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Sample records for city firefighters exposed

  1. Refractory Sarcoid Arthritis in World Trade Center- Exposed New York City Firefighters: a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Loupasakis, Konstantinos; Berman, Jessica; Jaber, Nadia; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Webber, Mayris P.; Glaser, Michelle S.; Moir, William; Qayyum, Basit; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe cases of sarcoid arthritis in firefighters from the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) who worked at the World Trade Center (WTC) site. Methods All WTC-exposed FDNY firefighters with sarcoidosis and related chronic inflammatory arthritis (n=11) are followed jointly by the FDNY-WTC Health Program and the Rheumatology Division at the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). Diagnoses of sarcoidosis were based on clinical, radiographic and pathological criteria. Patient characteristics, WTC-exposure information, smoking status, date of diagnosis and pulmonary findings were obtained from FDNY-WTC database. Joint manifestations (symptoms and duration, distribution of joints involved), radiographic findings, treatment responses were obtained from chart review. Results Nine of 60 FDNY firefighters who developed sarcoidosis since 9/11/2001 presented with polyarticular arthritis. Two others diagnosed pre-9/11/2001 developed sarcoid arthritis post-WTC-exposure. All 11 were never cigarette smokers and all performed rescue/recovery at the WTC-site within 3 days of the attacks. All had biopsy-proven pulmonary sarcoidosis and all required additional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for adequate control (stepwise progression from hydroxychloroquine to methotrexate to anti-TNFα agents) of their joint manifestations. Conclusion Chronic inflammatory polyarthritis appears to be an important manifestation of sarcoidosis in FDNY firefighters with sarcoidosis and WTC-exposure. Their arthritis is chronic, and unlike arthritis in non-WTC-exposed sarcoid patients, inadequately responsive to conventional oral DMARDs, often requiring anti-TNFα agents. Further studies are needed to determine the generalizability of these findings to other groups with varying levels of WTC-exposure or with other occupational/environmental exposures. PMID:25539429

  2. Induced sputum assessment in New York City firefighters exposed to World Trade Center dust.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Elizabeth M; Lerman, Yehuda; Ganor, Eliezer; Greif, Joel; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon; Lioy, Paul J; Banauch, Gisela I; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J; Prezant, David J

    2004-11-01

    New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israeli healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or greater than or equal to 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1-50 microm; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1-10 microm; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure. PMID:15531443

  3. Induced Sputum Assessment in New York City Firefighters Exposed to World Trade Center Dust

    PubMed Central

    Fireman, Elizabeth M.; Lerman, Yehuda; Ganor, Eliezer; Greif, Joel; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon; Lioy, Paul J.; Banauch, Gisela I.; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2004-01-01

    New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israeli healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or ≥ 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1–50 μm; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1–10 μm; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure. PMID:15531443

  4. Mortality among firefighters from three northwestern United States cities.

    PubMed Central

    Demers, P A; Heyer, N J; Rosenstock, L

    1992-01-01

    To explore whether exposure among firefighters to fire smoke could lead to an increased risk of cancer, lung disease, and heart disease, the mortality of 4546 firefighters who were employed by the cities of Seattle and Tacoma, WA and Portland, OR for at least one year between 1944 and 1979 were compared with United States national mortalities and with mortality of police officers from the same cities. Between 1945 and 1989, 1169 deaths occurred in the study population and 1162 death certificates (99%) were collected. Mortality due to all causes, ischaemic heart disease, and most other non-malignant diseases was less than expected based upon United States rates for white men. There was no excess risk of overall mortality from cancer but excesses of brain tumours (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-3.2) and lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers (SMR = 1.31, 95% CI = 0.9-1.8) were found. Younger firefighters (< 40 years of age) appeared to have an excess risk of cancer (SMR = 1.45, 95% CI 0.8-2.39), primarily due to brain cancer (SMR = 3.75, 95% CI 1.2-8.7). The risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was greatest for men with at least 30 years of exposed employment (SMR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.1-3.6), especially for leukaemia (SMR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.0-5.4). PMID:1390274

  5. Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Philip; Osterloh, John; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Sam P; Grainger, James; Jones, Robert; Blount, Ben; Calafat, Antonia; Turner, Wayman; Feldman, Debra; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Lushniak, Boris D; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David

    2003-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 exposed New York City firefighters to smoke and dust of unprecedented magnitude and duration. The chemicals and the concentrations produced from any fire are difficult to predict, but estimates of internal dose exposures can be assessed by the biological monitoring of blood and urine. We analyzed blood and urine specimens obtained from 321 firefighters responding to the WTC fires and collapse for 110 potentially fire-related chemicals. Controls consisted of 47 firefighters not present at the WTC. Sampling occurred 3 weeks after 11 September, while fires were still burning. When reference or background ranges were available, most chemical concentrations were found to be generally low and not outside these ranges. Compared with controls, the exposed firefighters showed significant differences in adjusted geometric means for six of the chemicals and significantly greater detection rates for an additional three. Arrival time was a significant predictor variable for four chemicals. Special Operations Command firefighters (n = 95), compared with other responding WTC firefighters (n = 226), had differences in concentrations or detection rate for 14 of the chemicals. Values for the Special Operations Command firefighters were also significantly different from the control group values for these same chemicals and for two additional chemicals. Generally, the chemical concentrations in the other firefighter group were not different from those of controls. Biomonitoring was used to characterize firefighter exposure at the WTC disaster. Although some of the chemicals analyzed showed statistically significant differences, these differences were generally small. PMID:14644665

  6. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes of operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  7. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  8. Self-reported short- and long-term respiratory effects among PVC-exposed firefighters

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, J.S. )

    1988-10-01

    Firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were studied to assess respiratory effects at 5-6 wk post-incident and again 22 mo following the fire. Exposed subjects reported significantly more frequent and severe respiratory symptoms at both time points than did firefighter controls. In longitudinal analyses, a number of symptoms persisted over time, and acute symptom scores were significantly correlated with chronic scores. At Time 2, approximately 18% of exposed firefighters, compared with none of the controls, reported that since the time of the PVC exposure, a physician had told them that they had either asthma and/or bronchitis.

  9. Firefighter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    The responsibilities of a firefighter extend far beyond simply responding to fire emergencies. At many departments, responding to medical calls or car accidents is the most frequent activity, and a routine shift might also entail dealing with hazardous materials, gas leaks, structural collapses, floods, ice storms, wild animals, or the myriad…

  10. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Firefighters are like astronauts. They both face dangerous, even hostile environments such as a building full of fire and the vacuum of space. They are both get breathing air from tanks on their backs. Early in the 1970's, NASA began working to improve firefighter breathing systems, which had hardly changed since the 1940s. NASA's Johnson Space Center conducted a 4-year program that applied technology from the portable life support systems used by Apollo astronauts on the moon. The new breathing system is made up of an air bottle, a frame and harness, a face mask, and a warning device. The new system weighs less than 20 pounds, one-third less than the old gear. The new air bottle provides 30 minutes of breathing air, as much as the old system. Like a good hiker's backpack, the new system puts the weight on the firefighter's hips rather than the shoulders. The face mask provides better visibility and the warning device lets the firefighter know when air in the bottle is low. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  11. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  12. Trauma-exposed firefighters: relationships among posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, resource availability, coping and critical incident stress debriefing experience.

    PubMed

    Sattler, David N; Boyd, Bill; Kirsch, Julie

    2014-12-01

    This project examines protective factors associated with resilience/posttraumatic growth and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress among firefighters exposed to critical incidents. The participants were 286 (257 men and 29 women) volunteer and paid firefighters in Whatcom County, Washington. Participants completed an anonymous survey asking about demographics, critical incident exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, resource availability, coping, occupational stress and critical incident stress debriefing experience. Most participants had significant critical incident exposure, and about half had attended critical incident stress debriefing sessions. Posttraumatic growth was associated with being female, critical incident exposure, critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic stress symptoms (negative association), occupational support, occupation satisfaction, occupational effort, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping and personal characteristic resources. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with years of firefighting, burnout, occupational effort and disengagement coping and negatively associated with critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic growth, social support, internal locus of control, personal characteristic resources, energy resources and condition resources. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory and show that the maintenance and acquisition of resources can offset losses and facilitate resilience/posttraumatic growth. Implications of the findings for enhancing firefighter resources, facilitating resilience and minimizing occupational stressors are discussed. PMID:25476961

  13. Relationships between inflammatory cytokine and cortisol responses in firefighters exposed to simulated wildfire suppression work and sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad; Reynolds, John; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between inflammatory and cortisol responses modulates an appropriate response to a stressor. Exposure to severe stressors, however, may alter the actions and relationships of these responses and contribute to negative health outcomes. Physical work and sleep restriction are two stressors faced by wildland firefighters, yet their influence on the relationship between inflammatory and cortisol responses is unknown. The aim of the present study was to quantify the relationship between the cytokine and cortisol responses to sleep restriction while performing simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Firefighters completed 3 days of simulated physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h sleep (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) opportunity on each of the two nights. Salivary cortisol and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10) were measured throughout each day. An increase in morning IL-6 was related to a rise (6.2%, P = 0.043) in evening cortisol among firefighters in the sleep restriction condition. Higher morning IL-6 levels were related to increased (5.3%, P = 0.048) daily cortisol levels, but this relationship was not different between conditions. Less pronounced relationships were demonstrated between TNF-α, IL-10, IL-4, and cortisol independent of the sleep opportunity, but relationships did not persist after adjusting for demographic factors and other cytokines. These findings quantify the relationship between cytokine and cortisol responses among wildland firefighters exposed to simulated occupational stressors. Potential disturbances to the IL-6 and cortisol relationship among sleep-restricted firefighters’ supports further investigations into the negative health effects related to possible imbalances between these systems. PMID:26603450

  14. Cardiovascular biomarkers predict susceptibility to lung injury in World Trade Center dust-exposed firefighters.

    PubMed

    Weiden, Michael D; Naveed, Bushra; Kwon, Sophia; Cho, Soo Jung; Comfort, Ashley L; Prezant, David J; Rom, William N; Nolan, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Pulmonary vascular loss is an early feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biomarkers of inflammation and of metabolic syndrome predict loss of lung function in World Trade Center (WTC) lung injury (LI). We investigated if other cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers also predicted WTC-LI. This nested case-cohort study used 801 never-smoker, WTC-exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function presenting for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) before March 2008. A representative subcohort of 124 out of 801 subjects with serum drawn within 6 months of 9/11 defined CVD biomarker distribution. Post-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at defined cases were as follows: susceptible WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ≤77% predicted (66 out of 801) and resistant WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ≥107% predicted (68 out of 801). All models were adjusted for WTC exposure intensity, body mass index at SPE, age on 9/11 and pre-9/11 FEV1. Susceptible WTC-LI cases had higher levels of apolipoprotein-AII, C-reactive protein and macrophage inflammatory protein-4 with significant relative risks (RRs) of 3.85, 3.93 and 0.26, respectively, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.858. Resistant WTC-LI cases had significantly higher soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and lower myeloperoxidase, with RRs of 2.24 and 2.89, respectively (AUC 0.830). Biomarkers of CVD in serum 6 months post-9/11 predicted either susceptibility or resistance to WTC-LI. These biomarkers may define pathways either producing or protecting subjects from pulmonary vascular disease and associated loss of lung function after an irritant exposure. PMID:22903969

  15. Disrupted topological organization in the whole-brain functional network of trauma-exposed firefighters: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wi Hoon; Chang, Ki Jung; Kim, Nam Hee

    2016-04-30

    Given that partial posttraumatic stress disorder (pPTSD) may be a specific risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is important to understand the neurobiology of pPTSD. However, there are few extant studies in this domain. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and a graph theoretical approach, we compared the topological organization of the whole-brain functional network in trauma-exposed firefighters with pPTSD (pPTSD group, n=9) with those without pPTSD (PC group, n=8) and non-traumatized healthy controls (HC group, n=11). We also examined changes in the network topology of five individuals with pPTSD before and after eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. Individuals with pPTSD exhibited altered global properties, including a reduction in values of a normalized clustering coefficient, normalized local efficiency, and small-worldness. We also observed altered local properties, particularly in the association cortex, including the temporal and parietal cortices, across groups. These disruptive global and local network properties presented in pPTSD before treatment were ameliorated after treatment. Our preliminary results suggest that subthreshold manifestation of PTSD may be due to a disruption in the optimal balance in the functional brain networks and that this disruption can be ameliorated by psychotherapy. PMID:27107156

  16. The Upper Respiratory Pyramid: Early Factors and Later Treatment Utilization in World Trade Center Exposed Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Justin K.; Webber, Mayris P.; Liu, Xiaoxue; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Glaser, Michelle S.; Weakley, Jessica; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Glass, Lara; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated early post 9/11 factors that could predict rhinosinusitis healthcare utilization costs up to 11 years later in 8,079 World Trade Center-exposed rescue/recovery workers. Methods We used bivariate and multivariate analytic techniques to investigate utilization outcomes; we also used a pyramid framework to describe rhinosinusitis healthcare groups at early (by 9/11/2005) and late (by 9/11/2012) time points. Results Multivariate models showed that pre-9/11/2005 chronic rhinosinusitis diagnoses and nasal symptoms predicted final year healthcare utilization outcomes more than a decade after WTC exposure. The relative proportion of workers on each pyramid level changed significantly during the study period. Conclusions Diagnoses of chronic rhinosinusitis within 4 years of a major inhalation event only partially explain future healthcare utilization. Exposure intensity, early symptoms and other factors must also be considered when anticipating future healthcare needs. PMID:24898816

  17. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  18. INL@Work Firefighter

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  19. INL@Work Firefighter

    ScienceCinema

    Baron, Wendy

    2013-05-28

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  20. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  1. YKL-40 is a Protective Biomarker for Fatty Liver in World Trade Center Particulate Matter-Exposed Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soo Jung; Echevarria, Ghislaine C; Lee, Young Im; Kwon, Sophia; Park, Kwan Yong; Tsukiji, Jun; Rom, William N; Prezant, David J; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum biomarkers of metabolic syndrome predict abnormal lung function in World Trade Center particulate matter (WTC-PM)-exposed Fire Department of New York (FDNY) rescue workers. In animal models, exposure to ambient PM induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a well-known comorbidity of metabolic syndrome. YKL-40 is an inflammatory biomarker for both liver and lung disease. We tested if YKL-40 is a biomarker for NAFLD in this dust-exposed cohort. Methods Using a nested case-control design, we studied 131 FDNY personnel who had Computer Tomography performed within 5 years post 9/11. NAFLD was defined by a liver/spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1. Serum biomarkers, lipid panel and liver function were measured in serum that had been drawn within 6 months of September 11, 2001. YKL-40 and chitotriosidase were assayed by ELISA. We tested biomarker and NAFLD association using logistic regression adjusted for age, BMI, and post-911 lung function. Results NAFLD was present in 29/131 (22%) of the cohort. In a multivariable model increasing YKL-40 was protective while increasing triglyceride and alkaline phosphatase were risk factors for NAFLD. Conclusions Increased YKL-40 is a protective biomarker in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Further studies may reveal a link between PM-induced lung and liver diseases. PMID:25717419

  2. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  3. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  4. Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n = 322) and non-firefighters (n = 107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815

  5. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  6. Improved Clothing for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Application of space technology should reduce incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue in firefighters. Using advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the heat, face, torso, hand and foot. In tests, it was found that new gear protects better than conventional firefighter gear, weighs 40 percent less, and reduces wearer's energy expenditure by 25 percent.

  7. Improved Gloves for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

    1983-01-01

    New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

  8. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study. PMID:27171467

  9. Populations potentially exposed to traffic-related air pollution in seven world cities.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Apte, Joshua S; Lipsitt, Jonah; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A; Beckerman, Bernardo S; de Nazelle, Audrey; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Jerrett, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) likely exerts a large burden of disease globally, and in many places, traffic is increasing dramatically. The impact, however, of urban form on the portion of population potentially exposed to TRAP remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimate portions of population potentially exposed to TRAP across seven global cities of various urban forms. Data on population distributions and road networks were collected from the best available sources in each city and from remote sensing analysis. Using spatial mapping techniques, we first overlaid road buffers onto population data to estimate the portions of population potentially exposed for four plausible impact zones. Based on a most likely scenario with impacts from highways up to 300meters and major roadways up to 50meters, we identified that the portions of population potentially exposed for the seven cities ranged from 23 to 96%. High-income North American cities had the lowest potential exposure portions, while those in Europe had the highest. Second, we adjusted exposure zone concentration levels based on a literature suggested multiplier for each city using corresponding background concentrations. Though Beijing and Mexico City did not have the highest portion of population exposure, those in their exposure zones had the highest levels of exposure. For all seven cities, the portion of population potentially exposed was positively correlated with roadway density and, to a lesser extent, with population density. These analyses suggest that urban form may influence the portion of population exposed to TRAP and vehicle emissions and other factors may influence the exposure levels. Greater understanding of urban form and other factors influencing potential exposure to TRAP may help inform interventions that protect public health. PMID:25770919

  10. The effect of World Trade Center exposure on the latency of chronic rhinosinusitis diagnoses in New York City firefighters: 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Weakley, Jessica; Hall, Charles B; Liu, Xiaoxue; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Webber, Mayris P; Schwartz, Theresa; Prezant, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess how the effect of World Trade Center (WTC) exposure on physician-diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in firefighters changed during the decade following the attack on 9/11 (11 September 2001 to 10 September 2011). Methods We examined temporal effects on the relation between WTC exposure and the incidence of physician diagnosed CRS in firefighters changed during the decade following the attack on 9/11 (11 September 2001 to 10 September 2011). Exposure was grouped by time of arrival at the WTC site as follows: (high) morning 11 September 2001 (n=1623); (moderate) afternoon 11 September 2001 or 12 September 2001 (n=7025); or (low) 13–24 September 2001 (n=1200). Piecewise exponential survival models were used to estimate incidences by exposure group, with change points in the relative incidences estimated by maximum likelihood. Results Incidences dramatically increased after 2007 due to a programmatic change that provided free medical treatment, but increases were similar in all exposure groups. For this reason, we observed no change point during the study period, meaning the relative incidence by exposure group (high vs moderate vs low) of CRS disease did not significantly change over the study period. The relative rate of developing CRS was 1.99 (95% CI=1.64 to 2.41) for high versus low exposure, and 1.52 (95% CI=1.28 to 1.80) for moderate versus low exposure during the 10-year follow-up period. Conclusions The risk of CRS in FDNY firefighters appears increased with WTC-exposure, and has not diminished by time since exposure. PMID:26574577

  11. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  12. Baseline measurements of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Timothy E; Ottmar, Roger D

    2004-09-01

    Extensive measurements of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters are summarized, showing that firefighters can be exposed to significant levels of carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants, including formaldehyde, acrolein, and respirable particulate matter. Benzene was also measured and found to be well below permissible exposure limits, with the highest concentrations occurring among firefighters working with engines and torches burning petroleum-based fuel. Exposures to all pollutants were higher among firefighters at prescribed burns than at wildfires, while shift-average smoke exposures were lowest among firefighters who performed initial attack of wildfires in the early stages of the fires. Smoke exposure reaches its highest levels among firefighters maintaining fire within designated firelines and performing direct attack of spot fires that cross firelines. These events and the associated smoke exposures were positively correlated with increasing ambient wind speeds, which hamper fire management and carry the convective plume of the fire into firefighters' breathing zone. The pollutants measured in smoke were reasonably well-correlated with each other, enabling estimation of exposure to multiple pollutants in smoke from measurements of a single pollutant such as carbon monoxide. PMID:15559331

  13. Advanced Transceivers for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blood, B. D.; Gandhi, O. P.; Radke, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents concept of improved portable radio transceiver for firefighters. Based in part on study of propagation of radio waves in such environments as high-rise buildings, ships, and tunnels. Study takes into account possible health hazard posed by personal tranceivers and needs and wishes expressed by firefighters in interviews. Conceptual radio attaches to clothing to allow hands-free use; voice-actuated with microphone worn at throat. Speaker placed near wearer's shoulder. Flexible antenna placed either horizontally across shoulders, vertically at one shoulder, or on transceiver itself.

  14. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study. PMID:24467725

  15. Thermal protective uniforms and hoods: impact of design modifications and water content on burn prevention in New York City firefighters: laboratory and field results

    PubMed Central

    Prezant, D; Malley, K; Barker, R; Guerth, C; Kelly, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine (1) the effectiveness of hoods in reducing head burns, (2) the impact of clothes worn under the protective outer uniform (modern = long sleeve shirt and long pants; modified modern = short sleeve T-shirt and short pants) on burns, and (3) whether water content (dry, damp or saturated) affects the level of thermal protection. Setting—Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY). Methods—Laboratory tests (fully dressed manikin) evaluated the different uniform and water conditions when exposed to an average 24 cal/cm2 heat flux, approximately 2250°F air temperature. FDNY field results compared (1) head burns during winters wearing the hood to winters without hood and (2) upper and lower extremity burns during summers wearing traditional, modern, and modified modern uniforms. Results—Laboratory tests showed that thermal protection was: (1) dramatically improved by the hood with protection increasing as water content increased and (2) not significantly different between modern and modified modern uniforms, regardless of water content. FDNY field results confirmed these tests showing (1) significant decreases in neck burns (by 54%), ear burns (by 60%), and head burn totals (by 46%) wearing the hood and (2) no significant differences in upper or lower extremity burns wearing modern compared with modified modern uniforms. Conclusions—Based on combined laboratory and field results, we strongly recommend the use of modern thermal protective hoods and the modified modern uniform. PMID:11565971

  16. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  17. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned firefighting responsibilities by...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned firefighting responsibilities by...

