpretation systems

  3. Binhthuanomon vinhtan, a new genus and new species of semi-terrestrial freshwater crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from south central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Van Tu; Le, Van Tho; Phan, Doan Dang

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and new species of semi-terrestrial crab of the family Potamidae, Binhthuanomon vinhtan n. sp., is described from south central Vietnam. The new genus is morphologically closest to Villopotamon Dang & Ho, 2003, and Balssipotamon Dang & Ho, 2008, in the shapes of the carapace and first gonopod but is easily distinguished by distinct carapace characteristics and gonopod 1 structures, and the habitat occupied. PMID:26624780

  4. Delayed Parasite Clearance after Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Patients in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Phuc, Bui Quang; Ha, Do Manh; Pockele, Evi; Guetens, Pieter; Van, Nguyen Van; Duong, Tran Thanh; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum toward artemisinin derivatives has been reported from the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders. Following increasing reports from central Vietnam of delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), the current first-line treatment, we carried out a study on the efficacy of this treatment. Between September 2012 and February 2013, we conducted a 42-day in vivo and in vitro efficacy study in Quang Nam Province. Treatment was directly observed, and blood samples were collected twice daily until parasite clearance. In addition, genotyping, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and in vitro sensitivity testing of isolates was performed. The primary endpoints were parasite clearance rate and time. The secondary endpoints included PCR-corrected and uncorrected cure rates, qPCR clearance profiles, in vitro sensitivity results (for chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, and piperaquine), and genotyping for mutations in the Kelch 13 propeller domain. Out of 672 screened patients, 95 were recruited and 89 available for primary endpoint analyses. The median parasite clearance time (PCT) was 61.7 h (interquartile range [IQR], 47.6 to 83.2 h), and the median parasite clearance rate had a slope half-life of 6.2 h (IQR, 4.4 to 7.5 h). The PCR-corrected efficacy rates were estimated at 100% at day 28 and 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 91.2% to 99.4%) at day 42. At day 3, the P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR was 2.5 times higher than that by microscopy. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of isolates with delayed clearance times (≥72 h) were significantly higher than those with normal clearance times for all three drugs. Delayed parasite clearance (PCT, ≥72 h) was significantly higher among day 0 samples carrying the 543 mutant allele (47.8%) than those carrying the wild-type allele (1.8%; P = 0.048). In central Vietnam, the efficacy of DHA-PPQ is still satisfactory, but the parasite clearance time

  5. AB035. Thalassemia in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoang Nam

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is a common inherited hemoglobin disorder in Vietnam. The alpha thalassemia, beta thalassemia, and HbE are popular in Vietnam but its variance depends on ethnics. The research for frequency of some ethnics almost in electrophoresis includes: Kinh (beta thalassemia carrier 1.49%, HbE 1.24%), Muong (beta thalassemia carrier 10.7%, HbE 11.7%), Tay (beta thalassemia carrier 11%, HbE 1%). In the recent years, we have conducted researches on thalassemia gene in the Northern and Southern areas of Vietnam. The two researches on beta thalassemia conducted at National Hospital of Pediatrics were Cd17 (33.8%), Cd41/42 (29.4%) following are HbE (19.1%), Cd 71/72 (7.3%), -28 (5.9%), IVS 2-625 (1.5%), IVS 1-5 (1.5%), IVS 1-1 (1.5%). In Vietnam, we have a thalassemia centre at the National Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion and several outpatient clinics at National Hospital of Pediatrics, Children No. 1 Hospital, Blood Transfusion and Hematology Hospital Ho Chi Minh city, Central Hue Hospital. In provincial hospitals, we have transfusion service but very variance. That the number of patients with thalassemia requires regular blood transfusion has been increasing results in big shortage of blood supply. At Department of Clinical Hematology-NHP, we provide patients with screening for HIV, HCV and HBV in every 6 months. Patients were done antibody screening test. Deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox are currently used but in short supply. We are facing the difficulty that almost hospitals in Vietnam lack the drug which is unique for each type of chelation. We have to apply ferritin level to follow the chelation effective and MRI to measure iron overload in patients’ liver and heart. We are only able to provide SCT for the modest number of patients with thalassemia. In almost cases, we used sibling donor in SCT for patients with thalassemia. Regarding prevention service, we offer genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis at three hospitals. We organized

  6. The evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in south-central Vietnam reveals multiple clades evolving from Chinese and Cambodian viruses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Nguyen, Van Quang; Nguyen, Kim Hue; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Park, Jong-Hwa; Chung, In Sik; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-10-01

    In Vietnam, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), such as that caused by H5N1 viruses, is the most highly contagious infectious disease that has been affecting domestic poultry in recent years. Vietnam might be an evolutionary hotspot and a potential source of globally pandemic strains. However, few studies have reported viruses circulating in the south-central region of Vietnam. In the present study, 47 H5N1-positive samples were collected from both vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry farms in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during 2013-2014, and their genetic diversity was analyzed. A common sequence motif for HPAI virus was identified at HA-cleavage sites in all samples: either RERRRKR/G (clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a) or REGRRKKR/G (clade 1.1.2). Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes identified three clades of HPAI H5N1: 1.1.2 (n=1), 2.3.2.1a (n=1), and 2.3.2.1c (n=45). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that these Vietnamese clades may have evolved from Chinese and Cambodian virus clades isolated in 2012-2013 but are less closely related to the clades detected from the Tyva Republic, Bulgaria, Mongolia, Japan, and Korea in 2009-2011. Detection of the coexistence of virus clades 2.3.2.1 and the very virulent 1.1.2 in the south-central regions suggests their local importance and highlights concerns regarding their spread, both northwards and southwards, as well as the potential for reassortment. The obtained data highlight the importance of regular identification of viral evolution and the development and use of region-specific vaccines. PMID:26577194

  7. Self-perceived HIV risk and the use of risk reduction strategies among men who engage in transactional sex with other men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Closson, Elizabeth F; Perry, Nicholas; Perkovich, Brandon; Nguyen, Thi; Trang, Nguyen N N; Lan, Hang X; Thien, Dinh Duc; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn

    2013-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, with prevalence as high as 18%. Transactional sex represents a risk factor for HIV transmission/acquisition among MSM globally, particularly in urban contexts, but remains largely underinvestigated in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In 2010, 23 MSM who reported exchanging sex for money in the last month completed a brief survey and semistructured qualitative interview at The Life Centre, a non-governmental organization in HCMC, to assess sociodemographics, individual- and structural-level HIV risk factors and explore acceptable future prevention interventions. Participants' mean age was 24 years. Equal proportions of respondents self-identified as heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, and bisexual. Participants had a mean of 158 male clients in the past year, with a median of 60 male clients in the past year (interquartile range [IQR]=70) and reported inconsistent condom use and inaccurate perceptions of HIV risk. Nearly half of the sample reported engaging in unprotected anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months and one-third with a male client. Major themes that emerged for HIV prevention interventions with male sex workers were those that: (1) focused on individual factors (drug and alcohol use, barriers to condom use, knowledge of asymptomatic STIs, enhancement of behavioral risk-reduction skills, and addressing concomitant mental health issues); (2) incorporated interpersonal and relational contexts (led by peer educators, built interpersonal skills, attended to partner type and intimacy dynamics); and (3) considered the exogenous environments in which individual choices/relationships operate (stigma of being MSM in Vietnam, availability of alternative economic opportunities, and varied sexual venues). HIV prevention efforts are needed that address the specific needs of MSM who engage in transactional sex in HCMC. Universally, MSM endorsed HIV prevention

  8. Characterization of hospital and community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus in children with severe lower respiratory tract infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Tran Anh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hai, Nguyen thi Thanh; Tinh, Le Binh Bao; Kim, Le thi Ngoc; Do, Lien Anh Ha; Chinh B'Krong, Nguyen thi Thuy; Tham, Nguyen thi; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Merson, Laura; Farrar, Jeremy; Thuong, Tang Chi; de Jong, Menno D; Schultsz, Constance; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important community and nosocomial pathogen in developed countries but data regarding the importance of RSV in developing countries are relatively scarce. Methods During a 1-year surveillance study in 2010, we took serial samples from children admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Respiratory Ward of Children's Hospital 1 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. RSV was detected within 72 hours of admission to the ward in 26% (376/1439; RSV A: n = 320; RSV B: n = 54; and RSV A and B: n = 2). Among those negative in the first 72 hours after admission, 6·6% (25/377) acquired nosocomial RSV infection during hospitalization (RSV A: n = 22; and RSV B: n = 3). Results Children with nosocomial RSV infection were younger (P = 0·001) and had a longer duration of hospitalization (P < 0·001). The rate of incomplete recovery among children with nosocomial RSV infection was significantly higher than among those without (P < 0·001). Phylogenetic analysis of partial G gene sequences obtained from 79% (316/401) of positive specimens revealed the co-circulation of multiple genotypes with RSV A NA1 being predominant (A NA1: n = 275; A GA5: n = 5; B BA3: n = 3; B BA9: n = 26; and B BA10: n = 7). The RSV A GA5 and RSV B BA3 genotypes have not been reported from Vietnam, previously. Conclusion Besides emphasizing the importance of RSV as a cause of respiratory infection leading to hospitalization in young children and as a nosocomial pathogen, data from this study extend our knowledge on the genetic diversity of RSV circulating in Vietnam. PMID:25702707

  9. Expenditure and Revenue Problems in Central-City School Districts: Problems for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Hack, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates the combination of expenditure and revenue problems facing central-city school districts. Examines educational overburden, related overburden, and cost differentials between central city and other types of districts. Also looks at tax capacity and efforts, and analyzes the effects of Federal and State activity on the problems of city…

  10. [Tetanus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: epidemiological, clinical and outcome features of 389 cases at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases].

    PubMed

    An, V T; Khue, P M; Yen, L M; Phong, N D; Strobel, M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the different aspects of tetanus during the past recent years in southern Vietnam: epidemiology, clinical picture, management, and death risk factors. It is a retrospective study concerning 389 cases admitted in 2007 and 2008 at the reference Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City. 93% of all cases were generalized tetanus, and 50% were severe cases. A majority of patients were adult males (medium age 43, M/ F sex-ratio 2.9). Half of them underwent tracheotomy and 39% assisted ventilation. Case fatality rate was 6.4%, the lowest reported rate worldwide in the last ten years. Fatalities resulted mainly from neuro-vegetative disorders, essentially cardiogenic shock (28% of all deaths) [OR = 16.95; p < 0.001], sepsis (24%) [OR = 3.25; (p < 0,114], and acute renal failure (16%) [OR = 7,22; p < 0.004]. Age over 60-year [OR = 4.53; p < 0.0001] and a leukocyte count>12.000/mm(3) [OR = 2.32; p < 0.020] were significantly associated with fatal outcome, contrarily to incubation and extension phase durations, or delayed serum administration. Systematic extension of vaccination to all adult males, and improved access to post exposure sero-immunization at all levels of health centres throughout the country may further reduce tetanus burden in Vietnam. PMID:26608271

  11. A Group-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lan, Hang Thi Xuan; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn J

    2016-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. There are currently no evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions for MSM in this setting. Between October 2012 and June 2013, 100 high-risk MSM from Ho Chi Minh City were enrolled in an open pilot trial to assess feasibility and acceptability of a group-based, manualized sexual risk reduction intervention, and to preliminarily examine changes in primary and secondary outcomes. Participants completed a behavioral assessment battery and HIV testing at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Over 80.0 % of the sample was <25 years old and 77.0 % identified as Bong kin ("hidden," masculine-appearing). Feasibility and acceptability of the program was evidenced by 87.0 % retention for the intervention sessions, 78.0 % completion of the 6 month assessment, and positive responses on evaluation forms and qualitative exit interviews. There was a decline in the number of condomless anal sex acts from baseline (6.32) to 3 month (2.06) and 6 month (2.49) follow-up (p < .0001). These data support the need for further testing of this group-based, behavioral HIV prevention intervention to reduce sexual risk behavior among MSM in Vietnam in a randomized controlled efficacy trial. PMID:26721662

  12. HIV-related risk behaviors among the general population: a survey using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview in 3 cities in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lan T H; Nadol, Patrick; Le, Linh Cu

    2015-03-01

    This study used a confidential survey method-namely, Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI)-to gather data about HIV-related risk knowledge/behaviors among the general population in Vietnam. The study sample included 1371 people aged 15 to 49 years in 3 cities-Hanoi, Da nang, and Can Tho. Results indicated that 7% of participants had ever had nonconsensual sex, and 3.6% of them had ever had a one-night stand. The percentage of male participants reported to ever have sex with sex workers was 9.6% and to ever inject drugs was 4.3%. The proportion of respondents who had ever tested for HIV was 17.6%. The risk factors and attitudes reported in the survey indicate the importance of analyzing risk behaviors related to HIV infection among the general population. Young people, especially men in more urbanized settings, are engaging in risky behaviors and may act as a "bridge" for the transmission of HIV from high-risk groups to the general population in Vietnam. PMID:22743864

  13. High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Patrick; Tran, Hoang; Hammett, Theodore; Phan, Son; Nguyen, Duong; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19-7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97-5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required. PMID:26271814

  14. Surveillance of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Using Matched Plasma and Dried Blood Spot Specimens From Voluntary Counseling and Testing Sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-01-01

    During 2007–2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%–15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18–21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs. PMID:22544201

  15. Sedimentary Evidence of Environmental Degradation in Sanliqi Lake, Daye City (A Typical Mining City, Central China).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Linghan; Ning, Dongliang; Xu, Lei; Mao, Xin; Chen, Xu

    2015-09-01

    To reconstruct the history of environmental degradation in Sanliqi Lake (Daye City, central China), multiple proxies were analyzed in a sedimentary core which was dated using (137)Cs and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs). The results show that Sanliqi Lake has experienced serious degradation during the past 60 years, resulting from a large influx of metals and nutrients. Expansion of agricultural and industrial activities between 1945 and 1993 enhanced nutrient and metal enrichment, indicated by increases in metals, SCPs, magnetic susceptibility, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and total organic carbon. Further enrichment of Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr after 1993 was linked to a recent intensification of mining activities. Decreases in Cu and Pb after 2006 probably resulted from recent environmental remediation. This study verified the coupling between lake sediment pollution and human activities in Daye City during the past 60 years. The reconstructed history of lake pollution can provide reference information for continued restoration of Sanliqi Lake and other similar heavily polluted lakes in the developing regions. PMID:26188661

  16. Community, family, and partner-related stigma experienced by pregnant and postpartum women with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Brickley, Deborah Bain; Le Dung Hanh, Dang; Nguyet, Luu Thi; Mandel, Jeffrey S; Giang, Le Truong; Sohn, Annette H

    2009-12-01

    Pregnant and postpartum women with HIV often face stigma and discrimination at home and in the community. In Vietnam, associations between HIV and the "social evils" of drug use and sex work contribute to stigmatization of people with HIV. We conducted a qualitative study to explore discrimination experienced by HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women in Ho Chi Minh City at home and in the community. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. Participants described managing disclosure of their HIV infection because of fear of stigma and discrimination, particularly to the wider community. In cases where their HIV status was disclosed, women experienced both discrimination and support. The findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to support pregnant and postpartum women with HIV, particularly during this period when they are connected to the healthcare system and more readily available for counseling. PMID:19085100

  17. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Zelner, Jonathan L.; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My VT; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  18. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Zelner, Jonathan L; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My Vt; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Baker, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  19. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  20. The Flight of Blacks from Central-City Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Martin T.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the suburbanization of the Black population and declining Black public school enrollment in big cities. Examines the causes and consequences of this trend and its relation, if any, to White flight. (CMG)

  1. [Health system of Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S

    1994-01-01

    Vietnam's health system consists of four levels: national, provincial/special city, prefecture/ward, and basic unit of town or village. Health care is managed by the Health Department at the national level and by the health and welfare section of the People's Committee at all other levels. Actual medical services are provided by the National Central Hospital at the national level, by general hospitals at the provincial/special city level, by general hospitals and multi-purpose health clinics at the prefecture/ward level, and by health stations at the basic unit level. Health services provide not only doctors, nurses, and pharmacists, but also paramedical staff, especially at the basic unit level. Just as with other developing countries, infectious diseases are the most important priorities in health/medical care policies; especially malaria, which is the number one priority followed by diarrhea. Because of well-established health stations at the basic unit level throughout the country and a relatively sufficient supply of medication, the mortality rate due to the above is low. The maternal/infant health care index of 1988 shows the following: low birth weight (14%); maternal mortality (1.4/1000); neonatal mortality (33.5/1000); and perinatal mortality (22.5/1000). Malnutrition of children under 3 years of age in farming areas, insufficient supply of drinking water, and lack of industrial health insurance are some of the problems yet to be solved. It is hoped that medical services can be a significant part of the comprehensive economic development program within the framework of Japan's international cooperation/assistance. PMID:8111100

  2. Gradients in precipitation and seasonality between Central and Eastern Asia (Mongolia, Northern Vietnam) during the Oligocene with implication for earlier monsoonal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Madelaine; Krings, Michael; Prieto, Jérome; Schneider, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Today Central and Eastern Asia are characterized by strong contrast in the amount and the annual distribution of rainfall as well as the seasonality in temperature, which is attributed to the uplifted Tibetian Plateau generating monsoonal circulation. Whereas Central Asia is characterized by strong continentality with cold winters and little rainfall concentrated in a short rainy season, the southern part of East Asia exhibit a paratropical climate with high amounts in precipitation distributed relatively even through the year. Palaeontological data (vertebrates and plant remains) from the Eocene and Oligocene of Mongolia and Northern Vietnam indicate that a strong gradient in precipitation and seasonality between Central Asia and East Asia was already established during the Oligocene, which emphasise the establishment of substantial monsoonal circulation at that time. Fossil amphibians and reptiles from Mongolia (45° N, 101° E; Böhme 2007) indicate a strong and abrupt drying and winter cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary consistent with previous results (Dupont-Nivet et al. 2007). Late Eocene assemblages are characterized by crocodiles, salamanders and diverse aquatic turtles, whereas Early Oligocene faunas constitutes of pelobatid frogs, agamid and anguid squamates, diverse species of lizards, and an erycine boide snake. The environmental preferences of both contrasting assemblages point to a severe climate event around 34 myr ago, resulting in the lost of permanent freshwater bodies under humid and winter mild climate and the spread of open landscapes without permanent freshwater bodies under a dry arid to semi-arid climate with only a short rainy season. Oligocene reptiles, macro- and micro-botanical remains, as well as palaeosols from Northern Vietnam (22° N, 107° E; Böhme et al. subm.) suggest warm-humid, (para-) tropical climates with low seasonality in temperature and precipitation. Besides a high diversity in semi-aquatic turtles and the

  3. Central electrical utility power for a satellite ring city in low earth orbit space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Ira T.; Faymon, Karl A.; Patton, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on central electrical power for a satellite ring city, defined as a group of large free flyers of 10 to 20 units with perhaps 100 people in each unit, and organized in a circle so that power can be fed from a central location. The free flyers would be located at 300 to 700 miles in altitude, and spaced about a kilometer apart. Potential activities of a ring city are listed as well as the electrical power needs. Information is given on costs and individual and centralized solar arrays and nuclear reactor systems.

  4. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely

  5. Self-reported Oral Health, Oral Hygiene, and Oral HPV Infection in At-Risk Women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M.; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women at risk for sexually transmitted infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study design Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18–45 years between August–October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of two low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. Results A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (p=.001), reporting oral lesions/problems in the past year (p=.001), and reporting a tooth loss not because of injury (p=.001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrush per day (p=.047) and gargling without toothbrush (p=.037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (p=.042); yet, the frequency of toothbrush per day did not (p=.704). Conclusion Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. PMID:26093681

  6. Novel porcine-like human G26P[19] rotavirus identified in hospitalized paediatric diarrhoea patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    My, Phan Vu Tra; Rabaa, Maia A.; Donato, Celeste; Cowley, Daniel; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Anh, Pham Hong; Vinh, Ha; Bryant, Juliet E.; Kellam, Paul; Thwaites, Guy; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Kirkwood, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    During a hospital-based diarrhoeal disease study conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from 2009 to 2010, we identified four symptomatic children infected with G26P[19] rotavirus (RV) – an atypical variant that has not previously been reported in human gastroenteritis. To determine the genetic structure and investigate the origin of this G26P[19] strain, the whole genome of a representative example was characterized, revealing a novel genome constellation: G26–P[19]–I5–R1–C1–M1–A8–N1–T1–E1–H1. The genome segments were most closely related to porcine (VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP1) and Wa-like porcine RVs (VP1–3 and NSP2–5). We proposed that this G26P[19] strain was the product of zoonotic transmission coupled with one or more reassortment events occurring in human and/or animal reservoirs. The identification of such strains has potential implications for vaccine efficacy in south-east Asia, and outlines the utility of whole-genome sequencing for studying RV diversity and zoonotic potential during disease surveillance. PMID:25121549

  7. Willingness to Use the Internet to Seek Information on HIV Prevention and Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Justumus, Pauline; Colby, Donn; Mai Doan Anh, Thi; Balestre, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies. Objectives To assess the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care and associated factors among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in venues most frequented by MSM and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate factors associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Results A total of 358 MSM were approached for the survey and 222 questionnaires (62.0%) were eligible for analyses. Overall, 76.1% of the respondents reported that they were willing to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. A number of male partners in last year less than or equal to 3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.07, 95% Confidence interval: 1.40–6.73), a history of STI screening (4.10, 1.02–16.48) and HIV testing (3.23, 1.20–8.64) and having ever sought a male sexual partner through the Internet (3.56, 1.55–8.18) were significantly positively associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Conclusion The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM. PMID:23977048

  8. Influence of evapotranspiration on thermal comfort in central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbach, A.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    In future, more and more people will be exposed to the negative thermal effects of urban climate, which will be exacerbated by predicted climate change. In regard to urban climate studies, it is necessary to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies tailored to the problem area and to include them in the local planning process. Urban green spaces or water bodies could help to mitigate the radiation and air temperature. For this purpose eddy-covariance technique has been carried out in Oberhausen (Germany; 51° N, 6° E) between 15 August 2010 and 14 August 2011 to quantify turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes in areas with various types of urban land use. The results show that sensible heat flux (QH) is 20 % higher, latent heat flux (QE) 90 % lower at the urban (URB) site compared to the suburban one (SUB). Furthermore, partition of the turbulent heat fluxes (QH/Q* resp. QE/Q*) clearly depends on plan area density (λP). The human-biometeorological thermal index, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), demonstrates that green spaces counteract growing thermal stress on city-dwellers due to improving thermal comfort. Aside from the positive effect of shading, inner-city green spaces can only be effective if an adequate water supply is ensured. Otherwise, the positive thermal effects of green spaces resulting from transpiration will be reduced to a minimum or eliminated entirely, which is confirmed by the measured values. Additional planning recommendations for urban planners within cities located at mid-latitudes derived from measuring results are given.

  9. Scenario-based tsunami hazard assessment for the coast of Vietnam from the Manila Trench source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong Nguyen, Phuong; Cong Bui, Que; Ha Vu, Phuong; The Pham, Truyen

    2014-11-01

    This paper assesses the impact of tsunamis in the East Vietnam Sea potentially originated from a giant rupture along the Manila Trench to the Vietnamese coast. Tsunami heights and arrival times to the major forecast points along the Vietnamese coast are computed using COMCOT model. The results of the worst case scenario (Mw = 9.3) and two extreme scenarios were used to assess the tsunami hazards. The simulation results show that Vietnamese coast can be divided into three parts with different levels of tsunami hazard. The highest threat exists along the coasts of Central and North-Central Vietnam, from Quang Binh to Ba Ria - Vung Tau provinces, with maximum wave height of 18 m observed near Quang Ngai coast, and a tsunami would reach this coastline in two hours at the earliest. The northern coastal zone of Vietnam has lower tsunami hazard. In the worst case scenario, maximum amplitudes of tsunami waves at Hai Phong sea port and Nam Dinh city, North Vietnam, are 3.5 m and 3.7 m, respectively, while the travel times to these sites are much longer, over 8 h. The southern coastal zone of Vietnam has very low tsunami hazard. In the worst case scenario, the maximum amplitude at Ca Mau is 0.12 m, while the travel time is over 10 h.

  10. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: method development and application to Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, H.; Trepat, O. M.; Hung, N. N.; Chinh, D. T.; Merz, B.; Dung, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas, and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims at the analysis of fluvial and pluvial flood hazard individually, but also at developing a method for the analysis of combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. Fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. Pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data, and a stochastic rain storm generator. Inundation was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphical Processor Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. All hazards - fluvial, pluvial and combined - were accompanied by an uncertainty estimation considering the natural variability of the flood events. This resulted in probabilistic flood hazard maps showing the maximum inundation depths for a selected set of probabilities of occurrence, with maps showing the expectation (median) and the uncertainty by

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Isfahan city, central Iran, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Rasool; Sharifi, Forough; Bagherpour, Bahram; Safari, Marzieh

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are important enteric pathogens. Poverty, low quality of food and water supply and poor sanitation systems are the important factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. These kinds of infections can be a good index for hygienic and sanitation status of the society. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among humans referred to Dr. Sharifi Clinical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran, 2014. In this cross sectional study, 652 fecal samples (286 males and 366 females) from humans who had stool examination test from January to August 2014 were chosen. Microscopic examination for parasitic infections has been carried out using wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples underwent trichrome staining method for accurate identification of protozoa. Intestinal parasitic infections were observed in 68 (10.42 %) out of 652 studied humans. Forty eight Blastocystis hominis (7.36 %), thirteen Endolimax nana (1.99 %), nine Giardia lamblia (1.38 %), five Entamoeba coli (0.76 %), four Chilomastix mesnili (0.61 %) and two Iodamoeba butschlii (0.15 %) were the observed protozoa in the studied population. B. hominis, E. nana and C. mesnili were found to be significantly more prevalent in people with loose stool specimen. Considering the helminthic infections, only one case (0.15 %) that was excreted Taenia saginata proglottids has been documented among 652 studied humans. Based on the findings of the present study intestinal parasitic infections in Isfahan city has been dramatically decreased over the past years and shows a good hygienic and sanitation status of the city. PMID:27605766

  12. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: concept development and application to Can Tho city, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martínez Trepat, Oriol; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thi Chinh, Do; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either a fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of a combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims to analyse a fluvial and a pluvial flood hazard individually, but also to develop a method for the analysis of a combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as an example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River, which can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events, causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. The fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula-based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. The pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data and a stochastic rainstorm generator. Inundation for all flood scenarios was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. The combined fluvial-pluvial flood scenarios were derived by adding rainstorms to the fluvial flood events during the highest fluvial water levels. The probabilities of occurrence of the combined events were determined assuming independence of the two flood types and taking the seasonality and probability of

  13. Temporal and spatial assessment of river surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: a study in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Dwirahmadi, Febi; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Trung Hieu; Dinh, Tuan Anh Diep

    2015-05-01

    The present study is an evaluation of temporal/spatial variations of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques, comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Eleven water quality parameters were monitored at 38 different sites in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area of Vietnam from 2008 to 2012. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the 38 sampling sites into three clusters, representing mixed urban-rural areas, agricultural areas and industrial zone. FA/PCA resulted in three latent factors for the entire research location, three for cluster 1, four for cluster 2, and four for cluster 3 explaining 60, 60.2, 80.9, and 70% of the total variance in the respective water quality. The varifactors from FA indicated that the parameters responsible for water quality variations are related to erosion from disturbed land or inflow of effluent from sewage plants and industry, discharges from wastewater treatment plants and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities and industrial effluents, and contamination by sewage waste with faecal coliform bacteria through sewer and septic systems. Discriminant analysis (DA) revealed that nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH₃ are the discriminating parameters in space, affording 67% correct assignation in spatial analysis; pH and NO₂ are the discriminating parameters according to season, assigning approximately 60% of cases correctly. The findings suggest a possible revised sampling strategy that can reduce the number of sampling sites and the indicator parameters responsible for large variations in water quality. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation of temporal/spatial variations in water quality assessment and management. PMID:25847419

  14. Landslide susceptibility analysis in central Vietnam based on an incomplete landslide inventory: Comparison of a new method to calculate weighting factors by means of bivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Fink, Manfred; Tünschel, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Vietnam is regarded as a country strongly impacted by climate change. Population and economic growth result in additional pressures on the ecosystems in the region. In particular, changes in landuse and precipitation extremes lead to a higher landslide susceptibility in the study area (approx. 12,400 km2), located in central Vietnam and impacted by a tropical monsoon climate. Hence, this natural hazard is a serious problem in the study area. A probability assessment of landslides is therefore undertaken through the use of bivariate statistics. However, the landslide inventory based only on field campaigns does not cover the whole area. To avoid a systematic bias due to the limited mapping area, the investigated regions are depicted as the viewshed in the calculations. On this basis, the distribution of the landslides is evaluated in relation to the maps of 13 parameters, showing the strongest correlation to distance to roads and precipitation increase. An additional weighting of the input parameters leads to better results, since some parameters contribute more to landslides than others. The method developed in this work is based on the validation of different parameter sets used within the statistical index method. It is called "omit error" because always omitting another parameter leads to the weightings, which describe how strong every single parameter improves or reduces the objective function. Furthermore, this approach is used to find a better input parameter set by excluding some parameters. After this optimization, nine input parameters are left, and they are weighted by the omit error method, providing the best susceptibility map with a success rate of 92.9% and a prediction rate of 92.3%. This is an improvement of 4.4% and 4.2%, respectively, compared to the basic statistical index method with the 13 input parameters.

  15. WINTERTIME MEASUREMENTS OF ACIDIC AEROSOLS IN WUHAN: A CITY IN CENTRAL CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-week intensive ambient aerosol study was conducted in December 1988 in Wuhan (Hubei Province), a city of nearly 2 million located on the Yangtze River in central China (PRC). his is an industrial region where soft coal burning is widespread and emission controls for vehicle...

  16. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE...

  17. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE)...

  18. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  19. White Flight and Central City Loss: Application of an Analytic Migration Framework. CDE Working Paper 77-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.

    This paper uses an analytic migration framework to assess the aggregate impact of selected community level factors on white population losses in central cities of large metropolitan areas. This framework describes analytically distinct components of local and long distance migration streams which contribute directly to central city population…

  20. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban climate by remote satellite perspective: a case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Khanh Linh, N.; Van Chuong, H.

    2015-04-01

    Urban climate, one of the challenges of human being in 21 century, is known as the results of land use/cover transformation. Its characteristics are distinguished by different varieties of climatic conditions in comparison with those of less built-up areas. The alterations lead to "Urban Heat Island", in which temperature in urban places is higher than surrounding environment. This happens not only in mega cities but also in less urbanized sites. The results determine the change of land use/cover and land surface temperature in Danang city by using multi-temporal Landsat and ASTER data for the period of 1990-2009. Based on the supervised classification method of maximum likelihood algorithm, satellite images in 1990, 2003, 2009 were classified into five classes: water, forest, shrub, agriculture, barren land and built-up area. For accuracy assessment, the error metric tabulations of mapped classes and reference classes were made. The Kappa statistics, derived from error matrices, were over 80% for all of land use maps. An comparison change detection algorithm was made in three intervals, 1990-2003, 2003-2009 and 1990-2009. The results showed that built-up area increased from 8.95% to 17.87% between 1990 and 2009, while agriculture, shrub and barren decreased from 12.98% to 7.53%, 15.72% to 9.89% and 3.88% to 1.77% due to urbanization that resulted from increasing of urban population and economic development, respectively. Land surface temperature (LST) maps were retrieved from thermal infrared bands of Landsat and ASTER data. The result indicated that the temperature in study area increased from 39oC to 41oC for the period of 1990-2009. Our analysis showed that built-up area had the highest LST values, whereas water bodies had the least LST. This study is expected to be useful for decision makers to make an appropriate land use planning which can mitigate the effect to urban climate.

  1. Integral Turbulence Statistics Over a Central European City Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Siedlecki, Mariusz

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric measurements over 5 years (2005-2010) at two sites in Łódź, central Poland have been analyzed to develop a better understanding of turbulence in urban areas. Fast response wind velocity, temperature, humidity and CO2 concentration were measured using sonic anemometers and gas analyzers, placed on narrow masts at 37 and 42 m above the ground. The measurements were used to calculate standard deviations of each parameter, and were then normalized according to local Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and plotted as a function of stability parameter ζ = z'/ L. Results for the wind components show typical scaling with a power law with exponent ±1/3 in the free convection limit, and that approaches a constant value close to neutral stratification. For stable conditions, the constant value in the neutral limit remains the same for stability parameters lower than 0.1-0.2, then increases. The normalized standard deviation of temperature fits the -1/3 law in the free convection limit, approaching a constant value within a stable limit. However, it exhibits hyperbolic characteristics for close to neutral stratification. The normalized standard deviations for humidity and CO2 concentration exhibit scaling similar to the wind components in the unstable regime and remain constant in the stable domain. The results for the wind components and for temperature are in the range of various functions found in other studies. The absolute values for humidity and CO2 concentration seem to be slightly higher, but only single examples of such investigations can be found in the literature.

  2. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals. PMID:25116489

  3. The worldwide air transportation network: Anomalous centrality, community structure, and cities' global roles

    PubMed Central

    Guimerà, R.; Mossa, S.; Turtschi, A.; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the global structure of the worldwide air transportation network, a critical infrastructure with an enormous impact on local, national, and international economies. We find that the worldwide air transportation network is a scale-free small-world network. In contrast to the prediction of scale-free network models, however, we find that the most connected cities are not necessarily the most central, resulting in anomalous values of the centrality. We demonstrate that these anomalies arise because of the multicommunity structure of the network. We identify the communities in the air transportation network and show that the community structure cannot be explained solely based on geographical constraints and that geopolitical considerations have to be taken into account. We identify each city's global role based on its pattern of intercommunity and intracommunity connections, which enables us to obtain scale-specific representations of the network. PMID:15911778

  4. Distribution and depth profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tri, Tran Manh; Anh, Hoang Quoc; Tham, Trinh Thi; Van Quy, Tran; Long, Nguyen Quang; Nhung, Dao Thi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Nishida, Masayo; Maeda, Yasuaki; Van Boi, Luu; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-05-15

    Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were measured in 35 surface sediment samples collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam. The mean concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, and DDTs in surface sediments were 86.5, 37.0, and 44.5pgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, nine PCDDs, eleven PCDFs, and twelve dl-PCBs were also examined in 19 sediment core samples collected from five locations. Concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dl-PCBs ranged from 200 to 460, 0.39 to 2.9, and 1.6 to 22pgg(-1), respectively. OCDD was detected at the highest concentration, ranged from 100 to 300pgg(-1). Generally, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs at shallower depths were higher, meanwhile the depth profiles of dl-PCBs in sediment cores were different than the depth profiles of PCDD/Fs. The results suggest that the pollution of PCBs might be from many different sources leading to the variation between depths. PMID:26994835

  5. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  6. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  7. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  8. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard risk maps in Mexico City and Morelia, central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Solano-Rojas, D.; Hernández-Espriu, J.; Cigna, F.; Wdowinski, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Falorni, G.; Bohane, A.; Colombo, D.

    2012-12-01

    Subsidence and surface faulting have affected urban areas in Central Mexico for decades and the process has intensified as a consequence of urban sprawl and economic growth. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and in several cities it is becoming a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. Despite its potential for damaging housing, and other urban infrastructure, the economic impact of this phenomena is poorly known, in part because detailed, city-wide subsidence induced faulting risk maps have not been published before. Nevertheless, modern remote sensing techniques are most suitable for this task. We present the results of a risk analysis for subsidence induced surface faulting in two cities in central Mexico: Morelia and Mexico City. Our analysis in Mexico City and Morelia is based on a risk matrix using the horizontal subsidence gradient from a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (Morelia) and SqueeSAR (Mexico City) analysis and 2010 census population distribution data from Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Defining subsidence induced surface faulting vulnerability within these urbanized areas is best determined using both magnitude and horizontal subsidence gradient. Our Morelia analysis (597,000 inhabitants with localized subsidence rates up to 80 mm/yr) shows that 7% of the urbanized area is under a high to very high risk level, and 14% of its population (11.7% and 2.3% respectively) lives within these areas. In the case of the Mexico City (15'490,000 inhabitants for the

  9. Modelling urban climate under global climate change in Central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Bokwa, Anita; Dobrovolny, Petr; Gal, Tamas; Geletic, Jan; Gulyas, Agnes; Hajto, Monika; Hollosi, Brigitta; Kielar, Rafal; Lehnert, Michal; Skarbit, Nora; Stastny, Pavel; Svec, Marek; Unger, Janos; Vysoudil, Miroslav; Walawender, Jakub P.

    2015-04-01

    The global and regional climate warming is expected to increase the heat load in urban areas. In order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies in particular cities, it is necessary to evaluate possible range of heat load increase, in terms of both its magnitude and spatial extent. The present study shows preliminary results of an international project aimed to evaluate the expected heat load increase in four Central European cities (Krakow, Poland; Bratislava, Slovakia; Brno, Czech Republic and Szeged, Hungary) using the non-hydrostatic MUKLIMO 3 model developed by DWD (Deutscher Wetterdienst) for micro-scale urban climate and planning applications. The investigation is focused on the spatial gradients of temperature during potential summer day conditions and possible change in heat load signal under future climate conditions. In order to identify thermally sensitive areas within the city, idealized simulations of temperature, wind and relative humidity in the urban area are performed based on the orography and land use data with 100 m resolution. The model setup uses standardize classification of land use properties based on local climate zones (LCZ) classification system (Stewart and Oke, 2012) which allows inter-comparison of the modelling results. The Landsat satellite images are used to identify typical land use classes in all the cities. The climatological changes in urban heat load are evaluated in terms of expected increase in the mean annual number of summer days (Tmax ≥ 25°C). The 30-year climatological indices are calculated based on the cuboid method. Timeseries of mean daily temperature, wind and relative humidity from a local meteorological station are used to evaluate the climatic indices for the recent climatic period, while the future climate signal is based on the data from regional climate projections of the EURO-CORDEX project. The project "Urban climate in Central European cities and global climate change" is funded within the

  10. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  11. Hydrology of the Floral City Pool of Tsala Apopka Lake, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Tsala Apopka Lake, in west-central Florida, has an area of about 19,000 acres and is divided into three water-management pools, with the Floral City Pool, the most upgradient. The Floral City Pool, which has a surface area of approximately 4,750 acres, contains an extensive combination of lakes, wetlands, and connecting canals. The Pool receives inflow from the Withlacoochee River through two canals. Outflow is through one manmade canal and one natural slough. Canal flow is partially controlled by manmade structures. A cumulative deficit of 19.4 inches of rainfall from August 1984 through May 1985 reduced surface-water inflow to the Floral City Pool to about 0.5 cu ft/sec by May 1985. During May 1985, pool levels declined approximately 0.04 ft/day. By the end of May, there was no observable outflow. From June 1985 through September 1985, 39.8 inches of rainfall caused above-average inflow to the Floral City Pool and a pool-level increase of 6.2 ft. The inflow of 340 CFS nearly equaled the outflow of 338 CFS by the end of September. (USGS)

  12. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  13. Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Pcdd/fs in South China Sea and Background Area in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, K.; Thuan, N. T.; Anh, N. X.; Lin, N.

    2011-12-01

    During the Vietnam conflict, United States (US) forces sprayed a greater volume of defoliant (Agent Orange) with higher PCDD/F content in central Vietnam. The Vietnamese have been exposed to these levels during spraying primarily through contact with former US military infrastructure. In this study, the concentrations of atmospheric PCDD/Fs observed at three background stations (Fig. 1) at Dongsha Island (Sites A) in South China Sea, Da Nang (Site B) city and Son La (Site C) in central and northern Vietnam, respectively, to further understand the PCDD/F contamination in Vietnam. The Measurements indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations at Sites A, B and C were 1.66~10.8, 23.4~146 and 11.1~59.5 fg I-TEQ/m3, respectively, during the spring season in 2010 and 2011. The significantly lower PCDD/F concentrations and contents in suspended particles (23.7~33.9 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP) measured at Site A in the South China Sea can be attributed to the lack of any combustion sources within almost 300 km of this island. However, the significantly higher PCDD/F contents in suspended particles (270~300 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP) were measured at Site B in central Vietnam. In addition, Fig. 2 shows that the distribution of PCDD/F congeners measured at Da Nang station was quite different from those measured at other station with high PCDD distribution (>85%) especially in OCDD (>70%). We consider that the high fraction of PCDDs observed at Da Nang probably originated as anthropogenic emission from specific source in Vietnam.

  14. PBDEs and PCBs in sediments of the Thi Nai Lagoon (Central Vietnam) and soils from its mainland.

    PubMed

    Romano, Stefania; Piazza, Rossano; Mugnai, Cristian; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Huu, Cu Nguyen; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; Hoai, Nhon Dang; Frignani, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    Concentration and distribution of PCBs, PCB 11, and PBDEs in both surficial sediment and soil samples, taken from a zone subject to recent accelerated development, were investigated to assess the environmental quality and understand both natural and anthropogenic processes that influence contaminant behaviors. Values of PCB and PBDE are in the lower range of those reported in literature, typical of low impacted coastal zones. This could be due to efficient processes of resuspension and removal. Contaminants in the lagoon showed higher concentrations in sediments from sites close to the city and the outfalls of the industrial area, while soils showed maximum values in the northern samples. In addition, congener patterns and statistical analyses suggest the presence of effective degradation processes, especially for PBDEs, with the exception of the most concentrated samples that may indicate a direct input. PCB 11 is a significant component (up to 18%) in most lagoon sediments. Its presence is strongly associated with fine particles, thus the distribution seems to be driven mainly by the system hydrodynamic and does not trace the sources. Due to evaporation, only flooded agricultural soils show a similar relative abundance of this congener. PMID:23182686

  15. Early identification and intervention services for children with autism in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Cong, Tran; Weiss, Bahr; Toan, Khuc Nang; Le Thu, Tran Thi; Trang, Nguyen Thi Nha; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thuy, Dao Thi Thu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In high income countries in Europe and North America, early identification and intervention for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been linked to improved long-term outcomes. However, in most low and middle income countries (LMIC) little is known about use or availability of such services, which limits the ability of policy and development planning. The purpose of the present study was assess the use of ASD services in Vietnam, an Asian LMIC, in order to identify areas within the field that should be specifically targeted to improve ASD services in Vietnam. METHODS Surveys were conducted in six different cities across Vietnam with 90 parents/caregivers of children with ASD, 115 professionals working with children with ASD, and 10 directors of agencies providing ASD services. Parents/caregivers’ survey assessed demographics and information regarding their child’s symptoms and services the child received. Professionals’ survey assessed their demographic and professional background, the ASD services they provide, and their perspective on the quality of ASD services at their agency. Directors’ survey included these same questions as well as additional questions regarding the operation of the agency. RESULTS Early identification and intervention ASD services are available in Vietnam, at least in major cities. However, there is a lack of well-trained professionals, the tools used for evaluation and diagnosis are limited, outdated and unstandardized, and the quality of services is questionable. Most importantly, a scientific evidence base for services is absent, and the country lacks an official governmental policy for supporting children with ASD. CONCLUSIONS Research directly assessing the quality of ASD services in Vietnam is needed. Most centrally, efforts at facilitating governmental policy and support advocacy are needed to increase the likelihood that families and children with ASD will receive appropriate and effective services. PMID:27088123

  16. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  17. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  18. Wintertime measurements of aerosol acidity and trace elements in wuhan, a city in central china

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Lioy, P.J.; Zelenka, M.; Jing, L.; Lin, Y.N.

    1991-01-01

    In the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), the pervasive use of soft coal leads to situations where the concentrations of SO2 and particulate matter approach or surpass those historically observed in London. A cooperative investigation of the effects of air pollution upon the lung function of children in five Chinese cities has been developed among China EPA, U.S. EPA and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. The paper presents initial results of a winter air pollution field study conducted in Wuhan, one of the selected cities. A 2-week intensive ambient aerosol study was conducted in December 1988 in Wuhan (Hubei Province), a city of nearly 2 million located on the Yangtze River in central China (P.R.C.). This is an industrial region where soft coal burning is widespread, and emission controls for vehicles and industrial facilities are minimal. The sampling site was located in one of the civic centers where residential and commercial density is highest. The purpose of this initial intensive study period was to obtain information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the aerosol species in the urban P.R.C. setting. The focus was the composition and acidity of fine particulate material.

  19. Establishment of primary health care in Vietnam.

    PubMed Central

    Birt, C A

    1990-01-01

    Basic demographic and epidemiological data relevant to health problems in Vietnam are described in this paper. Existing health service arrangements are referred to, with particular emphasis on the strategy for development of primary health care. The establishment of the paediatric centre in Ho Chi Minh City is reported, and examples of its valuable work in primary health care development are described. PMID:2121182

  20. Urbanization, migration, and Vietnam's spatial structure.

    PubMed

    Forbes, D

    1996-04-01

    In North Vietnam during the war years from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, cities were evacuated to minimize damage from bombing. As such, the urbanization process was checked. In the South, however, urban areas grew rapidly as people fled the fighting in the villages. Reunification of the country led to an outflow of residents from the largest southern cities back to the North or into new economic zones. From the mid-1970s to the early 1980s, Vietnam's total urban population remained static before beginning to increase slowly during the latter half of the 1980s. The rate of urbanization accelerated in the first half of the 1990s, although that process is not reflected in the available statistics. During 1979-89, the smaller cities grew faster than the larger ones, while most interprovincial migration occurred from North to South. Unemployment is a major problem in Vietnam's growing cities. The country's economic reforms require a more fluid labor market with fewer restrictions upon labor mobility. These needs are gradually undermining the strategy designed to contain urbanization, forcing planners to rethink urban development. The author discusses developing Vietnam's three main urban development corridors. PMID:12292069

  1. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  2. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

  3. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

  4. Robustness and closeness centrality for self-organized and planned cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masucci, A. Paolo; Molinero, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Street networks are important infrastructural transportation systems that cover a great part of the planet. It is now widely accepted that transportation properties of street networks are better understood in the interplay between the street network itself and the so-called information or dual network, which embeds the topology of the street network's navigation system. In this work, we present a novel robustness analysis, based on the interaction between the primal and the dual transportation layer for two large metropolises, London and Chicago, thus considering the structural differences to intentional attacks for self-organized and planned cities. We elaborate the results through an accurate closeness centrality analysis in the Euclidean space and in the relationship between primal and dual space. Interestingly enough, we find that even if the considered planar graphs display very distinct properties, the information space induce them to converge toward systems which are similar in terms of transportation properties.

  5. Twentieth century atmospheric metal fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Chillrud, S.N.; Simpson, H.J.; Bopp, R.F.

    1999-03-01

    It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers.

  6. Twentieth Century Atmospheric Metal Fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; SIMPSON, H. JAMES; ROSS, JAMES M.; SHUSTER, EDWARD L.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; WALSH, DAN C.; CHOY, CRISTINE CHIN; TOLLEY, LAEL-RUTH; YARME, ALLISON

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values (>70 μg cm−2 yr−1) from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers. PMID:21850150

  7. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  8. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  9. Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was

  10. Natural radioactivity and external dose assessment of surface soils in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huy, N Q; Hien, P D; Luyen, T V; Hoang, D V; Hiep, H T; Quang, N H; Long, N Q; Nhan, D D; Binh, N T; Hai, P S; Ngo, N T

    2012-09-01

    In this study, natural radioactivity in surface soils of Vietnam and external dose assessment to human population, deduced from activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K nuclides, were determined. From 528 soil samples collected in 63 provinces of Vietnam, including five centrally governed cities, the average activities were obtained and equal to 42.77 ± 18.15 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 59.84 ± 19.81 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 411.93 ± 230.69 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The outdoor absorbed dose rates (OADRs) in air at 1 m above the ground level for 63 provinces were calculated, and their average value was 71.72 ± 24.72 nGy h(-1), with a range from 17.45 to 149.40 nGy h(-1). The population-weighted OADR of Vietnam was 66.70 nGy h(-1), which lies in the range of 18-93 nGy h(-1) found in the World. From the OADRs obtained, it was estimated that the outdoor annual effective dose and indoor annual effective dose to the population were 0.082  and 0.458 mSv, which are higher than the corresponding values 0.07 and 0.41 mSv, respectively, of the World. The radium equivalent activity Ra(eq) and the external hazard index H(ex) of surface soils of Vietnam are lower than the corresponding permissible limits of 370 Bq kg(-1) and 1, respectively. Therefore, soil from Vietnam is safe for the human population when it is used as a building material. PMID:22434923

  11. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  12. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Post-Top Lighting at Central Park in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.; Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2012-09-30

    A review of five post-top light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian luminaires installed in New York City's Central Park for possible replacement to the existing metal halide post-top luminaire. This report reviews the energy savings potential and lighting delivered by the LED post-top luminaires.

  13. Molecular tracers of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Beizhan Yan; Teofilo A. Abrajano; Richard F. Bopp; Damon A. Chaky; Lucille A. Benedict; Steven N. Chillrud

    2005-09-15

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on {sup 210}Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by {sup 137}Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R (the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction) and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP (1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP), retene to retene plus chrysene (Ret/(Ret + Chy)), and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene (Fl/(Fl + Py))) provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Vietnam plunges ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    Vietnam is moving fast. Facing the need to double its installed power generation capacity by the year 2000, Vietnam is pursuing a range of development alternatives to add an estimated 3,000 MW of new power plants. As part of the country`s progress toward a market economy, Vietnam has relaxed its rules regarding investment in power plants. The country enacted a new electricity law early in 1995, paving the way for private participation in the power sector.

  15. Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  16. Can I afford free treatment?: Perceived consequences of health care provider choices among people with tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, K; Tran, T U; Thuong, L M; Quy, H T; Diwan, V

    2001-03-01

    Vietnam has a well-organised National TB Control Programme (NTP) with outstanding treatment results. Excellent prospect of cure is provided free of charge. Still, some people prefer to pay for their TB treatment themselves in private clinics. This is a potential threat to TB control since no notification of cases treated in the private sector occurs, and there is no control of the effectiveness of treatment provided in private clinics. Using a qualitative approach within a grounded theory framework, this study explores health-seeking behaviour among people with TB, applying a specific focus on reasons for choices of private versus pubic health care providers. The study identifies a number of characteristics of private TB care, which both seem attractive to patients and at the same time contrast sharply with the structure of the NTP strategy. These include flexible diagnostic procedures, no administrative procedures to establish eligibility for treatment, flexible choices of drug regimens, non-supervised treatment (no DOT), no tracing of defaulters in the household, no official registration of TB cases and thus less threat to personal integrity. A possibility to demand individualised service through the use of fee-for-service payments directly to physicians also seems attractive to many patients. A number of the components of the NTP strategy that have been put in place in order to secure optimal public health outcomes are lacking in the private sector. A dilemma for TB control is that this seems to be an important reason for why many people with TB opt for private providers where quality of care is virtually uncontrolled. The global threat of TB has led to calls for forceful measures to control TB. However, based on the findings in this study it is argued that the use of rigid approaches to TB control that do not encompass a strong component of responsiveness towards the needs of individuals may be counterproductive for public health. PMID:11234866

  17. In Vietnam, Manufacturing Masterworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam, with its cheap labor and lax copyright laws, is a counterfeiter's dream. Books are sold hot off the photocopier and Hollywood's latest blockbusters can be had on DVD's for about a dollar. But it is in art forgery that Vietnam excels. With a stable of neoclassically trained art students, who spend years learning to copy the masters, art…

  18. Emergency medicine in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Richards, J R

    1997-04-01

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent economic developments, as the country attempts to start a market economy, have had a profound impact on its health care system. This report describes the state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Vietnam and possibilities for the future. PMID:9095019

  19. Feasibility of a mindfulness-based intervention to address youth issues in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao N; Trieu, Don T

    2016-06-01

    Youth problems including risky sex, drug use, violence and mental health issues are on the rise in Vietnam. Mindfulness is proposed as one way to address unskillful responses to stress that give rise to these behavioral and psychosocial issues in Vietnam. This study explores the feasibility of a mindfulness program for adolescents and young adults in a central city in Vietnam. The mindfulness-based intervention was comprised 1-h daily session over 3 weeks that was conducted at two different sites, one with handicapped adolescents/young adults at the Vocational School for Handicapped and the other with at-risk youth at a semi-private high school. Forty-two Vietnamese youth participants and five Vietnamese teachers/facilitators who were trained in the mindfulness program provided personal reflections of their experiences. Analyses of the qualitative data suggest that mindfulness was enthusiastically received and accepted by both youth and teachers. There is strong indication that mindfulness is promising as a prevention strategy to help with stress and to build important life skills among Vietnamese youth. PMID:25452422

  20. Selected characteristics of the atmospheric turbulence over a central European city centre - spectral statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuniak, K.

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the structure of turbulence is essential for many practical applications including atmospheric dispersion. In accordance of Monin-Obukhov (M-O) similarity theory, over homogenous surface both spectra and normalized velocity standard deviations, should depend on stability parameter, z/L, where L is Obukhov length and z sensor height. In the urban atmosphere applicability of M-O is still questionable because shrinking of inertial sublayer where this theory is supposed to work. The objective of this study is to investigate spectral turbulence statistics at two urban measurement points located in Łódź, central Poland (population ca 750,000). Turbulent fluxes were measured with the aid of fast respond sensors (sonic anemometers and gas analyzers) at two points in the city centre. At the firs point data were collected in years 2000-2003 and at the second point measurements are continued since 2005. At both stations sensors were mounted at thin masts at the level (37m and 42m above ground) significantly exciding mean building height (11m and 17m respectively). Calculated spectral characteristics include spectra and cospectra in different stability classes focused on verification of the Monin-Obukhov relationships. Results show that power spectra of wind components for close to neutral conditions fit to reference spectrum based on Kansas experiment. For a non-neutral stability wind spectral peaks show a shift to lower frequencies as instability increases. Results for a temperature spectra and cospectra do not lead to clear conclusion on spectral function shape and applicability of M-O theory.

  1. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  2. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  3. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  4. Holocene vegetation, fire and erosional history of City of Rocks National Reserve, South-Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weppner, K.; Pierce, J. L.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Climate exerts a primary control over vegetation, fire occurrence and fire-related erosion; however, vegetation is responsible for fire pattern, frequency and intensity (i.e. fire regime), as well as the nature of the fire-related erosional response (e.g. debris flows, sheet floods). Over short timescales (months to years), climate controls the availability and moisture content of vegetation as fuel. Over longer timescales (100 to 1,000 years), climate modulates the composition and structure of plant populations, which alters the associated fire regime. To explore these relationships, we compare an alluvial charcoal stratigraphy with a woodrat midden reconstruction of vegetation at City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO), south-central Idaho. CIRO is relatively shallow-sloped terrain (mean slope ~15.6°), but bedrock knobs of erodible granite make basins responsive recorders of erosion. CIRO is dominated today by pinyon-juniper woodland, with the main species, Pinus monophylla (single-needle pinyon) and Juniperus osteosperma (Utah Juniper), occurring at their northern limits and presumed to have arrived in the late Holocene. Radiocarbon dating of 37 alluvial charcoal samples from 16 field sites in arroyos, stream terraces and alluvial fans show five episodes of enhanced fire activity. Early Holocene fires (11.7-9.5 ka) burned during shifting climate after the LGM. Mid-Holocene fires (7.2-6.7 ka) burned during a prolonged period of low lake levels (reconstructed from regional lakes and the nearby Lake Bonneville record) preceded by an extended wet period. Moderate fire activity (2.5-2 ka) corresponds to the arrival of pinyon, and follows a 2 ka period of relatively wetter conditions (~4-2 ka), indicated by regional midden records. Late Holocene fires (850-700 cal yr BP) occurred during the MCA, when regional lake levels were low and pinyon density increased. The greatest peak in fire occurred at ~550 cal yr BP during the LIA, after the establishment of pinyon as the

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Central City/Clear Creek, Colorado (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-30

    The focus is on five abandoned mines/tunnels proximal to the cities of Idaho Springs, Black Hawk, and Central City and the influence of acid mine drainage from those tunnels on adjacent stream courses. Surface-water contamination results from acid-mine drainage emanating from the five tunnels and from seepage of ground water through tailings piles both proximal to these tunnels and along stream courses. Approximately 1200 lbs per day of dissolved and suspended metals are discharged to the Clear Creek drainage from the five mine tunnels. These dissolved and suspended metal loadings have resulted in a significant depletion of aquatic life and have potential impact to sediments and downstream users of surface and ground water. There are ten contaminants of concern including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluoride, lead, manganese, nickel, silver and zinc. Interim remedies are described.