  19. Firefighting module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

  20. FIREGUIDE: Firefighter guide and tracker.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Siddhesh Rajan; Ganz, Aura; Mullett, G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an indoor location tracking and navigation system (FIREGUIDE) using Bluetooth and RFID technology. FIREGUIDE assists the firefighters to find the nearest exit location and presents the Incident Commander the current firefighter's location superimposed on a map of the building floor. We envision that the FIREGUIDE system will save significant number of fire fighters and victims' lives. PMID:21096429

  1. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  4. KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with an aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Kennedy Space Center aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle supports heavy traffic at the Space Coast Regional Airport in Titusville, Florida, where aircraft capable of carrying water were staged during the recent brushfires throughout Florida. Aircraft were supporting firefighting efforts in Brevard, Volusia, and Flagler counties.

  5. Sizing Firefighters: Method and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Routley, J. Gordon; Wilbur, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article reports new anthropometric information of U.S. firefighters for fire apparatus design applications (Study 1) and presents a data method to assist in firefighter anthropometric data usage for research-to-practice propositions (Study 2). Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. firefighter population is needed for updating ergonomic and safety specifications for fire apparatus. Method A stratified sampling plan of three-age by three-race/ethnicity combinations was used to collect anthropometric data of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. regions; 71 anthropometric dimensions were measured (Study 1). Differences among original, weighted, and normality transformed data from Study 1 were compared to allowable observer errors (Study 2). Results On average, male firefighters were 9.8 kg heavier and female firefighters were 29 mm taller than their counterparts in the general U.S. population. They also have larger upper-body builds than those of the general U.S. population. The data in weighted, unweighted, and normality transformed modes were compatible among each other with a few exceptions. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide the first available U.S. national firefighter anthropometric information for fire apparatus designs. The data represent the demographic characteristics of the current firefighter population and, except for a few dimensions, can be directly employed into fire apparatus design applications without major weighting or nonnormality concerns. Application The up-to-date firefighter anthropometric data and data method will benefit the design of future fire apparatus and protective equipment, such as seats, body restraints, cabs, gloves, and bunker gear. PMID:25141595

  6. Most cancer in firefighters is due to radio-frequency radiation exposure not inhaled carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Milham, S

    2009-11-01

    Recent reviews and reports of cancer incidence and mortality in firefighters conclude that they are at an increased risk of a number of cancers. These include leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, male breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and cancers of the brain, stomach, colon, rectum, prostate, urinary bladder, testes, and thyroid. Firefighters are exposed to a long list of recognized or probable carcinogens in combustion products and the presumed route of exposure to these carcinogens is by inhalation. Curiously, respiratory system cancers and diseases are usually not increased in firefighters as they are in workers exposed to known inhaled carcinogens. The list of cancers with increased risk in firefighters strongly overlaps the list of cancers at increased risk in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Firefighters have increased exposure to RFR in the course of their work, from the mobile two-way radio communications devices which they routinely use while fighting fires, and at times from firehouse and fire vehicle radio transmitters. I suggest that some of the increased cancer risk in firefighters is caused by RFR exposure, and is therefore preventable. The precautionary principle should be applied to reduce the risk of cancer in firefighters, and workman's compensation rules will necessarily need to be modified. PMID:19464814

  7. Absorbance and color change of LLDPE samples exposed to natural weathering in Aguascalientes City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Mota, R.; Soto-Bernal, J. J.; Rosales-Candelas, I.; Vega-Dúran, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    The degradation of weather exposed linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) specimens, with and without pigments, in Aguascalientes City, Ags. Mexico, during 269 days, was studied. Spectroscopic methods, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and colorimetry, were used to determine the degradation of the specimens. The material used is not pure since they are samples of finished product that contain additives such as anti-oxidants, stabilizers, catalysts. One of the samples contains orange color pigment and the other sample is colorless. The plots describing the absorption bands attributable to the polymeric material show a similar profile in both samples. The bands attributable to pigment do show a considerable decrease in absorbance. The results suggest that the orange pigment has been degrading, as it can also be observed in the color change, while the polymeric material doesn't show any degradation.

  8. [Prevalence of depression among firefighters].

    PubMed

    Lima, Eduardo de Paula; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-04-01

    Depression burder is high worldwide. Socioeconomic factors and exposure to extreme situations at work may be associated with the illness. This study focused on the prevalence of depression and associated factors among firefighters in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted among male firefighters in Belo Horizonte (n = 711). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the association between socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stressors, health status, and depression. Prevalence of depression in the sample was 5.5%. The likelihood of developing depression was higher among firefighters who reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (OR = 12.47; 95%CI: 5.64-27.57) and alcohol abuse (OR = 5.30; 95%CI: 2.35-11.96). The results are discussed considering the interrelationships between mental disorders, the healthy worker effect, and social recognition of firefighters' work. PMID:25945983

  9. Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

  10. Effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on firefighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshi, I.

    The results of studies to determine the amount of CO gas inhaled by firefighters during their firefighting with comparison between smokers and nonsmokers are discussed. It was found that the blood CO concentration after firefighting operations was considerably higher than in normal time, and that even normal time concentrations were higher in firefighters than in fire academy trainees. Smoking was found to be a major factor in increasing CO concentration.

  11. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169.839 Shipping... Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready for use and that...

  12. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section 195.430... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  13. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board in the prescribed location and always ready for use, other...

  14. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169.839 Shipping... Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready for use and that...

  15. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board in the prescribed location and always ready for use, other...

  16. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section 195.430... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  17. Factors Related to Sleep Disorders among Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders in male firefighters working in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Methods Self-administered questionnaires including the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form, Psychosocial Well-Being Index-Short Form, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Beck-Depression Inventory-2 as well as surveys collecting socio-demographic characteristics and work-related factors were given to 730 male firefighters. After exclusion for missing data, 657 male firefighters were included, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for the work-related factors, psychosocial factors, and general risk factors were used to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and associated factors. Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 48.7%. Shift work (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02-2.45), musculoskeletal symptoms (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI = 2.02-4.14), and depression (adjusted OR 7.04 95% CI = 4.03-12.30) were associated with sleep disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms, shift work, and depression are associated with sleep disorders. Integrated health management is needed to promote good sleep quality among firefighters. PMID:24864191

  18. Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

  19. Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

  20. Assessment of the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease events for Qatar Petroleum's firefighters and non-firefighter staff in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Mochtar, I; Hooper, R W

    2012-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a major public health problem worldwide and firefighters may be at particular occupational risk. In a cross-sectional study in Ras Laffan Industrial City, Qatar, we assessed the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease events for 369 Qatar Petroleum staff at their periodic medical examination. The subjects of the study (all males) were divided into firefighters and non-firefighters groups. Based on the Framingham risk score calculations, 69.9% of the subjects were categorized as low risk, 27.1% as intermediate risk and 2.9% as high risk. None of the firefighters was categorized as high risk, 15.5% were intermediate and the rest were low risk. In the whole group, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most prevalent risk factor (68.8%), followed by hypertension (32.0%) and smoking (15.4%). The mean risk of developing coronary heart disease in firefighters [6.5% (SD 3.7%)] was significantly lower than in non-firefighters 19.5% (SD 6.5%)]. PMID:22571088

  1. Inflammatory Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure among Wildland Firefighters Working at Prescribed Burns at the Savannah River Site, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsm...

  2. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants. PMID:15820725

  3. Firefighting Women and Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosell, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Survey responses were received from 37 of 103 department chiefs and 206 of 1,108 female firefighters. The 58% who reported sexual harassment indicated greater stress, sexual stereotyping, acts of violence, use of sick leave, and fear. Although most departments have a policy, over half of those harassed did not report incidents. (SK)

  4. Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

    This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

  5. Pilot task-based assessment of noise levels among firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational noise exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based noise exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential noise exposure sources, and to use collected task-based noise levels to create noise exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of noise-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for noise of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based noise exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These levels were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr noise exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based noise levels were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest levels resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to noise from a variety of firefighting tasks and

  6. Hypomethylation of dual specificity phosphatase 22 promoter correlates with duration of service in firefighters and is inducible by low-dose benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Bin; Baxter, C. Stuart; Lam, Hung-Ming; Yeramaneni, Samrat; Levin, Linda; Haynes, Erin; Ho, Shuk-mei

    2012-01-01

    Objective Firefighters are chronically exposed to smoke and products of incomplete combustion, which frequently contain PAHs. This study examined the possibility of an association between PAH-induced epigenetic alterations and occupational firefighting exposure. Methods Promoter methylation was analyzed in four genes in blood DNA from 18 firefighters (FF) and 20 non-firefighting controls (Non-FF). Jurkat and NPrEC cells were treated with benzo[a]pyrene to ascertain the epigenetic effects of this type of agent. Results FF had a higher prevalence of DUSP22 promoter hypomethylation in blood DNA (p=0.03) and the extent of hypomethylation correlated with duration of firefighting service (p=0.04), but not with age. Benzo[a]pyrene reduced promoter methylation and increased gene expression of the same gene in Jurkat and NPrEC cells. Conclusions Cumulative occupational exposure to combustion-derived PAHs during firefighting can cause epigenetic changes in promoters of specific genes. PMID:22796920

  7. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters…

  8. Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach…

  9. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  10. Firefighters versus Stotts: The End of Quotas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, David A.; Lindsay, Ronald

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme Court has ruled that a federal district court had no authority to require a municipal employer, in violation of the seniority provisions of its collective bargaining agreement, to lay off more senior White firefighters before laying off Black firefighters. (MLW)

  11. Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Clarice Robinson

    Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

  12. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection and at...

  13. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13.507... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Engineerâ Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic firefighting...

  14. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13.507... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Engineerâ Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic firefighting...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  2. A combined approach to physical vulnerability of large cities exposed to natural hazards - the case study of Arequipa, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Ettinger, Susanne; Zuccaro, Giulio; Guitton, Mathieu; Martelli, Kim; Degregorio, Daniela; Nardone, Stefano; Santoni, Olivier; Magill, Christina; Luque, Juan Alexis; Arguedas, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru with almost one million inhabitants, is exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, and volcanic eruptions. This study focuses on the vulnerability and response of housing, infrastructure and lifelines in Arequipa to flash floods and eruption induced hazards, notably lahars from El Misti volcano. We propose a combined approach for assessing physical vulnerability in a large city based on: (1) remote sensing utilizing high-resolution imagery (SPOT5, Google Earth Pro, Bing, Pléïades) to map the distribution and type of land use, properties of city blocks in terms of exposure to the hazard (elevation above river level, distance to channel, impact angle, etc.); (2) in situ survey of buildings and critical infrastructure (e.g., bridges) and strategic resources (e.g., potable water, irrigation, sewage); (3) information gained from interviews with engineers involved in construction works, previous crises (e.g., June 2001 earthquake) and risk mitigation in Arequipa. Remote sensing and mapping at the scale of the city has focused on three pilot areas, along the perennial Rio Chili valley that crosses the city and oasis from north to south, and two of the east-margin tributaries termed Quebrada (ravine): San Lazaro crossing the northern districts and Huarangal crossing the northeastern districts. Sampling of city blocks through these districts provides varying geomorphic, structural, historical, and socio-economic characteristics for each sector. A reconnaissance survey included about 900 edifices located in 40 city blocks across districts of the pilot areas, distinct in age, construction, land use and demographics. A building acts as a structural system and its strength and resistance to flashfloods and lahars therefore highly depends on the type of construction and the used material. Each building surveyed was assigned to one of eight building categories based on physical criteria (dominant

  3. Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

    1979-01-01

    A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. PMID:444439

  4. Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

    2013-04-01

    Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

  5. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

  6. Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N = 70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1≤77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N = 123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

  7. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters in full gear wait to approach a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. The firefighters are with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

  8. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A firefighter waits for his companions before tackling the flames on a simulated aircraft. Firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  9. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A training officer controls elements of a fire training exercise at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters tackled flames from a burning simulated aircraft.

  10. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  12. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17... Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all...

  13. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13.207... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting equipment; requirements; general... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and after September 30, 1971, each operator of a coal mine shall provide an adequate supply of firefighting...

  15. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13.307... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course... completion from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the...

  16. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting equipment; requirements; general... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and after September 30, 1971, each operator of a coal mine shall provide an adequate supply of firefighting...

  18. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13.207... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  19. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting...

  20. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  1. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13.307... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course... completion from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the...

  2. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17... Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all...

  3. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60 Section 97.15... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  5. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13.407... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Assistantâ Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  6. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60 Section 97.15... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is...

  7. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13.407... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Assistantâ Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each... a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and meeting the basic...

  8. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A firefighter (right) holds a water hose in readiness as others enter a smoke-filled simulated aircraft. The activities are part of fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters have already extinguished flames from the aircraft.

  9. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  14. A heat transfer model for incorporating carbon foam fabrics in firefighter's garment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgafy, Ahmed; Mishra, Sarthak

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, a numerical study was performed to predict and investigate the performance of a thermal protection system for firefighter's garment consisting of carbon foam fabric in both the outer shell and the thermal liner elements. Several types of carbon foam with different thermal conductivity, porosity, and density were introduced to conduct a parametric study. Additionally, the thickness of the introduced carbon foam fabrics was varied to acquire optimum design. Simulation was conducted for a square planar 2D geometry of the clothing comprising of different fabric layers and a double precision pressure-based implicit solver, under transient state condition was used. The new anticipated thermal protection system was tested under harsh thermal environmental conditions that firefighters are exposed to. The parametric study showed that employing carbon foam fabric with one set of designed parameters, weight reduction of 33 % in the outer shell, 56 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 2 % at the inner edge of the garment was achieved when compared to the traditional firefighter garment model used by Song et al. (Int J Occup Saf Ergon 14:89-106, 2008). Also, carbon foam fabric with another set of designed parameters resulted in a weight reduction of 25 % in the outer shell, 28 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 6 % at the inner edge of the garment. As a result, carbon foam fabrics make the firefighter's garment more protective, durable, and lighter in weight.

  15. Fitness for work evaluation of firefighters in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Movasatian, Farid; Momenzadeh, Akram Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Firefighting is extremely strenuous and physically demanding work and involves ability to cope with emergency life-or-death situations. Because of the high physical demands of firefighting, successful job performance and minimizing of morbidity and mortality depends on fitness for duty. The firefighting department of Tehran does not perform periodic medical assessment for firefighters. The aim of this study was to evaluate medical fitness among firefighters in Tehran. In this cross sectional study we examined 147 firefighters. Medical and occupational history obtained by interview, then we performed physical examination, blood tests, ECG, spirometry and audiometry. Then results compared with guidelines for firefighters in the USA, Australia and the United Kingdom. Seven percent of our participants had a kind of pulmonary dysfunction and 25% had some degrees of hearing loss. A considerable percent of them had modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors. Thirteen participitants were unfit for this job that among them; ten firefighters were unfit based on vision capability, one case due to hypertention and two cases because of pulmonary dysfunction. Because of hazardouse nature of firefighting; preplacement, periodic medical evaluations and assesment of fitness for firefighters in Iran is highly recommended. Establishment of fitness criteria for firefighters in Iran is necessery to perform assigned functions safely. PMID:23690108

  16. Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-06-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters. PMID:23395527

  17. Fire Service Training. Firefighting Procedures. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers firefighting procedures and principles. Emphasis is placed on pre-fire planning, the techniques for applying a plan to a course of action, and the selection of proper fire fighting procedures to meet specific needs. Besides the methods of…

  18. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... performance of the tests and inspections of each portable fire extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed fire-extinguishing system aboard described by Table 132.350 of this subchapter. (c) The..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the...

  19. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... performance of the tests and inspections of each portable fire extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed fire-extinguishing system aboard described by Table 132.350 of this subchapter. (c) The..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the...

  20. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  1. Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

  2. The NASA firefighter's breathing system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

  3. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  4. A photometric analysis of free alveolar macrophages (FAMs) in smoking and nonsmoking firefighters.

    PubMed

    Mehm, W J; Giesecke, G F

    1986-10-01

    The effects of cigarette smoking and chronic smoke inhalation were evaluated in free alveolar macrophages (FAMs) in firefighters and police officers from the city of Denver, CO. Evaluation was accomplished by comparing statistical morphometric and photometric data taken from digital images of FAMs generated by the microscope photometer. Although our results failed to show significant differences between occupations and smoking status in FAM size, degree of size variability, or nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratios, they did demonstrate a significant difference in the degree of nuclear and cytoplasmic optical density (O.D.) between both occupation and smoking status. Firefighters consistently showed significantly greater O.D. values than police officers while smokers demonstrated a significantly greater O.D. than nonsmokers. While the meaning of these findings remains illusive, they do, however, present quantitative data supporting the biological response of the FAM to occupational and cigarette smoke inhalation. PMID:3022703

  5. [Hearing damage as a consequence of firefighters' professional exposure to noise].

    PubMed

    Lalić, Hrvoje; Ferhatović, Mensur; Dinko, Jurjević; Culinović, Marko

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether firefighters' professional exposure to the noise of sirens, motor water pumps and transportation by heavy vehicles causes biauricular hearing impairment. Furthermore, on the basis of the results the aim was to find out whether it is necessary to launch a hearing preservation program and additional health protection measures for this specific working population. The method of physical examination and audiometry was used. Thirty-four professional firefighters from Opatija and 30 workers of Rijeka Promet employed at the town parking lots underwent audiometry on a Sibelmed AC 50 device and then analyzed. The results of biauricular audiometry showed significant differences in hearing damage between the firefighters and Rijeka Promet employees at higher frequencies where hearing damage begins, i.e. at 4 kHz and 8 kHz (P < 0.05). The firefighters' maximal hearing loss of 30.58 +/- 24.66 dB for the right ear at 4 kHz and of 28.52 +/- 24.66 dB for the right ear at 8 kHz were higher than the hearing loss of the parking lot employees with maximal hearing loss of 17.00 +/- 13.10 dB at 4 kHz and of 16.33 +/- 13.89 dB at 8 kHz. The results of left ear audiometry were very close to those of right ear in both groups of subjects. The linear regression analysis yielded almost identical positive correlation between the time spent at the job and hearing damage, with correlation factor r = +.55 for the right and left ear at 4 kHz. The noise was measured at the Opatija Fire Station. Several measurements were performed: on the premises where firefighters are exposed to so-called communal noise, measurements at 2 m of the fire truck when sirens are sounded, noise measurements in driver's cab when sirens are sounded, and the noise made by motor water pump used in firefighting. Also, measurements were performed on the spot, i.e. at the working place of parking lot employees in the center of Rijeka where they stay most of the time, and on the

  6. Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection and Its Determinants among Exposed Infants on Care and Follow-Up in Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wudineh, Fisseha; Damtew, Bereket

    2016-01-01

    Since the scale-up for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, rates of HIV infection among exposed infants have significantly declined. However, current achievements fell short of achieving the target sets. We investigated mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection and its determinants among HIV-exposed infants on care at Dilchora Referral Hospital in Dire Dawa City Administration. A retrospective institutional cohort study was conducted by reviewing follow-up records of HIV-exposed infants who were enrolled into care. Infants' HIV serostatus was the outcome measure of the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were employed to identify significant determinants. Of the 382 HIV-exposed infants enrolled into care, 60 (15.7%) became HIV positive. Rural residence (AOR: 3.29; 95% CI: 1.40, 7.22), home delivery (AOR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.58, 8.38), infant not receiving ARV prophylaxis at birth (AOR: 5.83; 95% CI: 2.84, 11.94), mixed feeding practices (AOR: 42.21; 95% CI: 8.31, 214.38), and mother-child pairs neither receiving ARV (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 2.01, 9.82) were significant independent determinants of MTCT of HIV infection. Our findings suggest additional efforts to intensify scale-up of PMTCT services in rural setting and improve institutional delivery and postnatal care for HIV positive mothers and proper follow-up for HIV-exposed infants. PMID:26989507

  7. Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection and Its Determinants among Exposed Infants on Care and Follow-Up in Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wudineh, Fisseha

    2016-01-01

    Since the scale-up for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, rates of HIV infection among exposed infants have significantly declined. However, current achievements fell short of achieving the target sets. We investigated mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection and its determinants among HIV-exposed infants on care at Dilchora Referral Hospital in Dire Dawa City Administration. A retrospective institutional cohort study was conducted by reviewing follow-up records of HIV-exposed infants who were enrolled into care. Infants' HIV serostatus was the outcome measure of the study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were employed to identify significant determinants. Of the 382 HIV-exposed infants enrolled into care, 60 (15.7%) became HIV positive. Rural residence (AOR: 3.29; 95% CI: 1.40, 7.22), home delivery (AOR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.58, 8.38), infant not receiving ARV prophylaxis at birth (AOR: 5.83; 95% CI: 2.84, 11.94), mixed feeding practices (AOR: 42.21; 95% CI: 8.31, 214.38), and mother-child pairs neither receiving ARV (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 2.01, 9.82) were significant independent determinants of MTCT of HIV infection. Our findings suggest additional efforts to intensify scale-up of PMTCT services in rural setting and improve institutional delivery and postnatal care for HIV positive mothers and proper follow-up for HIV-exposed infants. PMID:26989507

  8. Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard Murray

    2007-01-01

    Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

  9. Excretion of arsenic (As) in urine of children, 7--11 years, exposed to elevated levels of As in the city water supply in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, C.J.; Quiroga, V.L.; Acosta, R.T.O.; Mendez, R.O.