  6. Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Elsik, W.C. )

    1993-02-01

    Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

  7. Comparisons of urban and rural bioclimatological conditions in the case of a central-European city.

    PubMed

    Unger, J

    1999-11-01

    This paper examines the influence of a medium-sized city (Szeged, Hungary) on the bioclimatological conditions of human beings. With the help of suitable indices for the available data set, differences in the annual and diurnal variation of human bioclimatic characteristics between an urban and rural environment are evaluated over a 3-year period. These indices are the thermohygrometric index (THI, defined by air temperature and relative humidity), the relative strain index (RSI, defined by air temperature and vapour pressure) and the number of "beergarden days" (defined by air temperature at 2100 hours). In urban and rural areas, "hot" THI conditions characterize 6% and 1% of the year, "comfortable" conditions 30% and 20%, "cool" conditions 10% and 12%, and "cold" conditions 54% and 66% respectively. Over longer periods (e.g. one, month) RSI remains below the threshold value for strong heat stress in the city. The monthly frequencies of beergarden days show that these days appears from May until October and the city has almost twice as many pleasant evenings as the rural areas. Consequently, the city favourably modifies the main climatological elements within the general climate of its region; periods likely to be comfortable are therefore found more frequently in the city than in rural areas. PMID:10639906

  8. [Multi-gradients of land surface temperature in mountainous cities with rapid urbanization: a case study in central area of Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Han, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Tao; Ye, Lin

    2012-06-01

    By using TM/ETM+ and MODIS images, the land surface temperature (LST) and relative heat island intensity (RHII) of the central area of Chongqing City were extracted to analyze the distribution patterns of the LST and RHII along the multi-gradients of topography, population, and gross domestic product (GDP) as well as the potential quantitative relationships. The LST and RHII manifested a non-monotonically decreasing trend along the gradients of elevation and relief degree, respectively, both with a significant quadratic polynomial relationship. The maximum RHII appeared at 200-350 m elevation section due to the massive urban construction activities, and had significant linear relationships with the population density and the GDP per square kilometer. The RHII rose about 0.10 degrees C when the population density increased 1000 people per square kilometer, and rose about 0.08 degrees C when the GDP per square kilometer increased 10 million RMB Yuan. PMID:22937657

  9. RMIT Vietnam and Vietnam's Development: Risk and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmoth, David

    2004-01-01

    To help bridge the gap between demand and supply for tertiary education, Vietnam has opened to direct, foreign providers, and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) International University Vietnam is the first of this category. By sponsoring a large project in a country that some see as risky, RMIT Vietnam needs to be triply viable.…

  10. Land subsidence in major cities of Central Mexico: Interpreting InSAR-derived land subsidence mapping with hydrogeological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Arroyo-Domínguez, Norma; Martel, Richard; Calderhead, Angus I.; Normand, Jonathan C. L.; Gárfias, Jaime; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Significant structural damages to urban infrastructures caused by compaction of over-exploited aquifers are an important problem in Central Mexico. While the case of Mexico City has been well-documented, insight into land subsidence problems in other cities of Central Mexico is still limited. Among the cities concerned, we present and discuss the cases of five of them, located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB): Toluca, Celaya, Aguascalientes, Morelia, and Queretaro. Applying the SBAS-InSAR method to C-Band RADARSAT-2 data, five high resolution ground motion time-series were produced to monitor the spatio-temporal variations of displacements and fracturing from 2012 to 2014. The study presents recent changes of land subsidence rates along with concordant geological and water data. It aims to provide suggestions to mitigate future damages to infrastructure and to assist in groundwater resources management. Aguascalientes, Celaya, Morelia and Queretaro (respectively in order of decreasing subsidence rates) are typical cases of fault-limited land subsidence of Central Mexico. It occurs as a result of groundwater over-exploitation in lacustrine and alluvial deposits covering highly variable bedrock topography, typical of horst-graben geological settings. Aguascalientes and Toluca show high rates of land subsidence (up to 10 cm/yr), while Celaya and Morelia show lower rates (from 2 to 5 cm/yr). Comparing these results with previous studies, it is inferred that the spatial patterns of land subsidence have changed in the city of Toluca. This change appears to be mainly controlled by the spatial heterogeneity of compressible sediments since no noticeable change occurred in groundwater extraction and related drawdown rates. While land subsidence of up to 8 cm/yr has been reported in the Queretaro Valley before 2011, rates inferior to 1 cm/yr are measured in 2013-2014. The subsidence has been almost entirely mitigated by major changes in the water management

  11. Wintertime measurements of aerosol acidity and trace elements in Wuhan, a city in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, J. M.; Lioy, P. J.; Zelenka, M.; Jing, L.; Lin, Y. N.; He, Q. C.; Qian, Z. M.; Chapman, R.; Wilson, W. E.

    A 2-week intensive ambient aerosol study was conducted in December 1988 in Wuhan (Hubei Province), a city of nearly 2 million located on the Yangtze River in central China (P.R.C.). This is an industrial region where soft coal burning is widespread, and emission controls for vehicles and industrial facilities are minimal. The sampling site was located in one of the civic centers where residential and commercial density is highest. An Andersen dichotomous sampler was operated with Teflon membrane filters to collect fine ( dp < 2.5 μmad) and coarse (2.5 ⩽ dp < 10 μmad) particles for total mass and element determinations. An annular denuder system (ADS) was used to collect fine fraction aerosols for analyses of ionic species including strong acidity (H +). The study was conducted between 18 and 30 December, which was rainless, consistently cool (3-10°C) and overcast, but without fog or acute stagnation. Fine particulate mass (PM, as μ m -3) averaged 139 (range 54-207); coarse PM averaged 86 (range 29-179). Trace element concentrations were also high. Crustal elements (Si, Al, Ca and Fe) were found primarily in the coarse fraction, while elements associated with combustion (S, K, Cl, Zn and Se) were enriched in the fine fraction. The concentrations of arsenic and selenium were evidence of a large source of coal burning, while vanadium levels (associated with fuel oil use) were not especially enriched. Despite the seemingly high PM loadings, ionic concentrations were not especially high. The average composition of soluble fine aerosol species (in neq m -3) were SO 42-: 520 (range 180-980), NO 3-: 225 (range 50-470), Cl -: 215 (range 20-640), and NH 4+: 760 (range 280-1660). A deficit in accountable FP components (total mass compared to the total of ionic plus element masses) as well as the black appearance of collected materials indicate an abundance of carbonaceous aerosol, as high as 100 μ m -3. (total mass compared to the total of ionic plus element masses) as

  12. Black In-Migration, White Flight, and the Changing Economic Base of the Central City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates potential race-migration consequences of proposed urban programs on the basis of various types of census data. Issues include decreases in city revenue-producing capacity, changes in residential socio-economic characteristics, and continued inability of resident minority populations to upgrade their standards of living or relocate to the…

  13. The Geographies of Difference: The Production of the East Side, West Side, and Central City School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendia, Edward; Ares, Nancy; Juarez, Brenda G.; Peercy, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Citywide constructs such as "West Side" or "South Side" are spatial codes that result from more than the informal conversations of city residents. This article shows how elementary school educators in one U.S. metropolitan school district participated in the production of a local knowledge of the East Side and West Side space and individual. It…

  14. Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City's Central Park are similar to those observed globally

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Kelly S.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Barberán, Albert; Bates, Scott Thomas; Betley, Jason; Crowther, Thomas W.; Kelly, Eugene F.; Oldfield, Emily E.; Shaw, E. Ashley; Steenbock, Christopher; Bradford, Mark A.; Wall, Diana H.; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Soil biota play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, however, compared to our knowledge of above-ground plant and animal diversity, the biodiversity found in soils remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we present an assessment of soil biodiversity and biogeographic patterns across Central Park in New York City that spanned all three domains of life, demonstrating that even an urban, managed system harbours large amounts of undescribed soil biodiversity. Despite high variability across the Park, below-ground diversity patterns were predictable based on soil characteristics, with prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities exhibiting overlapping biogeographic patterns. Further, Central Park soils harboured nearly as many distinct soil microbial phylotypes and types of soil communities as we found in biomes across the globe (including arctic, tropical and desert soils). This integrated cross-domain investigation highlights that the amount and patterning of novel and uncharacterized diversity at a single urban location matches that observed across natural ecosystems spanning multiple biomes and continents. PMID:25274366

  15. Tree Canopy Cover Mapping Using LiDAR in Urban Barangays of Cebu City, Central Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejares, J. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, J. B.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines) in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and elliptic fit were also evaluated. The results showed that at the time the LiDAR data was collected (June 24, 2014), the tree cover was around 25.11 % (or 15,674,341.8 m2) of the city's urban barangays (or 62,426,064.6 m2). Among all urban barangays in Cebu City, Barangay Busay had the highest cover (55.79 %) while barangay Suba had the lowest (0.8 %). The 16 barangays with less than 10 % tree cover were generally located in the coastal area, presumably due to accelerated urbanization. Thirty-one barangays have tree cover ranging from 10.59--27.3 %. Only 3 barangays (i.e., Lahug, Talamban, and Busay) have tree cover greater than 30 %. The overall accuracy of the analysis was 96.6 % with the Kappa Index of Agreement or KIA of 0.9. From the study, a grouping can be made of the city's urban barangays with regards to tree cover. The grouping will be useful to urban planners not only in allocating budget to the tree planting program of the city but also in planning and creation of urban parks and playgrounds.

  16. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  17. Caring for Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Veterans of the Vietnam era are now the largest group of United States Veterans, and are at or approaching Social Security and Medicare eligibility. As a result, it is likely that home care clinicians will be caring for many patients who are Vietnam Veterans. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of the unique healthcare needs of Vietnam Veterans. Having an understanding of military and Veteran culture can help inform home healthcare clinicians in ways to manage the unique healthcare needs of Veterans and engage previously learned behaviors and attitudes from military service. In addition, knowing the types of exposures and health risks specific to this era could be beneficial in identifying potential problems that may have not yet been addressed. PMID:26121505

  18. The Impact of Vietnam's Globalization on National Education Policies and Teacher Training Programs for Teachers of English as an International Language: A Case Study of the University of Pedagogy in Ho Chi Minh City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tri Ly

    2011-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Vietnam's globalization on national language education policies and teacher training programs for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Specifically, this research explored the extent to which the new policies for English language training programs adopted by the…

  19. Education in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieu, Tran; Chau, Nguyen Huu

    2000-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the development of education in Vietnam under reforms initiated in 1950, 1956, and 1981. Considers the implications of the country's focus on industrialization and modernization. Identifies current challenges to educational development, including the challenges of expanding the scale of education while improving the quality…

  20. Vietnam: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackford, Julie

    This book provides an overview of Vietnam's history prior to the U.S. presence there. The book begins with a chronology extending from prehistoric times to the defeat of the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Each chapter provides background information along with a glossary, student activities, and project suggestions. Chapters include: (1)…

  1. 75 FR 64971 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central City, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central...

  2. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. PMID:25108840

  3. Speciation and sources of atmospheric aerosols in a highly industrialised emerging mega-city in central China.

    PubMed

    Querol, Xavier; Zhuang, Xinguo; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, Mar; Lv, Weiwei; Wang, Yanxin; López, Angel; Zhu, Zhichao; Wei, Hongmin; Xu, Shuangqin

    2006-10-01

    Monitoring air quality in large urban agglomerations is the key to the prevention of air pollution-related problems in emerging mega-cities. The city of Wuhan is a highly industrialised city with >9 million inhabitants in Central China. Simultaneous PM10 sampling was performed during 1 year at one urban and one industrial site. Mean PM10 daily levels (156 microg m(-3) at the urban site and 197 microg m(-3) at the industrial hotspot) exceed the US-EPA or EU annual limit values by 3-4 times. A detailed study of daily speciation showed that the mean chemical composition of PM10 presents minimal differences between peak and low PM episodes. This implies that PM10 aerosols in the study area result from local emissions, and air quality management and abatement strategies in Wuhan should thus focus on local anthropogenic sources. The levels of some elements of environmental concern are relatively high (409-615 ngPb m(-3), 66-70 ngAs m(-3), 116-227 ngMn m(-3), 10-12 ngCd m(-3)) due to industrial, but also urban emissions. Principal component analysis identified a mineral source (probably cement and steel manufacture) and smelting as the main contributors to PM10 levels at the industrial site (34%), followed by a coal fired power plant (20%) and the anthropogenic regional background (16%). At the urban site the major PM10 source is a mixed coal combustion source (31%), followed by the anthropogenic regional background (28%) and traffic (16%). PMID:17240911

  4. Concentrations of Metals in Feathers of Magpie (Pica pica) from Aran-O-Bidgol City in Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Zarrintab, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Rouhollah; Mostafaei, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Rouhollah; Akbari, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to measure Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations in feathers of Magpies in urban areas to investigate the possibility of using Magpies to monitor metal contamination in urban areas. A total of 15 bird samples were collected in October 2013 from Aran-O-Bidgol City, in Central Iran and the concentration of metals were measured using a PerkinElmer ICP-OES. The average concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in the feathers were 167.16, 26.74, 9.29 and 1.583 µg/g dw, respectively. There were no significant differences in metal concentrations between various genders, ages and sites. However, the highest and lowest concentrations of non-essential elements were observed in the adult males and adult females, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of Cu and Zn as well as Pb and Cd. Moreover, wing length had the highest correlation with metals concentrations. PMID:26781634

  5. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-04-30

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy. PMID:26763316

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  7. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  8. Health assessment for Clear Creek/Central City, Clear Creek and Gilpin Counties, Colorado, Region 8. CERCLIS No. COD980717557. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-11

    Clear Creek/Central City is a National Priorities List site located within the communities of Idaho Springs, Central City and Black Hawk, Colorado. The site consists of abandoned mill tailings and waste-rock piles with numerous open mining tunnels and shafts. Site contaminants consist of a variety of heavy metals, sulfur, radionuclides, and acid-mine discharges. The site is of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by probable human exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse human health effects over time.

  9. Community response to noise in Vietnam: exposure-response relationships based on the community tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Gjestland, Truls; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Yano, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Social surveys on noise annoyance have been conducted in five different cities in Vietnam. The surveys included both aircraft noise (three airports) and road traffic noise (five cities). The main objective for these studies was to establish dose-response functions that were representative for Vietnam. The results have been compared with results from similar surveys from other regions. Dose-response functions for aircraft noise in Vietnam showing the percentage of highly annoyed people versus the noise level are nearly identical to those presented in the European Noise Directive [European Commission (2002). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive.htm]. For road traffic noise, however, the results indicate that people in Vietnam are more tolerant. The noise levels can be increased by 5-10 dB in order to have a response similar to the curve recommended by the European Commission. PMID:25994692

  10. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave VanderGriend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2003-03-31

    Progress is reported for the period from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2003. A water supply well was permitted, drilled, and completed in the shallow, fresh-water, Dakota Sandstone. The pumphouse has been put in place and the long-term injection equipment is being set-up. Although the short-term injectivity test was cut short by power failure following an ice storm, results indicate the well exhibits sufficient injectivity to proceed with the long-term injectivity test, which will start in the beginning of the second quarter. The CO2 Project No.10 and No.12 wells were reworked and the Lansing-Kansas City (LKC) ''C'' interval in both wells isolated. The CO2 Project No.16 well was drilled deeper, cored in the LKC ''C'' and ''G'' zones, and cased to the ''C'' zone and will be perforated and stimulated in the beginning of second quarter. Initial wireline log analysis and examination of the core indicate that the porosity of the ''C'' zone in this location may be lower than in other parts of the pattern by 3-5 porosity units. Log analysis indicates water saturations are near 60% consistent with predicted residual oil saturation to waterflood modeling. Lower porosities may indicate lower permeability may also be present. Core analysis is being conducted and results will be available in the first week of the second quarter. A draft letter agreement has been presented to FLOCO2 Company for supply of CO2 storage and injection pump equipment.

  11. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfn; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-12-31

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of December 2004, 11.39 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 242 MCFD. Vent losses were excessive during June as ambient temperatures increased. Installation of smaller plungers in the carbon dioxide injection pump reduced the recycle and vent loss substantially. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May and in the second production well in August. No channeling of carbon dioxide was observed. The GOR has remained within the range of 3000-4000 for most the last six months. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.35 B/D for the six month period between July 1 and December 31. Cumulative oil production was 814 bbls. Neither well has experienced increased oil production rates expected from the arrival of the oil bank generated by carbon dioxide injection.

  12. Son preference in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Haughton, J; Haughton, D

    1995-01-01

    This article assesses the strength of son preference in Vietnam, as reflected in fertility behavior. It formulates and estimates a proportional hazards model applied to birth intervals, and a contraceptive prevalence model, using household survey data from 2,636 ever-married women aged 15-49 with at least one living child who were interviewed for the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Son preference is found to be strong by world standards, but nevertheless, it has a minor effect on fertility; in its absence, the total fertility rate would fall by roughly 10 percent from the current level of about 3.2 children per woman of reproductive age. PMID:8826072

  13. Opportunities in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.; Donoghue, N.

    1994-11-01

    Vietnam`s energy needs are clear and acute. Economic reforms have triggered a dynamic development process with a large and growing appetite for power. In view of the Vietnamese government`s own shortages of capital, private international power companies have been identified as key problem-solvers in the country`s efforts to meet a skyrocketing demand for energy resources. There are no restrictions on the nature of projects in which non-Vietnamese investors may participate. A number of legal issues need resolution before independent power producers can take advantage of the Republic`s recently created Builder-Operator-Transfer Contracts (the BOT Regulations). This paper discusses these regulations and how they affect independent power producers

  14. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  15. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2006-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By June 30, 2006, 41,566 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,726 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. Oil rates increased from about 3.3 B/D for the period from January through March to about 4.7 B/D for the period from April through June. If the oil rate is sustained, this may be the first indication of the arrival of the oil bank mobilized by carbon dioxide injection. A sustained fluid withdrawal rate of about 200 B/D from CO2 No.12 and CO2 No.13 appears to be necessary to obtain higher oil rates. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has

  16. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2001-12-31

    Progress is reported for the period from October 1, 2001 to December 31, 2001. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre) CO{sub 2} demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. While this review process is being conducted, work is proceeding on well testing to obtain reservoir properties and on the VIP reservoir simulation model to improve model prediction and better understand the controls that certain parameters exert on predicted performance. Testing of present Colliver lease injection water on Lansing-Kansas City (L-KC) oomoldic rock indicates that injection brine must be filtered to < {approx}3-5 um and <15 um to prevent plugging of rocks with permeability as low as 1 md (millidarcy; 0.001 um2) and 10 md (0.01 um2), respectively. Pressure build-up testing on the Carter-Colliver No.7 well is interpreted to indicate the L-KC reservoir surrounding this well is {approx}9 ft (2.7 m) thick having an average effective water permeability of 25-35 md (0.025-0.035 um2) that is connected to the wellbore by either a high permeability fracture, bed, or region with low skin. Reservoir simulation evaluation of gridcell size effect on model oil recovery prediction indicates that, based on the model prediction of distribution of produced oil and CO{sub 2} volumes, oil recovery is strongly influenced by gravity segregation of CO{sub 2} into the upper higher permeability layers and indicates the strong control that vertical permeability and permeability barriers between depositional flood cycles exert on the CO{sub 2} flooding process. Simulations were performed on modifications of the 60-acre, two-injector pattern to evaluate oil recovery using other large-scale patterns. Simulations indicated that several 73-acre patterns with a single injector located near the Colliver No.7 could provide improved economics without increasing the amount of CO{sub 2} injected. The US Energy Partners ethanol plant in Russell, KS began operations in October ahead

  17. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2005-12-31

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By the end of December 2005, 14,115 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,091 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Continued injection of water is planned to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  18. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2007-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By December 31, 2006, 79,072 bbls of water were injected into CO2 I-1 and 3,923 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Water injection rates into CO2 I-1, CO2 No.10 and CO2 No.18 were stabilized during this period. Oil production rates increased from 4.7 B/D to 5.5 to 6 B/D confirming the arrival of an oil bank at CO2 No.12. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver No.7, Colliver No.3 and possibly Graham A4 located on an adjacent property. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Our management plan is to continue water injection maintaining oil displacement by displacing the carbon dioxide remaining in the C zone,. If the decline rate of production from the Colliver Lease remains as estimated and the oil rate from the pilot region remains constant, we estimate that the oil production attributed to carbon dioxide injection will be about 12,000 bbl by December 31, 2007. Oil recovery would be equivalent to 12 MCF/bbl, which is consistent with field experience in

  19. 7-year of surface ozone in a coastal city of central Italy: Observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancofiore, Fabio; Verdecchia, Marco; Di Carlo, Piero; Tomassetti, Barbara; Aruffo, Eleonora; Busilacchio, Marcella; Bianco, Sebastiano; Di Tommaso, Sinibaldo; Colangeli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Hourly concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been measured for seven years, from 1998 to 2005, in a seaside town in the central Italy. Seasonal trends of O3 and NO2 recorded in the considered years are studied. Furthermore, we have focused our attention on data collected during the 2005, analyzing them using two different methods: a regression model and a neural network model. Both models are used to simulate the hourly ozone concentration, using several sets of input. In order to evaluate the performance of the model four statistical criteria are used: correlation coefficient (R), fractional bias (FB), normalized mean squared error (NMSE) e factor of two (FA2). All the criteria show that the neural network has better results compared to the regression model in all the simulations. In addiction we have tested some improvements of the neural network model, results of these tests are discussed. Finally, we have used the neural network to forecast the ozone hourly concentrations a day ahead and 1, 3, 6, 12 hour ahead. Performances of the model in predicting ozone levels are discussed.

  20. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotope compositions of secondary atmospheric sulfate in a mega-city in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqian; Bao, Huiming; Gan, Yiqun; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Yunde

    2013-12-01

    Sulfate aerosol is an important atmosphere constituent that can be formed secondarily through the oxidation of sulfur gases. Atmospheric sulfur oxidation can take different pathways depending on meteorological conditions, which affects sulfate aerosol size and composition and therefore local or global climate. The magnitude of 17O enrichment (Δ17O) in secondary atmospheric sulfate (SAS) is a tracer for the apportionment of different sulfur oxidation pathways. Atmospheric chemistry-transport models predict a low 17O enrichment (Δ17O < 1‰) for SAS in mid-latitude continental sites. However, there are few long-term site observations to test the prediction, and data from interior metropolitan sites are entirely absent. We report here multiple oxygen and sulfur isotope compositions (Δ17O, δ18O, and δ34S) of SAS collected over a 950-day period in the city of Wuhan, central China, and to compare to data from a similar sampling campaign in the city of Baton Rouge, LA, U.S.A. The isotope compositions of bulk atmospheric sulfate closely reflect those of SAS in Wuhan, with the Δ17O ranging from 0.14‰ to 1.02‰, the δ18O from 8.0‰ to 16.1‰, and the δ34S from 2.1‰ to 7.3‰. The average Δ17O value at 0.53‰-0.59‰ is consistent with model prediction for continental interior, mid-latitude sites. The Asian monsoon-influenced meteorological condition in Wuhan appears to produce a weak but discernible seasonal pattern for Δ17O and δ18O of the SAS. The average rainwater pH value is higher in Wuhan than in Baton Rouge (5.47 versus 4.78) while the two cities have a statistically identical average SAS Δ17O value. We suggest that the higher pH does result in a higher fraction of SAS generated by aqueous O3 oxidation, but the resulted higher Δ17O value for SAS is diluted by the 17O-normal SAS generated from an enhanced transition-metal-catalyzed O2 oxidation pathway. The enhancement is corroborated with the much higher content of atmospheric particulate matter

  1. Vietnam in the English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    Vietnam War literature offers students a unique mix of themes which in many ways speak directly to them as, perhaps, no other literature is able to. This literature can help them better understand literature, history, the world they live in, and themselves, as well as the Vietnam War. A sequence of classroom activities (beginning with an…

  2. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently changed the social…

  3. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  4. Bacterial-resistance among outpatients of county hospitals in China: significant geographic distinctions and minor differences between central cities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonghong; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Ji, Jinru; Sun, Ziyong; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ji, Ping; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey antibacterial resistance in outpatients of Chinese county hospitals. A total of 31 county hospitals were selected and samples continuously collected from August 2010 to August 2011. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted in a central laboratory. A total of 2946 unique isolates were collected, including 634 strains of Escherichia coli, 606 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 476 Staphylococcus aureus, 308 Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 160 Haemophilus influenzae. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in E. coli (42.3% strains), K. pneumoniae (31.7%), and Proteus mirabilis (39.0%). Ciprofloxacin-resistance was detected in 51.0% of E. coli strains. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were sensitive to most antibacterial agents. Less than 8.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to carbapenem. For S. aureus strains, 15.3% were resistant to methicillin, and some strains of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin (1.6%), ceftriaxone (13.0%), and erythromycin (96.4%). β-lactamase was produced by 96.5% of Moraxella catarrhalis strains, and 36.2% of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Azithromycin-resistant H. influenzae, imipenem-resistant but meropenem-sensitive Proteus, and ceftriaxone- and carbapenem non-sensitive M. catarrhalis were recorded. In conclusion, cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci were relatively prominent in county hospitals. The antibacterial resistance profiles of isolates from different geographical locations varied significantly, with proportions in county hospitals lower than those in their tertiary counterparts in the central cities, although the difference is diminishing. PMID:25708671

  5. Operation homecoming: psychological observations of repatriated Vietnam prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R S

    1975-02-01

    While in military service as a psychiatrist stationed at Scott Air Force Base, I had the opportunity to do the psychiatric evaluations on a number of the prisoners of war returning from North Vietnam. Scott Air Force Base is an area medical center (North Central United States), and was responsible for administering the medical and psychiatric examinations on all the men whose homes were in this area. Our hospital processed 29 returning POWS, of whom I saw 14. This group of POWS was probably unique in military history in that it was comprised almost entirely of officers. Their period of confinement was considerably longer than that of the prisoners of World War II and the Korean War, with the typical Vietnam POW being in captivity about six or seven years. This paper is an attempt to share my observations and thoughts on the experience of being a Vietnam Prisoner of War. PMID:1114192

  6. Hydrogeologic data from a 2,000-foot deep core hole at Polk City, Green Swamp area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navoy, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Two core holes were drilled to depths of 906 and 1,996 feet, respectively, within the Tertiary limestone (Floridan) aquifers, at Polk City, central Florida. Data from the two holes revealed that the bottom of the zone of vigorous groundwater circulation is confined by carbonate rocks at a depth of about 1,000 feet (863 feet below sea level). The zone of circulation is divided into two high-permeability zones. The dissolved solids of the water within the high-permeability zones is approximately 150 milligrams per liter. Within the carbonate rocks, the dissolved solids content of the water reaches about 2,000 milligrams per liter at the bottom of the core hole. Water levels in the core holes declined a total of about 16 feet as the hole was drilled; most of the head loss occurred at depths below 1,800 feet. The porosities of selected cores ranged from 1.6 to 45.3 percent; the hydraulic conductivities ranged from less than 0.000024 to 19.0786 feet per day in the horizontal direction and from less than 0.000024 to 2.99 feet per day in the vertical direction; and the ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability ranged from 0.03 to 1.98. Due to drilling problems, packer tests and geophysical logging could not be accomplished. (USGS)

  7. Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2010-07-01

    Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road site exhibit the maximum concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Iron exhibit maximum accumulation both in lichen thallus and the substratum with mean values of 2,195.63 microg g(-1) dry weight. As compared with other growth form of lichens, L. lobificans exhibits the higher accumulation of Fe than foliose and fruticose lichens. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that L. lobificans is an excellent accumulator of different metals. The statistical analysis applied to the element concentration between the metals as well as between the sites by analysis of variance found the difference to be significant at 1% and 5%, respectively. Student-Newman-Keuls test also shows significant difference for iron between the different metals. PMID:19496009

  8. Current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Willingham, A Lee; De, Nguyen Van; Doanh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Le Dinh; Dung, Truong Van; Dorny, Pierre; Cam, Phung Dac; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2003-01-01

    This English review concerning the current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam has been compiled from various reports of studies conducted over the past 15 years, which have appeared in national publications in Vietnamese, in order to make the information available to the international community. Hospital surveys indicate that cysticercosis is emerging as a serious health problem in the country though most of the information comes from the Hanoi area. Many more men than women are being treated for cysticercosis with most patients being young to middle-aged adults though several juvenile cases have been seen in the south. Clinical manifestations of the disease in humans include subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headache, impaired vision and memory loss. Albendazole has been found to be the best drug for treating cysticercosis though it does not appear to be totally effective for curing cerebral cysts. Information concerning porcine and bovine cysticercosis is very limited and based mostly on passive surveillance at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Surveys for human taeniasis in central and northern provinces indicate a prevalence of 0.2-7.2%. However, techniques of low sensitivity were used and the results are inconclusive since it is unknown with which species of tapeworm the people were infected. In addition to Taenia solium which causes human cysticercosis, T. saginata and T. asiatica are also known to be present in Vietnam. Risk factors investigated thus far with regard to transmission of T. solium suggest that consumption of raw pork, inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some areas, and the use of untreated human waste as fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam but this remains to be validated. The evidence thus far collected suggests that a national surveillance program for cysticercosis is a great need for Vietnam. The authors recommend further research on the epidemiology and impact of cysticercosis in

  9. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  10. Trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Thi Nga, Vu; Dorny, Pierre; Vu Trung, Nguyen; Ngoc Minh, Pham; Trung Dung, Do; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological and clinical data of five outbreaks of trichinellosis, which affected ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous areas of northwestern Vietnam from 1970 to 2012. Trichinellosis was diagnosed in 126 patients, of which 11 (8.7%) were hospitalized and 8 (6.3%) died. All infected people had consumed raw pork from backyard and roaming pigs or wild boar at wedding, funeral, or New Year parties. The short incubation period (average of 9.5 days), the severity of the symptoms, which were characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, myalgia, edema, weight loss, itch, and lisping, and the high mortality, suggest that patients had ingested a high number of larvae. The larval burden in pigs examined in one of the outbreaks ranged from 70 to 879 larvae/g. These larvae and those collected from a muscle biopsy taken from a patient from the 2012 outbreak were identified as Trichinella spiralis. Data presented in this work show that the northern regions of Vietnam are endemic areas for Trichinella infections in domestic pigs and humans. PMID:25846295

  11. Trichinellosis in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    De, Nguyen Van; Nga, Vu Thi; Dorny, Pierre; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Minh, Pham Ngoc; Dung, Do Trung; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological and clinical data of five outbreaks of trichinellosis, which affected ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous areas of northwestern Vietnam from 1970 to 2012. Trichinellosis was diagnosed in 126 patients, of which 11 (8.7%) were hospitalized and 8 (6.3%) died. All infected people had consumed raw pork from backyard and roaming pigs or wild boar at wedding, funeral, or New Year parties. The short incubation period (average of 9.5 days), the severity of the symptoms, which were characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, myalgia, edema, weight loss, itch, and lisping, and the high mortality, suggest that patients had ingested a high number of larvae. The larval burden in pigs examined in one of the outbreaks ranged from 70 to 879 larvae/g. These larvae and those collected from a muscle biopsy taken from a patient from the 2012 outbreak were identified as Trichinella spiralis. Data presented in this work show that the northern regions of Vietnam are endemic areas for Trichinella infections in domestic pigs and humans. PMID:25846295

  12. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children. PMID:25543546

  13. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries. PMID:26260857

  14. Women take initiative in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    Improvements in the health of Vietnamese people is currently being hampered by the lack of medical equipment and medicine. This, despite strong governmental commitment and a vast national health care system that serves the grassroots through a network of village health stations. Vietnam needs strong support to overcome these serious shortages according to Dr Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong, Vicechairwoman of the National Assembly of Vietnam. The JOICFP has initiated an Integrated Project (IP) to tackle women's reproductive health issues. The IP supports activities to send supplies and medical equipment from Japan to pilot communes. The Nagano Chapter of the Women's League has been supporting grassroots projects in Vietnam with donations of equipment and funds. Woman play a critical role in development because they account for 50% of the population and work under the double burden of family and employment. In Vietnam, women are a political force that link the government with the grassroots organizations. O the 496 members of Parliament, 88 are women. The IP has greatly improved contraceptive availability. Now condoms, IUDs, the pill are available. Greater access to gynecological examinations are also made possible by the IP. The women of Japan have a lot to offer the women of Vietnam. Their experiences of post World War II allowed them to develop a very effective system of maternal/child health care in this period. The lessons they learned during this time can be of immense value to the health care system of Vietnam. PMID:12285342

  15. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Land-use and Land-cover Change: A Multi-agent Simulation Model and Its Application to an Upland Watershed in Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Q.; Vlek, P. L.; Park, S.

    2005-12-01

    flexible interactions among human and landscape agents, and monitors consequent land-use changes and associated socio-economic dynamics. The model was applied in a watershed of about 100 km2 in A-Luoi district, Central Vietnam. Spatially explicit data were obtained from Landsat ETM images, thematic maps, an extensive forest inventory, and an intensive household survey. Field data were used for calibrating agent's parameters and develop an initial database for simulation runs. Scenarios of land-use changes under different policy options on forest protection zoning, agrochemical subsidies and agricultural extension were generated to evaluate the consequences of such policy interventions. Preliminary simulation runs for 10 different policy options suggest that reducing the current proportion of protected area from 90% to 50% and increasing the enforcement of protection, together with the provision of extension services for a third of the total population, and subsidizing 5% of the population with agrochemicals ($US 16 household-1 year-1) would, on average, increase per capita gross income by 15% and significantly reduce forest degradation compared to the scenario based on the status quo (i.e., the policy settings of 2002).

  16. Firm-Specific Marketing Capital and Job Satisfaction of Marketers: Evidence from Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tho D.; Nguyen, Trang T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm-specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a transition market, Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 528 marketers in Ho Chi Minh City was surveyed to test the theoretical model. Structural equation…

  17. Higher Education in Vietnam: Change and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloper, David, Ed.; Le, Thac Can, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the development of higher education in Vietnam, focusing on current issues related to educational reform, expansion, and funding. They are: (1) "Higher Education in Vietnam: The Door Opens--From Inside" (Le Thac Can and David Sloper); (2) "Socio-Economic Background of Vietnam Since 1986: Impact on Education…

  18. Current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bui, T D; Doanh, P N; Saegerman, C; Losson, B

    2016-09-01

    Vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. The central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis, with a high number of human patients (more than 20,000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported to be the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both humans and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia and Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate hosts of Fasciola spp. However, due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the past decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease. PMID:26564097

  19. Constructions of gender in Vietnam: in pursuit of the 'Three Criteria'.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Hoang, Tu Anh; Vu, Song Ha; Tan, Hung Minh; Bui, Thi Thanh Mai; Pham, Vu Thien

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam has advanced far beyond most other developing countries and, indeed, surpasses many developed countries in adopting a legal framework based on gender equality, and in creating institutions and programmes to support women's advancement. Inegalitarian gender norms have also persisted, however. The Vietnam Women's Union promotes women's educational, political and economic advancement but simultaneously exhorts women to pay attention to their Confucian role of maintaining family hierarchy and harmony. This paper presents findings from qualitative research examining gender relations at the grassroots level in central Vietnam. It argues that the Vietnam Women's Union could support women more effectively by promoting greater diversity in gender norms and by initiating a public discussion to address the pressures women face in trying to achieve ideals that are often experienced as contradictory and unattainable. PMID:16923643

  20. Genetic similarity of HIV type 1 subtype E in a recent outbreak among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam to strains in Guangxi Province of southern China.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Shiino, T; Kusagawa, S; Sato, H; Nohtomi, K; Shibamura, K; Nguyen, T H; Pham, K C; Truong, X L; Mai, H A; Hoang, T L; Bunyaraksyotin, G; Fukushima, Y; Honda, M; Wasi, C; Yamazaki, S; Nagai, Y; Takebe, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the molecular epidemiology of a recent HIV-1 outbreak in northern Vietnam and its relation to the epidemic in surrounding areas, we analyzed 17 HIV-positive blood specimens from 3 heterosexuals, 2 sexually transmitted disease patients, and 12 injecting drug users (IDUs), collected in 4 provinces near Hanoi in 1998. These were compared with the specimens from Ho Chi Minh City (n = 10) and An Giang Province (n = 10) in southern Vietnam and with published sequences from neighboring countries. Genetic subtyping based on the env C2/V3 sequences revealed that HIV-1 subtype E predominated throughout Vietnam in all risk populations; the exception was one typical United States-European-type HIV-1 subtype B detected in a patient in Ho Chi Minh City, the first case of HIV infection identified in Vietnam in 1990. The HIV-1 subtype E sequences identified in 9 of the 12 IDUs from northern provinces were closely related phylogenetically to those in IDUs in nearby Guangxi Province of China, and also shared a common amino acid signature downstream of the env V3 loop region. The low interperson nucleotide diversity among IDUs in northern Vietnam supports the view that HIV-1 subtype E was introduced recently among IDUs in northern Vietnam. These data indicate a linkage between HIV-1 circulating among IDUs in northern Vietnam and southern China, and suggest recent transborder introductions as the likely source of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Vietnam. PMID:10480629

  1. MALE HOMOSEXUAL IDENTITIES, RELATIONSHIPS, AND PRACTICES AMONG YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN VIETNAM: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W.; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A.; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15–24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population. PMID:19519239

  2. Calculation of Quad-Cities Central Bundle Documented by the U.S. in FY98 Using Russian Computer Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-06-19

    The report presents calculation results of isotopic composition of irradiated fuel performed for the Quad Cities-1 reactor bundle with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel. The MCU-REA code was used for calculations. The code is developed in Kurchatov Institute, Russia. The MCU-REA results are compared with the experimental data and HELIOS code results.

  3. Epidemiology of venomous and semi-venomous snakebites (Ophidia: Viperidae, Colubridae) in the Kashan city of the Isfahan province in Central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Mehrpour, Omid; Shahi, Morteza Panjeh; Jazayeri, Mehrdad; Karrari, Parissa; Keyler, Dan; Zamani, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Information on the epidemiology of venomous snake species responsible for envenomation to humans in Iran has not been well documented. In the Kashan city, venomous snakebite remains a recurring medical problem. Information providing the correct identification of snake species responsible for envenomation in this geographic region would be useful to regional medical clinics and personnel for the effective and optimal management of the patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all patient data was collected from Kashan city and its suburbs. The specific data relating to the taxonomic identification of snakes responsible for envenomation were evaluated. A general approach to the diagnosis and management of patients was also provided. Snakes responsible for bites were transported to a laboratory, where their taxonomic classification was confirmed based on key anatomical features and morphological characteristics. Results: A total of 46 snakes were examined. Of these, 37 (80%) were non-venomous species, and 9 (20%) were identified as venomous. Seven of the nine venomous snake species (78%) were of the family Viperidae, and two specimens (22%) were in the family Colubridae. Specifically, the viperid species were Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, Pseudocerastes persicus, Pseudocerastes fieldi, and Echis carinatus. The two colubrid species were Malpolon monspessulanus insignitus and Psammophis schkari. Conclusion: Five different species of venomous snakes responsible for envenomation in the Kashan city region were confirmed. The viper, P. fieldi, was reported for the first time in the central part of Iran. PMID:24672563

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Central City-Clear Creek site, (Operable Unit 3), Clear Creek and Gilpin Counties, CO. (Third remedial action), September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Central City-Clear Creek site is an active mining facility in Central City, Clear Creek and Gilpin counties, Colorado. The site lies within the 400-square mile drainage basin of Clear Creek, which serves as a drinking water source for several municipalities. Presently, six major mine drainage tunnels are thought to be principal discharge sources of acid mine water containing high concentrations of metals to surface waters including Clear Creek and its tributaries. In addition, over 21 mine tailings piles with an estimated total volume of over 2,000,000 cubic yards at numerous locations throughout the site are thought to be major sources of contamination. In response to site contamination, EPA has conducted three removal actions since 1987. The ROD supersedes the remedy provided for OU1 in the 1987 ROD by including active treatment of the Argo Tunnel and delaying a decision on treating the discharge from the Big Five, National and Quartz Hill tunnels, and the Gregory Incline. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  5. Informal caregiving to persons with AIDS in the United States: caregiver burden among central cities residents eighteen to forty-nine years old.

    PubMed

    Turner, H A; Catania, J A

    1997-02-01

    Characteristics and caregiving experiences of friends and family members caring for people with AIDS (PWAs) were examined. Based on a probability sample of informal AIDS caregivers ages 18-49 living in central cities of the United States (n = 260), analyses were conducted to (a) identify the sociodemographic characteristics of young central city caregivers; and (b) examine the effects of caregiver characteristics (relationship to PWA, gender, race/ethnicity, income, sexual orientation, HIV status, perceived susceptibility), and level of objective caregiving demands, on subjective caregiver burden. Results indicate that the largest group of caregivers in this age category are male friends of the PWA--a group not typically found among caregivers to persons with other types of illnesses. In general, gay or bisexual caregivers, caregivers who have traditional family ties to the PWA, men relative to women, and lower income caregivers, report the greatest burden. While level of caregiving demands represents the most influential predictor of caregiver burden, white and male caregivers experience greater burden, independent of level of involvement and other caregiver characteristics. Receiving instrumental support with caregiving buffers the impact of high objective demands on subjective burden. PMID:9231995

  6. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition. PMID:18460440

  7. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  8. Diversity and biotic homogenization of urban land-snail faunas in relation to habitat types and macroclimate in 32 central European cities.

    PubMed

    Horsák, Michal; Lososová, Zdeňka; Čejka, Tomáš; Juřičková, Lucie; Chytrý, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of non-native species invasions on community diversity and biotic homogenization have been described for various taxa in urban environments, but not for land snails. Here we relate the diversity of native and non-native land-snail urban faunas to urban habitat types and macroclimate, and analyse homogenization effects of non-native species across cities and within the main urban habitat types. Land-snail species were recorded in seven 1-ha plots in 32 cities of ten countries of Central Europe and Benelux (224 plots in total). Each plot represented one urban habitat type characterized by different management and a specific disturbance regime. For each plot, we obtained January, July and mean annual temperature and annual precipitation. Snail species were classified into either native or non-native. The effects of habitat type and macroclimate on the number of native and non-native species were analysed using generalized estimating equations; the homogenization effect of non-native species based on the Jaccard similarity index and homogenization index. We recorded 67 native and 20 non-native species. Besides being more numerous, native species also had much higher beta diversity than non-natives. There were significant differences between the studied habitat types in the numbers of native and non-native species, both of which decreased from less to heavily urbanized habitats. Macroclimate was more important for the number of non-native than native species; however in both cases the effect of climate on diversity was overridden by the effect of urban habitat type. This is the first study on urban land snails documenting that non-native land-snail species significantly contribute to homogenization among whole cities, but both the homogenization and diversification effects occur when individual habitat types are compared among cities. This indicates that the spread of non-native snail species may cause biotic homogenization, but it depends on scale and

  9. Diversity and Biotic Homogenization of Urban Land-Snail Faunas in Relation to Habitat Types and Macroclimate in 32 Central European Cities

    PubMed Central

    Horsák, Michal; Lososová, Zdeňka; Čejka, Tomáš; Juřičková, Lucie; Chytrý, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of non-native species invasions on community diversity and biotic homogenization have been described for various taxa in urban environments, but not for land snails. Here we relate the diversity of native and non-native land-snail urban faunas to urban habitat types and macroclimate, and analyse homogenization effects of non-native species across cities and within the main urban habitat types. Land-snail species were recorded in seven 1-ha plots in 32 cities of ten countries of Central Europe and Benelux (224 plots in total). Each plot represented one urban habitat type characterized by different management and a specific disturbance regime. For each plot, we obtained January, July and mean annual temperature and annual precipitation. Snail species were classified into either native or non-native. The effects of habitat type and macroclimate on the number of native and non-native species were analysed using generalized estimating equations; the homogenization effect of non-native species based on the Jaccard similarity index and homogenization index. We recorded 67 native and 20 non-native species. Besides being more numerous, native species also had much higher beta diversity than non-natives. There were significant differences between the studied habitat types in the numbers of native and non-native species, both of which decreased from less to heavily urbanized habitats. Macroclimate was more important for the number of non-native than native species; however in both cases the effect of climate on diversity was overridden by the effect of urban habitat type. This is the first study on urban land snails documenting that non-native land-snail species significantly contribute to homogenization among whole cities, but both the homogenization and diversification effects occur when individual habitat types are compared among cities. This indicates that the spread of non-native snail species may cause biotic homogenization, but it depends on scale and

  10. Current status and actual need for pediatric liver transplantation in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Cam; Robert, Annie; Nguyen, Phuong Van Ngoc; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Truong, Dinh Quang; Goyens, Philippe; Reding, Raymond

    2016-03-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has considerably improved the outcome of patients with end-stage liver disease, especially in children. The first pediatric LT in Vietnam was performed in 2004. To assess the current need for pediatric LT in Southern Vietnam, a total of 280 patients with chronic liver disease followed at Children's Hospital 2 (Ho Chi Minh City), the only pediatric LT center in this region, were evaluated from January 2009 to June 2014. Sixty-seven patients satisfied criteria for LT but only one transplant surgery occurred since 2009. Parental consent for LT was obtained only in 28.4% of patients. The main reasons for the small number of LTs were financial costs, far distance from home, lifelong follow-up and treatment, and shortage of organ donors. We conclude that the current need for pediatric LT in Southern Vietnam is high. Efforts should be made to develop the liver transplant program in this developing country. PMID:26715071

  11. The changing donor landscape of health sector aid to Vietnam: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Khuat, Thi Hai Oanh; Le, Quang Duong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to identify how donors and government agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid between 1995 and 2012. Interviews were conducted with key informants from donor agencies, central government, and civil society in Hanoi in 2012 (n = 34 interviews), identified through OECD Creditor Reporting System data, internet research, and snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were coded for key themes using the constant comparative method. Documentary materials were used in triangulation and validation of key informant accounts. The study identified a timeline of key events and key themes. The number of donors providing health sector aid to Vietnam increased sharply during the late 1990s and early 2000s, then leveled off and declined between 2008 and 2012. Reasons for donor entry included Vietnam's health needs, perceptions of health as less politically sensitive, and donor interests in facilitating market access. Reasons for donor withdrawal included Vietnam's achievement of middle-income status, the global financial crisis, and donors' shifting global priorities. Key themes included high competition among donors, strategic actions by government to increase its control over aid, and the multiplicity of government units involved with health sector aid. The study concludes that central government and donor agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid by endorsing aid effectiveness policies but implementing these policies inconsistently in practice. Whereas previous literature has emphasized donor proliferation's transaction costs, this study finds that the benefits of a large number of less coordinated donors may outweigh the increased administrative costs under certain conditions. In Vietnam, these conditions included relatively high capacity within government, low government dependence on aid, and government interest in receiving diverse donor recommendations. Vietnam's experience of donor

  12. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  13. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  14. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  15. Teaching Pediatric Hand Surgery in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kotsis, Sandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Background International volunteering missions are becoming an important focus of plastic surgeons in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to describe the teaching of pediatric hand surgery in Vietnam to share the lessons learned from this project. Methods Two medical education trips were conducted to the no. 1 Children’s Hospital in Ho Chi Minh city (Saigon) to teach pediatric hand and burn reconstructive surgery to the surgeons and therapists. This is the main referral children’s hospital for the country, and pediatric hand surgery expertise is not available. Results Structured education programs were conducted over two trips to introduce congenital hand surgery and burn reconstructive procedures using flap techniques. The education programs included lectures and surgical demonstrations of selected procedures. Their proficiency was verified by supervised conduct of these operations. Conclusions A well-conceived medical education program can introduce complex surgical discipline to a country. Through two trips, the surgeons at this referral center will have the capability to take care of many children requiring reconstructive hand surgery. PMID:18780043

  16. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. PMID:27035455

  17. Targeting Behavior: Participatory Curriculum Development for Community-Based Environmental Education in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Joe; Matarasso, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A participatory curriculum development process was undertaken to design and implement a university-level, community-based environmental education training course to target behaviors and thus increase the effectiveness of conservation programs in central Vietnam. The process included (1) stakeholder analysis, (2) training needs assessment, (3)…

  18. Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Ngan, Tran Thu; Mai, Vu Quynh; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Chung, Le Hong; Kien, Vu Duy; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Giap, Vu Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Giang, Kim Bao

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements

  19. "Achilles in Vietnam" and the Humanities Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, James A.

    This paper discusses the book "Achilles in Vietnam" (Jonathan Shay) in relation to Homer's "Iliad" and the need for society to accept the consequences of veterans' experiences. Classical allusions to the epic are incorporated into the study and U.S. experience of the Vietnam War. The paper advocates student "ownership" of literature study and…

  20. Educational Reform and Teacher Education in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamano, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the current state and a challenge faced by teachers and teacher education in Vietnam, and analyzes international aid projects providing support to teacher education there. It is necessary to grasp changes in teacher education in Vietnam in the context of the current comprehensive reform of education, which has been greatly…

  1. Interpersonal Styles of Vietnam Era Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorr, Maurice; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A comparative analysis is made of the social characteristics of Vietnam veterans and World War II veterans. By use of the Interpersonal Style Inventory, the results showed that the Vietnam veterans were more rebellious, radical, and expedient than older veterans. (DEP)

  2. Economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Lan Huong, Dao; Bao Giang, Kim; Byass, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There remains a lack of information on economic aspects of chronic diseases. This paper, by gathering available and relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss current evidence on economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. Methods Data used in this paper were obtained from various information sources: international and national journal articles and studies, government documents and publications, web-based statistics and fact sheets. Results In Vietnam, chronic diseases were shown to be leading causes of deaths, accounting for 66% of all deaths in 2002. The burdens caused by chronic disease morbidity and risk factors are also substantial. Poorer people in Vietnam are more vulnerable to chronic diseases and their risk factors, other than being overweight. The estimated economic loss caused by chronic diseases for Vietnam in 2005 was about US$20 million (0.033% of annual national GDP). Chronic diseases were also shown to cause economic losses for families and individuals in Vietnam. Both population-wide and high-risk individual interventions against chronic disease were shown to be cost-effective in Vietnam. Conclusion Given the evidence from this study, actions to prevent chronic diseases in Vietnam are clearly urgent. Further research findings are required to give greater insights into economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. PMID:20057939

  3. 77 FR 20273 - Vietnam Veterans Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8162 Filed 4-2-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... April 3, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8789--Vietnam Veterans Day Memorandum of March 30, 2012... ] Proclamation 8789 of March 29, 2012 Vietnam Veterans Day By the President of the United States of America...

  4. Statistical analysis of stream water-quality data and sampling network design near Oklahoma City, central Oklahoma, 1977-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.; Payne, Gregory A.; Andrews, William J.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2002-01-01

    The sampling network was evaluated with respect to areal coverage, sampling frequency, and analytical schedules. Areal coverage could be expanded to include one additional watershed that is not part of the current network. A new sampling site on the North Canadian River might be useful because of expanding urbanization west of the city, but sampling at some other sites could be discontinued or reduced based on comparisons of data between the sites. Additional real-time or periodic monitoring for dissolved oxygen may be useful to prevent anoxic conditions in pools behind new low-water dams. The sampling schedules, both monthly and quarterly, are adequate to evaluate trends, but additional sampling during flow extremes may be needed to quantify loads and evaluate water-quality during flow extremes. Emerging water-quality issues may require sampling for volatile organic compounds, sulfide, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, Esherichia coli, and enterococci, as well as use of more sensitive laboratory analytical methods for determination of cadmium, mercury, lead, and silver.

  5. A new species of Sphenomorphus Fitzinger, 1843 (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) from Vietnam .

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Nguyen, Khoi Vu; Van Devender, Robert Wayne; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A new forest skink species of the genus Sphenomorphus is described from Kon Tum Plateau, southern Central Vietnam. Sphenomorphus sheai sp. nov. is similar to the other montane skink species from the Indochina region, Lygosoma veunsaiensis, Scincella apraefrontalis, Sphenomorphus tetradactylus, and Sphenomorphus tridigitus, in having a small size and the absence of external ear openings. However, the new species is differentiated from aforementioned species and other members of Sphenomorphus from China and mainland Southeast Asia by a unique suite of morphological characters. The discovery of S. sheai brings the total species number of Sphenomorphus known from Vietnam to twelve. PMID:25277895

  6. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  7. The policy of free healthcare for children under the age of 6 years in Vietnam: assessment of the uptake for children hospitalised with acute diarrhoea in Ho Chi Minh City

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Mae; Thompson, Corinne; Tra, My Phan Vu; Linh, Van Thi Thuy; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Merson, Laura; Farrar, Jeremy J; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Baker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the proportion of, and reasons for, households not utilising the policy of free healthcare for children under 6 years of age (FCCU6) for hospitalisation with diarrhoea, and assess the risk of catastrophic expenditure for households that forgo FCCU6 and pay out of pocket. Methods Invoices detailing insurance information and charges incurred from 472 hospitalised diarrhoeal cases in one paediatric hospital in Ho Chi Minh City were retrieved. Hospital charges and the utilisation of elective services were analysed for patients utilising and not utilising FCCU6. Associations between socio-economic factors with non-utilisation of FCCU6 were evaluated. Results Overall, 29% of patients were FCCU6 non-users. The FCCU6 non-users paid a median hospital charge of $29.13 (interquartile range, IQR: $18.57–46.24), consuming no more than 1.4% of a medium-income household's annual income. Seventy per cent of low-income FCCU6 non-users utilised less-expensive elective services, whereas only 43% of medium income patients and 21% of high-income patients did (P = 0.036). Patients from larger households and those with a parent working in government were more likely to use FCCU6. Conclusions The rate of FCCU6 non-usage in this study population was 29%. A significant proportion of those that did not use FCCU6 was from lower income households and may perceive a justifiable cost–benefit ratio when forgoing FCCU6. Although a single diarrhoeal hospitalisation is unlikely to induce a catastrophic expenditure, FCCU6 non-usage may disproportionately increase the risk of catastrophic expenditure for lower income households over multiple illnesses. PMID:24134427

  8. Coastal vulnerability and the implications of sea level rise between the cities of Pescara and Ortona (Adriatic Sea - Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarragoni, C.; Bellotti, P.; Caputo, C.; Davoli, L.; Evangelista, S.; Pugliese, F.; Raffi, R.; Lupia Palmieri, E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphic processes induce rapid environmental changes especially along the coast that is highly susceptible to them. In addiction, the effects of storm or wave may be amplified by the expected relative sea level rise. In a context, like Italian coast, where the almost part of coast is densely populated and many infrastructures are presents, it is very important to have adequate tools to urban planning like the coastal vulnerability map. In this study the preliminary results of the ongoing SECOA project (Solution for Environmental contrasts in COastal Areas; 7th Framework Program) are presented, with reference to the Adriatic coast between Pescara and Ortona cities, in the Abruzzo region. In this work the same analytical model applied in the Venice Lagoon has been employed (Fontolan, 2001; 2005) involving the evaluation of the effective vulnerability (Ve). Ve is calculated as the difference between the potential vulnerability (Vp) and the defence elements present along the coast (D). (Ve = Vp - D) The data used to measure quantitative features are: high-resolution DEM (LiDAR), satellite images, aero photos, bathymetric profiles and topographic maps. The variables that contribute to the evaluation are: beach amplitude, berm height, seafloor gradient, seafloor evolution, recent and historical shorelines evolution for Vp; height, slope, vegetation cover, presence of passages, incipient dunes and windbreak barriers for the dune and anthropic barriers height. In this context, the potential vulnerability results from the sum of each variable (Vn) per the relative efficacy coefficient (Kn): Vp = V1K1+V2K2+ …VnKn In the same way the defences result from the sum of each kind of defence per the relative efficacy coefficient: D = D1K1+ …. DnKn The coastal area between Pescara and Ortona cities has been segmented in different sectors characterized by homogeneous values of the considered variables and for each of these the Ve values have been calculated and referred to one

  9. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3‑ in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  10. Sectoral CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Nagpur City of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Gajghate, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Emission inventory of CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 has been prepared for Nagpur city in Central India for the year 2004. Data on fossil fuel (coal, light diesel oil, high speed diesel, petrol/gasoline, low sulphur heavy stock, furnace oil and kerosene) consumption in thermal power, industrial, transport and domestic sectors were collected. Thermal power sector had the maximum coal consumption followed by the industrial and domestic sectors, whereas kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel and gasoline were used only in any single sector. Total annual CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from these fuels in Nagpur city for the year 2004 was found to be 14792418 MT (14.8 Tg), 4649 (4.6 Tg), 1529 (1.5 Tg) and 69093 (6.9 Tg), respectively, in which thermal power and domestic sector had the maximum share. Coal was found to be the major contributor to Green House Gas (GHG) and SO 2 emissions in all the sectors barring transport and domestic sectors. Carbon dioxide was the predominant GHG emitted by the selected sectors in terms of absolute emissions and also global warming contribution (GWC), though the share in the latter was lesser in magnitude due to higher global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2O than CO 2. Thermal power sector had a share of 51% in total CO 2 emissions from all the sectors, followed by domestic, industrial and transport sectors having 27, 12 and 10% contributions, respectively. Share of thermal power sector in total SO 2 emissions was 61%, followed by 24% from industrial, 10% from domestic and 5% from transport sector.

  11. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  12. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  13. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  14. Migration and employment in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Truong Si Anh; Gubry, P; Vu Thi Hong; Huguet, J W

    1996-06-01

    This article presents findings from a survey of migrants conducted during September 1994 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The sample includes 19,019 households in 34 residence blocks selected from the 17 districts that comprise the most populated areas of the city. 704 migrants and 296 nonmigrant households completed the basic demographic and socioeconomic questionnaire. One migrant and one nonmigrant completed a detailed questionnaire. Migrants are identified as those who migrated to the city after April 1984. Migrants are divided into those moving during 1984-89 and during 1990-94. The average annual rate of growth in population during the census years 1979-89 was 1.87% and during 1989-94 was 3.5%. Growth during 1989-94 was 1.6% due to natural increase and 1.9% due to net migration. 43% of population growth was due to natural increase and 57% was from net migration. Migration to large cities, such as Ho Chi Minh City, was stimulated by employment opportunities in the private sector. There were more female migrants in both study periods, and the proportion of females increased in the more recent past. About 15% of female migrants aged over 13 years were students and 58% were in the labor force. Most migrants were aged 15-29 years (41% during 1984-89 and 53% during 1990-94). Only 31% of nonmigrants were aged 15-29 years. About 33% of migrants originated from the Mekong River Delta in the south; 20% originated from the Red River Delta and Hanoi region; and 20% came from the Central Coast. Over time, the proportion of migrants from the coast increased and that from the Red River Delta decreased. Migrants and nonmigrants shared similar unemployment and economic activity rates. However, twice the proportion of migrants aged over 13 years were attending school. The author presents the evidence for the influence of urban economic policies on migration, specifically female migration. PMID:12347640

  15. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotope compositions of secondary atmospheric sulfate in the city of Wuhan, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Bao, H.; Zhou, A.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary atmospheric sulfate (SAS) is the oxidation product and sink for sulfur gases of biological, volcanic, and anthropogenic origins on Earth. SAS can be produced from gas-phase OH-radical oxidation and five aqueous-phase chemical reactions including aqueous-phase S (IV) oxidation reactions by H2O2, O3, oxygen catalyzed by Fe3+ and Mn2+, and methyle hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid. The tropospheric sulfur oxidation pathway is therefore determined by cloud-water pH, dissolved [Fe2+] or [Mn2+] content, S emission rate, meteorological condition, and other factors. The S isotope composition is a good tracer for the source while the O isotopes, especially the triple O isotope compositions are a good tracer for S oxidation pathway. Jerkins and Bao (2006) provided the first set of multiple stable isotope compositions (δ34S, δ18O and Δ17O) for SAS collected from bulk atmosphere in Baton Rouge in the relatively rural southern USA. Their study revealed a long-tern average Δ17O value of ~+0.7‰ for SAS, and speculated that much of the Earth mid-latitudes may have a similar average SAS Δ17O value. Additional sampling campaign at different sites is necessarily for constructing and testing models on sulfur oxidation and transport in the troposphere. A total of 33 sulfate samples were collected from bulk atmospheric deposition over a 950-day period from May 2009 to December 2011 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Differing from Baton Rouge, Wuhan is an industrial metropolis with a population of 9.8 million and a high particulate matter content (115 μg/m3). It also has a subtropical monsoon climate, with rainwater pH at ~5.3 year-around. The rainwater ion concentrations have seasonal variations, typically low in summer and high in winter. The anions are dominated by SO42-, at an average concentration of 8.5 mg/L. There is little sulfate contribution from sea-salt (SS) sulfate or dusts in Wuhan. The isotopic compositions for bulk atmospheric sulfate

  16. Geology and Magmatism of Gülşehir Area, City of Nevşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayhan, Uǧur Can; Miyak, İlayda; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    character from calc-alkaline to alkaline. Pyroclastic flow deposits (i.e. ignimbrites with rhyolitic to dacitic compositions) and low-viscosity sub-alkaline/alkaline basaltic lava fields are widely exposed in the study area. Geomorphology of the region is controlled by strike-slip faults related to the neotectonics of Central Anatolia and the erosion/deposition of the Kızılırmak River. Quaternary terraces which are composed of coarse-grained thick sedimentary beds are the products of the Kızılırmak River. In this study, we will present the preliminary results of our new studies in the northwest of the Gülşehir area, specifically aiming to reveal the geology, petrology and tectonic evolution of this part of Central Anatolia.