    1998-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is a common element in the environment with many industrial uses, but it also can be a contaminant in drinking water and present serious health concerns. Earlier studies on the quality of drinking water in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, showed high levels of As in water from wells located in the northern part of the city. Additionally a high positive correlation between the levels of Fluoride (F) and As in the same wells was found. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the excretion of As in children, 7--11 years of age, that had been exposed to elevated levels of As in their drinking water. Twenty-four-hour urine samples and a water sample taken directly in the home were collected from school age children living in two different areas with known high levels of As in their drinking water. A control group with normal levels of As in their water was also included.

  10. Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress and Related Symptoms among Inner-City Minority Youth Exposed to Community Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jennifer D.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Price, Ann W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in levels of violence exposure, and in levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and related symptomatology in a sample of inner-city predominantly African American youth. Because such youth are at risk for exposure to chronic community violence, they are likely to experience considerable distress and clinical or…

  11. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37... Intermediate Bulk Containers § 98.30-37 Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off...) Except as provided in § 98.30-39, fire extinguishers of a dry chemical type are— (1) Located to...

  12. Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general…

  13. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131.535 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill...

  14. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off a vessel, or transfer a product with...

  15. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131.535 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill...

  16. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off a vessel, or transfer a product with...

  17. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters surround a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. Those at left wait their turn as the crew on the right turn their hoses toward the fire. The firefighters are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

  18. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters in full gear douse a fire on a simulated aircraft. The firefighters, who are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  19. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... handled except in places designated by the master or the COTP. (b) A fire hose of sufficient length...

  20. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  1. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  2. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  3. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  4. KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with a railroad tanker car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Kennedy Space Center railroad tanker car loaded with 20,000 gallons of water and retrofitted with a special attachment for directly filling fire trucks was transported to the scene of a fire in north Brevard County to assist with firefighting efforts.

  5. Investigation on the Lung Function of General Population in Ilam, West of Iran, as a City Exposed to Dust Storm

    PubMed Central

    Amarloei, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Mahabadi, Hassan Asilian; Asadollahi, Kheirollah; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dust storm is one of the most important natural sources of air pollution in the Middle East that has caused a major concern in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respiratory tract function of people living in Ilam city (Iran) during dust storm. Methods: A sample size of 250 people was selected and the cluster sampling was randomly used from 13 health centers in Ilam city. Pulmonary function test (PFT) was determined via a standard spirometry apparatus. Vital capacity (VC), Forced Vital capacity (FVC), FVC in first second (FEV1), FEV1/VC, FEV1/FVC, peek expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), forced expiratory flow (FEF25–75%), forced expiratory flow (FEF75–85%), forced mid flow time (FMFT) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured. Results: Mean values of respiratory capacities measured in all participants excluding FEV1/VC and FMFT were less than predicted mean values by ECCS reference. 21.6% of the population suffered from obstructive lesions. This value among males (24.1%) was more than females (19.6%). This could be related to more exposure (outdoor jobs) of males with dust storms. Conclusion: The results also showed a negative significant relationship between duration of inhabitance in Ilam city and all respiratory capacities. Further studies are needed for confident confirmation of whether reduction of respiratory capacities among Ilamian people is only related to dust storms. PMID:25948466

  6. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  7. Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public.

    PubMed

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Domitrovich, Joe; Broyles, George; Adetona, Anna M; Kleinman, Michael T; Ottmar, Roger D; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-01-01

    Each year, the general public and wildland firefighters in the US are exposed to smoke from wildland fires. As part of an effort to characterize health risks of breathing this smoke, a review of the literature was conducted using five major databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE Web of Knowledge, to identify smoke components that present the highest hazard potential, the mechanisms of toxicity, review epidemiological studies for health effects and identify the current gap in knowledge on the health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure. Respiratory events measured in time series studies as incidences of disease-caused mortality, hospital admissions, emergency room visits and symptoms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the health effects that are most commonly associated with community level exposure to wildland fire smoke. A few recent studies have also determined associations between acute wildland fire smoke exposure and cardiovascular health end-points. These cardiopulmonary effects were mostly observed in association with ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, research on the health effects of this mixture is currently limited. The health effects of acute exposures beyond susceptible populations and the effects of chronic exposures experienced by the wildland firefighter are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of wildland firefighters during and/or after the firefighting career could help elucidate some of the unknown health impacts of cumulative exposure to wildland fire smoke, establish occupational exposure limits and help determine the types of exposure controls that may be applicable to the occupation. PMID:26915822

  8. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-01-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  9. Exposure of firefighters to toxic air contaminants.

    PubMed

    Gold, A; Burgess, W A; Clougherty, E V

    1978-07-01

    A personal sampling apparatus for firefighters was developed to sample the fire atmosphere for CO, CO2, O2, NO2, HCI, HCN and pariculate content. Two fire companies made ninety successful sample runs during structural fires. CO presented a potential acute hazard and particulate concentrations were high. HCN was detected at low levels in half the samples. HCI was detected in only eight samples but on two occasions exceeded 100 ppm. CO2 and NO2 levels and O2 depression do not appear to represent significant hazards. PMID:211840

  10. Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

  11. Firefighter safety and photovoltaic installations research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backstrom, Robert; Dini, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Fire Fighters grant, UL LLC examined fire service concerns of photovoltaic (PV) systems. These concerns included firefighter vulnerability to electrical and casualty hazards when mitigating a fire involving photovoltaic (PV) modules systems. Findings include: 1. The electric shock hazard due to application of water is dependent on voltage, water conductivity, distance and spray pattern of the suppression stream. 2. Outdoor weather exposure rated electrical enclosures are not resistant to water penetration by fire hose streams. 3. Firefighter's gloves and boots afford limited protection against electrical shock provided the insulating surface is intact and dry. 4. "Turning off" an array is not a simple matter of opening a disconnect switch. 5. Tarps offer varying degrees of effectiveness. 6. Fire equipment scene lighting and exposure fires may illuminate PV systems sufficiently to cause a lock-on hazard. 7. Severely damaged PV arrays are capable of producing hazardous conditions. 8. Damage to modules from tools may result in both electrical and fire hazards. 9. Severing of conductors in both metal and plastic conduit results in electrical and fire hazards. 10. Responding personnel must stay away from the roofline in the event of modules or sections of an array sliding off the roof. 11. Fires under an array but above the roof may breach roofing materials and decking allowing fire to propagate into the attic space. Several tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from the experiments.

  12. Firefighter Hand Anthropometry and Structural Glove Sizing: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Hildreth, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the current use and fit of structural firefighting gloves and developed an improved sizing scheme that better accommodates the U.S. firefighter population. Background Among surveys, 24% to 30% of men and 31% to 62% of women reported experiencing problems with the fit or bulkiness of their structural firefighting gloves. Method An age-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the United States participated in the study. Fourteen hand dimensions relevant to glove design were measured. A cluster analysis of the hand dimensions was performed to explore options for an improved sizing scheme. Results The current national standard structural firefighting glove-sizing scheme underrepresents firefighter hand size range and shape variation. In addition, mismatch between existing sizing specifications and hand characteristics, such as hand dimensions, user selection of glove size, and the existing glove sizing specifications, is significant. An improved glove-sizing plan based on clusters of overall hand size and hand/finger breadth-to-length contrast has been developed. Conclusion This study presents the most up-to-date firefighter hand anthropometry and a new perspective on glove accommodation. The new seven-size system contains narrower variations (standard deviations) for almost all dimensions for each glove size than the current sizing practices. Application The proposed science-based sizing plan for structural firefighting gloves provides a step-forward perspective (i.e., including two women hand model–based sizes and two wide-palm sizes for men) for glove manufacturers to advance firefighter hand protection. PMID:26169309

  13. The effect of resilience on posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed inner-city primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Glenda L; Wingo, Aliza P; Moore, Renee; Pelletier, Tiffany; Gutman, Alisa R; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J

    2011-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has previously been associated with increased risk for a variety of chronic medical conditions and it is often underdiagnosed in minority civilian populations. The current study examined the effects of resilience on the likelihood of having a diagnosis of PTSD in an inner-city sample of primary care patients (n=767). We measured resilience with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, trauma with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Trauma Events Inventory, and assessed for PTSD with the modified PTSD symptom scale. Multiple logistic regression model with presence/absence of PTSD as the outcome yielded 3 significant factors: childhood abuse, nonchild abuse trauma, and resilience. One type of childhood abuse in moderate to severe range (OR, 2.01; p = .0001), 2 or more types of childhood abuse in moderate to severe range (OR, 4.00; p < or = .0001), and 2 or more types of nonchildhood abuse trauma exposure (OR, 3.33; p < or = .0001), were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of PTSD, while resilience was robustly and significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of PTSD (OR, 0.93; p < or = .0001). By understanding the role of resilience in recovery from adverse experiences, improved treatment and interventional methods may be developed. Furthermore, these results suggest a role for assessing resilience in highly traumatized primary care populations as a way to better characterize risk for PTSD and direct screening/psychiatric referral efforts. PMID:21999030

  14. Fat future for firefighters? Changes in prevalence of obesity in Scottish local authority firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ide, C W

    2012-11-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in adult obesity in the Scotland during the past two decades, but little research has been undertaken into populations defined specifically by occupation. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of obesity in a group of local authority firefighters arising early in their careers, between enlistment and initial examination for a large goods vehicle (LGV) licence. The body mass index (BMI) from initial LGV medical examinations of firefighters during a 30-month period up to the end of September 2005 was compared with that at enlistment. Enlistment and LGV BMI data were available for 114 firefighters, all men. Of 114, 77 (68%) of LGV examinations took place within five years of enlistment. None were obese (BMI ≥30) at enlistment, but by LGV medical the BMI of 88 (84%) had increased, and nine (8%) were obese. Assuming uniform accrual, BMI increased annually at rates varying between 0.06% and 2.25% (mean, 0.56; standard deviation [SD], 0.42). For the nine obese, this was 0.29-2.25% (mean, 1.06; SD, 0.61). In a population for which fitness is an essential selection criterion, the implied decline of fitness as measured by rising BMI in a short period should be cause for concern. PMID:23028175

  15. Intensely Exposed Oklahoma City Terrorism Survivors: Long-term Mental Health and Health Needs and Posttraumatic Growth.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Phebe; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Wendling, Tracy L; Brown, Sheryll

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we explore directly exposed terrorism survivors' mental health and health status, healthcare utilization, alcohol and tobacco use, and posttraumatic growth 18½ years postdisaster. Telephone surveys compared terrorism survivors and nonexposed community control subjects, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Breslau's PTSD screen, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and Health Status Questionnaire 12. Statistical analyses included multivariable logistic regression and linear modeling. Survivors, more than 80% injured, reported more anxiety and depression symptoms than did control subjects, with survivors' anxiety and depression associated with heavy drinking (≥5 drinks) and worse mental health and social functioning. While survivors had continued posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (32 [23.2%] met probable posttraumatic stress disorder threshold), they also reported posttraumatic growth. Survivors had more care from physical, speech, respiratory, and occupational therapists. In this unprecedented long-term assessment, survivors' psychiatric symptoms, alcohol use, and ancillary health service utilization suggest unmet mental health and health needs. Extended recovery efforts might benefit from maximizing positive growth and coping. PMID:26751732

  16. DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  17. 78 FR 65678 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ..., II) 1001 H H H NFPA (instructor) 1041 H H H NFPA 472 (Hazmat operations) 472 H H H NFPA 1581 (infection control) 1581 H H H Confined space (awareness) 1670 H H H Wildland firefighting (basic) 1143 H H...

  18. The Relationship between Chronotype and Sleep Quality in Korean Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji-Ae; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung-Sook; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationship between chronotype and sleep disturbance, and assessed various factors that might be associated with sleep disturbance in Korean firefighters. Methods Self-administered questionnaires assessing chronotype, depression, alcohol use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress response and sleep quality were examined in 515 firefighters. Results Evening type firefighters more reported depression, alcohol use, PTSD, stress response and sleep disturbance. Also evening chronotype was the most significant risk factor for poor sleep quality (odds ratio [OR], 4.812; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.448–9.459), even after controlling for all other variables (OR, 3.996; 95% CI, 1.806–8.841). Conclusion Chronotype was the factor most strongly associated with sleep disturbance, and therefore should be considered an important variable in sleep quality, particularly in occupations involving stressful activities, such as firefighting. PMID:26243849

  19. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  20. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  1. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., turn their hoses toward the fire on the simulated aircraft.

  2. Silica Foams for Fire Prevention and Firefighting.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander V; Kuprin, D S; Abduragimov, I M; Kuprin, G N; Serebriyakov, Evgeniy; Vinogradov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-13

    We report the new development of fire-extinguishing agents employing the latest technology of fighting and preventing fires. The in situ technology of fighting fires and explosions involves using large-scale ultrafast-gelated foams, which possess new properties and unique characteristics, in particular, exceptional thermal stability, mechanical durability, and full biocompatibility. We provide a detailed description of the physicochemical processes of silica foam formation at the molecular level and functional comparison with current fire-extinguishing and fire-fighting agents. The new method allows to produce controllable gelation silica hybrid foams in the range from 2 to 30 s up to 100 Pa·s viscosity. Chemical structure and hierarchical morphology obtained by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images develop thermal insulation capabilities of the foams, reaching a specific heat value of more than 2.5 kJ/(kg·°C). The produced foam consists of organized silica nanoparticles as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis with a narrow particle size distribution of ∼10-20 nm. As a result of fire-extinguishing tests, it is shown that the extinguishing efficiency exhibited by silica-based sol-gel foams is almost 50 times higher than that for ordinary water and 15 times better than that for state-of-the-art firefighting agent aqueous film forming foam. The biodegradation index determined by the time of the induction period was only 3 d, while even for conventional foaming agents this index is several times higher. PMID:26492207

  3. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  4. Physiological responses to simulated firefighter exercise protocols in varying environments.

    PubMed

    Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Motl, Robert W; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Petrucci, Matthew N; Fernhall, Bo; Rosengren, Karl S

    2015-01-01

    For decades, research to quantify the effects of firefighting activities and personal protective equipment on physiology and biomechanics has been conducted in a variety of testing environments. It is unknown if these different environments provide similar information and comparable responses. A novel Firefighting Activities Station, which simulates four common fireground tasks, is presented for use with an environmental chamber in a controlled laboratory setting. Nineteen firefighters completed three different exercise protocols following common research practices. Simulated firefighting activities conducted in an environmental chamber or live-fire structures elicited similar physiological responses (max heart rate: 190.1 vs 188.0 bpm, core temperature response: 0.047°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and accelerometry counts. However, the response to a treadmill protocol commonly used in laboratory settings resulted in significantly lower heart rate (178.4 vs 188.0 bpm), core temperature response (0.037°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and physical activity counts compared with firefighting activities in the burn building. Practitioner Summary: We introduce a new approach for simulating realistic firefighting activities in a controlled laboratory environment for ergonomics assessment of fire service equipment and personnel. Physiological responses to this proposed protocol more closely replicate those from live-fire activities than a traditional treadmill protocol and are simple to replicate and standardise. PMID:25597759

  5. Risk of Cancer Among Firefighters in California, 1988–2007

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Rebecca J.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Schumacher, Pam; Cress, Rosemary D.; Deapen, Dennis M.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most studies of firefighter cancer risks were conducted prior to 1990 and do not reflect risk from advances in building materials. Methods A case–control study using California Cancer Registry data (1988–2007) was conducted to evaluate the risk of cancer among firefighters, stratified by race. Results This study identified 3,996 male firefighters with cancer. Firefighters were found to have a significantly elevated risk for melanoma (odds ratio [OR]=1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.1), multiple myeloma (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–1.8), acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–2.0), and cancers of the esophagus (OR 1.6;95%CI 1.2–2.1), prostate (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.3–1.7), brain (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–2.0), and kidney (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.0–1.6). Conclusions In addition to observing cancer findings consistent with previous research, this study generated novel findings for firefighters with race/ethnicity other than white. It provides additional evidence to support the association between firefighting and several specific cancers. PMID:25943908

  6. A Study of Thyroid 131I Activity of Five Human Subjects Exposed to a Radioactive Plume at Tamura City in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Koji; Miyashita, Masami; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanishima, Yoshinobu; Maeda, Shigenobu; Yoshikawa, Jun; Kimura, Shinzo

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid 131I activities were determined for five human subjects from a disaster medical assistance team of Fukui Prefectural Hospital. The team was dispatched to the Tamura City Sports Park, 40 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. They were exposed to a radioactive plume on 15 March 2011. In vivo measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital were conducted around 17 h after the team left the park. A thyroid counter equipped with a 51-mm-diameter × 51-mm-thick NaI(Tl) detector with a 20-mm-thick lead collimator was used. Mock iodine (133Ba and 137Cs) with a thyroid uptake neck phantom was used for calibration. On 16 March 2011, at 11:30, thyroid activity of a member of the team age 53 y, who was never administered stable iodine, was 268 ± 38 Bq. The remaining four men, aged 49, 35, 34, and 27 y, ingested two stable iodine pills (a total of 100 mg of potassium iodide) approximately 36 h before being exposed to the plume. Their thyroid activity values were 249 ± 86 Bq, 676 ± 107 Bq, 569 ± 96 Bq, and 1,082 ± 119 Bq, respectively. An inverse relationship between age and thyroid activity was observed among those who ingested potassium iodide before exposure, indicating that stable iodine administration may have a protective effect. Thyroid 131I activity was reduced by approximately 70% in the oldest person. This can be explained by the iodine metabolism in the thyroid of younger individuals being significantly faster than that of older individuals. PMID:26509625

  7. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  8. Exposure–response relationships for select cancer and non-cancer health outcomes in a cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Robert D.; Bertke, Stephen; Dahm, Matthew M.; Yiin, James H.; Kubale, Travis L.; Hales, Thomas R.; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia H.; Beaumont, James J.; Waters, Kathleen M.; Pinkerton, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine exposure–response relationships between surrogates of firefighting exposure and select outcomes among previously studied US career firefighters. Methods Eight cancer and four non-cancer outcomes were examined using conditional logistic regression. Incidence density sampling was used to match each case to 200 controls on attained age. Days accrued in firefighting assignments (exposed-days), run totals (fire-runs) and run times (fire-hours) were used as exposure surrogates. HRs comparing 75th and 25th centiles of lagged cumulative exposures were calculated using loglinear, linear, log-quadratic, power and restricted cubic spline general relative risk models. Piecewise constant models were used to examine risk differences by time since exposure, age at exposure and calendar period. Results Among 19 309 male firefighters eligible for the study, there were 1333 cancer deaths and 2609 cancer incidence cases. Significant positive associations between fire-hours and lung cancer mortality and incidence were evident. A similar relation between leukaemia mortality and fire-runs was also found. The lung cancer associations were nearly linear in cumulative exposure, while the association with leukaemia mortality was attenuated at higher exposure levels and greater for recent exposures. Significant negative associations were evident for the exposure surrogates and colorectal and prostate cancers, suggesting a healthy worker survivor effect possibly enhanced by medical screening. Conclusions Lung cancer and leukaemia mortality risks were modestly increasing with firefighter exposures. These findings add to evidence of a causal association between firefighting and cancer. Nevertheless, small effects merit cautious interpretation. We plan to continue to follow the occurrence of disease and injury in this cohort. PMID:25673342

  9. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... currently approved information collection, Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and...