  17. Early childhood survivorship in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I E; Thang, N M; San, P B; Nhan, V Q; Man, V D

    1995-06-01

    The effects on early childhood mortality of birth order, age of the mother at the time of the child's birth, mother's education, as well as infant mortality risk in the province, urban/rural residence, the presence of schools and other facilities and health care services, were examined using data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey and the 1990 Study of Accessibility of Contraceptives in Vietnam. A total of 4137 urban and rural children born between 1983 and 1988 to the 4172 women interviewed in the Demographic and Health Survey were included in the hazard model analysis of maternal and child characteristics. However, since the Accessibility of Contraceptives Study included only rural respondents, the hazard model analysis of community development characteristics and health services effects on early childhood mortality was based on a subsample of 3314 rural children. Rural children in birth orders five and higher had the greatest risk of early childhood death, birth order one an intermediate risk and orders 2-4 the lowest risk of early childhood death. Rural children residing in communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants were at significantly greater risk of early childhood death than children from larger communes. Neither age nor education of the mother nor gender of the child, had a significant impact on early childhood survivorship independent of other variables. Risk of infant mortality in the child's province was of borderline significance. PMID:7783281

  18. Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia and Cost-Effectiveness of a Cryptococcal Antigen Screening Program – Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel M.; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Ha, Hoang Thi Thanh; Thang, Pham Hong; Thuy, Cao; Xuan Lien, Truong; Bui, Hien T.; Le, Thai Hung; Struminger, Bruce; McConnell, Michelle S.; Fanfair, Robyn Neblett; Park, Benjamin J.; Harris, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    Background An estimated 120,000 HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases occur each year in South and Southeast Asia; early treatment may improve outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended screening HIV-infected adults with CD4<100 cells/mm3 for serum cryptococcal antigen (CrAg), a marker of early cryptococcal infection, in areas of high CrAg prevalence. We evaluated CrAg prevalence and cost-effectiveness of this screening strategy in HIV-infected adults in northern and southern Vietnam. Methods Serum samples were collected and stored during 2009–2012 in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from HIV-infected, ART-naïve patients presenting to care in 12 clinics. All specimens from patients with CD4<100 cells/mm3 were tested using the CrAg lateral flow assay. We obtained cost estimates from laboratory staff, clinicians and hospital administrators in Vietnam, and evaluated cost-effectiveness using WHO guidelines. Results Sera from 226 patients [104 (46%) from North Vietnam and 122 (54%) from the South] with CD4<100 cells/mm3 were available for CrAg testing. Median CD4 count was 40 (range 0–99) cells/mm3. Nine (4%; 95% CI 2–7%) specimens were CrAg-positive. CrAg prevalence was higher in South Vietnam (6%; 95% CI 3–11%) than in North Vietnam (2%; 95% CI 0–6%) (p = 0.18). Cost per life-year gained under a screening scenario was $190, $137, and $119 at CrAg prevalences of 2%, 4% and 6%, respectively. Conclusion CrAg prevalence was higher in southern compared with northern Vietnam; however, CrAg screening would be considered cost-effective by WHO criteria in both regions. Public health officials in Vietnam should consider adding cryptococcal screening to existing national guidelines for HIV/AIDS care. PMID:23626792

  19. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions

    PubMed Central

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  20. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    PubMed

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  1. The epidemiology and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infancy in southern Vietnam: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Katherine L.; Thompson, Corinne N.; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Van; Nguyet, Nguyen Minh; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Van, Nguyen Thi Hong; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ha, Phan Thi Thanh; Lien, Le Bich; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Baker, Stephen; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Previous studies indicate a high burden of diarrhoeal disease in Vietnamese children, however longitudinal community-based data on burden and aetiology are limited. The findings from a large, prospective cohort study of diarrhoeal disease in infants in southern Vietnam are presented herein. Methods Infants were enrolled at birth in urban Ho Chi Minh City and a semi-rural district in southern Vietnam, and followed for 12 months (n = 6706). Diarrhoeal illness episodes were identified through clinic-based passive surveillance, hospital admissions, and self-reports. Results The minimum incidence of diarrhoeal illness in the first year of life was 271/1000 infant-years of observation for the whole cohort. Rotavirus was the most commonly detected pathogen (50% of positive samples), followed by norovirus (24%), Campylobacter (20%), Salmonella (18%), and Shigella (16%). Repeat infections were identified in 9% of infants infected with rotavirus, norovirus, Shigella, or Campylobacter, and 13% of those with Salmonella infections. Conclusions The minimum incidence of diarrhoeal disease in infants in both urban and semi-rural settings in southern Vietnam was quantified prospectively. A large proportion of laboratory-diagnosed disease was caused by rotavirus and norovirus. These data highlight the unmet need for a rotavirus vaccine in Vietnam and provide evidence of the previously unrecognized burden of norovirus in infants. PMID:25813553

  2. Exposure of school children to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides in the urban soil of Kragujevac city, Central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stajic, J M; Milenkovic, B; Pucarevic, M; Stojic, N; Vasiljevic, I; Nikezic, D

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of radionuclides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured in soil samples collected from school backyards and playgrounds in Kragujevac, one of the largest cities of Central Serbia. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined using the HPGe semiconductor detector. The average values were 34.6, 44.7, 428.9 and 45.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The correlation between the activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the soil samples and the results of the previous measurement of (222)Rn concentrations in the indoor air was examined. The absorbed dose rates, the annual effective doses and excess lifetime cancer risk were also estimated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th have shown normal distribution. The collected soil samples were analysed for PAHs by HPLC. All analysed soil samples contained PAHs, and their total amounts (for 15 measured compounds) were found to be between 0.038 and 3.136 mg kg(-1) of absolutely dry soil (a.d.s). In addition the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the fourteen soil samples collected from the playgrounds of kindergartens. PMID:26706933

  3. Education and Science in North Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.; Signer, Ethan

    1971-01-01

    Describes the organization of education, particulary higher education, and medical and scientific research in North Vietnam. Description is based on experiences during a lecture tour as well as available literature. (AL)

  4. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender), social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1) HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2) protective behaviors; and 3) reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18]), have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71]), and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]). Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]). The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely to report

  5. Ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii in decaying wood of trunk hollows of living trees in Jabalpur City of Central India.

    PubMed

    Grover, N; Nawange, Shesh Rao; Naidu, J; Singh, S M; Sharma, Archana

    2007-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii were repeatedly isolated from decaying wood of trunk hollows in living trees growing in Jabalpur City in Central India. The isolation of C. gattii has been reported from decayed wood inside trunk hollow of Tamarindus indica (15.6%), Mangifera indica (2.2%), Pithecolobium dulce (12.5%), Syzygium cumini (14%), and one from bark of S. cumini. C. n. var. grubii was isolated from decaying wood debris of T. indica (4.4%), M. indica (13.3%), Terminalia arjuna (25%), S. cumini (2%), Cassia fistula (4.5%), and two from bark of S. cumini. The two species [corrected] never co-occurred in the same hollow. C. gattii [corrected] isolates belonged to serotype B. [corrected] The data strongly supported the colonization of the pathogen in decaying wood hollow of all six-tree species. Evidence of this was found by repeated isolation up to 820 days. P. dulce is being reported for the first time as natural habitat of C. gattii and T. arjuna and C. fistula as natural habitat for C. n. var. grubii. M. indica is being reported for the second time as the natural habitat of both species [corrected] (C. n. var. grubii and C. gattii). The population density of these pathogens from decaying wood debris of various tree species ranged between 0.5 x 10(3) cells/g and 6 x 10(5) cells/g. The seasonal variation has been seen in isolation of these pathogens. [corrected] Our result further reinforce the recently emerging evidence that the natural habitat of C. n. var. grubii and C. gattii is more generalized. PMID:17661160

  6. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  7. Assessment of potential impacts of municipal solid waste treatment alternatives by using life cycle approach: a case study in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2013-10-01

    In Vietnam, most of municipal solid waste (MSW) is disposed of at open dumping and landfill sites, and the methane gas from waste is the un-ignorable source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. It is indispensable to explore the possibility for GHG mitigation in MSW management. The objective of this study was to estimate alternative waste treatment practices towards the GHG emission mitigation, energy consumption and generation, reduction of landfill volume, and various benefits for proposing the appropriate selection by scenario analyses for representative Vietnam's cities. Impacts were calculated by utilizing life cycle assessment (LCA) method. A literature review survey on the current applicability of LCA database for assessing impacts from waste sector in developing countries, especially for Vietnam, was carried out. This study assessed the contribution of alternative solid waste treatment practices. The result showed that, except investment and operation costs, incineration with energy recovery seems the suitable alternative for treating waste from representative cities of Vietnam according to reduction of GHG emission and waste burden to landfill sites and energy recovery and generation. Besides, MSW composition was identified as an important factor directly influencing to impacts as well as other products and benefits of waste treatment alternatives. Reliable data on waste composition are indispensable for assessing to choose, improve, or plan the waste treatment practices towards sustainable development. PMID:23475528

  8. Assessment of the geothermal resources of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Tien, Phan Cu; Schochert, D.; Quy, Hoang Huu

    1997-12-31

    More than 125 thermal springs, with temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C have been identified and catalogued by the General Department of Geology of Vietnam. Subsurface data are limited and fewer than 10 areas have been identified, on the basis of chemical geothermometers, as capable of supporting electric power production. Six sites in south-central Vietnam have recently been selected for exploration to determine their development potential for electrical power generation. Selected criteria included surface features, chemical geothermometers, proximity to regional faults trends, and regional requirements for electric power. Site visits were conducted to a total of eight areas in south central Vietnam where collateral economic developments suggest the need for a local, reliable source of electricity. Physical and visual information on geothermal springs and wells in Vietnam was compared to Nevada`s geothermal resources. Surface geothermal manifestations in Vietnam appear remarkably similar to those in Nevada. Outcrops adjacent to the geothermal areas indicate that Mesozoic-age granites are the most likely basement rocks. Quaternary basalts mapped throughout the study area may be responsible for the thermal anomaly. Initial exploration efforts will focus on three of the six sites, which together may be able to produce 40 to 60 MWe. A cooperative research program with selected Vietnamese governmental agencies includes geologic mapping, surface geophysical and geochemical surveys, and a graduated schedule of drilling programs, ranging in depth from 100 to 1,000 m. Results will be used to define a detailed, deep drilling and testing program at the three prime sites. Development of geothermal power in this region will boost local economic recovery and add stability to the national electric grid.

  9. 'I thought I was the only one': the misrecognition of LGBT youth in contemporary Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Horton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    While recent LGBT rights demonstrations and discussions about same-sex marriage have thrust the issue of homosexuality into the spotlight, it was not long ago that the issue of homosexuality was notable by its absence in Vietnam. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with young gay, lesbian and bisexual people in Vietnam's capital city Hanoi, this paper considers the increasing visibility of homosexuality through the theoretical lens of recognition, and illustrates the heterosexist misrecognition that LGBT young people have been subjected to in legislation, the media, their families, and through the education system. Drawing on the narratives of LGBT young people, the paper highlights the potentially negative impact such misrecognition may have on psychological and social wellbeing. PMID:24992507

  10. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... proclaimed the date of May 7, 1975, to be the ending date of the “Vietnam era” (Presidential Proclamation...

  11. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... proclaimed the date of May 7, 1975, to be the ending date of the “Vietnam era” (Presidential Proclamation...

  12. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... proclaimed the date of May 7, 1975, to be the ending date of the “Vietnam era” (Presidential Proclamation...

  13. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... proclaimed the date of May 7, 1975, to be the ending date of the “Vietnam era” (Presidential Proclamation...

  14. Drawing on Experience: A Study of Vietnam Veteran Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Karl F.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an exploration of the art produced by American veterans of the Vietnam War. In the areas of artistic history, military service, and the creative process, Vietnam veteran artists are a diverse group, and there are many different ways of explaining the connection between Vietnam experience and their art. Some individuals made limited…

  15. The Determinants and Impact of Private Tutoring Classes in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Hai-Anh

    2007-01-01

    Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in many developing countries, including Vietnam. Using the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1997-1998 and 1992-1993 for analysis, this paper finds evidence that private tutoring in Vietnam is a necessity in the household budget for both primary students and lower secondary students, and the trend to…

  16. Teaching the Vietnam Experience as a Whole Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Douglas

    1985-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War there has been a flood of new historical information vastly revising much of what anyone--left, right, or center--knew. Teachers must take this into account when teaching about Vietnam. All major competing perceptions of the Vietnam war should be analyzed objectively. (RM)

  17. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28,...

  18. Isolation and genetic characterization of Nocardia seriolae from snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu-Khac, Hung; Duong, Van Quy; Chen, Shih-Chu; Pham, Trung Hieu; Nguyen, Thi Thu; Trinh, Thi Thu

    2016-07-01

    A total of 480 cage-cultured fish were collected from 4 coastal provinces in central Vietnam to investigate the causative agent of nocardiosis. Fish displayed unique characteristics such as paleness and lethargy and exhibited haemorrhages and ulcers on the skin. Prominent white nodules varying in size were observed in the spleen, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, histopathological sections showed typical granulomatous lesions in these organs. Using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, isolated bacteria exhibited acid-fast, bead-like filament morphology when cultured in brain-heart infusion medium or Ogawa medium. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that the isolated bacterium was Nocardia seriolae. This study demonstrates for the first time an outbreak of N. seriolae in snubnose pompano in central Vietnam. PMID:27409241

  19. Evaluation of the Progress and Challenges facing the Ponseti Method Program in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Vincent; Nguyen, Michelle; Nhi, Huynh Manh; Thanh, Do Van; Oprescu, Florin; Cook, Thomas; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In 2003, an ICRC-SFD Ponseti program was introduced in southern Vietnam. Additional programs were introduced by the Prosthetics Outreach Foundation and independently by physicians trained at our center. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact, progress and challenges facing Ponseti practitioners and patients' family members in Vietnam. In addition, web-conferencing (Ponseti Virtual Forum) for continued medical education in the method was also assessed. Methods Multiple questionnaires were developed to conduct face-to-face practitioner interviews, focus group interviews, and parental interviews. Observation was done at multiple site clinics to determine or confirm additional challenges faced by practitioners. Web conferencing was introduced to sites in Ho Chi Minh City and Da Nang City. Results The number of clubfoot patients treated with the Ponseti method has increased over time with approximately 1,252 infants treated between 2003 and 2010. Specific challenges were identified relating to communication, networking, distance and transportation, and finances for both practitioners and parents. The PVF was not only found to facilitate rapid, relevant dissemination of medical knowledge – thus increasing physician and patient satisfaction – but it may also be found to act as an interface in which medical culture, insight, and compassion are shared benefiting all virtual forum participants. Conclusion The identified progress and challenges mirrored that of similar studies done in other countries with several factors affecting progress. Focusing on improving communication channels and networking while working with the ministry of health may improve the facilitation of the Ponseti method in Vietnam. Further implementation and evaluation of the PVF may act as a guide for current and future programs in Vietnam or other countries. PMID:23576933

  20. Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Mirzoev, Tolib; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal health remains a central policy concern in Vietnam. With a commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 target of maternal mortality rate (MMR) of 70/100 000 by 2015, the Ministry of Health (MoH) issued the National Plan for Safe Motherhood (NPSM) 2003-2010. In 2008, reproductive health, including safe motherhood (SM) became a national health target program with annual government funding. Methods: A case study of how SM emerged as a political priority in Vietnam over the period 2001-2008, drawing on Kingdon’s theory of agenda-setting was conducted. A mixed method was adopted for this study of the NPSM. Results: Three related streams contributed to SM priority in Vietnam: (1) the problem of high MMR was officially recognized from high-quality research, (2) the strong roles of policy champion from MoH in advocating for the needs to reducing MMR as well as support from government and donors, and (3) the national and international events, providing favorable context for this issue to emerge on policy agenda. Conclusion: This paper draws on the theory of agenda-setting to analyze the Vietnam experience and to develop guidance for SM a political priority in other high maternal mortality communities. PMID:26673334

  1. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam. PMID:26740358

  2. Postservice mortality among Vietnam veterans. The Centers for Disease Control Vietnam Experience Study.

    PubMed

    1987-02-13

    The postservice mortality (through December 1983) of a cohort of 9324 US Army veterans who served in Vietnam was compared with that of 8989 Vietnam-era Army veterans who served in Korea, Germany, or the United States. Over the entire follow-up period, total mortality in Vietnam veterans was 17% higher than for other veterans. The excess mortality occurred mainly in the first five years after discharge from active duty (rate ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.96) and involved motor vehicle accidents, suicide, homicide, and accidental poisonings. Thereafter, mortality among Vietnam veterans was similar to that of other Vietnam-era veterans, except for drug-related deaths, which continued to be elevated. An unexpected finding was a deficit in deaths from diseases of the circulatory system among Vietnam veterans. The excess in postservice mortality due to external causes among Vietnam veterans is similar to that found among men returning from combat areas after World War II and the Korean War. PMID:3027422

  3. Post Vietnam syndrome: neurosis or sociosis?

    PubMed

    Fleming, R H

    1985-05-01

    Recently released figures from the Veterans Administration on the number of Vietnam veterans who have been granted service connection in their claims for post-traumatic stress disorder appear to be astonishingly low, given the publicity that the media and mental health professionals have placed on this diagnosis in recent years. As of the summer of 1984, only slightly more than 7,000 Vietnam veteran cases had been approved by VA rating boards. A conservative popular estimate is that half a million Vietnam veterans are alleged to suffer from this neurosis, which is largely attributable to combat-related experiences. This gross discrepancy raises many serious questions about the appropriate use of the clinical diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. The point of contention is not the legitimacy of the diagnosis, but the abuse and misuse of the term for personal or political purposes to explain the dilemma of the Vietnam veteran in contemporary America. The traditional psychodynamic content of clinical psychology needs to be integrated with an analysis of the impact of social, political, historical, economic, and philosophical forces on individual and group dynamics. The objective of this paper is to examine those forces, the social and historical conditions in particular, which have contributed to the origin, development, and prolongation of readjustment difficulties for Vietnam veterans. PMID:3991821

  4. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  5. Vietnam's campaign to reduce population growth.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports campaigns to reduce the population growth in Vietnam. In July, red banners flew above the broad boulevard in Hanoi proclaiming World Population Day. This widespread public attention to population issues is not surprising, given the country's sharp reduction in fertility and widespread citizen support for smaller families. Since 1961, Vietnam has been trying to formulate a policy to reduce the population rate growth. The policy was a reaction to the results of the 1960 Census of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and reflected long-standing concerns over food shortages, as well as a desire to improve women's health and welfare. After the reunification in 1975, the policy was extended to the entire country. Since then, Vietnam's growth rate has been declining, suggesting that the national campaign for smaller families is succeeding in changing deeply held attitudes and perceptions, in addition to current practices. While the fertility decline in Vietnam may not be the world's fastest, the success of the national population policy has forever altered the country's prospect for population growth. PMID:12295331

  6. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  7. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    pharmaceutical researchers. A strong decentralisation process characterises the pharmaceutical sector, with pharmacies in the provinces and districts while wholesalers remain located in Hanoi and Saigon. The presence of many middlemen has contributed to an increase in prices. Today, a concentration of pharmacies is still noted in inner cities while the suburbs and the villages still have difficulties supplying drugs for inhabitants. Solutions have been implemented such as the opening of new pharmacies and additional professional training for pharmacists. Prices were lowered while the quality of the supply chain was improved. Local production is encouraged as hospitals are prompted to prescribe Vietnamese products. The modernisation of the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry is also visible through the importation of medical materials and an increase in the number of private hospitals financed with both the help of local and foreign investors, mainly through joint-ventures, most often in Saigon and Hanoi. The renovation of local hospitals was also possible with the help of France and Japan. Columbia Gia Dinh International, located in Saigon, is one of the very few US/Vietnamese medical institutions created with a local partner, the Gia Dinh hospital. The recovery of the economy will accelerate the creation of new projects designed to improve local medical infrastructures. Other private companies, some of which are based in Singapore, have been specifically designed to deliver care to expatriates working in Vietnam. Insurance coverage has been provided in Vietnam since in 1992. Other improvements concern the implementation of "Good Manufacturing Practices" (GMP) and "Good Laboratory Practices" and "Good Storage Practices". Most norms were implemented at the end of the 90s in joint companies linking foreign investors and local partners or in independent foreign drug manufacturers based in Vietnam. Special areas were created to receive high tech investments in the medical and

  8. Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Notario, Alberto; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello(®) passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4μgm(-3), respectively followed by butanal (29.1μgm(-3)), acetone (28.4μgm(-3)) and acetaldehyde (21.4μgm(-3)). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1μgm(-3)) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4μgm(-3) and limonene, 13.4μgm(-3)) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio >6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8×10(-5) to 4.1×10(-4) for formaldehyde, from 8.6×10(-6) to 3.5×10(-5) for acetaldehyde and from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-5) for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies. PMID:26025206

  9. Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central Anatolian part of Turkey by means of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central Anatolian part of Turkey. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling

  10. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  11. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam. PMID:1759276

  12. If they get sick, they are in trouble: health care restructuring, user charges, and equity in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Chernomas, Robert; Akram-Lodhi, A Haroon

    2003-01-01

    The transition from a centrally planned economy in the 1980s and the implementation of a series of neoliberal health policy reform measures in 1989 affected the delivery and financing of Vietnam's health care services. More specifically, legalization of private medical practice, liberalization of the pharmaceutical industry, and introduction of user charges at public health facilities have effectively transformed Vietnam's near universal, publicly funded and provided health services into a highly unregulated private-public mix system, with serious consequences for Vietnam's health system. Using Vietnam's most recent household survey data and published facility-based data, this article examines some of the problems faced by Vietnam's health sector, with particular reference to efficiency, access, and equity. The data reveal four important findings: self-treatment is the dominant mode of treatment for both the poor and nonpoor; there is little or no regulation to protect patients from financial abuse by private medical providers, pharmacies, and drug vendors; in the face of a dwindling share of the state health budget in public hospital revenues and low salaries, hospitals increasingly rely on user charges and insurance premiums to finance services, including generous staff bonuses; and health care costs, especially hospital costs, are substantial for many low- and middle-income households. PMID:12641269

  13. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael; Groce, Nora; Mont, Daniel; Nguyen, Oanh Hong; Mitra, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits. PMID:26197034

  14. Human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory infections in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus (HBoV), a novel virus, is recognized to increasingly associate with previously unknown etiology respiratory infections in young children. In this study, the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics of HBoV infections were described in hospitalized Vietnamese pediatric patients. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from patients with acute respiratory infections at the Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Samples were screened for HBoV by PCR and further molecularly characterized by sequencing. HBoV was found in 78 (7.2%) children. Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 66.7% of patients infected with HBoV. Children 12-24 months old were the most affected age group. Infections with HBoV were found year-round, though most cases occurred in the dry season (December-April). HBoV was possible to cause severe diseases as determined by higher rates of hypoxia, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization duration in patients with HBoV infection than in those without (P-value <0.05). Co-infection with HBoV did not affect the disease severity. The phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene showed minor variations and all HBoV sequences belonged to species 1 (HBoV1). In conclusion, HBoV1 was circulating in Vietnam and detected frequently in young children during dry season. Acute respiratory infections caused by HBoV1 were severe enough for hospitalization, which implied that HBoV1 may have an important role in acute respiratory infections among children. PMID:24123072

  15. Human diffusion and city influence.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-08-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  16. Human diffusion and city influence

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  17. Household, hotel and market waste audits for composting in Vietnam and Laos.

    PubMed

    Byer, Philip H; Hoang, Chi Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Thuc Thuy; Chopra, Sangeeta; Maclaren, Virginia; Haight, Murray

    2006-10-01

    In Da Nang and Ha Long, Vietnam and in Vientiane, Laos, there was interest by local authorities in separating and composting waste in order to reduce environmental and health problems at the local landfills and to produce a soil conditioner for local agricultural use. To assist in the planning of composting projects, three studies were carried out to estimate waste quantities and composition. 1. A 9-day audit of waste from 45 vendors in a market in Vientiane, the capital of Laos. The total quantity of waste and the quantity in each of nine categories were estimated for each of six different types of vendors. 2. A 7-day audit of waste disposed by three hotels in the tourist area of Ha Long, Vietnam. Waste quantities were estimated in total, on a per guest basis, and in three main categories: compostables, recyclables and miscellaneous. 3. A 7-day audit of waste collected from 74 households in Da Nang, the fourth largest city in Vietnam. Waste from each household was separated into compostable and non-compostable waste. Over 60% of each waste source comprised compostable waste and this was considered significant enough to warrant further planning of composting operations. PMID:17121118

  18. Urbanisation and sexual health: understanding bisexually active men in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Peter; Reddel, Siobhan; Pham, Hanh Van; Dang, Khoat Van; Hellard, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam are receiving increased attention in recognition of their high-risk behaviours and potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and transmission. Due to societal pressures, many MSM in Vietnam are also bisexually active, which ultimately increases the transmission risks beyond the MSM population. Evidence is emerging that indicates a greater proportion of women in Asia with low-risk sexual activities are contracting HIV from their male partners who have become HIV infected through male–male sex. Methodology: Fourteen focus group discussions exploring sexual and social networks were conducted in Hanoi between July 2010 and September 2010. A total of 96 individuals participated in these sessions. Findings: A risk environment approach was used to analyse the focus group themes of social stigma and marriage, sex with other men in closed settings and transactional sex in Hanoi, an increasingly urbanising and westernising city. Implications: Despite limited evidence globally that bisexual men act as a bridge for sexually transmitted diseases, there is particular concern in Vietnam about this potential risk. HIV rates amongst MSM are rapidly rising and there are reports of women contracting HIV from their male partners who are bisexually active. PMID:25750805

  19. HIV type 1 Thai subtype E is predominant in South Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Menu, E; Truong, T X; Lafon, M E; Nguyen, T H; Müller-Trutwin, M C; Nguyen, T T; Deslandres, A; Chaouat, G; Duong, Q T; Ha, B K; Fleury, H J; Barré-Sinoussi, F

    1996-05-01

    Samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 50 HIV-1-infected individuals in South Vietnam were analyzed to determine with which HIV-1 subtype the subjects were infected. Participants were from Ho Chi Minh city and five surrounding provinces; 16 samples from female prostitutes, 32 from IV drug users, and one each from a man and woman not in any HIV risk group. 32 individuals were therefore most likely infected by IV drug use and the rest through sexual contacts. PCR amplification and heteroduplex mobility assay found all but one case to be infected with HIV-1 subtype E. The only nonsubtype E infection was HIV-1 subtype B in a woman sexually infected by her seropositive partner who was most likely exposed to the virus in Europe. HIV-1 subtype E strongly predominates in South Vietnam. The homogeneous geographic distribution of subtype E suggests the recent introduction of the virus into the country. A Thai origin can be considered given the genetic relationship between the Thai and Vietnamese subtypes E. It may be assumed that subtype E infections of Vietnamese prostitutes are related to the progressive entry and spread of HIV-1 subtype E from Thailand to Cambodia and then to southern Vietnam. PMID:8743088

  20. Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailen Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel; Fernandez-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, Jose; Gonzalez-Corrochano, Beatríz; García-Noguero, Eva Mª; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; García-Noguero, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailén Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain). Authors: Miguel A. López-Berdonces¹; Sergio Fernández Calderón¹; Pablo Higueras¹; José María Esbrí¹; Beatriz González-Corrochano¹; Eva Mª García-Noguero¹; Alba Martínez-Coronado¹; Carolina García Noguero¹ ¹Instituto de Geología Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Almadén 13400 (Spain). Ojailén Valley is situated in South Central of Spain, an area where livestock, agriculture, mining and industry coexist. This work tries to assess the relationships between these activities and local environmental compartments: water, soils and heavy metal contents, and establish the most appropriate methodology of sample treatment and analytical techniques that can be employed on this kind of studies. For soil geochemistry, 152 samples were taken at two different depths, one at surface layer and another at 20 cm depth, and establish relationships between them and the possible sources. For this purpose, we determine soil parameters (pH, conductivity and organic matter) and total metal contents by Energy Dispersion of X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Samples with higher nickel contents were analyzed with Inductive Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The study of surface waters includes 18 samples along the river and tributaries near mining and industrial areas. Water analysis was performed by ICP-OES. Soil samples shows pH between 6 and 8.5, highest located near on the east part of the valley, in the vicinity of petrochemical complex. Conductivity values show higher levels (1600 µS cm¯¹) in the vicinity of Puertollano and the industrial sites. Local reference value (LRV) for contaminated soils were determined according to the methodology proposed by Jimenez-Ballesta et al. (2010), using the equation: LRV=GM + 2SD, where LRV: Local Reference Value, GM: Geometric Mean, SD: Standard Deviation

  1. Factors associated with drug use among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Vu, Thinh Toan; Pham, Ha Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 291 male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs) recruited through social mapping technique in Hanoi, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with drug use among MMTDs using Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model. Among 291 MMTDs, 17.18% reported drug use sometime in their lives, 96% of whom were drug injectors. Being depressed, being originally borne in urban cities, currently residing in rural areas, having a longer time living apart from their wives/lovers, using alcohol, following Buddhism, and reporting lower motivation of HIV prevention predict significantly higher odds of uptaking drugs. PMID:24601783

  2. Vietnam's Half-Hearted Welcome Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Vietnam's closed-door policy meant its students were restricted to the former Soviet-bloc countries. Today they study all over the world--about 6,000 are in the United States alone. In many cases, their tuition and living expenses are paid by foreign governments and private charitable organizations. Fulbright, the Ford…

  3. A Resocialization Strategy for Black Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pink, William T.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The major objective of the Veterans in Education program was to place unemployed or underemployed Black males into the field of education by training them as teachers. The participating Vietnam veterans attended the University of Nebraska while working 30 hours per week in Omaha public school classrooms. (GC)

  4. What Should Our Students Know about Vietnam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, George

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes four concepts contributing to U.S. involvement in Vietnam: (1) security; (2) ideology; (3) economics; and (4) domestic political considerations. Examines reasons why the United States lost the war; reviews combat conditions; and discusses the public attitudes toward the war. (LS)

  5. Ecological Effects of the War in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orians, Gordon H.; Pfeiffer, E. W.