  10. Validation of a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Anthony T; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K; Cowen, Tiffany L; Huq, Mona B Sayedul; Delisle, Alexis D; Stopka, Christine B; Tillman, Mark D

    2014-10-01

    Currently, a submaximal protocol is used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters by estimating their true aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); however, this submaximal test has not been cross-validated among firefighters. Thirty firefighters (85% male, 15% female), completed the submaximal protocol and the maximal (Bruce) treadmill protocol on separate occasions. Pearson's correlation analyses between the submaximal and Bruce protocol revealed a significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.635, p = 0.005). The range of mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values and SDs produced from the submaximal and maximal protocols varied greatly (35.4-50.9 vs. 28.6-58.4 ml·kg·min, and SD of 3.91 vs. 7.22, respectively). The submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test underestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the majority of firefighters (72.4%) and overestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the remainder of firefighters. Participants with a higher body fat percentage were more likely (p = 0.0157) to have an overestimated true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max than those with a lower-body fat percentage. Our results indicate the current submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters is an improvement over previous protocols. However, our findings also show that the accuracy of this submaximal test for predicting the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in firefighters is questionable, and may not identify firefighters who possess substandard cardiorespiratory fitness, particularly in those with a higher percentage of body fat. Thus, the results of this study indicate that improvements to the current Fire Service Joint Management, Wellness & Fitness Initiative (WFI) V[Combining Dot Above]O2 assessment is still needed to accurately reflect the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of individual firefighters. PMID:24714540

  11. Physiological strain and countermeasures with firefighting.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S S; Petersen, S R; McLellan, T M

    2010-10-01

    Protective clothing is integral to the task of firefighting, but at the same time can increase physiological strain and impair work capacity. Encapsulation of the head and the high thermal resistance and/or low water vapor permeability of the clothing ensemble impede evaporative heat dissipation, thus elevating the rate of heat storage and creating a state of uncompensable heat stress (UHS). In addition, the additional weight from carrying a supplemental air supply and the greater respiratory work of breathing through a regulator can create a negative spiral of thermal hyperpnea from greater respiratory demands and metabolic heat production. The elevated respiratory demands also increase cardiac strain and potentially the risk for myocardial events. Tolerance time during UHS is determined by three factors: the core temperature at the beginning of the heat stress exposure, the core temperature that can be tolerated before exhaustion or collapse ensues, and the rate of increase in core temperature from the beginning to end of the heat stress exposure. Protective clothing is often employed in highly dynamic environments, making portability, longevity and integration with the task requirements and clothing critical design characteristics for countermeasures. To date, most countermeasures have been relatively indirect in nature, primarily with alterations in work scheduling along with physiological manipulations such as cooling manipulations during recovery periods. Advances are required in materials science to develop lighter and less restrictive protective equipment, concurrent with cooling strategies that target specific regions or which can be effectively implemented during exercise. PMID:21029197

  12. Impact of dioxins on antipyrine metabolism in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Chernyak, Yury I; Merinova, Alla P; Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Kolesnikov, Sergey I; Grassman, Jean A

    2016-05-27

    Antipyrine (AP) metabolism was used to assess factors associated with the activity of hepatic oxidative enzymes in firefighters. Emphasis was placed on 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine (3HMAP), the metabolite with the greatest dependence on dioxin-inducible cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) activity. AP urinary metabolites were measured by HPLC in 38 male subjects from Eastern Siberia. Subjects were divided into three groups having similar ages and BMIs: current firefighters (n=11); former firefighters (n=17) and non-firefighters (n=10). Multiple regression models were constructed using the three major AP metabolites as a dependent variable to assess the influence of age, smoking as urinary cotinine concentration, dioxin exposure (as either WHO-TEQ or body burden), group, and CYP1A2*F (-163C>A) genotypes. Models for the proportion of dose excreted as the metabolite 3HMAP produced the best fit (adjusted R(2)=0.46, p<0.05). When the models were restricted to current firefighters, only those based on 3HMAP were statistically significant (adjusted R(2) of 0.80 (p<0.002)) due to contributions from urinary cotinine (β=0.56, p<0.01) and dioxin expressed as body burden (β=0.55, p=0.014). These results indicate that the antipyrine test can be used as metabolic probe of biological response to recent dioxin exposure provided the impact of smoking is carefully controlled. PMID:27067104

  13. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency... SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes...

  14. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208...

  15. 76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Firefighting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Qualified Products List for Class A Foam for Wildland Firefighting. OMB...

  16. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.319 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  17. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237.102-70 Section 237.102-70 Federal Acquisition... firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465, the DoD is prohibited for entering into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at any military installation...

  18. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans. (a) You must identify, in the geographical-specific...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75.1100-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Protection § 75.1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1110 - Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination and maintenance of firefighting... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1110 Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment shall be continuously maintained in a usable and operative condition....

  1. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  2. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation... with the following firefighting equipment. (a) Each structure presenting a fire hazard shall...

  4. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  5. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting... Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program...

  7. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section 155.4040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1110 - Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Examination and maintenance of firefighting... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1110 Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment shall be continuously maintained in a usable and operative condition....

  9. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.319 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  11. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  12. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  13. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section 155.4040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource...

  14. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237.102-70 Section 237.102-70 Federal Acquisition... firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465, the DoD is prohibited for entering into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at any military installation...

  15. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75.1100-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Protection § 75.1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment...

  17. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation... with the following firefighting equipment. (a) Each structure presenting a fire hazard shall...

  19. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  20. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters... firefighting services to list in response plans. (a) You must identify, in the geographical-specific appendices... Marine Firefighting Services and Response Timeframes. Additionally, you must list those...

  1. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters... firefighting services to list in response plans. (a) You must identify, in the geographical-specific appendices... Marine Firefighting Services and Response Timeframes. Additionally, you must list those...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting.... Waterlines shall be capable of delivering 50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds...

  3. The NASA Firefighter's Breathing System Program: A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlan, Pat B.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Technology Utilization Program, has been making its advanced technology developments available to the public. This has coincided in recent years with a growing demand within the fire service for improved protective equipment. A better breathing system for firefighters was one of the more immediate needs identified by the firefighting organizations. The Johnson Space Center (JSC), based upon their experience in providing life support systems for space flight, was subsequently requested to determine the feasibility of providing an improved breathing system for firefighters. Such a system was determined to be well within the current state of the art, and the Center is well into a development program to provide design verification of this improved protective' equipment. This report - outlines the overall objectives of this program, progress to date, and future planned activities.

  4. A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, E S

    1990-01-01

    This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess mortality from cancer was seen for persons aged 30 to 74 (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 173, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 104-270). A significant increase in lung cancer was seen in the group aged 60 to 74 (SMR 317, 95% CI 117-691), whereas non-pulmonary cancer was significantly increased in the group aged 30 to 49 (SMR 575, 95% CI 187-1341). It is concluded that inhalation of carcinogenic and toxic compounds during firefighting may constitute an occupational cancer risk. An extended use of respiratory protective equipment is advocated. PMID:2271386

  5. Lesbian firefighters: shifting the boundaries between masculinity and femininity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the interaction between gender and sexuality, comparing the experiences of lesbian and heterosexual women firefighters in the UK. It finds that female firefighters are constructed in terms of their sexuality. Lesbians may find it easier than heterosexual women to be accepted into the "watch culture," in which "masculinity" is highly prized and fitting in with colleagues is seen as essential for performing the job safely. Lesbians who come out at work may also avoid unwanted sexual attention, which is often problematic for heterosexual women who are stereotyped as being sexually available to male firefighters. While the acceptance of lesbian sexuality is based largely on the adoption of characteristics defined as "masculine," lesbians also provide a challenge to accepted models of "femininity." PMID:19042297

  6. Cardiac Fatalities in Firefighters: An Analysis of the U.S. Fire Administration Database.

    PubMed

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac fatalities are the leading cause of death among all firefighters. Increasing age has been linked to increased cardiac fatalities in firefighters; however, circumstances surrounding in-line-of-duty cardiac firefighter deaths can also increase the risk of a cardiac death. The authors hypothesize that cardiac fatalities among firefighters will be related to the type of duty and level of physical exertion. The authors analyzed the Firefighter Fatalities and Statistics data collected by the U.S. Fire Administration (http://apps.usfa.fema.gov/firefighter-fatalities/fatalityData/statistics) from January 2002 to December 2012. Data were analyzed for associations between age, firefighter classification, duty-type, and cause of fatal cardiac event. A total of 1153 firefighter fatalities occurred during the 10-year period reviewed. Of these, 47% were cardiac fatalities. Mean age was significantly higher in firefighters who suffered a cardiac fatality (52.0 ± 11.4 ± 40.8 ± 14.7 years; P < .05). Volunteer firefighters suffered significantly higher proportion of cardiac fatalities (62%; P < .05) followed by career firefighters (32%). Additionally, cardiac fatalities were the leading cause of death for volunteer firefighters (54%; P < .05). The highest proportion of cardiac fatalities occurred on-the-scene (29%; P < .05) followed by after-duty fatalities (25%). Stress and overexertion accounted for 98% of the cause of cardiac fatalities. Adjusting for rank and firefighter classification, age (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.08) and stress or overexertion (odds ratio, 11.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-83.4) were independent predictors of a firefighter cardiac fatality. Both career and volunteer firefighters are at significantly higher risk of a fatal cardiac event as they age. These fatalities occur in a significant proportion on-the-scene. National efforts should be aimed at these high-risk populations to improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25501775

  7. Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = -0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = -0.82) and bench press (rs = -0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.83) and bench press (rs = -0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = -0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = -0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  8. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must...: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.417 What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port...

  9. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must...: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.417 What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port...

  10. Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Vargas-Martínez, Javier; Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Aline; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica

    2016-04-01

    Millions of urban children are chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Compared with children living with clear air those in Mexico City (MC) exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, low CSF Aβ42, breakdown of the BBB, attention and short-term memory deficits, prefrontal white matter hyperintensities, damage to epithelial and endothelial barriers, tight junction and neural autoantibodies, and Alzheimer and Parkinson's hallmarks. The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. We examined by light and electron microscopy the prefrontal white matter of MC dogs (n: 15, age 3.17±0.74 years), children and teens (n: 34, age: 12.64±4.2 years) versus controls. Major findings in MC residents included leaking capillaries and small arterioles with extravascular lipids and erythrocytes, lipofuscin in pericytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells (EC), thickening of cerebrovascular basement membranes with small deposits of amyloid, patchy absence of the perivascular glial sheet, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces and nanosize particles (20-48nm) in EC, basement membranes, axons and dendrites. Tight junctions, a key component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) were abnormal in MC versus control dogs (χ(2)<0.0001), and white matter perivascular damage was significantly worse in MC dogs (p=0.002). The integrity of the NVU, an interactive network of vascular, glial and neuronal cells is compromised in MC young residents. Characterizing the early NVU damage and identifying biomarkers of neurovascular dysfunction may provide a fresh insight into Alzheimer pathogenesis and open opportunities for pediatric neuroprotection. PMID:26829765

  11. Minimum protection factors for respiratory protective devices for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Burgess, W A; Sidor, R; Lynch, J J; Buchanan, P; Clougherty, E

    1977-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations were measured in seventy-two structural fires using a personal air sampler carried by working firefighters. In a total sampling time of 1329 minutes the carbon monoxide concentration exceeded 500 ppm approximately 29 percent of the time. The maximum carbon monoxide concentration was 27,000 ppm and in 10 percent of the fires, the maximum concentration exceeded 5500 ppm. Only six runs indicated oxygen concentrations less than 18 percent. On the basis of these exposure data, a minimum protection factor of 100 is proposed for breathing apparatus for structural firefighting. PMID:842565

  12. Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, precision, and sources of error of this prediction equation. This study replicated previous research by validating the accuracy of the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for a group of firefighters and further examining potential sources of error for an individual firefighters’ assessment. Methods The sample consisted of 22 firefighters who completed a maximal exercise test protocol similar to the WFI submaximal protocol, but the test was terminated when firefighters reached a maximal level of exertion (i.e., measured VO2peak). We then calculated the predicted VO2peak based on the WFI prediction equation along with individual firefighters’ body mass index (BMI) and 85% of maximum heart rate. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests in SPSS v. 21.0. Results The difference between predicted and measured VO2peak was -0.77 ± 8.35 mL•kg-1•min-1. However, there was a weak, statistically non-significant association between measured VO2peak and predicted VO2peak (R2 = 0.09, F(1,21) = 2.05, p = 0.17). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.215, p > 0.05) and Pearson (r = 0.31, p = 0.17) and Spearman (ρ = 0.28, p = 0.21) correlation coefficients were small. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 8.5 mL•kg-1•min-1. Further, both age and baseline fitness level were associated with increased inaccuracy of the prediction equation. Conclusions We provide data on the inaccuracy and sources of error for the WFI VO2peak

  13. Exploring Physical Health in a Sample of Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Stacy; Gillespie, Gordon L; Christianson, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Firefighters' work responsibilities involve strenuous physical activity and exposure to extremely stressful situations. The purpose of this research study was to describe the physical activity, stress, and culture promoting or inhibiting a healthy work environment. A descriptive qualitative study design was used with a convenience sample of firefighters from an urban Midwestern public fire service. Respondents participated in focus groups from which data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Themes derived from the data were Stressors Affecting Physical Health, Barriers to Physical Health, Facilitators of Physical Health, and Motivators for Physical Health. Future research is needed to test interventions based on the study findings. PMID:26012517

  14. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37... CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-37..., Sept. 6, 2013, § 98.30-37, was amended, in the introductory text, after the words “portable tank”,...

  15. A Firefighting Training Unit for the Royal Navy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Describes efforts to modernize the firefighting training facilities of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom through the use of computer-controlled simulations of ship fires. The structure of a prototype compartment and the control system that sets up various training scenarios and modulates the environment in response to actions by the trainees…

  16. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  17. 77 FR 39717 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Management Agency (FEMA) published a notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 37687 notifying the public of the application process for grants and the criteria for awarding grants in the fiscal year 2012... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY:...

  18. Operating experiences of retardant bombers during firefighting operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, J. W., Jr.; Morris, G. J.; Avery, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Data are presented on operational practices and maneuver accelerations experienced by two Douglas DC-6B airplanes converted to retardant bombers and used in firefighting operations. The data cover two fire seasons in the mountainous regions of the northwestern United States.

  19. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., wait while the NASA/USAF water carrier truck directs its water cannon toward a burning simulated aircraft (out of view).

  20. Behind the Brotherhood: Rewards and Challenges for Wives of Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Bright, Elaine; George, Sharon; Henderson, Joscelyn

    2005-01-01

    Support of family is paramount to reducing the impact of highly stressful work on firefighters. Yet the degree of stress encountered by the family members, particularly spouses, resulting from ongoing job demands and exposure to traumatic situations is unclear. This qualitative study examined the effects of emergency service work on spouses of…

  1. Provocation, Hostility, Aggression, and Victimization: Firefighters and Incarcerated Felons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered…

  2. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer vehicle from Naval Station Mayport, Fla., stands by during fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. In the background is the simulated aircraft that was set on fire for the exercise. Firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station (in the background) gather around the site of the extinguished flames.

  3. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 77.1108 Section 77.1108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 77.1108 Section 77.1108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 77.1108 Section 77.1108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general. On and...

  6. Tobacco Use Pattern Among a National Firefighter Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Poston, Walker SC; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Day, Rena S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To date, there have been no large-scale, national epidemiological studies of tobacco use patterns among firefighters, particularly with a focus on smokeless tobacco (SLT) and dual use with cigarettes. While rates of firefighters’ smoking are relatively low compared to the general population, SLT use typically is substantially higher than the populations they protect. In the current study, we systemically examine tobacco use, including SLT and dual use, and the health-related profiles of various tobacco use groups in a national sample of career firefighters. Methods: Data are from a national cohort study of career departments (N = 20) comprised of 947 male firefighters. Results: Among 947 participants, 197 (21%) were tobacco users, of which, 34.5% used cigarettes, 53.2% used SLT, and 12.2% used both cigarettes and SLT. Adjusted rates of smoking, SLT use, and dual use were 13.2%, 10.5%, and 12.2%, respectively. Tobacco users of all types were significantly younger and had served fewer years in fire service and were significantly more likely to engage in heavy and binge drinking, as well as more likely to show signs of depressive symptoms compared to nontobacco users. Conclusions: Detailed information on tobacco use pattern will aid in better understanding what factors are contributing to the high rates of SLT and dual use among firefighters in order to guide and develop an appropriate treatment program for the fire service. PMID:25145378

  7. Line of duty firefighter fatalities: an evolving trend over time.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Rae, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2012, 2775 firefighters were killed in the line of duty. Myocardial infarction (MI) was responsible for approximately 40% of these mortalities, followed by mechanical trauma, asphyxiation, and burns. Protective gear, safety awareness, medical care, and the age of the workforce have evolved since 1990, possibly affecting the nature of mortality during this 22-year time period. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the causes of firefighter mortality have changed over time to allow a targeted focus in prevention efforts. The U.S. Fire Administration fatality database was queried for all-cause on-duty mortality between 1990 to 2000 and 2002 to 2012. The year 2001 was excluded due to inability to eliminate the 347 deaths that occurred on September 11. Data collected included age range at the time of fatality (exact age not included in report), type of duty (on-scene fire, responding, training, and returning), incident type (structure fire, motor vehicle crash, etc), and nature of fatality (MI, trauma, asphyxiation, cerebrovascular accident [CVA], and burns). Data were compared between the two time periods with a χ test. Between 1990 and 2000, 1140 firefighters sustained a fatal injury while on duty, and 1174 were killed during 2002 to 2012. MI has increased from 43% to 46.5% of deaths (P = .012) between the 2 decades. CVA has increased from 1.6% to 3.7% of deaths (P = .002). Asphyxiation has decreased from 12.1% to 7.9% (P = .003) and burns have decreased from 7.7% to 3.9% (P = .0004). Electrocution is down from 1.8% to 0.5% (P = .004). Death from trauma was unchanged (27.8 to 29.6%, P = .12). The percentage of fatalities of firefighters over age 40 years has increased from 52% to 65% (P = .0001). Fatality by sex was constant at 3% female. Fatalities during training have increased from 7.3% to 11.2% of deaths (P = .00001). The nature of firefighter mortality has evolved over time. In the current decade, line-of-duty mortality is more

  8. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke. PMID:24566608

  9. Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and related factors in Korean firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae-Won; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Byun, Junsu; Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Kim, Youngki; Song, Han-Soo; Lee, Chul-Gab; Kwon, Young-Jun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jeong, Kyoungsook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The job of firefighting can cause lumbar burden and low back pain. This study aimed to identify the association between age and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and whether the association differs between field and administrative (non-field) firefighters. Methods Subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method. Firefighters were stratified by geographic area, gender, age and type of job. First, 25 fire stations were randomly sampled considering regional distribution. Then firefighters were stratified by gender, age and their job and randomly selected among the strata. A questionnaire survey and MRI scans were performed, and then four radiologists used Pfirrmann classification methods to determine the grade of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Results Pfirrmann grade increased with lumbar intervertebral disc level. Analysis of covariance showed that age was significantly associated with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (p<0.05). The value of β (parameter estimate) was positive at all lumbar intervertebral disc levels and was higher in the field group than in the administrative group at each level. In logistic regression analysis, type of job was statistically significant only with regard to the L4–5 intervertebral disc (OR 3.498, 95% CI 1.241 to 9.860). Conclusions Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with age, and field work such as firefighting, emergency and rescue may accelerate degeneration in the L4–5 intervertebral disc. The effects of field work on lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration were not clear in discs other than at the level L4–5. PMID:27354080

  10. Biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams in water.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, A; Bergendahl, J; Rangwala, A

    2015-07-01

    Fluorinated fire-fighting foams may be released into the environment during fire-fighting activities, raising concerns due to the potential environmental and health impacts for some fluorinated organics. The current study investigated (1) the biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams, and (2) the applicability of current standard measures used to assess biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams. The biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams was evaluated using a 28-day dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Die-Away Test. It was found that all three materials, diluted in water, achieved 77-96% biodegradability, meeting the criteria for "ready biodegradability". Defluorination of the fluorinated organics in the foam during biodegradation was measured using ion chromatography. It was found that the fluorine liberated was 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated initial amount, indicating incomplete degradation of fluorinated organics, and incomplete CF bond breakage. Published biodegradability data may utilize biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) metrics to quantify organics. COD and TOC of four fluorinated compounds were measured and compared to the calculated carbon content or theoretical oxygen demand. It was found that the standard dichromate-based COD test did not provide an accurate measure of fluorinated organic content. Thus published biodegradability data using COD for fluorinated organics quantification must be critically evaluated for validity. The TOC measurements correlated to an average of 91% of carbon content for the four fluorinated test substances, and TOC is recommended for use as an analytical parameter in fluorinated organics biodegradability tests. PMID:25813673

  11. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  12. "It Happened in Seconds" Firefighter Burn Prevention Program: Evaluation of a "Train the Trainer" Course.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Held, Jenny M; Hollowed, Kathleen A; Woods, Jason; Holmes, James H

    2016-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 100 firefighter fatalities and tens of thousands of injuries in the United States. 'It Happened in Seconds' is a firefighter burn injury awareness program offered to firefighters nationwide. The course focuses on situational awareness, personal protective equipment, and burn injury prevention. In order to create more instructors, a 'Train the Trainer' instructor course was developed to prepare experienced firefighters and healthcare providers from around the United States to teach firefighters in their respective communities. This study evaluates trainees' perception of the instructor course. Three instructor courses were held in a period between November 2013 and January 2015. Trainees were asked to complete both precourse/postcourse assessments and provide demographics. In both surveys, trainees rated their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention and their awareness about firefighter-specific burn issues using a 5-point Likert Scale (1 = none and 5 = high). The postassessment asked if trainees thought the course should be mandatory for all firefighters. Pretest and post-test scores were compared using a Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. A total of 140 experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals completed the Train the Trainer course. The average age was 40 ± 9 years, and 41 were women and 99 men. The average trainee had 13.6 ± 9 years experience in his or her respective job and 11 ± 9 years experience in burn care. Trainees reported a significant increase in their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention (2.9/5 precourse vs. 4.5/5 postcourse, P < .0001) and in their current awareness of firefighter-specific burn issues (3.2 precourse vs. 4.4 postcourse, P < .0001). In the postcourse assessment, 139 of 140 respondents agreed that the 'It Happened in Seconds' course should be mandatory for all firefighters. This study showed that experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals

  13. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that

  14. Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = −0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = −0.82) and bench press (rs = −0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.83) and bench press (rs = −0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = −0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = −0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  15. Simulated Firefighting Task Performance and Physiology Under Very Hot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Williams-Bell, Michael; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of very hot (45°C) conditions on the performance of, and physiological responses to, a simulated firefighting manual-handling task compared to the same work in a temperate environment (18°C). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters performed a 3-h protocol in both 18°C (CON) and 45°C (VH). Participants intermittently performed 12 × 1-min bouts of raking, 6 × 8-min bouts of low-intensity stepping, and 6 × 20-min rest periods. The area cleared during the raking task determined work performance. Core temperature, skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously. Participants also periodically rated their perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation. Firefighters consumed water ad libitum. Urine specific gravity (USG) and changes in body mass determined hydration status. Results: Firefighters raked 19% less debris during the VH condition. Core and skin temperature were 0.99 ± 0.20 and 5.45 ± 0.53°C higher, respectively, during the VH trial, and heart rate was 14–36 beats.min−1 higher in the VH trial. Firefighters consumed 2950 ± 1034 mL of water in the VH condition, compared to 1290 ± 525 in the CON trial. Sweat losses were higher in the VH (1886 ± 474 mL) compared to the CON trial (462 ± 392 mL), though both groups were hydrated upon protocol completion (USG < 1.020). Participants' average RPE was higher in the VH (15.6 ± 0.9) compared to the CON trial (12.6 ± 0.9). Similarly, the firefighers' thermal sensation scores were significantly higher in the VH (6.4 ± 0.5) compared to the CON trial (4.4 ± 0.4). Conclusions: Despite the decreased work output and aggressive fluid replacement observed in the VH trial, firefighters' experienced increases in thermal stress, and exertion. Fire agencies should prioritize the health and safety of fire personnel in very hot temperatures, and consider the impact of reduced productivity on fire suppression efforts. PMID:26617527

  16. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  17. [Preliminary analysis of smoking habit in firefighters of Wielkopolska region].

    PubMed

    Witt, Magdalena; Romańczukiewicz, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Professional performance of firefighters causes high level of stress. This results in certain activities meant to lower a stress level, some of which are harmful to individuals health per se--smoking is a classical example here. This work was aimed at assessment of prevalence and style of smoking in the group of 69 professional firefighters of Wielkopolska region. Parameters studied were: prevalence, awareness of health-hazard, extent of nicotin addiction, motivation to quit with habit. Motivation to start smoking and further development of smoking habit as well as influence of environment was also studied. Since smoking presents a medical and social problem in this group of professionals, educative measures aimed at reduction of stress level and bad habit fighting should be undertaken. PMID:17288226

  18. Firefighters and paramedics: years of service, job aspirations, and burnout.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S A; Beaton, R D; Pike, K C; Cain, K C

    1994-11-01

    1. Data were collected from an anonymous mail survey of over 2,000 paramedics and firefighters to determine the relationships among years of service and four occupational outcomes, including burnout. 2. Paramedics had poorer outcomes than firefighters. Job title, not percent of emergency service runs per se, significantly differentiated the groups with respect to burnout and job aspiration variables. 3. After adjusting for age, years of service correlated negatively with three measures of job aspirations: job satisfaction, work related morale, and career goal attainment in both groups. 4. If signs and symptoms of burnout occur throughout the worker's life cycle rather than with increasing years of experience, the findings have implications for both prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:7695798

  19. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 μg/m(3) to 2700 μg/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 μg/m(3) to 355 μg/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles. PMID:25679824

  20. Effect of Aspirin Supplementation on Hemostatic Responses in Firefighters Aged 40 to 60 Years.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Horn, Gavin P; Woods, Jeffrey; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-07-15

    Sudden cardiovascular events account for approximately 45% to 50% of all duty-related deaths among firefighters and a disproportionate number of these fatalities occur after strenuous fire suppression activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute and chronic aspirin supplementation on hemostatic function before and after live firefighting activities in older firefighters. A double-blind, crossover design included 4 treatments: a 2-week aspirin/placebo treatment ("chronic") and a single prefirefighting aspirin/placebo treatment ("acute"). Hemostatic function was assessed in 24 male firefighters (mean age = 48.2 ± 5.9 years) immediately before and after 18 minutes of live-fire firefighting activity. An acute bout of firefighting activity significantly decreased platelet aggregation time and decreased activated partial thromboplastin time. Compared with placebo, acute aspirin supplementation resulted in a significant increase in epinephrine closure time, which was further augmented by chronic supplementation. Aspirin supplementation had no effect on coagulatory or fibrinolytic factors. Our findings suggest that an acute bout of firefighting leads to increased coagulatory potential in older firefighters. In conclusion, aspirin supplementation had an antiplatelet effect that decreased platelet aggregability at rest and after an acute bout of firefighting compared with placebo. PMID:27241836

  1. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  2. Firefighter Down! How to Rapidly Remove Turnout Gear.

    PubMed

    ALexander, John G

    2016-04-01

    The rescue of an injured colleague--and probably a good friend--is an emotionally charged event. A common initial response could be to remove everything as quickly as possible. Keep in mind that we have accepted practices for the removal of motorcycle equipment and football gear. There are also procedures for removing a patient from a vehicle or swimming pool. These all exist to protect a patient from further injury. We now have established practices for removing a firefighter from a window, or down a ladder. Why then do the procedures stop? Once a firefighter is rescued from a hot zone, he deserves the same level of consideration a football player, motorcycle rider or any other patient receives. We should not be in such a hurry that we don't care how we remove a protective ensemble. The injured firefighter deserves a system, or a procedure, that may be practiced by others and reduce the chance of further injury during PMID:27215052

  3. Characteristics of Workplace Injuries among Nineteen Thousand Korean Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin Ha; Kim, Yeong Kwang; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2016-10-01

    To determine the actual firefighter injury statistics in Korea, we conducted a survey on the nature of on-duty injuries among all male firefighters in Korea. We distributed questionnaires to all Korean male firefighters via email, and data from the 19,119 workers that responded were used for data analysis. The job types were categorized into fire suppression, emergency medical service (EMS) and officers. As estimated of age standardized injury prevalence per one thousand workers, 354 fire extinguishing personnel, 533 EMS workers, and 228 officers experienced one or more injuries during the previous 12 months. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of injuries was 1.86 (1.61-2.15) for fire suppression and 2.93 (2.51-3.42) for EMS personnel compared to officers after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking habit and career period. Age standardized absence days from work due to injuries per one thousand workers were 1,120, 1,337, and 676 for fire suppression, EMS and officers, respectively. Car accident (24.5%) was the most common cause and wound (42.3%) was the most common type of injuries. Our nationwide representative study showed that fire suppression and EMS workers are at greater risk of on-duty injuries compared to officers. We observed different injury characteristics compared to those reported in other countries. PMID:27550481

  4. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    SciTech Connect

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  5. Exposure of Firefighters to Particulates and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, C. Stuart; Hoffman, Joseph D.; Knipp, Michael J.; Reponen, Tiina; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Firefighting continues to be among the most hazardous yet least studied occupations in terms of exposures and their relationship to occupational disease. Exposures are complex, involving mixtures of particles and chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Adverse health effects associated with these agents include elevated incidences of coronary heart disease and several cancers. PAHs have been detected at fire scenes, and in the firehouse rest area and kitchen, routinely adjoining the truck bay, and where firefighters spend a major part of each shift. An academic-community partnership was developed with the Cincinnati Fire Department with the goal of understanding active firefighters' airborne and dermal PAH exposure. PAHs were measured in air and particulates, and number and mass concentrations, respectively, of submicron (0.02–1 μm) and PM2.5 (2.5 μm diameter and less) particles during overhaul events in two firehouses and a University of Cincinnati administrative facility as a comparison location. During overhaul firefighters evaluate partially combusted materials for re-ignition after fire extinguishment and commonly remove Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Face and neck wipes were also collected at a domestic fire scene. Overhaul air samples had higher mean concentrations of PM2.5 and submicron particles than those collected in the firehouse, principally in the truck bay and kitchen. Among the 17 PAHs analyzed, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene were generally detectable. Naphthalene was present in 7 out of 8 overhaul activities, in 2 out of 3 firehouse (kitchen and truck bay) samples, and in none collected from the control site. In firefighter face and neck wipes a greater number of PAHs were found, several of which have carcinogenic activity, such as benzofluoranthene, an agent also found in overhaul air samples. Although the concentration for naphthalene, and all other individual PAHs, was very low, the potential simultaneous

  6. Cardiac strain associated with high-rise firefighting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous studies have reported the physiological strain associated with firefighting, cardiac responses during a large-scale fire operation have not been reported and cardiac responses have not been compared based on crew assignment. The aims of this study were (1) to characterize cardiac strain during simulated high-rise firefighting, and (2) to compare the cardiac strain associated with different work assignments (fire suppression vs. search and rescue) and different modes of vertical ascent (stairs vs. elevator). Firefighters (N = 42) completed one assignment (fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support) during one of two trials that differed by ascent mode. Assignments were divided into three phases: Ascent (ascend lobby to 8th floor), Staging (remain in holding area on 8th floor), and Work (perform primary responsibilities). When comparing assignments within the same ascent mode, mean heart rate (HRmean) was higher (p = 0.031) for fire suppression than for search and rescue during Work in the stair trial (170 ± 14 vs. 155 ± 11 beats/min). Search and rescue crews experienced greater cumulative cardiac strain (HRmean × duration) during Work than did fire suppression crews (stairs: 1978 ± 366 vs. 1502 ± 190 beats; elevator: 1755 ± 514 vs. 856 ± 232 beats; p<0.05). When comparing ascent mode, HRmean and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were higher (35-57 beats/min; p≤0.001) for both fire suppression and search and rescue during Ascent and Staging phases in the stairs vs. the elevator trial. During Work, HRmean was higher (p = 0.046) for search and rescue in the stairs vs. the elevator trial (155 ± 11 vs. 138 ± 19 beats/min). HRmean and HRpeak were 47 and 34 beats/min higher (p < 0.01), respectively, when materials were transported to the staging area using the stairs compared with the elevator. Study findings suggest that high-rise firefighting results in considerable cardiac strain and that search and rescue and material support crews

  7. Seasonality and Coronary Heart Disease Deaths in United States Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Mbanu, Ibeawuchi; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Peeples, Lynne; Stallings, Leonard A.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2013-01-01

    United States firefighters have a high on-duty fatality rate and coronary heart disease is the leading cause. Seasonality affects the incidence of cardiovascular events in the general population, but its effects on firefighters are unknown. We statistically examined the seasonal and annual variation of all on-duty coronary heart disease deaths among US firefighters between 1994 and 2004 using the chi-square distribution and Poisson regression model of the monthly fatality counts. We also examined the effect of ambient temperature (apparent as well as wind chill temperature) on coronary heart disease fatalities during the study span using a time-stratified, case-crossover study design. When grouped by season, we observed the distribution of the 449 coronary heart disease fatalities to show a relative peak in winter (32%) and relative nadir in spring (21%). This pattern was significantly different (p=0.005) from the expected distribution under the null hypothesis where season has no effect. The pattern persisted in additional analyses, stratifying the deaths by the type of duty in which the firefighters were engaged at the time of their deaths. In the Poisson regression model of the monthly fatality counts, the overall goodness-of-fit between the actual and predicted case counts was excellent ( χ42 = 16.63; p = 0.002). Two distinct peaks were detected, one in January-February and the other in August-September. Overall, temperature was not associated with increased risk of on-duty death. After allowing for different effects of temperature in mild/hot versus cold periods, a 1°C increase was not protective in cold weather, nor did it increase the risk of death in warmer weather. The findings of this study reveal statistical evidence for excess coronary heart disease deaths among firefighters during winter; however, the temporal pattern coronary heart disease deaths was not linked to temperature variation. We also found the seasonal pattern to be independent of duty

  8. A Computerized, Self-Administered Questionnaire to Evaluate Posttraumatic Stress Among Firefighters After the World Trade Center Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Malachy; McWilliams, Rita; Kelly, Kerry J.; Niles, Justin; Cammarata, Claire; Jones, Kristina; Wartenberg, Daniel; Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Glass, Lara; Schorr, John K.; Feirstein, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the frequency of psychological symptoms and elevated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk among New York City firefighters after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack and whether these measures were associated with Counseling Services Unit (CSU) use or mental health–related medical leave over the first 2.5 years after the attack. Methods. Shortly after the WTC attack, a computerized, binary-response screening questionnaire was administered. Exposure assessment included WTC arrival time and “loss of a co-worker while working at the collapse.” We determined elevated PTSD risk using thresholds derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and a sensitivity-specificity analysis. Results. Of 8487 participants, 76% reported at least 1 symptom, 1016 (12%) met criteria for elevated PTSD risk, and 2389 (28%) self-referred to the CSU, a 5-fold increase from before the attack. Higher scores were associated with CSU use, functional job impairment, and mental health–related medical leave. Exposure–response gradients were significant for all outcomes. Conclusions. This screening tool effectively identified elevated PTSD risk, higher CSU use, and functional impairment among firefighters and therefore may be useful in allocating scarce postdisaster mental health resources. PMID:19890176

  9. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only...

  10. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. (a) You must provide the...

  11. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  12. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only...

  13. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. (a) You must provide the...

  14. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section 167.45-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment...

  15. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section 167.45-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment...

  16. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section 167.45-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment...

  17. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  18. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  19. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403 of this part,...

  20. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1) Each working...

  2. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section 31.10-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a) During the...

  3. 76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Firefighting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting. DATES: Comments must be received in.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1) Each working...

  5. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section 31.10-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a) During the...

  6. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation... project a water stream to any point in the plant. However, where freezing conditions exist or water is...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation... project a water stream to any point in the plant. However, where freezing conditions exist or water is...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation... project a water stream to any point in the plant. However, where freezing conditions exist or water is...

  10. Physiological, Perceptual and Psychological Responses of Career versus Volunteer Firefighters to Live-fire Training Drills.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, Steven J; Poh, Paula Y S; Greenlee, Tina A; Goldstein, Eric; Horn, Gavin P; Smith, Denise L

    2014-11-13

    A primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of short-term live-fire firefighting activities on key physiological, perceptual and psychological variables and whether occupational status influenced these responses. It was also of interest to examine whether individual difference factors differentiated the occupational status groups and if so, whether such individual difference factors influenced perceptual and psychological responses to firefighting activities. Male firefighters (n = 52 career, n = 53 volunteer firefighters) participated in 18 min of simulated firefighting activity in a training structure that contained live fires. Measures of heart rate (HR) and Tcore were obtained before and after firefighting activities along with perceptions of thermal sensations, exertion, respiratory distress and affect. Firefighting activities resulted in significant elevations in HR and Tcore , whereas thermal sensations, respiratory distress, exertion and affect all showed significant and sizable changes reflecting greater distress and dysphoria. Occupational status and individual difference factors accounted for some of this negative change. The findings replicate and extend previous work by demonstrating the influence of occupational status and individual difference factors in the psychological responses to firefighting activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25393336

  11. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... listed in the table in § 155.4030(b) will apply to these services. (c) Integration into the response... firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters... firefighting services to list in response plans. (a) You must identify, in the geographical-specific...

  12. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS General Provisions; Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive...

  13. Multidimensional, Threshold Effects of Social Support in Firefighters: Is More Support Invariably Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvel, Shiloh Jordan; He, Yuhong; Shannon, Jennifer K.; Tager, David; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Chaichanasakul, Adipat; Mendoza, Monique M.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between social support (Social Provisions Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) in a sample of male firefighters in a midwestern community (N=53). The authors assessed 5 types of perceived support from 2 sources: peer firefighters and supervisors. Results indicate that reassurance of worth and social…

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  15. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An index is required by paragraph (c) of this section for each certificate holder. The Index is...

  16. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An index is required by paragraph (c) of this section for each certificate holder. The Index is...

  17. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting...

  18. Source, profile, and carcinogenic risk assessment for cohorts occupationally exposed to dust-bound PAHs in Lahore and Rawalpindi cities (Punjab province, Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the occurrence and concentrations of PAHs in dust samples, which were collected from the traffic police cabins/working spots, located on the main busy roads of Lahore (TP-L) and Rawalpindi (TP-R) cities (Punjab province, Pakistan) and from the public transport vehicles in the same cities (named as AM-L and AM-R, respectively) were determined. The mean and median concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the following descending order: AM-L (1340 and 774 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively), TP-L (866 and 854 ng g(-1) d.w.), TP-R (504 and 379 ng g(-1) d.w.), and AM-R (393 and 290 ng g(-1) d.w. Source apportionment of the soil/dust-bound PAHs was also performed. In all the sampling areas, the diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) followed by multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis indicated signatures of mixed sources of PAHs (including vehicular exhaust emission, gasoline/diesel, and coal/wood combustion). Estimated results of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) indicated that the traffic policemen and drivers, especially those in the urban area of Lahore, were at high risk of cancer via routes of dust ingestion and dermal contact. The results of this research could be very useful for the local Government in order to control the exposure and promote actions to alleviate PAH contamination and to manage health both at work places in the big cities of Pakistan. PMID:25739839

  19. The effect of a novel tactical training program on physical fitness and occupational performance in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Ross; Clasey, Jody L; Palmer, Thomas; Symons, Thorburn B; Abel, Mark G

    2015-03-01

    Structural firefighting is a dangerous and physically demanding profession. Thus, it is critical that firefighters exercise regularly to maintain optimal physical fitness levels. However, little is known about optimal training methods for firefighters, and exercise equipment is often not available to on-duty firefighters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a novel supervised on-duty physical training program on the physical fitness and occupational performance of structural firefighters. Twenty professional male firefighters were divided into a supervised exercise group (SEG; n = 11) and a control group (CG; n = 9). The SEG participated in a 12-week circuit training intervention. The SEG exercised for 1 hour on 2 d·wk. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects performed a battery of physical fitness tests and a simulated fire ground test (SFGT). At baseline, there were no significant differences (p = 0.822) in the completion rate of the SFGT in the SEG (82%) vs. the CG (78%). After the intervention, a significantly greater proportion of the firefighters in the SEG completed the SFGT compared with the CG (SEG = 100% vs. CG = 56%; p < 0.013). In addition, the SEG demonstrated significant improvements in body mass, fat mass, and body mass index (p ≤ 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that training with firefighter equipment improved occupational performance and anthropometric outcomes in incumbent firefighters. Furthermore, implementing a supervised exercise program using firefighter equipment can be done so in a safe and feasible manner. PMID:25162645

  20. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (p<0.01 and p<0.000), and decreases in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP 1), ghrelin, and glucagon (<0.02) versus controls. BMI and leptin relationships were significantly different in low versus high PM2.5 exposed children. Mexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<30 ng/mL was documented in 87% of Mexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer

  1. Factor structure and external correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among African American firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Arbona, Consuelo; Fan, Weihua; Noor, Nausheen

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the relative goodness of fit of three well-established factorial models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among 477 African American male firefighters in a large city in the US. The compared models were the two four-factor emotional numbing and dysphoria models and a five-factor dysphoric arousal model. The study also examined the convergent and discriminant validity of PTSD symptom clusters in relation to depression and alcohol dependence symptoms. Both the emotional numbing and dysphoric arousal PTSD models provided a superior fit to the data compared to the dysphoria model. Findings also indicated a good fit for factor models that included PTSD, depression, and alcohol dependence latent factors, which provides support for the specificity of PTSD symptom clusters. Depression symptoms were more strongly correlated with PTSD symptom clusters than alcohol dependence. In the dysphoric arousal model, depression and alcohol dependence were equally related to the emotional numbing and dysphoric arousal clusters; however, both depression and alcohol dependence were more highly correlated with dysphoric arousal than with anxious arousal. Even though the emotional numbing and dysphoric arousal models demonstrated a superior fit to the data, the four-factor dysphoria model may provide a more parsimonious representation of PTSD’s latent structure than the five-factor dysphoric arousal model. In conclusion, this study extends support for the well-established PTSD symptom factor models among African Americans, a population with whom these models had not been examined earlier. PMID:27563263

  2. Risk assessment of soils identified on firefighter turnout gear.

    PubMed

    Easter, Elizabeth; Lander, Deborah; Huston, Tabitha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the composition of soils on firefighter turnout gear and to determine the dermal exposure risks associated with the soils. Nine used Nomex hoods from the Philadelphia fire department were analyzed for the presence of trace metals and seven sets of used turnout gear were analyzed for semi-volatile organics. Turnout gear samples were removed from areas of the gear known to have high levels of dermal absorption including the collar, armpit, wrist, and crotch areas, from either the outer shell or thermal liner layers. The following compounds were detected: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate plasticizers, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs). A screening risk assessment was conducted by converting the measured concentrations to an estimated dermally absorbed dose based on estimates for the permeation coefficient (Kp) and an assumed firefighting exposure scenario. Benzo(a) pyrene had the highest dermal exposure risk based on carcinogenic effects and PBDE-99 had the highest dermal exposure risk based on non-carcinogenic effects. For the metals, arsenic had the highest dermal exposure risk for the use hoods. PMID:27027971

  3. Arterial Stiffness, Oxidative Stress, and Smoke Exposure in Wildland Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Denise M.; Siegel, Paul D.; Hughes, Michael D.; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F.; Campbell, Corey R.; Richards, Jennifer C.; Kales, Stefanos F.; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuongson; O’Donnell, Carl R.; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. Methods We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Results Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Conclusions Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. PMID:24909863

  4. Resilience as a mediator in emotional social support's relationship with occupational psychology health in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Miguel; Botia, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    This study's objective is to examine the relationship between emotional demands and emotional social support at work, and the impact of resilience on health. A cross-sectional study of 156 firefighters was conducted. Descriptive analyses of the study's variables were performed, along with structural equation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The results suggest statistically significant relationships among the study's variables. Social support from one's boss and intense emotional demands were found to have an interaction effect on firefighters' resilience. The findings confirm the mediating role of resilience and the relationship with emotional social support from the boss on firefighters' occupational health. PMID:25603928

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Highly Exposed PM2.5 Urbanites: The Risk of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases in Young Mexico City Residents.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Avila-Ramírez, José; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; González-Heredia, Tonatiuh; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Chao, Chih-Kai; Thompson, Charles; Ruiz-Ramos, Rubén; Cortés-González, Victor; Martínez-Martínez, Luz; García-Pérez, Mario Alberto; Reis, Jacques; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Lachmann, Ingolf

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, while Mn toxicity induces parkinsonism. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children have pre- and postnatal sustained and high exposures to PM2.5, O3, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. Young MCMA residents exhibit frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-β (Aβ)1 - 42 diffuse plaques, and aggregated and hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein in olfactory nerves and key brainstem nuclei. We measured total prion protein (TPrP), total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-Tau), Aβ1-42, α-synuclein (t-α-syn and d-α-synuclein), BDNF, insulin, leptin, and/or inflammatory mediators, in 129 normal CSF samples from MCMA and clean air controls. Aβ1-42 and BDNF concentrations were significantly lower in MCMA children versus controls (p = 0.005 and 0.02, respectively). TPrP increased with cumulative PM2.5 up to 5 μg/m3 and then decreased, regardless of cumulative value or age (R2 = 0.56). TPrP strongly correlated with T-Tau and P-Tau, while d-α-synuclein showed a significant correlation with TNFα, IL10, and IL6 in MCMA children. Total synuclein showed an increment in childhood years related to cumulated PM2.5, followed by a decrease after age 12 years (R2 = 0.47), while d-α-synuclein exhibited a tendency to increase with cumulated PM2.5 (R2 = 0.30). CSF Aβ1-42, BDNF, α-synuclein, and TPrP changes are evolving in young MCMA urbanites historically showing underperformance in cognitive processes, odor identification deficits, downregulation of frontal cellular PrP, and neuropathological AD and PD hallmarks. Neuroprotection of young MCMA residents ought to be a public health priority. PMID:27567860

  6. Fire and Ice - Safety, Comfort, and Getting the Firefighters' Job Done

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Butzer, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Daily life for firefighters consists of working with life-threatening hazards in hostile environments. A major hazard is excessive ambient heat. New hazards have arisen from protective gear that was intended to increase survival time of firefighters while finding and rescuing victims. The insulation is so good now that a firefighter's metabolic heat buildup cannot escape. This forces body core temperatures to life threatening levels in about 20 minutes of moderate activity. Using NASA space suit technology, Oceaneering Space Systems developed a liquid cooling garment prototype that will remove up to 250 watts of metabolic heat. After testing and certification as an approved accessory for firefighter use, this garment will be available for use by any individual encapsulated in protective clothing. This demonstration will present a high surface area circulated liquid cooling garment displayed on a mannequin and available for attendees to try on to experience the effects of active cooling.