    1970-01-01

    Research report on the severe ecological consequences of the defoliation program by American military forces in Vietnam. A significant fraction of mature trees in most forests are killed by single application of herbicides and almost completely killed by repeated sprayings. AAAS is urged to set up an international research program on the…

  6. Student Activism and the War in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Jesse D.; Howard, Gary

    The present study represents an attempt to further delineate the sociological and psychological variables that predispose a student to become an activist of the "new left." A total of 103 students participated in the study, 48 experimental and 55 control subjects. Measures used included a self report, an activism index, a Vietnam opinion Survey,…

  7. Dutch Universities' Joint Aid to Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education and Research in the Netherlands, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of the joint aid in the reconstruction of North and South Vietnam provided by Dutch universities. The hospital project, solid matter physics project, micro-electronics project, agricultural project and dentistry project are defined. (Author/PG)

  8. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  9. Symptom development in Vietnam era veterans.

    PubMed

    DeFazio, V J; Rustin, S; Diamond, A

    1975-01-01

    Recent studies and clinical reports concerning Vietnam returnees have led to contradictory conclusions as to maladjustment. A questionnaire and symptom checklist was obtain-d from 207 veterans. Significant differences in the mean number of symptoms (e.g., recurrent nightmares, fears, etc.) were found between the combat and non-combat groups. PMID:1111298

  10. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  11. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  12. US Army Chemical Corps Vietnam veterans health study: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Dalager, N A; Needham, L L; Patterson, D G; Matanoski, G M; Kanchanaraksa, S; Lees, P S

    2001-01-01

    The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in Vietnam as members of the Army Chemical Corps and a comparison cohort of Army Chemical Corps personnel who served elsewhere. A total of 2872 Vietnam veterans and 2737 non-Vietnam veterans who served in the Army Chemical Corps were identified for inclusion in a telephone health interview survey with a random 20% sample of veterans receiving serum dioxin and other congeners assessments. In a feasibility study which included 284 Vietnam veterans and 281 non-Vietnam veterans, 100 serum assessments were conducted of which 95 were included in the analysis. Vietnam veterans with a history of spraying herbicides were found to have a statistically significant elevation in their current serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations compared to non-Vietnam veterans without a spray history (P = 0.05). Other 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins levels were comparable to the levels found in the non-Vietnam veterans. This feasibility study demonstrated that serum dioxin concentrations from a sample of the study participants can be used to identify exposure variables in the health survey that can serve as a surrogate measure of phenoxyherbicide exposure. PMID:11372888

  13. Prevalence and first genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in beef calves in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Little information is available on the epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in beef cattle from Vietnam. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and genotypes/assemblages of G. duodenalis in native beef calves younger than 6 months in the region. A total of 412 calf fecal samples, randomly selected from 99 small-scale farms located in DacLac and KhanhHoa provinces, central Vietnam, were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts using the zinc-sulfate flotation method followed by iodine staining. The overall prevalence on the sample and herd levels were 13.8 % (57/412) and 42.4 % (42/99), respectively. Molecular analysis in the β-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes demonstrated the presence of only G. duodenalis assemblage E in the animals. Since assemblage E has been rarely reported in humans, the zoonotic risk in beef calves in the region appears to be minimal. PMID:26922741

  14. Continued urbanization of the United States is causing the deterioration of the central city; costly suburban developments; and increases in congestion, pollution, crime, violence and alienation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that urban sprawl and the abuses of technological industries result in substantial environmental and economic costs at the expense of center city locations and populations. Socioeconomic deterioration and modification of the biosphere triggers climatic and environmental changes leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict.

  15. Social sustainability of Mesocyclops biological control for dengue in South Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh Tam; Olsen, Anna; Viennet, Elvina; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Copepod Mesocyclops as biological control agents for dengue was previously proven to be effective and sustainable in the Northern and Central provinces of Vietnam. We aim to study social sustainability of Mesocyclops intervention in south Vietnam. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. An entomological survey was carried out in 100 random households of Chanh An commune, Vinh Long Province. Aedes larval indices and Mesocyclops prevalence were compared with historical pre- and post-intervention values. In the same commune, using purposeful sampling, sixteen semi-structured interviews (1 villager leader, 1 local doctor, 10 villagers, 2 teachers, 2 entomology officials), and a focus group discussion (6 Mesocyclops program collaborators) explored water storage habits, beliefs about dengue prevention and behaviour related to Mesocyclops. Thematic analysis was conducted to interpret the qualitative findings. Aedes abundance increased after responsibility for Mesocyclops intervention moved from government to community in 2010, with post-transfer surges in Breteau Index, Container Index, and Larval Density Index. Larval increments coincided with decrease in Mesocyclops prevalence. Villagers had some knowledge of dengue but it was conflated with other mosquito borne diseases and understanding of Mesocyclops was incomplete. Program adoption among the villagers was limited. With reduced government support program collaborators reported limited capacity to conduct population monitoring, and instead targeted 'problem' households. Although the Mesocyclops program was highly sustainable in northern and central provinces of Vietnam, the intervention has not been consistently adopted by southern households in Chanh An commune. Limited education, household monitoring and government support are affecting sustainability. Findings were based on a small household sample visited over a short time period, so other evaluations are needed. However, our results suggest that

  16. Republic of Vietnam. A Study of Higher Education in the Republic of Vietnam and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Vietnam in United States Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmon, Hattie; And Others

    This 1970 study of higher education in the Republic of Vietnam looks at an educational system based on the old French colonial system, superimposed on the Chinese Mandarin system, with some evidence of change to prepare students for lives in a modern technological age. Each university and college in Vietnam is reviewed and recommendations for…

  17. Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair and "Puller Hall" sign - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Enlisted Men's Barracks & Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, Neville Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  19. Impact of Agent Orange exposure among Korean Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung-Soon; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Cho, Sung-Il; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lim, Min-Kyung

    2003-07-01

    In order to determine whether Agent Orange exposure was associated with increased frequency of medical problems, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of Korean veterans during 1995-1996. 1,224 Vietnam and 154 non-Vietnam veterans were included in the study. Exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by structured in-depth interview on the participants' history of service in Vietnam. Health outcomes were assessed by a standardized comprehensive clinical investigation by a group of clinical specialists. The differences in the prevalence of various medical diagnoses were assessed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests comparing the exposure levels of Vietnam veterans, adjusting for age. Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the effect of "service in Vietnam" adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, education, and marital status. Vietnam veterans had an increased frequency of eczema (odds ratio [OR] = 6.54), radiculopathy (OR = 3.98), diabetes (OR = 2.69), peripheral neuropathy (OR = 2.39), and hypertension (OR = 2.29), compared to non-Vietnam veterans, adjusting for potential confounders. In addition, higher levels of exposure among Vietnam veterans were associated with increased frequency of ischemic heart disease (p < 0.01), valvular heart disease (p < 0.01), and retinopathy (p < 0.01). We conclude that exposure to Agent Orange is associated with various health impacts in Korean Vietnam veterans. PMID:12916744

  20. Serum dioxin in Vietnam-era veterans - preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-14

    Agent orange, a defoliant used in Vietnam, was a mixture of 2,4-DD and 2,4,5-TS. During manufacture 2,4,5-T was contaminated with TCDD, a compound with marked toxicity in some species of experimental animals. In 1979, the US Congress responded to concerns of Vietnam veterans by passing Public Law 96-151 mandating epidemiologic studies of the possible health effects on Vietnam veterans of exposure to herbicides and their associated dioxin contaminants. In 1983, CDC developed a protocol for a historical cohort study of US Army veterans who had served in heavily sprayed areas of Vietnam. A report on that study is presented.

  1. Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

  2. Slaughterhouse Pigs Are a Major Reservoir of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capable of Causing Human Infection in Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Van; Campbell, James; Anh, Pham Hong; Huu Tho, Huynh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542) of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542) carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%). 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged. PMID:21464930

  3. Regional water quality management for the Dong Nai River Basin, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Grayman, W M; Day, H J; Luken, R

    2003-01-01

    A three-year study that started solely as an industrial pollution reduction effort in Dong Nai Province of Vietnam expanded into an ongoing regional river basin water quality management effort. The project was a cooperative effort between the United Nations (UNDP and UNIDO) and the Federal and Provincial governments in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach was used to assess the impacts and strategies for reducing industrial, municipal and agricultural pollution to the water, air and land. The strategy was based upon use of knowledge in four subject areas, economics, ecology, technology and institutions, integrated within a framework for regional environmental quality management, sometimes called Areawide Environmental Quality Management (AEQM). Dong Nal Province encompasses a major developing area immediately north of Ho Chi Minh City. The land area chosen for the AEQM study is the 1,400 square kilometre region in and around Bien Hoa that drains into the Dong Nai River. The Dong Nai River serves many purposes including navigation, fisheries and a water supply for both the Province and Ho Chi Minh City. Extensive industrial and residential development was underway and was projected to increase in the coming decade. A strategy for the control of pollution from liquid, gaseous and solid wastes for the period 1998 to 2010 in Dong Nai Province was developed. PMID:15137148

  4. [Plantar pruritus after trip to Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Tanneberger, O; Fehr, J; Nuesch, R

    2007-10-01

    A 33 year old man is evaluated for a pruriginous plantar eruption on the right foot. Three weeks ago he walked across a river barefoot in the south of Vietnam. In the clinical examination of the foot a red, serpiginuous dermatitis was seen. Patient history and clinical picture were typical for a larva migrans. After starting a treatment with albendazol the patient felt well and the lesions disappeared. PMID:17966826

  5. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro`s efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces {approximately}130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins` blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco`s gas discoveries. Mitsubishi`s and Petronas` oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro`s acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  6. Micronutrient composition and nutritional importance of gathered vegetables in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ogle, B M; Dao, H T; Mulokozi, G; Hambraeus, L

    2001-11-01

    This article presents the nutrient composition and nutritional contribution of naturally occurring vegetables (NOV) in four villages in Vietnam. The frequency of consumption and quantities eaten were evaluated within the overall diet of 101 and 110 women in the Mekong Delta (flood period and rainy season, respectively) and of 103 women in the Central Highlands (rainy season). The concentrations of Ca, Fe and Zn were analysed in 28 species, and presence of tannins and phytic acid in 19 species. Provitamin carotenoids were determined in 11 species. Over 90% of the women consumed NOV, and they contributed 43, 72 and 75% (Central Highlands, Mekong rainy and Mekong flood period, respectively) of the total quantities of vegetables eaten. Aquatic species such as lpomoea aquatica and Limnocharis flava, and terrestrial vegetables such as Schismattoglottis calyptrata, were among the most commonly consumed vegetables. They were eaten in mean daily quantities exceeding 50 g and had high concentrations of Ca, Fe and beta-carotene. Other major aquatic vegetables included the stems of Eleocharis sp., Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphea lotus, all of which were used as salad vegetables and had relatively low nutrient density. The problems of assessing the current role of NOV due to lack of data on intakes in the context of the overall diets, as well as data on their composition, are addressed. PMID:11570015

  7. Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bich, Tran Huu; Quang, La Ngoc; Thanh Ha, Le Thi; Duc Hanh, Tran Thi; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Background Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. Objective The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension) between flood affected and non-affected households. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected) from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. Results The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. Conclusions For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding), flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis. PMID:21866222

  8. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  9. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  10. Second Generation Effect of Vietnam: Adolescent Children of Combat Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Virginia Smejkal

    Although extensive research has focused upon the adjustment problems of the veterans of the Vietnam conflict, little data is available concerning their children. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the adolescent children who have lived with Vietnam combat veteran fathers, comparing them (on the basis of social and personal…

  11. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  12. Education and Inequalities in Rural Vietnam in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of children's schooling during the 1990s in rural areas of Vietnam. It focuses on the impact of family attributes on the likelihood of children remaining in school or leaving during the primary and secondary school years. Using data from the Vietnam Living Standard Survey (VLSS) of 1992-93 and 1997-98, the…

  13. What Should We Tell Our Children about Vietnam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloud, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Describes McCloud's efforts to improve coverage of the Vietnam War in the junior high school curriculum. Presents answers to the question "What do you think are the most important things for today's junior high students to understand about the Vietnam War?" from people such as Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, Tom Hayden, and Robert S. McNamara. (GEA)

  14. Using Oral History to Teach the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, George

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of oral histories through an oral history assignment that helps students understand the impact of the Vietnam War on the "Vietnam generation." Suggests introductory materials and lists exemplar interview questions for students to use in interviewing soldiers who were on active duty and those who were not.…

  15. Primary English Language Education Policy in Vietnam: Insights from Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of English in primary education curricula is a phenomenon occurring in many non-English-speaking countries in Asia, including Vietnam. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in Vietnam issued guidelines for the piloting of an English as a foreign language (EFL) primary curriculum in which English is taught as a…

  16. Latent Classes of PTSD Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Maria M.; Nickerson, Angela; Maguen, Shira; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Nash, William P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined heterogeneity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom presentation among veterans (n = 335) participating in the clinical interview subsample of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Latent class analysis was used to identify clinically homogeneous subgroups of Vietnam War combat veterans. Consistent with…

  17. Teaching English in Primary Schools in Vietnam: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoa, Nguyen Thi Mai; Tuan, Nguyen Quoc

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the English language situation at primary school level in Vietnam from a language planning perspective. It examines language policy for foreign language teaching in Vietnam to provide a picture of the role of English in foreign language education. It analyses language-in-education policy, curriculum and teaching materials, and…

  18. Masculinity and Punishment: Men's Upbringing of Boys in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydstrom, Helle

    2006-01-01

    This article examines men's use of physical punishment when interacting with their sons or grandsons in rural Vietnam. By drawing on two periods of anthropological fieldwork in a northern Vietnamese commune, the article analyses the ways in which violence is informed by, while also perpetually reinforcing, a masculine discourse. Vietnam has…

  19. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  20. Vietnam War Veteran-Poets: The Ideology of Horror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdstein, Deborah H.

    1983-01-01

    Verses written by Vietnam veterans from "Winning Hearts and Minds" are discussed in terms of two thematic categories: that which smashes the hypocrisy and myths of America and its patriotism, and that which documents and records the veteran's experience. This accessible, immediate poetic documentation of the Vietnam experience merits recognition.…

  1. The History and Future of Community Colleges in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Anh T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1986, with the creation of the Renovation ("Doi moi") policy, Vietnam has demonstrated a strong commitment to the improvement of its higher education system. After 25 years of opening its doors to the global educational environment, Vietnam has achieved some notable accomplishments. The country's higher educational system has become more…

  2. Effective Primary Schools in Geographically Isolated Areas of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Miyako

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the major characteristics of "effective" primary schools in isolated areas in Vietnam. It suggests areas in which the implementation of beneficial changes can occur. Pupils in isolated areas of Vietnam are, in many respects, educationally disadvantaged. Usually, these pupils are in schools that have fewer educational…

  3. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  4. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  5. 75 FR 54087 - Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... International Trade Administration Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam AGENCY: International Trade... education trade mission to Indonesia and Vietnam, April 3-8, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce... accredited U.S. education institutions. However, the emphasis will be on community colleges,...

  6. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The preliminary results of the... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers...

  7. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  8. 78 FR 40100 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review; 2012- 2013, 78 FR 18957... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period August 1, 2012, through January 31, 2013.\\1\\ On...

  9. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to...

  10. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  11. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  12. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  13. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  14. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  15. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  16. Case study of ISWI in Vietnam: A comparison of ionospheric parameters observed over Ho Chi Minh with IRI predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Hoang Thai; Tam, Dao Ngoc Hanh

    2014-01-01

    For the contribution of Vietnam to ISWI activities, there are 3 GPS receivers, 3 Ionosondes, 1 AWESOME and 1 MAGDAS operating in Vietnam. With a special geographical position stretching from the north tropic to the magnetic equator, Vietnam is an interesting area to supplement the data for the Global Space Weather Model. The Ionosphere is an important indicator of Space Weather and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model has become widely accepted. The first task of ionospheric science in a new location is often comparing the observed data with IRI. This paper presents the results of comparisons of the foF2 and TEC observed over Ho Chi Minh City (10.51 N, 106.33 E) with the values calculated according to the IRI-2007 in order to evaluate the applicability of the model in forecasting for the equatorial region of Vietnam. We compare the critical frequency of layer F (foF2) and Total Electron Content (TEC) values for two phases of solar activity. The results show very good diurnal correlations between the observed foF2 and TEC with IRI values in the decreasing solar activity period 2003 ± 2006 (the deviation < 15%). In the increasing period 2009 ± 2012, good correlation was in the morning time before the foF2 peak at about 10 LT, with a deviation about 10% (except 2012). However, after 10 LT, the IRI-foF2 values rose up and the deviations were about 25% to 30%, especially during evening. In the years with low solar activity (SSN < 40), the IRI-foF2 are almost always higher than the observed foF2 data and vice versa for the years with SSN > 40. This is a note for correction IRI model applying for Vietnam. The comparison of the TEC shows that the correlation between GPS-TEC and IRI-TEC generally was good with coefficients k > 0.8 and R > 0.9 for the period 2006 - 2010. The worst relationship were March, April, September, October, November and December 2011, corresponding to periods when the TEC gradients are highest. The phenomenon of decline in the TEC at

  17. 26. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING WEST, MAINTENANCE SHOP - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. 27. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING EAST, FERRYMEN'S QUARTERS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  19. 36. VIEW OF PASSENGER WAITING ROOM, FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VIEW OF PASSENGER WAITING ROOM, FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, SECOND LEVEL, LOOKING EAST - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY MOUSE, SOUTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY MOUSE, SOUTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING WEST, FERRYMEN'S QUARTERS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    PubMed

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system. PMID:12320521

  2. Case report: intraocular gnathostomiasis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Le Thi; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Punpoowong, Benjanee; Trang, Le Nhu; Hien, Tran Vinh

    2002-09-01

    This is the report of the first case of intraocular gnathostomiasis diagnosed in Vietnam. The disease progressed in two months in two distinct phases: in the first phase, the patient had swellings, which appeared at different times and in different locations, on his face--this phase lasted around one month; the second phase was the embedding of the parasite in the vitreous cavity of the right eye and uveitis. Surgical extraction of a living Gnathostoma larva was carried out. Based on morphological, histological criteria, the larva may have been an atypical third-stage of Gnathostoma spinigerum. PMID:12693580

  3. Cutaneous fascioliasis: a case report in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Le Thi; Hung, Nguyen Thien; Waikagul, Jitra

    2005-05-01

    A 40 year-old woman living in Gialai, Kontum, Vietnam, developed a red solid mass in the epigastric region. From ultrasound investigation, liver abscess and myositis of the intercostal muscle was diagnosed. Two weeks after treatment with antibiotics, the mass disappeared, but a migratory track developed in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. An aspiration of the vesicular end of the serpiginous track showed a light brown, living worm that was later identified as an immature Fasciola sp. This is the first case report of cutaneous fascioliasis in the form similar to creeping eruption. PMID:15891121

  4. Prevalence of Gnathostoma spinigerum infection in wild and cultured swamp eels in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sieu, Tran Phu Manh; Dung, Tran Thi Kim; Nga, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Hien, Tran Vinh; Dalsgaard, Anders; Waikagul, Jitra; Murrell, K Darwin

    2009-02-01

    Human infections with Gnathostoma spinigerum frequently occur in southern Vietnam. Previous investigations have implicated infected swamp eels (Monopterus albus) as an important source of infection to humans. Because aquaculture of M. alba is an important farming activity in Vietnam, a 2-yr study was carried out to assess the relative importance of farmed and wild eels as potential sources of gnathostome infections in humans. Eels sold for public consumption in markets in southern provinces were examined between November 2005 and August 2007. Although no infections were detected in 1,020 cultured eels and 1,021 wild-caught eels collected from November 2005 to September 2006, larval G. spinigerum (AL3) infections were first detected in September 2006 in 28 of 230 wild-caught eels (12.2%) obtained from markets in Long An province and the Hoc Mon district of Ho Chi Minh City. Subsequently, monthly surveillance of wild-caught eels from these markets was carried out through August 2007. Prevalence of AL3 varied monthly, ranging from 0.8 to 19.6%. Both prevalence and infection intensity were higher during the latter part of the rainy season (August- October). These results demonstrate that potentially zoonotic G. spinigerum larvae are common in wild eels in southern Vietnam and present a risk to consumers of raw fish dishes, especially during the annual rainy season. This information could help target public health education efforts in the region. The basis for the seasonal variation on eel infections is not known, but may be related to climate effects (flooding, higher temperatures) on intermediate host species ecology. PMID:19245276

  5. Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of deforestation abroad

    PubMed Central

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries across the globe, tropical forest cover is increasing. The national-scale reforestation of Vietnam since 1992 is assumed to contribute to this recovery. It is achieved, however, by the displacement of forest extraction to other countries on the order of 49 (34–70) M m3, or ≈39% of the regrowth of Vietnam's forests from 1987 to 2006. Approximately half of wood imports to Vietnam during this period were illegal. Leakage due to policies restricting forest exploitation and displacement due to growing domestic consumption and exports contributed respectively to an estimated 58% and 42% of total displacement. Exports of wood products from Vietnam also grew rapidly, amounting to 84% of the displacement, which is a remarkable feature of the forest transition in Vietnam. Attribution of the displacement and corresponding forest extraction to Vietnam, the source countries or the final consumers is thus debatable. Sixty-one percent of the regrowth in Vietnam was, thus, not associated with displacement abroad. Policies allocating credits to countries for reducing deforestation and forest degradation should monitor illegal timber trade and take into account the policy-induced leakage of wood extraction to other countries. PMID:19805270

  6. Viral Etiology of Encephalitis in Children in Southern Vietnam: Results of a One-Year Prospective Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; Qui, Phan Tu; Ha, Do Quang; Hue, Nguyen Bach; Bao, Lam Quoi; Cam, Bach Van; Khanh, Truong Huu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Vinh Chau, Nguyen Van; Tram, Tran Tan; Hien, Vo Minh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Schultsz, Constance; Farrar, Jeremy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; de Jong, Menno D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute encephalitis is an important and severe disease in children in Vietnam. However, little is known about the etiology while such knowledge is essential for optimal prevention and treatment. To identify viral causes of encephalitis, in 2004 we conducted a one-year descriptive study at Children's Hospital Number One, a referral hospital for children in southern Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City. Methodology/Principal Findings Children less than 16 years of age presenting with acute encephalitis of presumed viral etiology were enrolled. Diagnostic efforts included viral culture, serology and real time (RT)-PCRs. A confirmed or probable viral causative agent was established in 41% of 194 enrolled patients. The most commonly diagnosed causative agent was Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 50, 26%), followed by enteroviruses (n = 18, 9.3%), dengue virus (n = 9, 4.6%), herpes simplex virus (n = 1), cytomegalovirus (n = 1) and influenza A virus (n = 1). Fifty-seven (29%) children died acutely. Fatal outcome was independently associated with patient age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission. Conclusions/Significance Acute encephalitis in children in southern Vietnam is associated with high mortality. Although the etiology remains unknown in a majority of the patients, the result from the present study may be useful for future design of treatment and prevention strategies of the disease. The recognition of GCS and age as predictive factors may be helpful for clinicians in managing the patient. PMID:21049060

  7. Negotiating care: reproductive tract infections in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Maxine

    2002-01-01

    Through case studies of two women, this paper uses a taskonomy approach to analyze rural Vietnamese women's narratives of prevention, treatment and management of vaginal discharge to illustrate care seeking, health practice and the pragmatism of their action. The research is based upon ethnographic research undertaken by the author between 1995 and 1997 in a rural district in northern Vietnam. This exploration illustrates the complexities of women's rationalities and the web of influences upon their choices-the health seeking culture as practiced. The women's narratives are also placed within the broader context of gender, power and health systems that structure their decision making. The author discusses how social and economic resource factors influence the choices women make regarding when to begin treatment for vaginal discharge and where to seek care. She concludes that women use their understanding of the relationships between health, living conditions and diseases on a day-to-day basis and that the practice of managing vaginal discharge is mediated by concepts of body, self and the body politic in Vietnam. PMID:12216991

  8. Secondary Traumatization in Vietnam Veterans' Families.

    PubMed

    Yager, Thomas J; Gerszberg, Nicole; Dohrenwend, Bruce P

    2016-08-01

    This research focused on secondary traumatization of wives and offspring of 115 male Vietnam veterans, a subsample from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study who had one or more children aged 6 to 16 years and had had a clinical interview. Traumatization was defined as meeting criteria for lifetime war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secondary traumatization was operationalized by elevated scores on children's internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and on wives' demoralization. There was evidence of secondary traumatization in the veterans' sons (odds ratio [OR] = 20.31 for internalizing behavior problems). Current PTSD in the veterans was associated with demoralization in their wives or partners (β = 0.24), which in turn was associated with behavior problems in their daughters (ORs = 2.67 and 4.61 for internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively; these were adjusted for veteran's PTSD). Demoralization of the wife or partner was also associated with current alcoholism in the veterans (β = 0.30, adjusting for veteran's PTSD). These associations were also adjusted for other veteran risk factors, including severity of combat exposure, involvement in harming civilians or prisoners, and prewar vulnerability. Even with the degree of secondary traumatization present, the veterans' children appeared at least as healthy as counterparts in the general population. PMID:27529559

  9. Thermometric well testing on the Vietnam offshore

    SciTech Connect

    San, T.N.; Shtyrlin, V.F.; Vakhitov, G.G.; Loi, L.M.; Listengarten, L.; Hien, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    It is impossible to control and adjust an oil and gas field development without determining the flow intervals of production wells. For that it is preferable to get production profiles by using the downhole flowmeter. There are, however, some main restrictions for wide-spread application of them on the offshore of Vietnam as follows: the flowmeter spinner velocity cannot indicate correctly in the open hole wells having a nonuniform diameter; it is unable to carry out in the case when the tubing shoe is lower than top formation on 300--500m. In this paper, the authors present a summary of temperature profile method to determine the flowing and intaking intervals of wells drilled in basement of the White Tiger Field on Vietnam offshore. For the last 2 years more than 30 wells were surveyed by this method in the above mentioned conditions. This paper presents the theory and practice of well temperature profile surveys, the concrete examples of data interpretation using the software Oiltest.