  7. Monitoring of firefighters exposure to smoke during fire experiments in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana Isabel; Martins, Vera; Cascão, Pedro; Amorim, Jorge Humberto; Valente, Joana; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos; Tchepel, Oxana; Ferreira, António Jorge; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo; Viegas, Domingos Xavier; Ribeiro, Luís Mário; Pita, Luís Paulo

    2010-10-01

    Forest fires represent a serious threat to public security in Europe due to the large burned area. Moreover, smoke pollution due to forest fire events is an important public health issue for the communities directly affected, and particularly for the personnel involved in firefighting operations. Aiming to contribute to the scientific knowledge concerning firefighters exposure to forest fires smoke, data of individual exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were obtained during experimental field fires for a group of 10 firefighters equipped with portable "in continuum" measuring devices. Measured values are very high exceeding the Occupational Exposure Standard limits, in particular for peak limit thresholds. These are the first measurements and analysis of firefighter's individual exposure to toxic gases and particles in fire smoke experiments in Europe. However, they already indicate that urgent measures to avoid these levels of exposure are needed. PMID:20579737

  8. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK. WATER INTAKE PORTS ARE LOCATED AMIDSHIP UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  9. Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

  10. Analysis of firetruck crashes and associated firefighter injuries in the United States.

    PubMed

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

  11. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  12. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

  13. Effect of firefighters' personal protective equipment on gait.

    PubMed

    Park, Huiju; Kim, Seonyoung; Morris, Kristen; Moukperian, Melissa; Moon, Youngjin; Stull, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    The biomechanical experiment with eight male and four female firefighters demonstrates that the effect of adding essential equipment: turnout ensemble, self-contained breathing apparatus, and boots (leather and rubber boots), significantly restricts foot pronation. This finding is supported by a decrease in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral excursion of center of plantar pressure (COP) trajectory during walking. The accumulation of this equipment decreases COP velocity and increases foot-ground contact time and stride time, indicating increased gait instability. An increase in the flexing resistance of the boots is the major contributor to restricted foot pronation and gait instability as evidenced by the greater decrease in excursion of COP in leather boots (greater flexing resistance) than in rubber boots (lower resistance). The leather boots also shows the greatest increase in foot contact time and stride time. These negative impacts can increase musculoskeletal injuries in unfavorable fire ground environments. PMID:25683530

  14. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  15. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  16. Climate change and wildland firefighter health and safety.

    PubMed

    Withen, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The author examines how climate change is impacting wildland firefighters. Climate change has made wildland fires more frequent and more intense. The increase in frequency and intensity of fires has pushed the number of fatalities and injuries higher in recent decades. The most common hazards on fires follow the trend of fire in general in that these hazards become more frequent and intense. Burnovers, heat exhaustion, tree hazards, and many other common fire hazards are more likely. The fire suppression agencies are making every effort to improve health and safety on fires by improving communication, weather forecasting, mapping, fire shelters, decision making and more. Despite these efforts, wildfires are becoming ever more hazardous because of climate change and the increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires. PMID:25816171

  17. Effect of firefighter masks on monocular and binocular peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Samo, Daniel G; Bahk, Jane K; Gerkin, Richard D

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral vision can impact essential job functions of firefighters and other workers who use Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus and other full face masks. It is important for physicians to know how these masks alter peripheral vision. Also, one must understand the effect of monocular vision on peripheral vision. Using the Goldman Perimeter Machine we measured peripheral vision in the monocular and binocular state, with and without two different types of masks. The results show that monocularity causes an average loss of 23 degrees in the nasal meridian. The use of the masks did not affect this difference. Also, the masks caused an average loss of 28 degrees of peripheral vision in the inferior meridian. How these losses affect the ability of the users of the masks to perform their essential job functions still needs to be researched. PMID:12708146

  18. 46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL. 31.10-18 Section 31.10-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18 Firefighting equipment: General—TB/ALL. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge of a...

  19. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

    2000-05-01

    From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

  20. Validity and relevance of the pack hike wildland firefighter work capacity test: a review.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Aaron; Payne, Warren; Phillips, Matthew; Netto, Kevin; Nichols, David; Aisbett, Brad

    2010-10-01

    Fighting wildland fire is a physically demanding occupation. Wildland firefighters need to be physically fit to work safely and productively. To determine whether personnel are fit for duty, many firefighting agencies employ physical competency tests, such as the pack hike test (PHT). The PHT involves a 4.83-km hike over level terrain carrying a 20.4-kg pack within a 45-min period. The PHT was devised to test the job readiness of US wildland firefighters but is also currently used by some fire agencies in Australia and Canada. This review discusses the history and development of the PHT with emphasis on the process of test validation. Research-based training advice for the PHT is given, as well as discussion of the risks associated with completing the PHT. Different versions and modifications to the PHT have emerged in recent years and these are discussed with regard to their validity. Finally, this review addresses the relevance and validity of the PHT for Australian and Canadian wildland firefighters. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews the history, development and validity of the PHT, an internationally recognised and utilised wildland firefighter work capacity test. It is concluded that while the PHT has general content validity for US wildland firefighters, verification of its reliability, criterion and construct validity is still needed. PMID:20865610

  1. The effect of pre-warming on performance during simulated firefighting exercise.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Mol, Eric; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the effect of active pre-warming on speed and quality of performance during simulated firefighting exercise. Twelve male firefighters performed two trials in counterbalanced order. They were either pre-warmed by 20-min cycling at 1.5 Watt kg(-)(1) body mass (WARM) or remained thermoneutral (CON) prior to a simulated firefighting activity. After the pre-warming, gastrointestinal temperature (P < 0.001), skin temperature (P = 0.002), and heart rate (P < 0.001) were higher in WARM than in CON. During the firefighting activity, rating of perceived exertion, thermal sensation and discomfort were higher for WARM than for CON. Finish time of the firefighting activity was similar, but the last task of the activity was completed slower in WARM than in CON (P = 0.04). In WARM, self-reported performance quality was lower than in CON (P = 0.04). It is concluded that pre-warming reduces the speed during the last part of simulated firefighting activity and reduces self-reported quality of performance. PMID:24816137

  2. Life-saving uncooled IR camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Mel V.; Matthews, Iain

    1996-06-01

    A recent description by a firefighter on the experience of entering a building that is on fire was to liken it to being blindfolded, then being lead to a maze and told there is a victim at the center which you have to recover. In simple terms, firefighters are totally blind and what they need are 'eyes' that can see in the dark and through dense smoke. The development of lightweight thermal cameras using uncooled IR staring arrays and a helmet mounted display has now given the firefighter the 'eyes' in such situations which means less time to achieve a rescue and enhanced personal safety for the firefighter. This paper gives details on the development of the uncooled array camera and how it's been configured to withstand the extreme temperature conditions encountered during a firefighting environment. Also, how the camera and display system have been designed to provide the firefighter with a helmet mounted configuration to enable total 'hands free' operation. This is followed by a description of the special tests required to prove that the complete system can survive in a fire environment and finally a short video which demonstrates how the system performs in real life situations.

  3. Excretion of arsenic (As) in urine of children, 7-11 years, exposed to elevated levels of As in the city water supply in Hermosillo, Sonora, México.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, C J; Lopez Quiroga, V; Olivas Acosta, R T; Olivia Méndez, R

    1998-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is a common element in the environment with many industrial uses, but it also can be a contaminant in drinking water and present serious health concerns. Earlier studies on the quality of drinking water in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, México, showed high levels of As (> 0.05 ppm) in water from wells located in the northern part of the city. Additionally a high positive correlation between the levels of Fluoride (F) and As in the same wells was found. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the excretion of As in children, 7-11 years of age, that had been exposed to elevated levels of As in their drinking water. Twenty-four-hour urine samples and a water sample taken directly in the home were collected from school age children living in two different areas with known high levels of As in their drinking water. A control group with normal levels of As in their water was also included. As was determined by an atomic absorption-hydride generator, verified with the use of NBS certified standards (SRM 1643a and SRM 2670). None of the water samples exceeded the limit established for drinking water; however, there was a significant difference between the intake of As and the As in drinking water among the three areas of the study. Average As in water was 0.009 +/- 0.002 and 0.030 +/- 0.011 micrograms/ml between the control and high areas. Intake (in micrograms/day) was 15 +/- 3 and 54 +/- 18. In the group consuming water with high levels of As, 65% of the children exceeded the recommended dose of < 1 micrograms/kg/day (EPA, 1988). Several children in this study also had high levels of As in their urine. Even though As levels in the drinking water are within the norms, it appears that children exposed to high levels of As in their drinking water may have a health risk. PMID:9630441

  4. High work output combined with high ambient temperatures caused heat exhaustion in a wildland firefighter despite high fluid intake.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this case study is to examine the physiological/behavioral factors leading up to heat exhaustion in a male wildland firefighter during wildland fire suppression. The participant (24 years old, 173 cm, 70 kg, and 3 years firefighting experience) experienced heat exhaustion following 7 hours of high ambient temperatures and arduous work on the fire line during the month of August. At the time of the heat-related incident (HRI), core temperature was 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) and skin temperature was 34.4 °C (93.9 °F). His work output averaged 1067 counts·min(-1) (arbitrary units for measuring activity) for the 7 hours prior to the HRI, a very high rate of work over an extended time period during wildfire suppression. In the 2.5 hours leading up to the heat incident, he was exposed to a mean ambient temperature of 44.6 °C (112.3 °F), with a maximum temperature of 59.7 °C (139.5 °F). He consumed an average of 840 mL·h(-1) in the 7 hours leading up to the incident and took an average of 24 ± 11 drinks·h(-1) (total of 170 drinks). The combined effects of a high work rate and high ambient temperatures resulted in an elevated core temperature and a higher volume and frequency of drinking than typically seen in this population, ultimately ending in heat exhaustion and removal from the fire line. The data demonstrate that heat-related incidents can occur even with aggressive fluid intake during wildland fire suppression. PMID:21664560

  5. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  6. Mitigation and prevention of exertional heat stress in firefighters: a review of cooling strategies for structural firefighting and hazardous materials responders.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

    2013-01-01

    Most duties performed by firefighters require the use of personal protective equipment, which inhibits normal thermoregulation during exertion, creating an uncompensable heat stress. Structured rest periods are required to correct the effects of uncompensable heat stress and ensure that firefighter safety is maintained and that operations can be continued until their conclusion. While considerable work has been done to optimize firefighter cooling during fireground operations, there is little consensus on when or how cooling should be deployed. A systematic review of cooling techniques and practices among firefighters and hazardous materials operators was conducted to describe the state of the science and provide recommendations for deploying resources for fireground rehab (i.e., structured rest periods during an incident). Five electronic databases were searched using a selected combination of key words. One hundred forty publications were found in the initial search, with 27 meeting all the inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers performed a qualitative assessment of each article based on nine specific questions. From the selected literature, the efficacy of multiple cooling strategies was compared during exertion and immediately following exertion under varying environmental conditions. When considering the literature available for cooling firefighters and hazardous materials technicians during emergency incident rehabilitation, widespread use of cooling devices does not appear to be warranted if ambient temperature and humidity approximate room temperature and protective garments can be removed. When emergency incident rehabilitation must be conducted in hot or humid conditions, active cooling devices are needed. Hand/forearm immersion is likely the best modality for cooling during rehab under hot, humid conditions; however, this therapy has a number of limitations. Cooling during work thus far has been limited primarily to cooling vests and liquid- or

  7. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Clare C.W.; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; McManus, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters in Hong Kong. Methods Male firefighters (n = 387) were randomly selected from serving firefighters in Hong Kong (n = 5,370) for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, known cardiovascular diseases). One-third (Target Group) were randomly selected for the assessment of off-duty leisure-time physical activity using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed, as well as cardiovascular workload using heart rate monitoring for each firefighter for four “normal” 24-hour working shifts and during real-situation simulated scenarios. Results Overall, 33.9% of the firefighters had at least two cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the Target Group, firefighters who had higher leisure-time physical activity had a lower resting heart rate and a lower average working heart rate, and spent a smaller proportion of time working at a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workload. Firefighters who had moderate aerobic fitness and high leisure-time physical activity had a lower peak working heart rate during the mountain rescue scenario compared with firefighters who had low leisure-time physical activities. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity conferred significant benefits during job tasks of moderate cardiovascular workload in firefighters in Hong Kong. PMID:26929827

  8. 18. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED STEEL FRAMING OF WATERFRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED STEEL FRAMING OF WATERFRONT ELEVATION - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  9. Common Sleep Disorders Increase Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes and Adverse Health Outcomes in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.; Wang, Wei; O'Brien, Conor S.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Qadri, Salim; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Heart attacks and motor vehicle crashes are the leading causes of death in US firefighters. Given that sleep disorders are an independent risk factor for both of these, we examined the prevalence of common sleep disorders in a national sample of firefighters and their association with adverse health and safety outcomes. Methods: Firefighters (n = 6,933) from 66 US fire departments were assessed for common sleep disorders using validated screening tools, as available. Firefighters were also surveyed about health and safety, and documentation was collected for reported motor vehicle crashes. Results: A total of 37.2% of firefighters screened positive for any sleep disorder including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 28.4%; insomnia, 6.0%; shift work disorder, 9.1%; and restless legs syndrome, 3.4%. Compared with those who did not screen positive, firefighters who screened positive for a sleep disorder were more likely to report a motor vehicle crash (adjusted odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.29–3.12, p = 0.0021) and were more likely to self-report falling asleep while driving (2.41, 2.06–2.82, p < 0.0001). Firefighters who screened positive for a sleep disorder were more likely to report having cardiovascular disease (2.37, 1.54–3.66, p < 0.0001), diabetes (1.91, 1.31–2.81, p = 0.0009), depression (3.10, 2.49–3.85, p < 0.0001), and anxiety (3.81, 2.87–5.05, p < 0.0001), and to report poorer health status (p < 0.0001) than those who did not screen positive. Adverse health and safety associations persisted when OSA and non-OSA sleep disorders were examined separately. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are prevalent in firefighters and are associated with increased risk of adverse health and safety outcomes. Future research is needed to assess the efficacy of occupational sleep disorders prevention, screening, and treatment programs in fire departments to reduce these safety and health risks. Citation: Barger LK, Rajaratnam SM, Wang W, O'Brien CS

  10. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of VO2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (≤ 12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ≤ 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The VO2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance. PMID:26691405

  11. Effects of simulated firefighting on the responses of salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and psychological variables.

    PubMed

    Perroni, F; Tessitore, A; Cibelli, G; Lupo, C; D'Artibale, E; Cortis, C; Cignitti, L; De Rosas, M; Capranica, L

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simulated firefighting intervention on salivary alpha-amylase (sA-A), free cortisol (sC), anxiety (STAI), and profile of mood states (POMS) in 20 male firefighters (age 32 +/- 1 years, VO(2peak): 43 +/- 5 ml/kg per min). During the 12-min firefighting intervention (ambient temperature: 13 +/- 1 degrees C; relative humidity: 63 +/- 1%), individuals spent 63 +/- 28% of the time working at heart rate (HR) >85% of individual HR(max), [La] (peak) 9.2 +/- 2.9 mM and ratings of perceived exertion 16 +/- 2. At 30 min post-intervention significant (p < 0.001) increases in sA-A (174%) and sC (109%) were found with regard to values recorded before and after 90 min of the firefighting intervention. Since no differences emerged between pre-intervention and post intervention for STAI and POMS values, the hormonal changes were attributable to the intense physical stress of the simulated intervention. Further research is needed during real firefighting activities, where high emotional stress may also be present. PMID:19401900

  12. Association between resiliency and posttraumatic growth in firefighters: the role of stress appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina; Kobylarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the relation between resiliency and the level of positive changes, comprising posttraumatic growth in a group of firefighters experiencing job-related traumatic events and the mediating role of stress appraisal in this relation. The study was performed on a group of 100 firefighters from firefighting and rescue brigades, out of which 75 admitted to experiencing a traumatic event. Firefighters covered by the study were on average 31.51 years old (SD = 6.34). A Polish version of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Resiliency Assessment Scale and Stress Appraisal Questionnaire were used in the study. The results have shown that 22.7% of firefighters displayed low, 58.6% average and 18.7% high intensity of positive changes resulting from a traumatic event. Resiliency poorly correlates with posttraumatic growth expressed in changes in self-perception, and strongly correlates with stress appraisal, negatively correlates with threat and harm/loss and positively correlates with challenge. Appraisal of stress as a threat and challenge appeared to be mediators of the relationship between resiliency and posttraumatic growth. PMID:26651530

  13. Association between resiliency and posttraumatic growth in firefighters: the role of stress appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina; Kobylarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the relation between resiliency and the level of positive changes, comprising posttraumatic growth in a group of firefighters experiencing job-related traumatic events and the mediating role of stress appraisal in this relation. The study was performed on a group of 100 firefighters from firefighting and rescue brigades, out of which 75 admitted to experiencing a traumatic event. Firefighters covered by the study were on average 31.51 years old (SD = 6.34). A Polish version of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Resiliency Assessment Scale and Stress Appraisal Questionnaire were used in the study. The results have shown that 22.7% of firefighters displayed low, 58.6% average and 18.7% high intensity of positive changes resulting from a traumatic event. Resiliency poorly correlates with posttraumatic growth expressed in changes in self-perception, and strongly correlates with stress appraisal, negatively correlates with threat and harm/loss and positively correlates with challenge. Appraisal of stress as a threat and challenge appeared to be mediators of the relationship between resiliency and posttraumatic growth. PMID:26651530

  14. Aviation-Related Wildland Firefighter Fatalities--United States, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Butler, Corey R; O'Connor, Mary B; Lincoln, Jennifer M

    2015-07-31

    Airplanes and helicopters are integral to the management and suppression of wildfires, often operating in high-risk, low-altitude environments. To update data on aviation-related wildland firefighting fatalities, identify risk factors, and make recommendations for improved safety, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed reports from multiple data sources for the period 2000-2013. Among 298 wildland firefighter fatalities identified during 2000-2013, 78 (26.2%) were aviation-related occupational fatalities that occurred during 41 separate events involving 42 aircraft. Aircraft crashes accounted for 38 events. Pilots, copilots, and flight engineers represented 53 (68%) of the aviation-related fatalities. The leading causes of fatal aircraft crashes were engine, structure, or component failure (24%); pilot loss of control (24%); failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water, or objects (20%); and hazardous weather (15%). To reduce fatalities from aviation-related wildland firefighting activities, stringent safety guidelines need to be followed during all phases of firefighting, including training exercises. Crew resource management techniques, which use all available resources, information, equipment, and personnel to achieve safe and efficient flight operations, can be applied to firefighting operations. PMID:26225477

  15. Exposures to environmental phenols in Southern California firefighters and findings of elevated urinary benzophenone-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Jed M; Gavin, Qi; Anderson, Meredith; Hoover, Sara; Alvaran, Josephine; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Fenster, Laura; Wu, Nerissa T; Krowech, Gail; Plummer, Laurel; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; She, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for exposure to toxic chemicals compared to the general population, but few studies of this occupational group have included biomonitoring. We measured selected phenolic chemicals in urine collected from 101 Southern California firefighters. The analytes included bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and parabens, which are common ingredients in a range of consumer products. BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben were detected in almost all study subjects (94-100%). The BP-3 geometric mean for firefighters was approximately five times higher than for a comparable National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) subgroup. Demographic and exposure data were collected from medical records and via a questionnaire, and covariates were examined to assess associations with BP-3 levels. BP-3 levels were elevated across all firefighter age groups, with the highest levels observed in the 35 to 39year old group. Body fat percentage had a significant inverse association with BP-3 concentrations. Our results indicate pervasive exposure to BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben in this population of firefighters, consistent with studies of other populations. Further research is needed to investigate possible explanations for the higher observed BP-3 levels, such as occupational or California-specific exposures. PMID:26821331

  16. Fatigue risk management by volunteer fire-fighters: Use of informal strategies to augment formal policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Drew; Mayger, Katherine; Thomas, Matthew J W; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number and intensity of catastrophic fire events in Australia has led to increasing demands on a mainly volunteer fire-fighting workforce. Despite the increasing likelihood of fatigue in the emergency services environment, there is not yet a systematic, unified approach to fatigue management in fire agencies across Australia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify informal strategies used in volunteer fire-fighting and examine how these strategies are transmitted across the workforce. Thirty experienced Australian volunteer fire-fighters were interviewed in August 2010. The study identified informal fatigue-management behaviours at the individual, team and brigade level that have evolved in fire-fighting environments and are regularly implemented. However, their purpose was not explicitly recognized as such. This apparent paradox - that fatigue proofing behaviours exist but that they are not openly understood as such - may well resolve a potential conflict between a culture of indefatigability in the emergency services sector and the frequent need to operate safely while fatigued. However, formal controls require fire-fighters and their organisations to acknowledge and accept their vulnerability. This suggests two important areas in which to improve formal fatigue risk management in the emergency services sector: (1) identifying and formalising tacit or informal fatigue coping strategies as legitimate elements of the fatigue risk management system; and (2) developing culturally appropriate techniques for systematically communicating fatigue levels to self and others. PMID:26322733

  17. 77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures for Composite Multi-Gas and Particulate Protection and Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting... with Composite Protection for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations; Notice of Testing and...

  18. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  19. Injuries and illnesses among New York City Fire Department rescue workers after responding to the World Trade Center attacks.

    PubMed

    2002-09-11

    Within minutes of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) operated a continuous rescue/recovery effort at the World Trade Center (WTC) site. Medical officers of FDNY Bureau of Health Services (FDNY-BHS) responded to provide emergency medical services (see box). The collapse of the WTC towers and several adjacent structures resulted in a vast, physically dangerous disaster zone. The height of the WTC towers produced extraordinary forces during their collapse, pulverizing considerable portions of the buildings' structural components and exposing first responders and civilians to substantial amounts of airborne particulate matter. Fires burned continuously under the debris until mid-December 2001. Because of ongoing fire activity and the large numbers of civilians and rescue workers who were killed during the attacks, approximately 11,000 FDNY firefighters and many emergency medical service (EMS) personnel worked on or directly adjacent to the rubble and incurred substantial exposures (Figure). This report describes morbidity and mortality in FDNY rescue workers during the 11-month period after the WTC attacks and documents a substantial increase in respiratory and stress-related illness compared with the time period before the WTC attacks. These findings demonstrate the need to provide acute and long-term medical monitoring, treatment, and counseling to FDNY rescue workers exposed to this disaster and to solve supply, compliance, and supervision problems so that respiratory protection can be rapidly provided at future disasters. PMID:12238534

  20. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakié; Hostler, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status, and task performance was analyzed. There was an effect of equipment and training status on performance with the group reporting both aerobic and resistance training performing better than the group reporting no physical training. In conclusion, firefighters walk more slowly as a strategy to maintain balance when wearing TPC, which may be suboptimal given the emergent nature of fire suppression. This result was most prominent in the group reporting no physical training. PMID:23367817

  1. Dietary Preferences and Nutritional Information Needs Among Career Firefighters in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable cardiovascular disease and cancer risk among firefighters are attributable to excess adiposity. Robust evidence confirms strong relationships between dietary patterns and the risk of chronic disease. Dietary modification is more likely to be effective when the strategy is appealing and addresses knowledge gaps. Objective: To assess career firefighters' diet practices and information needs, compare the relative appeal of proposed diet plans, and examine how these vary in association with body composition. Methods: Cross-sectional, online survey distributed to members of the International Association of Fire Fighters. Results: Most firefighters do not currently follow any specific dietary plan (71%) and feel that they receive insufficient nutrition information (68%), but most are interested in learning more about healthy eating (75%). When presented with written descriptions of diets without names or labels and asked to rank them in order of preference, firefighters most often rated the Mediterranean diet as their favorite and gave it a more favorable distribution of relative rankings (P<.001) compared to the Paleo, Atkins, Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes, and Esselsteyn Engine 2 (low-fat, strictly plant-based) diets. Obese respondents reported more limited nutritional knowledge (P<.001) and were more likely to feel that they received insufficient nutritional information (P=.021) than participants with normal body weight. Conclusions: Most career firefighters are overweight or obese and do not practice a specific diet; however, 75% want to learn more about healthy eating. Among popular dietary choices, firefighters were most receptive to a Mediterranean diet and least receptive to a strictly plant-based diet. PMID:26331100

  2. Double Jeopardy: Hearing Loss and Tinnitus Among Noise-Exposed Workers.

    PubMed

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Phelps, Stephanie; Joo, Yoonmee

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus and assess the relationship between tinnitus and hearing loss among firefighters and operating engineers, who are exposed to noise on-the-job. The study analyzed existing data from two different populations (154 firefighters and 769 operating engineers) who completed a survey and audiometric tests as part of a hearing loss prevention intervention study. Approximately 40% of both groups reported tinnitus; 34% of firefighters and 59% of operating engineers showed hearing loss at noise-sensitive frequencies (4 kHz and 6 kHz). Firefighters with high frequency hearing loss (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.05, 5.11]) and those with perceived impaired hearing status (OR = 3.53; 95% CI = [1.27, 9.80]) were significantly more likely to report tinnitus. Similarly, operating engineers who had hearing loss at both low (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = [1.40, 3.15]) and high frequencies (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = [1.37, 2.90]), and perceived impaired hearing status (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = [1.55, 3.05]) were twice as likely to report tinnitus. This study demonstrated that tinnitus is a considerable problem for noise-exposed workers. Workers with hearing loss demonstrated significantly higher rates of tinnitus. Comprehensive workplace hearing conservation programs should include tinnitus management for noise-exposed workers, along with other key elements such as noise control and hearing protection. PMID:26968456

  3. The Prevalence of Clinical and Electrocardiographic Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Death among On-Duty Professional Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zaiti, Salah S.; Carey, Mary G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Firefighters have twice as many cardiovascular deaths as police officers and four times as many as emergency medical responders. The etiology for this high prevalence remains unknown. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used tool to screen populations at risk, but yet there are no available on-duty, high-resolution electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings. Objective We sought to evaluate the prevalence of clinical and ECG risk factors among on-duty professional firefighters during 12-lead ECG holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. Methods Firefighters were recruited from Surveying and Assessing Firefighters Fitness and ECG (SAFFE) study. This descriptive study recruited firefighters from 7 firehouses across Western New York area, who all completed on-duty, 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and a standard exercise stress test. All analyses were completed by a reviewer blinded to all clinical data. Results 112 firefighters (age 44±8 years, mostly white males) completed the study. Even though all firefighters were in normal sinus rhythm, over half of them had at least one high risk ECG risk factor present, including abnormal sympathetic tone (elevated heart rate, 54%), abnormal repolarization (wide QRS-T angle, 25%), myocardial scaring (fragmented QRS, 24%), and myocardial ischemia (ST depression, 24%). In addition, most firefighters tolerated the treadmill exercise stress test well (metabolic equivalent tasks 11.8+2.5), however, almost one third had abnormal stress tests that require further evaluation to rule out subclinical coronary artery disease. Conclusion Among on-duty professional firefighters, high risk ECG markers of fatal cardiac events and abnormal stress test results that warrant further evaluation are prevalent. Annual physical checkups with routine 12-lead ECG can identify those who might benefit from preventive cardiovascular services. PMID:24874885

  4. Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

    In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems are running…

  5. Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part B. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

    A course designed to develop performance capabilities in the student of the fire service is presented in a manual. Each chapter is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the material covered in class. Specific objectives are: (1) To train "Support Assistant" B personnel to augment and assist firefighters, (2) To train personnel to…

  6. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. 291.530 Section 291.530 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  7. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil'' (73 FR 80618). This final rule amended... Response Plans for Oil AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information collection approval. SUMMARY: On... requirements for tank vessels carrying oil. The amendment triggered information collection...

  8. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

  9. Mediating Effects of Social Support on Firefighters' Sense of Community and Perceptions of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowman, Shaun E.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Liao-Troth, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychological sense of community, social-support networks, and care-giver stress and satisfaction among firefighters. No significant gender differences were obtained, but zero-order correlates demonstrated significant relationships among all four variables. In examining the mediating effects of…

  10. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource provider(s) is capable of providing the services within the required timeframes. (1) If your vessel is at the... 155.4030(b) apply as listed. (2) If your vessel is at the pier or transiting a COTP zone outside...

  11. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource provider(s) is capable of providing the services within the required timeframes. (1) If your vessel is at the... 155.4030(b) apply as listed. (2) If your vessel is at the pier or transiting a COTP zone outside...

  12. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... firefighting service. (a) You must ensure, by contract or other approved means, that your resource provider(s) is capable of providing the services within the required timeframes. (1) If your vessel is at the... 155.4030(b) apply as listed. (2) If your vessel is at the pier or transiting a COTP zone outside...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Waterlines shall be capable of delivering 50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds per... Agriculture Forest Service Specification 182 for mildew resistance. The water pressure at the hose nozzle... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment....

  14. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Waterlines shall be capable of delivering 50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds per... Agriculture Forest Service Specification 182 for mildew resistance. The water pressure at the hose nozzle... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment....

  15. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). II. Background and Interim Voluntary Guidance The Report of Investigation... SECURITY Coast Guard Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore...-fighting equipment, training, and drills onboard manned offshore facilities and MODUs operating on the...

  16. The support system of the firefighter's activity by detecting objects in smoke space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Masaki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Takagi, Mikio

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, crisis management's response to terrorist attacks and natural disasters, as well as accelerating rescue operations has become an important issue. We aim to make a support system for firefighters using the application of various engineering techniques such as information technology and radar technology. In rescue operations, one of the biggest problems is that the view of firefighters is obstructed by dense smoke. One of the current measures against this condition is the use of search sticks, like a blind man walking in town. The most important task for firefighters is to understand inside situation of a space with dense smoke. Therefore, our system supports firefighters' activity by visualizing the space with dense smoke. First, we scan target space with dense smoke by using millimeter-wave radar combined with a gyro sensor. Then multiple directional scan data can be obtained, and we construct a 3D map from high-reflection point dataset using 3D image processing technologies (3D grouping and labeling processing). In this paper, we introduce our system and report the results of the experiment in the real smoke space situation and practical achievements.

  17. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77.1108-1 Section 77.1108-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS...

  18. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS General Provisions; Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations...

  19. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS General Provisions; Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations...

  20. STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  1. Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer-Mediated Firefighter Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkamp, Joske M.; Toet, Alexander; Bos, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently intense to make the training viable and effective.…

  2. Evaluation of Firefighter Exposure to Wood Smoke during Training Exercises at Burn Houses.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Shaw, Lorraine; Shaw, Don; Gallea, Michael; VandenEnden, Lori; House, Ron; Verma, Dave K; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; McCarry, Brian E

    2016-02-01

    Smoke from wood-fueled fires is one of the most common hazards encountered by firefighters worldwide. Wood smoke is complex in nature and contains numerous compounds, including methoxyphenols (MPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. Chronic exposure to wood smoke can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory infections, impaired lung function, cardiac infarctions, and cancers. At training exercises held in burn houses at four fire departments across Ontario, air samples, skin wipes, and urine specimens from a cohort of firefighters (n = 28) were collected prior to and after exposure. Wood was the primary fuel used in these training exercises. Air samples showed that MP concentrations were on average 5-fold greater than those of PAHs. Skin wipe samples acquired from multiple body sites of firefighters indicated whole-body smoke exposure. A suite of MPs (methyl-, ethyl-, and propylsyringol) and deconjugated PAH metabolites (hydroxynaphthalene, hydroxyfluorene, hydroxyphenanthrene, and their isomers) were found to be sensitive markers of smoke exposure in urine. Creatinine-normalized levels of these markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in 24 h postexposure urine despite large between-subject variations that were dependent on the specific operational roles of firefighters while using personal protective equipment. This work offers deeper insight into potential health risk from smoke exposure that is needed for translation of better mitigation policies, including improved equipment to reduce direct skin absorption and standardized hygiene practices implemented at different regional fire services. PMID:26726952

  3. Race "Outsider Within" the Firehouse: African American and White Women Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Berendsen, Lynne L.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed and interviewed black and white women firefighters regarding subordination through imposed exclusion, tokenism, and omnirelevance of race/ethnicity in their perceptions of work experience. Both groups experienced insufficient instruction, hostility, silence, hypersupervision, insufficient support, stereotyping, and intertwining of race…

  4. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  5. 77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... 3206-AM66 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters AGENCY: Office of... (OPM) is issuing an interim final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHB... health benefits plan under the FEHB. DATES: This rule is effective July 17, 2012. OPM must...

  6. Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

  7. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk. PMID:20582769

  8. A test of the interpersonal theory of suicide in a large sample of current firefighters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-30

    Recent research suggests that firefighters experience elevated rates of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The interpersonal theory of suicide may shed light on this finding. This theory postulates that suicidal desire is strongest among individuals experiencing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and that the combination of suicide desire and acquired capability for suicide is necessary for the development of suicidal behaviors. We tested the propositions of the interpersonal theory in a large sample of current United States firefighters (N=863). Participants completed self-report measures of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death (FAD; a component of acquired capability), and career suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history. Regression models were used to examine the association between interpersonal theory constructs, career suicidal ideation severity, and the presence of career suicide attempts. In line with theory predictions, the three-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and FAD was significantly associated with career suicide attempts, beyond participant sex. However, findings were no longer significant after accounting for years of firefighter service or age. Contrary to predictions, the two-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was not significantly related to career suicidal ideation severity. Applications of the theory to firefighters and future research are discussed. PMID:27078756

  9. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

  10. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that... District Manager of the Coal Mine Safety and Health district in which the mine is located. Within 30...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that... District Manager of the Coal Mine Safety and Health district in which the mine is located. Within 30...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that... District Manager of the Coal Mine Safety and Health district in which the mine is located. Within 30...

  14. The Integrated Personnel Development System: The Training and Development of Competent Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Peter; Starling, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article enquires into the nature of an emergent continuous professional development (CPD) mechanism for firefighters in the form of an Integrated Personnel Development System (IPDS), which proposes to base future training for every rank in the service on the acquisition and demonstration of competence for role. IPDS is due to be introduced…

  15. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting... firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465, the DoD is prohibited for entering into... contracts on October 1, 2006. (D) For fiscal year 2010, the number equal to 70 percent of the total...

  16. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations...

  17. Pack hike test finishing time for Australian firefighters: pass rates and correlates of performance.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M; Petersen, A; Abbiss, C R; Netto, K; Payne, W; Nichols, D; Aisbett, B

    2011-03-01

    The pack hike test (PHT, 4.83 km hike wearing a 20.4-kg load) was devised to determine the job readiness of USA wildland firefighters. This study measured PHT performance in a sample of Australian firefighters who currently perform the PHT (career land management firefighters, LMFF) and those who do not (suburban/regional volunteer firefighters, VFF). The study also investigated the relationships between firefighters' PHT performance and their performance across a range of fitness tests for both groups. Twenty LMFF and eighteen age-, body mass-, and height-matched VFF attempted the PHT, and a series of muscular endurance, power, strength and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. Bivariate correlations between the participants' PHT finishing time and their performance in a suite of different fitness tests were determined using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. The mean PHT finishing time for LMFF (42.2 ± 2.8 min) was 9 ± 14% faster (p = 0.001) than for VFF (46.1 ± 3.6 min). The pass rate (the percentage of participants who completed the PHT in under 45 min) for LMFF (90%) was greater than that of VFF (39%, p = 0.001). For LMFF, VO(2peak) in L min(-1)(r = -0.66, p = 0.001) and the duration they could sustain a grip 'force' of 25 kg (r = -0.69, p = 0.001) were strongly correlated with PHT finishing time. For VFF, VO(2peak) in mL kg(-1) min(-1)(r = -0.75, p = 0.002) and the duration they could hold a 1.2-m bar attached to 45.5 kg in a 'hose spray position' (r = -0.69, p = 0.004) were strongly correlated with PHT finishing time. This study shows that PHT fitness-screening could severely limit the number of VFF eligible for duty, compromising workforce numbers and highlights the need for specific and valid firefighter fitness standards. The results also demonstrate the strong relationships between PHT performance and firefighters' cardiorespiratory fitness and local muscular endurance. Those preparing for the PHT should focus their training on these fitness

  18. Systemic Exposure to PAHs and Benzene in Firefighters Suppressing Controlled Structure Fires

    PubMed Central

    Fent, Kenneth W.; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D.; Stiegel, Matthew A.; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P.; Dalton, James

    2014-01-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre

  19. Evaluation of a fitness intervention for new firefighters: injury reduction and economic benefits

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Stephanie C; Regan, Tracy L; Harber, Philip; Lutz, Eric A; Hu, Chengcheng; Peate, Wayne F; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2016-01-01

    Background Firefighting is a hazardous profession and firefighters suffer workplace injury at a higher rate than most US workers. Decreased physical fitness is associated with injury in firefighters. A physical fitness intervention was implemented among Tucson Fire Department recruit firefighters with the goals of decreasing injury and compensation claims frequency and costs during the recruit academy, and over the subsequent probationary year. Methods Department injury records were analysed and described by body part, injury type and mechanism of injury. Injury and workers’ compensation claims outcomes from the recruit academy initiation through the 12-month probationary period for the intervention recruit class were compared with controls from three historical classes. Results The majority of injuries were sprains and strains (65.4%), the most common mechanism of injury was acute overexertion (67.9%) and the lower extremity was the most commonly affected body region (61.7%). The intervention class experienced significantly fewer injuries overall and during the probationary year (p=0.009), filed fewer claims (p=0.028) and experienced claims cost savings of approximately US$33 000 (2013) from avoided injury and reduced claims costs. The estimated costs for programme implementation were $32 192 leading to a 1-year return on investment of 2.4%. Conclusions We observed reductions in injury occurrence and compensation costs among Probationary Firefighter Fitness (PFF-Fit) programme participants compared with historical controls. The initiation of the PFF-Fit programme has demonstrated promise in reducing injury and claims costs; however, continued research is needed to better understand the programme's potential effectiveness with additional recruit classes and carryover effects into the recruit's career injury potential. PMID:26559144

  20. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the

  1. Assessing the risk to firefighters from chemical vapors and gases during vehicle fire suppression.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E

    2011-03-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of vehicle fires, very few studies investigating firefighters' potential inhalation exposures during vehicle fire suppression have been conducted. In this paper, we present an assessment of firefighters' health risk from vehicle fire suppression that accounts for the mixture of gases and vapors likely to be found in these fires. Summa canisters were used to collect emissions from the engine and cabin fires of a single vehicle and were analyzed for 75 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Firefighters' breathing zone concentrations (BZCs) of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, isocyanates, and carbon monoxide were measured during the suppression of three vehicle fires. The Summa canister and BZC data were used to develop a simple model for predicting BZCs for the compounds that were not measured in the firefighters' breathing zones. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated by dividing the predicted and measured BZCs by the most conservative short-term exposure limits (STELs) or ceiling limits. Hazard indices (HIs) were determined by adding HQs for compounds grouped by the target organ for acute health effects. Any HIs above unity represented unacceptable risks. According to this mixture analysis, the estimated 95(th) percentile of the exposure distribution for the study population represents ≥ 9.2 times the acceptable level of risk to the respiratory tract and eyes. Furthermore, chemicals known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens contributed to > 45% of these HIs. While STELs are not usually based on carcinogenicity, maintaining exposures below STELs may protect individuals from the biological stress that could result from short-term exposures to carcinogens over time. Although vehicle fires are suppressed quickly (<10 min), this assessment suggests that firefighters have the potential to be overexposed to acute toxins during vehicle fire suppression and should therefore wear self-contained breathing apparatus at all times