  10. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  11. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  12. Foodborne Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Northern Vietnam and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of foodborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae was investigated in fish from 2 localities of northern Vietnam in 2004-2005. Freshwater fish (9 species) were collected from local markets in Hanoi City (n=76) and Nam Dinh Province (n=79), and were examined for FBT metacercariae using the artificial digestion technique. Adult flukes were obtained from hamsters experimentally infected with the metacercariae at day 8 post-infection. Three (Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum varium) and 6 (Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, P. varium, Stellantchasmus falcatus, and Heterophyopsis continua) species of FBT metacercariae were detected in the 2 regions, respectively. Overall, among the positive fish species, H. pumilio metacercariae were detected in 104 (80.0%) of 130 fish examined (metacercarial density per infected fish; 64.2). C. formosanus metacercariae were found in 37 (40.2%) of 92 fish (metacercarial density; 14.7). P. varium metacercariae were detected in 19 (63.3%) of 30 fish (Anabas testudineus and Mugil cephalus) (metacercarial density; 247.7). S. falcatus metacercariae were found in all 10 M. cephalus examined (metacercarial density; 84.4). H. continua metacercariae (2 in number) were detected in 1 fish of Coilia lindmani. Morphologic characteristics of the FBT metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. The results have demonstrated that various FBT species are prevalent in northen parts of Vietnam. PMID:23230329

  13. Blood levels of DDT and breast cancer risk among women living in the north of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Toniolo, P; Dai, L C; Thuy, L T; Wolff, M S

    1997-11-01

    A positive association has been reported between elevated tissue organochlorines (p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, PCBs, dioxins) and breast cancer in some case-control studies and occupational cohort studies. We previously reported high serum levels of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE in women living throughout Vietnam. We report here the results of a small hospital-based case-control study examining the association between blood levels of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and the risk of invasive breast cancer among residents of the north of Vietnam-an area where insecticides such as p,p'-DDT have been heavily used in the recent past. The study was conducted among patients admitted to a single hospital in the capital city of Hanoi in 1994. Study subjects were 21 women newly diagnosed with invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast, who served as cases, and 21 women of similar age with fibrocystic breast disease, who served as controls. No increase was evident in the relative risk of breast cancer with increasing tertiles of serum concentration of the compounds of interest, even after adjustment for major potential confounders, such as age at menarche, parity, history of lactation, and body weight. These results suggest that recent and past exposure to p,p'-DDT does not play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer among women living in a country with a tropical climate where insecticide use for mosquito control is common. PMID:9419265

  14. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Long, N Q; Truong, Y; Hien, P D; Binh, N T; Sieu, L N; Giap, T V; Phan, N T

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33, and 37 μBq m(-3) for (131)I, (13)(4)Cs, and (13)(7)Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 d over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima. PMID:22200554

  15. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 75973... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam)....

  16. Households as Foci for Dengue Transmission in Highly Urban Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Katherine L.; Nga, Le Hong; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Van; Ngoc, Tran Van; Tam, Cao Thi; Tai, Luong Thi Hue; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Duyen, Huynh Thi Le; Trung, Vu Tuan; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Wolbers, Marcel; Wills, Bridget; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Tho, Nguyen Dac; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue control programs commonly employ reactive insecticide spraying around houses of reported cases, with the assumption that most dengue virus (DENV) transmission occurs in the home. Focal household transmission has been demonstrated in rural settings, but it is unclear whether this holds true in dense and mobile urban populations. We conducted a prospective study of dengue clustering around households in highly urban Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Methods We enrolled 71 index cases with suspected dengue (subsequently classified as 52 dengue cases and 19 non-dengue controls); each initiated the enrollment of a cluster of 25–35 household members and neighbors who were followed up over 14 days. Incident DENV infections in cluster participants were identified by RT-PCR, NS1-ELISA, and/or DENV-IgM/-IgG seroconversion, and recent infections by DENV-IgM positivity at baseline. Principal Findings/Conclusions There was no excess risk of DENV infection within dengue case clusters during the two-week follow-up, compared to control clusters, but the prevalence of recent DENV infection at baseline was two-fold higher in case clusters than controls (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.0–5.1, p = 0.05). Prevalence of DENV infection in Aedes aegypti was similar in case and control houses, and low overall (1%). Our findings are broadly consistent with household clustering of dengue risk, but indicate that any clustering is at a short temporal scale rather than sustained chains of localized transmission. This suggests that reactive perifocal insecticide spraying may have a limited impact in this setting. PMID:25680106

  17. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms. PMID:25496738

  18. Opisthorchis viverrini-like liver fluke in birds from Vietnam: morphological variability and rDNA/mtDNA sequence confirmation.

    PubMed

    Dao, T H; Nguyen, T G; Victor, B; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P

    2014-12-01

    Flukes were found in the bile ducts of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), necropsied in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam. Following staining, morphological characteristics of the bird flukes were compatible with Opisthorchis viverrini, although some characteristics differed from those described in specimens collected from mammal hosts. Computation of the phylogenetic trees on the partial sequences of the second internal ribosomal spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers of the mitochondrial DNA showed close similarity of the 'bird' Opisthorchis sp. with O. viverrini. We speculate that these bird flukes are O. viverrini that show intraspecies morphological and molecular variability compared to isolates from mammals. This demonstrates the complex epidemiological situation of opisthorchiasis in Vietnam and urges investigations on the potential of birds as a reservoir host of this zoonotic fluke. PMID:23721954

  19. American Cities in Profound Transition: The New City Geography of the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conzen, Michael P.

    1983-01-01

    The post-World War II American pattern of general urban growth, rapid suburbanization, and central city decline has now given way to reduced urban growth outside the Sunbelt, increased growth in nonmetropolitan areas, greater self-sufficiency for suburbs, and continuing depression in the central cities. Implications of these changes are discussed.…

  20. Antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates in Jabalpur, a city of Madhya Pradesh in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Ruchi Sethi; Nawange, Shesh Rao; Singh, Shankar Mohan; Yadu, Ruchika; Tiwari, Aditi; Gumasta, Richa; Kavishwar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present antifungal susceptibility data of clinical and environmental isolates of Central Indian Cryptococcus neoformans (Serotype A, n = 8 and n = 50 respectively) and Cryptococcus gattii (Serotype B, n = 01 and n = 04 respectively). Susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined by using NCCLS broth micro-dilution methodology. The total number of resistant strains for fluconazole in case of C. neoformans and C. gattii showed a significant difference by using chi-square test (p < 0.05*), while considering fisher's exact p value was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, the total number of resistant strains for itraconazole and ketoconazole was not found statistically significant. A comparison of geometric means of clinical and environmental strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans was not found statistically significant using student ‘t’ test (p value > 0.05 NS). Though less, the antifungal data obtained in this study suggests that primary resistance among environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii against tested antifungal was present and C. gattii comparatively was less susceptible than C. neoformans var. grubii isolates to fluconazole than to itraconazole and ketoconazole. A continuous surveillance of antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii is desirable to monitor the emergence of any resistant strains for better management of cryptococcosis patients. PMID:26691471

  1. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Wild Caught Anopheles Mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam Using Culture and DNA Fingerprint

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Chung Thuy; Aujoulat, Fabien; Veas, Francisco; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study. Method The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR – TTGE) method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota. Results and Discussion The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. Conclusion Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:25747513

  2. Trading legitimacy: everyday corruption and its consequences for medical regulation in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lê, Gillian

    2013-09-01

    Government regulation of health professionals is believed to ensure the efficacy and expertise of practitioners for and on behalf of patients. Certification and licensing are two common means to do so, legalizing a physician to practice medicine. However, ethnography from Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) suggests that in corrupt socioeconomic environments, certification and licensing can alternatively produce a trade in legitimacy. Drawing on participant observations during 15 months of fieldwork with 25 medical acupuncturists in private practice in HCMC, southern Vietnam, and their patients, I argue that everyday practices of corruption and the importance of personal networks meant that legality, efficacy, and expertise separated. Certificates and licenses did not unproblematically validate expertise and efficacy. Consequently, compliance and enforcement of regulations as solutions to inadequate medical care may not achieve the effects intended. PMID:24248995

  3. Monitoring of Antibiotic Residues in Aquatic Products in Urban and Rural Areas of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kotaro; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Harada, Kazuo; Okihashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Do, Mai Hoang Ngoc; Thi Bui, Long; Duc Nguyen, Thinh; Do Nguyen, Phuc; Thi Khong, Diep; Thi Tran, Hoa; Nam Nguyen, Thang; Viet Le, Ha; Van Chau, Vien; Thi Van Dao, Khanh; Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Hue; Kajimura, Keiji; Kumeda, Yuko; Tran Pham, Khanh; Ngoc Pham, Khai; Trong Bui, Chien; Quang Vien, Mai; Hoang Le, Ninh; Van Dang, Chinh; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2016-08-10

    Antibiotic residues in aquatic products in Vietnam were investigated. A total of 511 fish and shrimp samples were collected from markets in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Thai Binh (TB), and Nha Trang (NT) from July 2013 to October 2015. The samples were extracted with 2% formic acid in acetonitrile and washed with dispersive C18 sorbent. Thirty-two antibiotics were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of the 362 samples from HCMC, antibiotic residues were found in 53 samples. Enrofloxacin was commonly detected, at a rate of 10.8%. In contrast, samples from TB and NT were less contaminated: only 1 of 118 analyzed samples showed residues in TB and only 1 of 31 showed residues in NT. These differences were attributed to the local manufacturing/distribution systems. To understand the current status of antibiotic use and prevent adverse effects that may be caused by their overuse, continual monitoring is required. PMID:27160655

  4. The backbone of a city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scellato, S.; Cardillo, A.; Latora, V.; Porta, S.

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of centrality measures to analyze various spatial factors affecting human life in cities. Here we show how it is possible to extract the backbone of a city by deriving spanning trees based on edge betweenness and edge information. By using as sample cases the cities of Bologna and San Francisco, we show how the obtained trees are radically different from those based on edge lengths, and allow an extended comprehension of the “skeleton” of most important routes that so much affects pedestrian/vehicular flows, retail commerce vitality, land-use separation, urban crime and collective dynamical behaviours.

  5. Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: the case of Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    ThiKimOanh, Le; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van Buuren, Joost Cl; van der Vorst, Jack Gaj; Rulkens, Wim H

    2015-04-01

    Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future given available infrastructure and cost factors. PMID:25739768

  6. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554

  7. United States national security policy making and Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The United States failed to achieve its goals in waging a war in Vietnam. This thesis endeavors to show that this failure was due to errors in the formulation of American national security policy regarding Vietnam. The policy making process went astray, at least in part, due to a narrowing of the role of senior military officers as national security policy makers. The restricted role of senior officers as national security policy makers adversely affected American policy formulation regarding Vietnam. The United States response to the coup against Diem in 1963 and the deployment of conventional American forces to ground combat in Vietnam, in 1965 were undertaken without a clear recognition of the considerable costs of the commitments being assumed. Senior military officers had prompted such a recognition in similar previous crises but were not in a policy making position to do so concerning Vietnam. The policymaking input that was absent was ethical counsel of a fundamental nature. Clausewitz viewed the mortality of a war as being embodied in the national will to fight that war. The absence of an accurate appreciation of the costs of a military solution in Vietnam denied civilian officials a critical policy making factor and contributed significantly to the defeat of the American purpose there.

  8. Eco-hydrological modeling in a tropical area of Vietnam using SWAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiei Emam, Ammar; Kappas, Martin; Nguyen Hoang Khanh, Linh; Renchin, Tsolmon

    2016-04-01

    The tropical area of Vietnam is suffering from mismanagement of water and land resources which leads to rising floods, surface runoff and soil erosion. We used an eco-hydrological model based on SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) in Aluoi district as a representative case study of Central Vietnam. In addition to water balance calculation we simulated the flooding behavior on a single severe event (16th October 2007) by SWAT model. The model was calibrated based on multi-objective functions for stream flow and actual evapotranspiration (ETa). Nevertheless, observed stream flow was predicted by a regionalization approach and Eta-data were derived from MODIS time-series. The results of calibration and validation of model were pretty good with a high Nash-Sutcliff coefficient of 0.72 and 0.82 for river discharge and 0.77 and 0.79 for ETa, respectively. The monthly average of eight-year simulation (2006-2013) showed that the highest surface runoff occurred in October while the ratio of ETa /rainfall is the lowest, and the lowest surface runoff happened in February when the ratio of Eta /rainfall is the highest. The flooding behavior revealed that the peak flow was under predicted about 10 percent, roughly 1331 m3/s. However, the water depth was estimated approximately 7.5 m in the Main River. This water-level generated overflow of the river banks and led to inundation of land and endangered infrastructure and human life in downstream areas. Hence, best management practices (e.g. Terracing) are recommended to reduce surface runoff and flooding forces in Aluoi district of Vietnam.

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  10. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR..., 74 FR 45811 (September 4, 2009) (Preliminary Determination). Therefore, the Department will direct... Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  11. Fluxes of energy, H2O, and CO2 between the atmosphere and the monsoon tropical forest in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, Yu A; Kuricheva, O A; Avilov, V K; Dinh, Ba Duy; Kuznetsov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The 2.5-year dynamics of heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes in the tropical monsoon semi-evergreen forest in Southern Vietnam obtained by means of continuous eddy covariance observations using standard procedures of FLUXNET global network are analyzed. The features of wet seasons during the measurement period were close to long-term average ones, but dry seasons had a great heterogeneity. The maximal duration of the period with little precipitation was 4 months. The annual radiation balance in the south of Vietnam exceeded the balance at all stations of FLUXNET in tropical forests, except one. Annual evapotranspiration in monsoon forest of south of Vietnam is approximately equal to the evaporation of the rain forests of Central Amazonia. During the wet season evapotranspiration spent 80% of the radiation balance, and in the driest months this value decreased to 50%. In the dry season reduction of evapotranspiration and gross primary production was relatively small due to photosynthesizing trees of 2-4 canopy sub-layers. For the first time a large net sink of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in the monsoon forest ecosystem was identified. PMID:26530065

  12. Three new species of the water strider genus Rhyacobates Esaki, 1923 (Hemiptera: Gerridae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, A D; Nguyen, X Q

    2016-01-01

    Three new species: Rhyacobates zetteli sp.n., R. angustus sp.n., and R. constrictus sp.n., all from mountainous areas of northern Vietnam, are described. With these new taxa, a total of six species of Rhyacobates has been recorded from       Vietnam. A key to species of Rhyacobates occurring in Vietnam is provided. PMID:27395239

  13. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  14. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Shipper Review, 75 FR 60730 (October 1, 2010). The preliminary results of this review are currently due no... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review...

  15. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational...

  16. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., 75 FR 3446 (January 21, 2010) (``Preliminary Rescission''). The final results of this review are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers...

  17. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  18. "Never Forget the Sacrifice:" A Visit to Chu Van An High School in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a 1993 study tour of Vietnam by educators. Discusses the role of a secondary school during the struggle against French colonialism and the U.S.-Vietnam War. Argues that educators must acknowledge the humanity of the Vietnamese as the first step in designing Vietnam-related social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  19. The Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Minority Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Robin A.

    Vietnam veterans from racial or ethnic minority groups have a "double minority" status; clinicians treating these veterans should distinguish between behaviors resulting from experiences in Vietnam and those due to experiences as members of minority groups. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects an estimated 20% of all Vietnam veterans and…

  20. Centrality in networks of urban streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2006-03-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural properties of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. Here, we present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Five different measures of centrality, namely degree, closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over 18 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e., valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indices over the networks is investigated graphically by means of color-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term multiple centrality assessment, grounded not on a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely capturing the skeleton of most central routes and subareas that so much impacts on spatial cognition and on collective dynamical behaviors. Statistically, closeness, straightness and betweenness turn out to follow similar functional distribution in all cases, despite the extreme diversity of the considered cities. Conversely, information is found to be exponential in planned cities and to follow a power-law scaling in self-organized cities. Hierarchical clustering analysis, based either on the Gini coefficients of the centrality distributions, or on the correlation between different centrality measures, is able to characterize classes of cities.

  1. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-04-01

    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group. PMID:19083013

  2. Methadone maintenance therapy in Vietnam: an overview and scaling-up plan.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam T M; Nguyen, Long T; Pham, Manh D; Vu, Hoang H; Mulvey, Kevin P

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 20% and up to 50% in many provinces. An estimated number of drug users in the country by the end of 2011 were 171,000 in which the most common is heroin (85%). Detoxification at home, community, and in rehabilitation centers have been the main modalities for managing heroin addiction until Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) was piloted in 2008. Recent reports have demonstrated positive treatment outcomes. Incidence of HIV was found remarkably low among patients on MMT. Treatment has significantly improved the quality of life as well as stability for society. The government has granted the Ministry of Health (MoH) to expand Methadone treatment to at least 30 provinces to provide treatment for more than 80,000 drug users by 2015. The Vietnam Administration for HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC) and MOH have outlined the role and responsibility of key departments at the central and local levels in implementing and maintaining MMT treatment. This paper will describe the achievements of the MMT pilot program and the scaling-up plan as well as strategies to ensure quality and sustainability and to overcome the challenges in the coming years. PMID:23227351

  3. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Stuart, Bryan L; Neang, Thy; Hoang, Huy D; Dau, Vinh Q; Nguyen, Tao T; Emmett, David A

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from the Kon Tum Plateau of Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Leptolalax isos sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an absence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings; toes with rudimentary webbing, wide lateral dermal fringes in males and weak or absent lateral dermal fringes in females; most males with wide lateral dermal fringes on Finger II, a body size of 23.7-27.9 mm in 38 adult males and 28.6-31.5 mm in 9 adult females, near immaculate white chest and belly; absence of white speckling on the dorsum; and a call consisting of 2-3 notes with a dominant frequency of 5.9-6.2 kHz (at 22.4-22.8º C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. isos sp. nov. and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available are >10%. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between ~650-1100 m elevation in northeastern Cambodia and central Vietnam. Habitat within the range of the new species is threatened by deforestation and upstream hydroelectric dams. PMID:26624626

  4. Emergence of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in hospitals in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed clinical strains of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobactor baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from clinical isolates in medical settings in Vietnam. Methods From 2008 to 2011, 101 clinical strains of A. baumannii and 15 of P. aeruginosa were isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in two medical settings in Vietnam. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using the microdilution method and epidemiological analysis was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST. Genes encoding the 16S rRNA methylases, OXAs and CTX-Ms were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis. Results 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative pathogens were detected in two hospitals in Vietnam. Of the 101 clinical isolates of A. baumannii and the 15 of P. aeruginosa isolated from two ICUs in these hospitals, 72 (71.3%) were highly resistant to amikacin, arbekacin and gentamicin, with MICs greater than 1,024 mg/L. The 16S rRNA methylases ArmA and RmtB were produced by 61 and 9 isolates of A. baumannii, respectively, and RmtB was produced by 2 isolates of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, 52 of the A. baumannii isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases harbored both blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-51-like genes. Most A. baumannii isolates producing 16S rRNA methylase obtained in hospital A in Hanoi were ST91 and ST231, whereas most from hospital B in Ho Chi Minh City were ST136, ST195, and ST254. The two P. aeruginosa isolates harboring rmtB showed different patterns on PFGE, one each corresponding to ST217 and ST313. Conclusions Gram-negative bacteria producing the 16S rRNA methylases ArmA and RmtB are emerging in medical settings in Vietnam. A. baumannii isolates in northern and southern regions of Vietnam may be of different lineages. PMID:23721359

  5. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity. Although Vietnam is

  6. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  7. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  8. Maternal mortality in Vietnam in 1994-95.

    PubMed

    Hieu, D T; Hanenberg, R; Vach, T H; Vinh, D Q; Sokal, D

    1999-12-01

    This report presents the first population-based estimates of maternal mortality in Vietnam. All the deaths of women aged 15-49 in 1994-95 in three provinces of Vietnam were identified and classified by cause. Maternal mortality was the fifth most frequent cause of death. The maternal mortality ratio was 155 deaths per 100,000 live births. This ratio compares with the World Health Organization's estimates of 430 such deaths globally and 390 for Asia. The maternal mortality ratio in the delta regions of these provinces was half that of the mountainous and semimountainous regions. Because a larger proportion of the Vietnamese population live in delta regions than elsewhere, the maternal mortality ratio for Vietnam as a whole may be lower than that of the three provinces studied. Maternal mortality is low in Vietnam primarily because a relatively high proportion of deliveries take place in clinics and hospitals, where few women die in childbirth. Also, few women die of the consequences of induced abortion in Vietnam because the procedure is legal and easily available. PMID:10674328

  9. Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review.

    PubMed

    Blair, Mary E; Sterling, Eleanor J; Hurley, Martha M

    2011-11-01

    Vietnam has the highest number of primate taxa overall (24-27) and the highest number of globally threatened primate taxa (minimum 20) in Mainland Southeast Asia. Conservation management of these species depends in part on resolving taxonomic uncertainties, which remain numerous among the Asian primates. Recent research on genetic, morphological, and acoustic diversity in Vietnam's primates has clarified some of these uncertainties, although a number of significant classification issues still remain. Herein, we summarize and compare the major current taxonomic classifications of Vietnam's primates, discuss recent advances in the context of these taxonomies, and suggest key areas for additional research to best inform conservation efforts in a region crucial to global primate diversity. Among the most important next steps for the conservation of Vietnam's primates is a new consensus list of Asian primates that resolves current differences between major taxonomies, incorporates recent research advances, and recognizes units of diversity at scales below the species-level, whether termed populations, morphs, or subspecies. Priority should be placed on recognizing distinct populations, regardless of the species concept in use, in order to foster the evolutionary processes necessary for primate populations to cope with inevitable environmental changes. The long-term conservation of Vietnam's primates depends not only on an accepted and accurate taxonomy but also on funding for on-the-ground conservation activities, including training, and the continued dedication and leadership of Vietnamese researchers and managers. PMID:21948330

  10. 31 CFR 500.577 - Authorization of bank transactions with respect to Vietnam by certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with respect to Vietnam by certain international organizations. 500.577 Section 500.577 Money and... Licensing Policy § 500.577 Authorization of bank transactions with respect to Vietnam by certain... reference to Vietnam are authorized. Example: A transfer to Vietnam or a Vietnamese national of funds...

  11. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  12. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea,...

  13. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  14. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace. PMID:26754766

  15. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion. PMID:9919633

  16. Substance Use among Male Sex Workers in Vietnam: Prevalence, Onset, and Interactions with Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Gary; Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Giang, Le Minh

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV research in Vietnam has focused primarily on its large heroin injector population. Data on men who have sex with men [MSM], particularly the large and growing population of men who exchange sex for money or other material rewards, male sex workers [MSWs], is very limited. Methods Data derive from a cross-sectional study of MSW, age 16-35, recruited using community sampling methods in three cities in 2010-2011, including Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City [HCMC], and Nha Trang City (n=710). Assessments included demographic characteristics, substance use, sexual risk, and use of health services. A series of “event” questions were used to assess the influence of alcohol and drugs on sexual risk. Results Both tobacco and alcohol are initiated at a young age and most participants currently use both substances overall across all three cities. While alcohol and tobacco use precede the initiation of sex work, stimulant and opiate use are initiated following the initiation of sex work. There was substantial overlap between substance use and sexual risk, and this overlap was strongest in sexual events involving male and female elective partners rather than sex work clients. Conclusion Although rates of HIV infection in this group are low, this may be an artifact of the young age of the sample. High rates of drug use, including alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs, coupled with high rates of ulcerative STIs such as HPV, suggest the potential for rapid amplification of STI/HIV risk among MSW and their complex sex partnering networks. PMID:25488636

  17. Bodily Pain, Combat, and the Politics of Memoirs: Between the American Civil War and the War in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the languages of wartime pain as seen in British and American memoirs from the American Civil War to the present. How did the rhetoric of wounding in these war memoirs change over time? One of the central shifts lies in the way that wounded men presented themselves as stoic in spite of severe wounding. From 1939, and in an even more dramatic fashion by the war in Vietnam, physical suffering remained a test of manliness, but the tone was defiant and aggressive rather than stoic or resigned. The article also looks at the role of individual publishers and the introduction of psychological dimensions of wounding in latter memoirs. PMID:24489402

  18. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  19. Hepatitis B infection in Vietnam: current issues and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van T T

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health problem in Vietnam. Recent studies have found that prevalence of current HBV infection (HBsAg+) ranges from 10% to 20% in the general population and 20% to 40% among injecting drug users and HIV+ patients. However, HBV prevention and control in Vietnam relies heavily on universal infant vaccination program and HBsAg screening for blood donors. Currently, HBV prevention and control is underfunded by the government and receives little support from international agencies. HBV-related liver disease will continue to create a heavy burden for public health in Vietnam in the next several decades unless appropriate interventions are undertaken urgently. Establishment of a national strategy for HBV prevention and control is crucial to develop and implement effective interventions. PMID:21159700

  20. Alcoholism in Black Vietnam Veterans: Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carter, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A definitive diagnosis of a posttraumatic stress disorder in black Vietnam veterans can be made when recognition is given, not only to the stressors of war but to racism. An aftermath of the war for black veterans has been an alarming increase in alcoholism, believed to be an attempt to reduce feeling of inadequacy, pessimism, and uncontrollable rage. Two cases are described that are illustrative of the posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans. A brief discussion of salient issues that are crucial to diagnosis and treatment is presented. PMID:7120496

  1. US firms in middle of Vietnam, China oil battle

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    1994-04-21

    U.S. oil companies Crestone Energy and Mobil are developing oil fields in the South China Sea and are in the middle of a dispute between China and Vietnam over ownership of two large fields. The two fields together contain an estimated 1.1 billion barrels of petroleum. Vietnam maintains they own both fields since they are located on the Vietnamese continental shelf, while China says they own them historically. Companies from Australia, Japan, and Indonesia are also involved in developing the two fields.

  2. External birth defects in southern Vietnam: a population-based study at the grassroots level of health care in Binh Thuan province

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There currently exists no data on birth defects from population-based studies in Vietnam. Our study's aim was to assess external birth defect (EBD) prevalence among live newborns in Binh Thuan Province in Vietnam with the help of health workers at all levels of the health system. Methods A 2-month training session for 452 health professionals (HP) practicing delivery care in 127 Commune Health Stations (CHS) and in 12 provincial or district hospitals (DH) was setup in 2006. After a successful 6-month pilot study, a one-year registry of EBDs was established in 2008. All live newborns were screened for EBDs within 24 hours after birth in all DH obstetric departments and in all CHSs. Trained local HPs collected information by filling out a predesigned form and by photographing the affected newborn. EBDs were coded using the International Classification of Diseases system-10, Clinical Modification. The study was repeated in 2010. Results Throughout 2010, out of a total of 13,954 newborns, 84 cases with one or more EBDs were reported, representing an overall prevalence rate of 60.2 per 10,000 live births. The most common groups of EBDs were limbs (27.2/10,000), orofacial clefts (20.1/10,000) and the central nervous system (7.9/10,000). Conclusions This first population-based study in Vietnam, which required coordination efforts at the local level, provides baseline prevalences of external birth defects. Data on EBDs from this study in southern Vietnam may be useful for setting up a regional population-based registry of birth defects in Vietnam. PMID:23631673

  3. Zircon Hf isotopic constraints on the mantle source of felsic magmatic rocks in the Phan Si Pan uplift and Tu Le basin, northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuki, T.; Lan, C.; Tran, T.; Pham, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Permian plume-related rocks, such as picrites, flood basalts and silicic volcanic rocks occur in northern Vietnam. This area was displaced 600 km southeastward along the Ailao Shan-Red River fault during mid-Tertiary in response to the India-Eurasia collision. The original location of the area was situated at the central Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in SW China before Tertiary. The picrites and flood basalts in northern Vietnam have been investigated by many authors and are comparable with the ELIP. While, felsic magmatisms in northern Vietnam has been poorly studied. Zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic data are useful to compare the felsic magmatism in northern Vietnam with that in the ELIP, because the magmatisms of the ELIP had a characteristic time period (260-250 Ma) and the Hf isotopes show a remarkable mantle signature. Therefore, this study carried out in-situ U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions for 300 zircon grains in eighteen granitoids and rhyolites in Phan Si Pan uplift and Tu Le basin in northern Vietnam. Zircons from the granitoids and rhyolites occasionally show development of {101} pyramid and {100} prism crystal facies, suggesting typical zircons crystallized from high temperature alkaline granite. 206Pb/238U ages of granitoid and rhyolite yield consistently in a narrow range of 260 to 250 Ma, which coincides with those from peralkaline to metaluminous granites in the ELIP. ɛHf(t) values of zircons in rhyolites and granites of this study dominate in the range of +5 to +10, which is consistent with those from the ELIP. U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons indicate that felsic magmatic rocks in the Phan Si Pan uplift and Tu La basin have been derived from the same mantle source with the ELIP.

  4. Cheсklist of gastropod molluscs in mangroves of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Zvonareva, Sofya; Kantor, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines. PMID:27615983

  5. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding. PMID:27015225

  6. Women with gestational diabetes in Vietnam: a qualitative study to determine attitudes and health behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes is increasing in prevalence globally, notably amongst populations from low- and middle- income countries. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus(GDM), a precursor for type 2 diabetes, is increasing in line with this trend. Few studies have considered the personal and social effects of GDM on women living in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was determine attitudes and health behaviours of pregnant women with GDM in Vietnam. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group methodology conducted in Ho Chi Minh City. Pregnant women, aged over 18 years, with GDM were eligible to participate. Women were purposely sampled to obtain a range of gestational ages and severity of disease. They were invited to attend a 1-hour focus group. Questions were semi structured around six themes. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, translated and cross-referenced. Non-verbal and group interactions were recorded. Thematic analysis was performed using a theoretical framework approach. Results From December 2010 to February 2011, four focus groups were conducted involving 34 women. Median age was 31.5 years (range 23 to 44), median BMI 21.8 kg/m2. Women felt confusion, anxiety and guilt about GDM. Many perceived their baby to be at increased risk of death. Advice to reduce dietary starch was confusing. Women reported being ‘hungry’ or ‘starving’ most of the time, unaware of appropriate food substitutions. They were concerned about transmission of GDM through breast milk. Several women planned not to breastfeed. All felt they needed more information. Current sources of information included friends, magazines, a health phone line or the Internet. Women felt small group sessions and information leaflets could benefit them. Conclusions This study highlights the need for culturally appropriate clinical education and health promotion activities for women with GDM in Vietnam. PMID:22873351

  7. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae), forest malaria vectors, in northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A) among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. Results In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. Conclusions The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1) the geographic distribution, which is potentially spreading along the Vietnam

  8. Oklahoma City bombing: exacerbation of symptoms in veterans with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Moyers, F

    1996-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops following exposure to an extremely traumatic stressor and consists of reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms. Exposure to stimuli reminiscent of the original trauma often causes an exacerbation of symptoms. Models attempting to explain this phenomenon include classical conditioning, emotional network imagery, and memory consolidation. The recent bombing in Oklahoma City caused an exacerbation of symptoms in veterans from World War II, the Korean War, and Vietnam, ranging from images of combat to memories of being called "baby-killer." These various responses to identical stimuli might help to explain the importance of attached meaning to traumatic events. PMID:8904036

  9. In full swing? How do pendulum migrant labourers in Vietnam adjust their sexual perspectives to their rural-urban lives?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Ngoc; Hardesty, Melissa; Hong, Khuat Thu

    2011-11-01

    Having emerged only recently due to fast urbanisation and globalisation, pendulum migrant labourers in Vietnam are economically, culturally and socially difficult to locate - though they are estimated to number in their millions. Defined by their frequent migration between village and city, pendulum migrant labourers occupy an extended period of liminality. Are they traditional villagers or liberal city people when it comes to sex? Does city life radically change their views on sexuality? Starting with the premise that living environments play a key role in structuring the practical and symbolic realities of sex, this paper explores how extended periods of circular migration between the village and city - living environments that differ markedly in terms of socioeconomic and cultural conditions - affect the sexual views and perspectives of Vietnamese pendulum migrant labourers. Analysis from in-depth interviews with 23 married pendulum migrant labourers revealed that even though they had been living the pendulum life for several years, they continued to identify themselves, sexually, as traditional villagers. Among labourers the link between sexuality and living environment was a matter of pragmatism - matching 'suitable' sexual behaviour to social, even if imagined, location - and of privilege or 'leagues' - matching behaviour and comportment to social pedigree. PMID:21936650

  10. Diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong Provinces of Vietnam and their relation to disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human malaria is still a burden in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in south-central Vietnam that border Cambodia. Several Anopheles species that transmit human malarial Plasmodium may also transmit Wuchereria bancrofti, the nematode that causes Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Anopheles species in the transmission of these two pathogens in the two highly malaria endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in November and December of 2010 and 2011. Human landing catches, paired collections on human and buffalo, and resting captures were made with mouth aspirators. Collections were also made with light traps. Morphological and PCR-based methods were used to identify the species. Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium species and W. bancrofti in individual mosquitoes. Results Twenty-four Anopheles species were identified among 797 captured mosquitoes. Anopheles dirus was found in both provinces and was the predominant species in Binh Phuoc Province; An. maculatus was the most prevalent species in Dak Nong Province. Anopheles minimus was collected only in Binh Phuoc Province. Some specimens of An. minimus and An. pampanai were misidentified based on morphology. Four specimens of An. scanloni were identified, and this is the first report of this species of the Dirus Complex in Vietnam. Two females, one An. dirus and one An. pampanai, collected in Binh Phuoc Province were infected with P. vivax, for an overall infection rate of 0.41% (2/486): 0.28% for An. dirus (1/361) and 20% for An. pampanai (1/5). No mosquitoes were found to be infected with P. falciparum, P. knowlesi or W. bancrofti in either province. Conclusion A diversity of Anopheles species occurs in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces of Vietnam, several of which are considered to be actual and potential vectors of malarial protozoa and microfilariae. It is highly

  11. Hydrogeologic investigation and simulation of ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan Aquifer of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia and delineation of contributing areas for selected city of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    1996-01-01

    A 4-year investigation of the Upper Floridan aquifer and ground-water flow system in Leon County, Florida, and surrounding counties of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia began in 1990. The purpose of the investigation was to describe the ground-water flow system and to delineate the contributing areas to selected City of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells. The investigation was prompted by the detection of low levels of tetrachloroethylene in ground-water samples collected from several of the city's water-supply wells. Hydrologic data and previous studies indicate that; ground-water flow within the Upper Floridan aquifer can be considered steady-state; the Upper Floridan aquifer is a single water-bearing unit; recharge is from precipitation; and that discharge occurs as spring flow, leakage to rivers, leakage to the Gulf of Mexico, and pumpage. Measured transmissivities of the aquifer ranged from 1,300 ft2/d (feet squared per day) to 1,300,000 ft2/d. Steady-state ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer was simulated using a three-dimensional ground- water flow model. Transmissivities ranging from less than 5,000 ft2/d to greater than 11,000,000 ft2/d were required to calibrate to observed conditions. Recharge rates used in the model ranged from 18.0 inches per year in areas where the aquifer was unconfined to less than 2 inches per year in broad areas where the aquifer was confined. Contributing areas to five Tallahassee water-supply wells were simulated by particle- tracking techniques. Particles were seeded in model cells containing pumping wells then tracked backwards in time toward recharge areas. The contributing area for each well was simulated twice, once assuming a porosity of 25 percent and once assuming a porosity of 5 percent. A porosity of 25 percent is considered a reasonable average value for the Upper Floridan aquifer; the 5 percent porosity simulated the movement of ground-water through only solution-enhanced bedding plains

  12. Distribution and habitat of the Laotian Rock Rat Laonastesaenigmamus Jenkins, Kilpatrick, Robinson & Timmins, 2005 (Rodentia: Diatomyidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dang Xuan; Nguyen, Nghia Xuan; Nguyen, Duy Dinh; Dinh, Tri Huy; Le, Dinh Thuc; Dinh, Duong Hai

    2014-01-01

    The Laotian Rock Rat Laonastesaenigmamus Jenkins, Kilpatrick, Robinson & Timmins, 2005 was originally discovered in Lao People's Democratic Republic in 2005. This species has been recognized as the sole surviving member of the otherwise extinct rodent family Diatomyidae. Laonastesaenigmamus was initially reported only in limestone forests of Khammouane Province, Central Lao. A second population was recently discovered in Phong Nha Ke Bang National Park (PNKB NP), Quang Binh Province, Central Vietnam in 2011. The confirmed distribution range of L.aenigmamus in Vietnam is very small, approximately 150 km(2), covering low karst mountains in five communes of Minh Hoa District, Quang Binh Province, at elevations between 250 and 400 m asl. The Laotian Rock Rat inhabits the lower part of steep karst towers with many rock boulders and crevices under tall limestone evergreen forest. They use small rock crevices for their dens. The natural habitat of this species in PNKB NP has been affected by selected timber harvesting, however, a complex 3-4 layer forest structure is retained. The Laotian Rock Rat is omnivorous, feeding on parts (leaves, buds, fruits and roots) of 18 plant species and also some insects (cicada, mantis, grasshopper). The population of this species in PNKB NP is seriously threatened with extinction due to its very restricted distribution, high hunting pressure, and habitat disturbance. Laonastesaenigmamus is listed in the IUCN Red List as endangered and in the Wildlife and Aquatic Red List of Lao, however, this species has not been listed in the Red Data Book or any conservation legislative documents of Vietnam. PMID:25589873

  13. Distribution and habitat of the Laotian Rock Rat Laonastes aenigmamus Jenkins, Kilpatrick, Robinson & Timmins, 2005 (Rodentia: Diatomyidae) in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nghia Xuan; Nguyen, Duy Dinh; Dinh, Tri Huy; Le, Dinh Thuc; Dinh, Duong Hai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Laotian Rock Rat Laonastes aenigmamus Jenkins, Kilpatrick, Robinson & Timmins, 2005 was originally discovered in Lao People's Democratic Republic in 2005. This species has been recognized as the sole surviving member of the otherwise extinct rodent family Diatomyidae. Laonastes aenigmamus was initially reported only in limestone forests of Khammouane Province, Central Lao. A second population was recently discovered in Phong Nha Ke Bang National Park (PNKB NP), Quang Binh Province, Central Vietnam in 2011. The confirmed distribution range of L. aenigmamus in Vietnam is very small, approximately 150 km2, covering low karst mountains in five communes of Minh Hoa District, Quang Binh Province, at elevations between 250 and 400 m asl. The Laotian Rock Rat inhabits the lower part of steep karst towers with many rock boulders and crevices under tall limestone evergreen forest. They use small rock crevices for their dens. The natural habitat of this species in PNKB NP has been affected by selected timber harvesting, however, a complex 3-4 layer forest structure is retained. The Laotian Rock Rat is omnivorous, feeding on parts (leaves, buds, fruits and roots) of 18 plant species and also some insects (cicada, mantis, grasshopper). The population of this species in PNKB NP is seriously threatened with extinction due to its very restricted distribution, high hunting pressure, and habitat disturbance. Laonastes aenigmamus is listed in the IUCN Red List as endangered and in the Wildlife and Aquatic Red List of Lao, however, this species has not been listed in the Red Data Book or any conservation legislative documents of Vietnam. PMID:25589873

  14. After Access: Divergent Learning Profiles in Vietnam and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine; James, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, both India and Vietnam have successfully expanded access to schooling to near-universal levels and have shifted their focus to quality-oriented policy reform. Yet, international and national evidence shows strongly contrasting learning profiles for children within the two systems. Simple indicators of numeracy suggest similar…

  15. Employment Problems of the Vietnam Veteran. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    Vietnam veterans are finding it extremely difficult of find jobs upon their return home. Altogether there are approximately 320,000 known unemployed veterans. Statistics show that they have a higher unemployment rate than nonveterans, and that the unemployment persists longer. Factors contributing to this condition are the economic slump, a…

  16. Special Report [on the] Employment Problems of the Vietnam Veteran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    A report analyzing the special problems and needs of the Vietnam-era veterans and offering some recommendations in regard to training and employment is presented. This report is based on available statistical data along with results of small group interviews with returning veterans and meetings with officials responsible for programs affecting…

  17. Placement and the Vietnam-Era Veteran in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelz, James W.

    1973-01-01

    This article traces the etiology and nature of our concern for Vietnam-era vets and suggests that a successful placement program depends upon three factors: (a) an understanding of the characteristics of present-day veterans, (b) an awareness of agencies, programs, and industries comprising the network of helping services, and (c) knowledge of…

  18. Music in the Social Studies: Resources from the Vietnam Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George; Vocke, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the way that popular music depicted the anti-war sentiment during the Vietnam war era, as opposed to country western music which defended government action. Advocates supplementing textbook readings with song lyrics, and suggests a slide presentation to help integrate the two media. Lists three tables with songs organized around specific…

  19. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  20. Networks at Their Limits: Software, Similarity, and Continuity in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Lilly Uyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the social worlds of pirated software discs and free/open source software in Vietnam to describe the practices of copying, evangelizing, and translation. This dissertation also reveals the cultural logics of similarity and continuity that sustain these social worlds. Taken together, this dissertation argues that the…

  1. Developing the Profession of School Psychology in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…

  2. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  3. Schooling and National Integration: the Case of Interwar Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P.

    1982-01-01

    Explains the colonial school's role in terms of the distribution of education by vertical (social strata) and horizontal (regional) integration, the type of education offered, and the political and social context of interwar Vietnam. Indicates the schools played a divisive role, an effect not due solely to foreign domination. (LC)

  4. New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) from northwestern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species. PMID:25698899

  5. Vietnam, 1978: crisis in food, nutrition, and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, M

    1979-03-01

    Evidence of shortages of food, medical equipment, and supplies and indications of malnutrition were observed by an American Study Mission to Vietnam in the summer of 1978. Recommendations of humanitarian aid were made by the study team and presented as promoting peace and stability in Southeast Asia. PMID:762356

  6. Vietnam in the Classroom: Fact, Fiction and Truth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Karen; Low, John

    In the fifties and early sixties, United States colleges and universities shied away from courses about communist insurgencies because of the repressive influence of McCarthyism. Vietnam was eliminated from classroom investigation, forcing students to take the issues to the streets. In an effort to expose and examine issues that arose from the…

  7. Higher Education Challenges in Developing Countries: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Diane E.

    2004-01-01

    This review of literature was written in preparation for conducting a research study on the U.S. community college system as a potential model for developing countries, and using Vietnam as a specific case. It is divided into four sections: (a) a discussion of the purposes of higher education (HE), (b) an examination of problems faced by the HE…

  8. The Peoples and Cultures of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    A handbook for those involved in Southeast Asian refugee assistance discusses some of the values and customs that refugee groups from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam may have in common and looks at the different countries and peoples of the region. A section on the shared values and customs of Indochinese refugees focuses on aspects of family life,…

  9. What Happened on the Inside: Women Write about Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, N. Bradley

    Mark Baker in "NAM: The Vietnam War in the Words of the Men and Women Who Fought There" (1981) tells a war story, and war stories tend to elevate the masculine combat adventure as inherently more profound, and therefore more valuable, than other experiences. However, now that the emotional considerations of war are no longer being discounted, it…

  10. The Vietnam Era: A Guide to Teaching Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indochina Curriculum Group, Cambridge, MA.

    This annotated resource guide contains information and learning activities on the Vietnam War for use by high school history teachers. Annotations of primary source materials, resource materials, textbooks, general interest books, and film and slide shows from several competing points of view are included. The developers believe that students who…

  11. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange. PMID:21916327

  12. An Empirical Analysis of Primary Teacher Standards in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick; Cuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Gillis, Shelley; Thanh, Mai Thi

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an account of the development of competency standards and profiles for primary teachers in Vietnam. The development project has taken more than four years and used a combination of consultative, actuarial, and item response modeling procedures to develop and validate a scale of teacher competence. In the overall project, more…

  13. Pedagogical Suggestions for Teaching Business and Economics in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCornac, Dennis C.; Chi, Phan Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Given the overwhelming need for foreign faculty to assist Vietnam in its transition to a market economy, there will be opportunities for economics and business educators to teach at various institutions in that country. In this article, the authors provide a top-10 list of suggestions regarding pedagogical approaches and techniques for teaching in…

  14. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  15. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  16. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  17. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  18. The Complexity of Morality: Being a "Good Child" in Vietnam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine what it means to be a good child in Vietnam. Throughout the country ancestral worship is widely practiced. This traditionally places emphasis on the need for a boy child to continue the practice of worship into the next generation. Because of this, while the high value placed on the boy child has been tempered by the…

  19. Fatal respiratory infections associated with rhinovirus outbreak, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hai, Le Thanh; Bich, Vu Thi Ngoc; Ngai, Le Kien; Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Phuc, Phan Huu; Hung, Viet Pham; Taylor, Walter R; Horby, Peter; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2012-11-01

    During an outbreak of severe acute respiratory infections in 2 orphanages, Vietnam, 7/12 hospitalized children died. All hospitalized children and 26/43 children from outbreak orphanages tested positive for rhinovirus versus 9/40 control children (p = 0.0005). Outbreak rhinoviruses formed a distinct genetic cluster. Human rhinovirus is an underappreciated cause of severe pneumonia in vulnerable groups. PMID:23092635

  20. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  1. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  2. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  3. Mobile Libraries in Vietnam in 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Khang, Pham

    With encouragement from IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) and support from the government, over 150 mobile libraries have been established in Vietnam and have been in active operation for the last 10 years. Various models of mobile libraries suited to different areas have been identified, such as "Libraries…

  4. Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

  5. Using a Simulation and Literature To Teach the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses teaching about the Vietnam War. Focuses on selecting literature and how to implement the "mines and booby traps simulation," which demonstrates the experience of an infantry soldier. Describes follow-up activities to the simulation, the connections students made between the simulation and literature, and the importance of simulation…

  6. The Feminist Sophistic Enterprise: From Euripides to the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, Audrey

    1992-01-01

    Uses feminist sophistic historiography to open the doors of two distant historical movements onto each other, reading tensions between masculinity and femininity in Athens during the Peloponnesian war and in the United States during the Vietnam War. Foregrounds the possibility of forestalling arbitrary closure on gender questions which determined…

  7. American Colleges Raise the Flag in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2009-01-01

    More than 30 years after the U.S. ambassador was airlifted from the embassy rooftop in Saigon with the flag tucked under his arm, a new American flag is going up in the city. This one won't be flying over the embassy. The Stars and Stripes, as well as the Texas state flag, are going up at the Saigon Institute of Technology, the only Vietnamese…

  8. Prevalence and predictors of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 lymphocyte counts in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Colby, Donn J; Vo, Diem Qh; Teoh, Stephen C; Tam, Nguyen T; Liem, Nguyen T; Lu, Doanh; Nguyen, Thi T; Cosimi, Lisa; Pollack, Todd; Libman, Howard

    2014-06-01

    We describe the results of a study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis among HIV-infected patients in Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study of patients with CD4 lymphocyte count ≤100 cells/mm(3)recruited from public HIV clinics. The diagnosis was made by a trained ophthalmologist using slit lamp biomicroscopy and corroborated on fundus photography. A total of 201 patients were screened. The median age was 32 years, 77% were men, median CD4 count was 47 cells/mm(3), and 62% were on antiretroviral treatment. Prevalence of CMV retinitis was 7% (14/201, 95% CI 4-11%). CMV retinitis was not associated with age, gender, injection drug use, CD4 count, WHO clinical stage, or antiretroviral treatment status. Blurring of vision and reduced visual acuity <20/40 were associated with CMV retinitis, but only 29% of patients with the diagnosis reported blurry vision and only 64% had abnormal vision. On multivariate analysis, the sole predictor for CMV retinitis was decreased visual acuity (OR 22.8,p < 0.001). In Ho Chi Minh City, CMV retinitis was found in 7% of HIV-infected patients with low CD4. HIV-infected patients with a CD4 count <100/mm(3)or who develop blurring of vision in Vietnam should be screened for CMV retinitis. PMID:24327723

  9. THE ROLES OF COMBAT EXPOSURE, PERSONAL VULNERABILITY, AND INVOLVEMENT IN HARM TO CIVILIANS OR PRISONERS IN VIETNAM WAR-RELATED POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Yager, Thomas J.; Wall, Melanie M.; Adams, Ben G.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, was introduced in 1980 amidst debate about the psychiatric toll of the Vietnam War. There is controversy, however, about its central assumption that potentially traumatic stressors are more important than personal vulnerability in causing the disorder. We tested this assumption with data from a rigorously diagnosed male subsample (n = 260) from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Combat exposure, pre-war vulnerability, and involvement in harming civilians or prisoners were examined, with only combat exposure proving necessary for disorder onset. While none of the three factors proved sufficient, estimated onset reached 97% for veterans high on all three, with harm to civilians or prisoners showing the largest independent contribution. Severity of combat exposure proved more important than pre-war vulnerability in onset; pre-war vulnerability at least as important in long-term persistence. Implications for the primacy of the stressor assumption, further research, and policy are discussed. PMID:25309830

  10. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed. PMID:25195419

  11. Cloud Cover and Wildfire Variations in Vietnam and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasko, K.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring fires from space is constrained by cloud cover, particularly in tropical regions. Cloud cover-fire variations were assessed using the CERES SSF1Deg and MODIS active fire (MCD14ML) products in Vietnam and Southeast Asia. Twelve years (2003-2014) of data have been analyzed spatially and temporally at four spatial scales: a) country level; b). 1x1 degree scale; c). land cover type; d). regions. Country-level results suggested Vietnam having the highest monthly cloud cover (72.37%) followed by Cambodia (69.69%), Laos (67.64%), Thailand (67.58%), and Myanmar (59.90%). Strong negative correlation between cloud cover and MODIS active fires has been observed during the biomass burning months (Jan-Apr). Of the different countries, Vietnam also had the lowest monthly fire detections. Pixel by pixel spatial correlation at 1x1 degree suggested negative fire-cloud relationships over the Red River Delta of Vietnam, the forests of northern Laos, and agriculture-dominated peninsulas of Thailand and Myanmar. Among the different land cover types, the average monthly cloud cover varied between 64% - 66%. Further, results from daily data showed the Red River Delta to have consistently more cloud cover (20-40% more) than the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam, with fewer fire detections in the former than the latter. The study highlights potential fire under-detection due to clouds. Our results highlight spatial and temporal variations in cloud-fire relationships and the difficulty of using optical data for fire detection and characterization in persistently cloudy regions.

  12. The Role of the Private Sector in Education in Vietnam: Evidence from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper No. 132.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glewwe, Paul; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    This paper uses data from the 1992-93 Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS) to determine the nature of private schooling in Vietnam. With the restructuring of the educational system, some public institutions have been transformed into private ones, some "people's" and community educational institutions have been established, and some rare private…

  13. Population policies and reproductive patterns in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Hoa, H T; Lap, N T; Diwan, V; Eriksson, B

    1996-06-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of government population policies and the impact of the timing of marriage and births on the fertility and abortion rates among women born during 1945 and 1970. The analyzed sample population includes 1189 married women aged 15-49 years from 40 communes in rural Thai Binh province in northern Vietnam. The region is known for having one of the lowest fertility and one of the highest abortion rates in the country. Reproductive histories were collected during two weeks in March 1994. Fertility was lowest among the women born in the two lowest 5-year groups. 85% reported a farming occupation. 80% had a lower secondary school education. Only 11 women were illiterate. Marriage age decreased over time from 23.2 years for women born during 1945-49 to 20.8 years for women born during 1965-69. The mean age at first birth for women born during 1945-49 was 26.1 years or 3 years after marriage and 21.8 years or an average of 1 year after marriage for women born during 1965-69. Median interval between first and second births increased over time. Farmers had a 6 month shorter birth interval. Fertility increased over time from 0.6 children by the age of 25 years among women born in 1945-49 to 1.4 children among women born in 1965-69. At the age of 35 years, later-born women had fewer children. Among the total sample of 1432 women, there were pregnancies among 1377 women (3945 pregnancies). 81% of pregnancies ended in a live birth, 6% experienced a miscarriage or stillbirth, and 13% had an induced abortion. About 66% of women currently used a contraceptive. Abortions were more common among the third and fourth pregnancies. Abortion ratios increased from about 6/100 births in 1983 to 58/100 births in 1993. It is concluded that the initial postwar decline in marriage age and age at first birth was a return to normal after the loss of men during the war years. Women born after 1960 appeared to be following the earlier, longer interval, and few

  14. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  15. Factors associated with health risk behavior among school children in urban Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phuong, Tran Bich; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Tien, Truong Quang; Chi, Hoang Khanh; Dunne, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health risk behavior among young people is a public health problem in Vietnam. In addition, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for those aged 15–29 years. The consequences can be devastating for adolescents and their families, and can create a significant economic burden on society. Objective The aim of this study was to identify protective and risk factors that may influence three health risk behaviors among school children: suicidal thinking (ST), drinking alcohol (DA), and underage motorbike driving (MD). Methods A cross-sectional survey of 972 adolescents (aged 12–15 years) was conducted in two secondary schools in Hanoi, Vietnam. The schools were purposely selected, one each from the inner city and a suburban area, from which classes (grade 6 to 8) were randomly selected. All students attending classes on survey days took part in the survey. The anonymous, self-completed questionnaire included measures of risk behavior, school connectedness, parental bonding, and other factors. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between the independent variables and the three health risk behaviors controlling for confounding factors. Results Young people in the inner city school reported a higher prevalence of all three risk behaviors than those in the suburban area (ST: 16.1% [95% confidence interval, or CI, 12.9–19.3] versus 4.6% [95% CI 2.7–6.5], p<0.001; DA: 20.3% [95% CI 16.8–23.8] versus 8.3% [95% CI 5.8–10.8], p<0.001, and MD: 10.1% [95% CI 7.4–12.8] versus 5.7% [95% CI 3.6–7.8], p<0.01). School connectedness and mother and father care appeared to be significant protective factors. For males, bullying in school was associated with suicidal thoughts, whereas for both males and females, school connectedness may be protective against suicidal ideation. Conclusion This study supports findings from other nations regarding suicidal thoughts and alcohol use, and appears to be one of the first to

  16. Box City Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  17. Description of New Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) Species from Malaysia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Maria A; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2015-03-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, namely, Dermacentor limbooliati n. sp., is described. Adults of this species are similar to those of Dermacentor auratus Supino, 1897 and Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901, with which it was previously confused. Males of D. limbooliati may be distinguished from those of D. auratus and D. compactus by the following suite of characters: relatively broad conscutum with slightly straightened lateral sides, conscutum widest approximately at mid-length, oval shape of pseudoscutum, central brown patch in the center of pseudoscutum broad and diffused and not continuous with central patch in posteromedian area, conscutum posterior to pseudoscutum rugose, wide and blunt internal spur on coxa I, relatively long, narrow, and pointed external spur on coxa I, numerous internal spurs on coxa IV and trochanter I with moderate and broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Females of D. limbooliati may be distinguished from those of D. auratus and D. compactus by the following suite of characters: rounded shape of scutum, central brown patch broad and diffused in the center of scutum, relatively long alloscutum setae, genital aperture moderately narrow V-shaped with preatrial fold bulging, wide and blunt internal spur on coxa I, relatively long, narrow, and pointed external spur on coxae I and trochanter I with moderate and broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. D. limbooliati is known from Malaysia and Vietnam where the adults were collected from vegetation, Sus scrofa resting beds, a human, and clothing. The immature stages remain unknown. PMID:26336300

  18. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Herington, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The frequent and swift emergence of new and devastating infectious diseases has brought renewed attention to health as an issue of international importance. Some states and regional organizations, including in Asia, have begun to regard infectious disease as a national and international security issue. This article seeks to examine the Vietnamese government's response to the epidemics of avian influenza and Human immunodeficiency virus. Both diseases have been recognized at different times as threats to international security and both are serious infectious disease problems in Vietnam. Yet, the character of the central government's response to these two epidemics has been starkly different. How and why this disparity in policy approaches occurs depends largely on the epidemiological, economic and political context in which they occur. Although epidemiological factors are frequently explored when discussing disease as a security issue, seldom are the political, social and economic characteristics of the state invoked. These dimensions, and their interaction with the epidemiology of the disease, are central to understanding which diseases are ultimately treated by states as security issues. In particular, the role of economic security as a powerful motivator for resistance to control measures and the role that local implementation of policies can have in disrupting the effect of central government policy are explored. In exploring both the outcomes of securitization, and its facilitating conditions, I suggest some preliminary observations on the potential costs and benefits of securitizing infectious disease and its utility as a mechanism for protecting health in Asia. PMID:20961947

  19. Social capital and mental health among mothers in Vietnam who have children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Berry, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Having a child with a disability is a heavy burden for mothers, especially in developing countries, where there is little available financial or other government support. Having a child with a disability is also linked to mental health problems and poor quality of life. Communities rich in social capital and individuals who have high levels of personal social capital generally enjoy day-to-day and long-term health and social benefits but this has not been investigated in Vietnam among mothers of children with disabilities. This study aims to investigate these mothers’ distress in terms of their social capital. Methods A cross-sectional study based on an interviewer-assisted survey included 172 mothers of children with moderate/severe disabilities in two provinces of Vietnam (one in the North and one in central Vietnam), using a newly translated and modified version of the Australian community participation questionnaire, several measures of personal social cohesion, and Kessler's 10-item measure of general psychological distress. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to explore the relationships among socio-demographic factors, multiple components of structural and cognitive social capita, and mothers’ distress controlling for a wide range of socio-demographic characteristics, the nature of the child's disability, and mothers’ personality (extroversion). Results Mothers in this study were highly and multiply disadvantaged, and they had very high levels of distress and low levels of community participation. Furthermore, most forms of participation were associated with greater, not less, distress. Socio-demographic characteristics, child's disability, and mothers’ personality did little to explain variance in mothers’ distress, but types and amounts of participation were important predictors. The final regression model explained 29% of variance in distress, with major contributions made by living in a mountainous area, having a

  20. Follow-up chest radiographs in Vietnam veterans: are they useful?

    PubMed

    Pollei, S; Mettler, F A; Kelsey, C A; Walters, M R; White, R E

    1986-10-01

    Agent Orange exposure and its long-term health consequences on Vietnam veterans have been widely discussed in the past few years. Myriad physical and mental disabilities have been studied with regard to exposure to various herbicides. The number of persons potentially exposed is large, since 2.4-2.8 million U.S. military personnel served in Vietnam. A case-control study was undertaken to determine if persons who served in the U.S. military in Vietnam have either cardiovascular or pulmonary effects that can be demonstrated on long-term follow-up chest radiographs. Information regarding military service in Vietnam was obtained from interviews and, in some cases, review of military records. Vietnam veterans did not have an increased prevalence of abnormalities on follow-up chest radiographs. A subset of Vietnam veterans who had greater estimated opportunities for Agent Orange exposure also did not appear to be at greater risk than the control population. PMID:3763850