  2. Acute Psychophysiological Relationships Between Mood, Inflammatory and Cortisol Changes in Response to Simulated Physical Firefighting Work and Sleep Restriction.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad; Reynolds, John; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined how changes in wildland firefighters' mood relate to cytokine and cortisol levels in response to simulated physical firefighting work and sleep restriction. Firefighters completed 3 days of simulated wildfire suppression work separated by an 8-h (control condition; n = 18) or 4-h sleep opportunity (sleep restriction condition; n = 17) each night. Firefighters' mood was assessed daily using the Mood Scale II and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale. Participants also provided samples for the determination of salivary cortisol and pro- (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine levels. An increase in the positive mood dimension Happiness was related to a rise in IL-8 and TNF-α in the sleep restriction condition. A rise in the positive mood dimension Activation among sleep restricted firefighters was also related to higher IL-6 levels. An increase in the negative mood dimension Fatigue in the sleep restriction condition was associated with increased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and cortisol levels. In addition, an increase in Fear among sleep restricted firefighters was associated with a rise in TNF-α. Elevated positive mood and immune activation may reflect an appropriate response by the firefighters to these stressors. To further understand this relationship, subsequent firefighting-based research is needed that investigates whether immune changes are a function of affective arousal linked to the expression of positive moods. Positive associations between negative mood and inflammatory and cortisol levels to physical work and restricted sleep provide useful information to fire agencies about subjective fire-ground indicators of physiological changes. PMID:26698865

  3. The Impact of Sleep Restriction and Simulated Physical Firefighting Work on Acute Inflammatory Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally A.; Vincent, Grace E.; Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters’ acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Methods Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30) from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10) were measured. Results The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed. Conclusion Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters’ IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights) was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1β and TNF-α, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters’ IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons. PMID:26378783

  4. Do older firefighters show long-term adaptations to work in the heat?

    PubMed

    Wright, Heather E; Larose, Joanie; McLellan, Tom M; Miller, Scott; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    Older experienced firefighters may show signs of heat adaptation, and thus reduced physiological strain, due to repeated occupational heat stress exposure. The aim was to examine physiological and perceptual strain, and hydration, responses to intermittent exercise in the heat in 12 older Non-Firefighter (Non-FF) and experienced Firefighter (FF) males, pair matched for age (Group mean ± SE: Non-FF = 51.7 ± 1.5, FF = 49.8 ± 1.1 years), VO(2peak) (Non-FF = 39.4 ± 2.2, FF = 40.7 ± 1.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), body surface area (Non-FF = 1.94 ± 0.04, FF = 2.03 ± 0.03 m(2)), and percent body fat (Non-FF = 24.4 ± 2.3, FF = 19.3 ± 1.8%). Rectal (Tre) and mean skin (MT(sk)) temperatures, heart rate (HR), local sweat rate (LSR), hydration indices, and ratings of thermal sensation and perceived exertion were measured during 4 ×15-min (rest 15-min) moderate-to-heavy cycling bouts (400 W heat production) in Dry and Humid heat (35°C, ∼20 and ∼60% relative humidity, respectively). No differences were observed between the Non-FF and FF for T(re), T(re) change, MT(sk), HR,% max HR, LSR, physiological strain index (PhSI), or % plasma volume change. Plasma protein concentration was reduced at baseline for the Non-FF (7.6 ± 0.1 g·100 mL(-1)) than FF (8.0 ± 0.1 g·100 mL(-1)). The Perceptual Strain Index overestimated PhSI for Non-FF and FF in both thermal conditions. At the end of exercise, the Non-FF showed a greater Tre difference between thermal conditions (0.27 ± 0.05°C) compared to the FF (0.10 ± 0.09°C). Although the Non-Firefighters and Firefighters demonstrate similar cardiovascular and hydration responses during moderate-to-heavy intensity exercise within each of the thermal conditions, the attenuated thermal effects between the two heat stress conditions in the Firefighters suggests a protective adaptation. PMID:24195537

  5. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  6. A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.

    PubMed

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

  7. Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight (−0.4 ± 4.1, −1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18, 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. PMID:25198061

  8. A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting

    PubMed Central

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Dios, José Ramiro Martínez-de; Baturone, Aníbal Ollero

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

  9. Modeling heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a model of heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during a flash fire exposure is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of coupled heat and moisture transport on the protective performance of the garment. Computational results show the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the fabric during the exposure to the flash fire as well as during the cool-down period. Moreover, the duration of the exposure during which the garment protects the firefighter from getting second and third degree burns from the flash fire exposure is numerically predicted. A complete model for the fire-fabric-air gap-skin system is presented.

  10. Immune and inflammatory responses of Australian firefighters after repeated exposures to the heat.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony; Keene, Toby; Argus, Christos; Driller, Matthew; Guy, Joshua H; Rattray, Ben

    2015-01-01

    When firefighters work in hot conditions, altered immune and inflammatory responses may increase the risk of a cardiac event. The present study aimed to establish the time course of such responses. Forty-two urban firefighters completed a repeat work protocol in a heat chamber (100 ± 5°C). Changes to leukocytes, platelets, TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, LPS and CRP were evaluated immediately post-work and also after 1 and 24 h of rest. Increases in core temperatures were associated with significant increases in leukocytes, platelets and TNFα directly following work. Further, platelets continued to increase at 1 h (+31.2 ± 31.3 × 10(9) l, p < 0.01) and remained elevated at 24 h (+15.9 ± 19.6 × 10(9) l, p < 0.01). Sustained increases in leukocytes and platelets may increase the risk of cardiac events in firefighters when performing repeat work tasks in the heat. This is particularly relevant during multi-day deployments following natural disasters. Practitioner Summary: Firefighters regularly re-enter fire affected buildings or are redeployed to further operational tasks. Should work in the heat lead to sustained immune and inflammatory changes following extended rest periods, incident controllers should plan appropriate work/rest cycles to minimise these changes and any subsequent risks of cardiac events. PMID:26082313

  11. The Association between Sleep Disturbances and Depression among Firefighters: Emotion Dysregulation as an Explanatory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Melanie A.; Stanley, Ian H.; Rogers, Megan L.; Tzoneva, Mirela; Bernert, Rebecca A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate emotion regulation difficulties in association with self-reported insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and depression symptoms in a sample of current and retired firefighters. Methods: A total of 880 current and retired United States firefighters completed a web-based survey of firefighter behavioral health. Self-report measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, PTSD Checklist, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Results: A notable portion of participants reported clinically significant depression symptoms (39.6%) and insomnia symptoms (52.7%), as well as nightmare problems (19.2%), each of which demonstrated a strong association with emotion regulation difficulties (rs = 0.56–0.80). Bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that the indirect effects of overall emotion regulation difficulties were significant both for the relationship between insomnia and depression (95% CI: 0.385–0.566) and nightmares and depression (95% CI: 1.445–2.365). Limited access to emotion regulation strategies emerged as the strongest, significant indirect effect for both relationships (insomnia 95% CI: 0.136–0.335; nightmares 95% CI: 0.887–1.931). Conclusions: Findings extend previous affective neuroscience research by providing evidence that insomnia and nightmares may influence depression symptoms specifically through the pathway of explicit emotion regulation difficulties. Sleep disturbances may impair the ability to access and leverage emotion regulation strategies effectively, thus conferring risk for negative affect and depression. Citation: Hom MA, Stanley IH, Rogers ML, Tzoneva M, Bernert RA, Joiner TE. The association between sleep disturbances and depression among firefighters: emotion dysregulation as an explanatory factor. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):235–245. PMID:26350604

  12. Expanded Access to Naloxone Among Firefighters, Police Officers, and Emergency Medical Technicians in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Corey S.; Ruiz, Sarah; Glynn, Patrick; Picariello, Gerald; Walley, Alexander Y.

    2014-01-01

    Naloxone is a medication that reverses respiratory depression from opioid overdose if given in time. Paramedics routinely administer naloxone to opioid overdose victims in the prehospital setting, and many states are moving to increase access to the medication. Several jurisdictions have expanded naloxone administration authority to nonparamedic first responders, and others are considering that step. We report here on policy change in Massachusetts, where several communities have equipped emergency medical technicians, law enforcement officers, and firefighters with naloxone. PMID:24922133

  13. A practical cooling strategy for reducing the physiological strain associated with firefighting activity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Barr, D; Gregson, W; Sutton, L; Reilly, T

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether a practical cooling strategy reduces the physiological strain during simulated firefighting activity in the heat. On two separate occasions under high ambient temperatures (49.6 +/- 1.8 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) 13 +/- 2%), nine male firefighters wearing protective clothing completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km/h, 7.5% gradient) separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which firefighters were either cooled (cool) via application of an ice vest and hand and forearm water immersion ( approximately 19 degrees C) or remained seated without cooling (control). There was no significant difference between trials in any of the dependent variables during the first bout of exercise. Core body temperature (37.72 +/- 0.34 vs. 38.21 +/- 0.17 degrees C), heart rate (HR) (81 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 17 beats/min) and mean skin temperature (31.22 +/- 1.04 degrees C vs. 33.31 +/- 1 degrees C) were significantly lower following the recovery period in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). Core body temperature remained consistently lower (0.49 +/- 0.02 degrees C; p < 0.01) throughout the second bout of activity in cool compared to control. Mean skin temperature, HR and thermal sensation were significantly lower during bout 2 in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this practical cooling strategy is effective at reducing the physiological strain associated with demanding firefighting activity under high ambient temperatures. PMID:19401892

  14. Creation of a retrospective job-exposure matrix using surrogate measures of exposure for a cohort of US career firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia

    PubMed Central

    Dahm, Matthew M; Bertke, Stephen; Allee, Steve; Daniels, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To construct a cohort-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM) using surrogate metrics of exposure for a cancer study on career firefighters from the Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco Fire Departments. Methods Departmental work history records, along with data on historical annual fire-runs and hours, were collected from 1950 to 2009 and coded into separate databases. These data were used to create a JEM based on standardised job titles and fire apparatus assignments using several surrogate exposure metrics to estimate firefighters’ exposure to the combustion byproducts of fire. The metrics included duration of exposure (cumulative time with a standardised exposed job title and assignment), fire-runs (cumulative events of potential fire exposure) and time at fire (cumulative hours of potential fire exposure). Results The JEM consisted of 2298 unique job titles alongside 16 174 fire apparatus assignments from the three departments, which were collapsed into 15 standardised job titles and 15 standardised job assignments. Correlations were found between fire-runs and time at fires (Pearson coefficient=0.92), duration of exposure and time at fires (Pearson coefficient=0.85), and duration of exposure and fire-runs (Pearson coefficient=0.82). Total misclassification rates were found to be between 16–30% when using duration of employment as an exposure surrogate, which has been traditionally used in most epidemiological studies, compared with using the duration of exposure surrogate metric. Conclusions The constructed JEM successfully differentiated firefighters based on gradient levels of potential exposure to the combustion byproducts of fire using multiple surrogate exposure metrics. PMID:26163543

  15. Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Balilionis, Gytis; Casaru, Catalina; Geary, Colleen; Schumacker, Randall E; Neggers, Yasmin H; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D; Richardson, Mark T; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9 °C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p < 0.05), but there was no difference among the three conditions. Simple reaction time, short-term memory, and retrieval memory did not alter with treatments or repeated evaluations. Reaction accuracy from a math test remained unchanged throughout the experimental period; reaction time from the math test was significantly faster after exposure to the heat (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, exhaustive exercise in the heat severely impacted mood, but minimally impacted cognition. These treatments failed to show ergogenic benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment. PMID:23891504

  16. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 ×more » 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.« less

  17. Physiological parameters monitoring of fire-fighters by means of a wearable wireless sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelios, M.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Chatzistamatis, Panagiotis; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Primentas, Antonios; Kogias, Dimitris; Michailidis, Emmanouel T.; Rangoussi, Maria; Kurşun Bahadir, Senem; Atalay, Özgür; Kalaoğlu, Fatma; Sağlam, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Physiological parameter monitoring may be useful in many different groups of the population, such as infants, elderly people, athletes, soldiers, drivers, fire-fighters, police etc. This can provide a variety of information ranging from health status to operational readiness. In this article, we focus on the case of first responders and specifically fire-fighters. Firefighters can benefit from a physiological monitoring system that is used to extract multiple indications such as the present position, the possible life risk level, the stress level etc. This work presents a wearable wireless sensor network node, based on low cost, commercial-off- the-self (COTS) electronic modules, which can be easily attached on a standard fire-fighters’ uniform. Due to the low frequency wired interface between the selected electronic components, the proposed solution can be used as a basis for a textile system where all wired connections will be implemented by means of conductive yarn routing in the textile structure, while some of the standard sensors can be replaced by textile ones. System architecture is described in detail, while indicative samples of acquired signals are also presented.

  18. Analysis of foot clearance in firefighters during ascent and descent of stairs.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Richard M; Horn, Gavin P; Rosengren, Karl S; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls are a leading cause of injury to firefighters with many injuries occurring while traversing stairs, possibly exaggerated by acute fatigue from firefighting activities and/or asymmetric load carriage. This study examined the effects that fatigue, induced by simulated firefighting activities, and hose load carriage have on foot clearance while traversing stairs. Landing and passing foot clearances for each stair during ascent and descent of a short staircase were investigated. Clearances decreased significantly (p < 0.05) post-exercise for nine of 12 ascent parameters and increased for two of eight descent parameters. Load carriage resulted in significantly decreased (p < 0.05) clearance over three ascent parameters, and one increase during descent. Decreased clearances during ascent caused by fatigue or load carriage may result in an increased trip risk. Increased clearances during descent may suggest use of a compensation strategy to ensure stair clearance or an increased risk of over-stepping during descent. PMID:26360190

  19. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Denise L.; Fehling, Patricia C.; Frisch, Adam; Haller, Jeannie M.; Winke, Molly; Dailey, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43 ± 8 yrs), the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (criterion measure) between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety. PMID:22888409

  20. The reciprocal relationship between work characteristics and employee burnout and engagement: a longitudinal study of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ângelo, R P; Chambel, M J

    2015-04-01

    The paradigm of this study is positive occupational psychology, with the job demands-resources model as the research model and the Conservation of Resources theory as the general stress theory. The research design analyses the job demands-resources model's dynamic nature with normal and reversed causation effects between work characteristics and psychological well-being among Portuguese firefighters. In addition, we analyse a positive (engagement) dimension and a negative (burnout) dimension in the firefighters' well-being, because previously, studies have merely focused on the strain or stress of these professionals. The research questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 651 firefighters, and a two-wave full panel design was used. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the causal direction of the relationship between organizational demands and burnout is reciprocal. Also, we found that the reciprocal model, including cross-lagged reciprocal relationships between organizational demands/supervisory support and burnout/engagement, respectively, is what fits the data best. Practical implications to develop organizational change programmes and suggestions for future research regarding the promotion of occupational health are discussed. PMID:24124018

  1. Incident-level risk factors for firefighter injuries at structural fires.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Anthony; Ta, Myduc; Strotmeyer, Stephen; Li, Wei; Schmidt, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Firefighting is a demanding occupation, laden with hazardous exposures which result in traumatic injuries. Little epidemiologic evidence exists quantifying these factors, however. We conducted an incident-level case-control study of National Fire Incident Reporting System data of the association between firefighter injury and incident characteristics. Risk factors included 5 or more alarms (OR = 3.85; 95% CI, 3.32-4.48), number of stories (> 3 vs. ground level OR = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.43 to 1.55), and at least one civilian injury (OR = 3.69; 95% CI, 3.55-3.84). Risk of injury was reduced for fires originating 49 feet and higher (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.49-0.66). This analysis suggests that fireground-specific situations such as the number of stories or a civilian injury increase the risk of injury. Given the danger of firefighting, the identification of risk factors through epidemiologic methods is vital to developing safety measures. PMID:12448357

  2. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke.

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian J.

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 x 107Bq ha-1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. The potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2ms-1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. This approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  3. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 × 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  4. A modified SCBA facepiece for accurate metabolic data collection from firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Richard M; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Motl, Robert W; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Horn, Gavin P

    2015-01-01

    To better assess the energy expenditure and exertion of firefighters during simulated firefighting activities, a commercial firefighter self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) facepiece was modified to interface with a portable metabolic monitoring device (Cosmed K4b(2)) while still functioning as a positive pressure SCBA air supply. To validate the device, standard National Fire Protection Association 1981 SCBA function tests were conducted and 14 subjects performed variable-workload assessments using all combinations of two test devices (Cosmed K4b(2) and metabolic cart) and two masks (modified SCBA facepiece and stock manufacturer-supplied breath collection). Metabolic data collected with the Cosmed K4b(2) via the modified facepiece were found to be accurate when compared to a ParvoMedics Truemax 2400 metabolic cart (average per cent difference: 4.6%). This modified facepiece design is suitable for use in metabolic studies requiring the utilisation of an SCBA system. Furthermore, the well-established overestimation of oxygen consumption from the Cosmed K4b(2) system was replicated. PMID:25323675

  5. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  6. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO

  7. Body regional influences of L-menthol application on the alleviation of heat strain while wearing firefighter's protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Nakao, Kouhei; Bakri, Ilham; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of menthol application according to the amount of surface area on physiological and psychological heat strains, along with body regional influences. Male students underwent two stages of experiments: [Experiment 1] Cutaneous thermal threshold test at rest on eight body regions with/without a 0.8% menthol application at T (a) 28°C and 50% RH; [Experiment 2] Six exercise tests with/without a 0.8% menthol spray at T (a) 28°C and 40% RH, while wearing firefighter's protective clothing (No menthol, PC(NO); Face and neck menthol, PC(FN); Upper body menthol, PC(UP); Whole body menthol application, PC(WB)) or wearing normal clothing (No menthol, NC(NO); Upper body menthol, NC(UP)). Experiment 1 showed that menthol caused no significant influence on cutaneous warm thresholds, while menthol applications evoked earlier detection of cool sensations, especially on the chest (P = 0.043). Experiment 2 revealed that NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) caused lower mean skin temperature, especially with higher peripheral vasoconstrictions on the extremities at rest. During exercise, NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) induced greater and earlier increases in rectal temperatures (T (re)) and a delayed sweat response, but lessened psychological burdens (P < 0.05). Both physiological and psychological effects of PC(FN) were insignificant. For a composite analysis, individual Menthol Sensitivity Index at cooling in Experiment 1 had significant relationships with the threshold for T (re) increase and changes in heart rate in NC(UP) of Experiment 2 (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that menthol's topical influence is body region-dependent, as well as depending on the exposed body surface area. PMID:21964942

  8. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; PARK, Joonhee; PARK, Huiju; COCA, Aitor; KIM, Jung-Hyun; TAYLOR, Nigel A.S.; SON, Su-Young; TOCHIHARA, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying ‘a location monitoring system’ as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred ‘an automatic body cooling system’ while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally ‘an automatic body cooling system’ and ‘a wireless communication system’. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: ‘a location monitoring system’, ‘an automatic body cooling system’, ‘a wireless communication system’, and ‘a vision support system’. The least preferred elements were ‘an automatic body warming system’ and ‘a voice recording system’. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  9. Physical exercise and burnout facets predict injuries in a population-based sample of French career firefighters.

    PubMed

    Vaulerin, Jérôme; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Emile, Mélanie; Colson, Serge S

    2016-05-01

    Although firefighting is known to engender a high rate of injury, few studies have examined the contribution of physical exercise, burnout and coping strategies to firefighting-related injuries. Data were collected from a population-based sample of 220 male firefighters. In a descriptive study, the nature and site of the injuries and the relationships among firefighter injuries, physical exercise, burnout and coping strategies were examined. Sprains were the most prevalent type of injury (98%), followed by tendinitis (40%) and muscle tears (30%). More than two thirds of these injuries were located at the ankle. Weekly hours of physical exercise, cognitive weariness at work, social support seeking, problem-focused coping and emotional exhaustion were significantly related to these injuries. The findings suggest that physical exercise and cognitive weariness can be considered as risk factors for French firefighter injuries, whereas problem-focused coping can be seen as a protective factor. More research is needed to explain the relationship between social support seeking and injury. PMID:26851472

  10. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Park, Huiju; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Taylor, Nigel A S; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying 'a location monitoring system' as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred 'an automatic body cooling system' while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally 'an automatic body cooling system' and 'a wireless communication system'. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: 'a location monitoring system', 'an automatic body cooling system', 'a wireless communication system', and 'a vision support system'. The least preferred elements were 'an automatic body warming system' and 'a voice recording system'. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  11. Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February–March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  12. EXPOSE-R cosmic radiation time profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Horneck, Gerda; Häder, Donat-Peter; Schuster, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the time profile of cosmic radiation exposure obtained by the radiation risks radiometer-dosimeter (R3DR) during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-R mission (EXPOSE-R) in the EXPOSE-R facility outside the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS). Another aim is to make the obtained results available to other EXPOSE-R teams for use in their data analysis. R3DR is a low mass and small dimensions automated device, which measures solar radiation in four channels and in addition cosmic ionizing radiation. The main results of cosmic ionizing radiation measurements are: three different radiation sources were detected and quantified: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), energetic protons from the inner radiation belt (IRB) in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly and energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (ORB). The highest daily averaged absorbed dose rate of 506 μGy day-1 came from IRB protons; GCR delivered much smaller daily absorbed dose rates of 81.4 μGy day-1 on average, and ORB source delivered on average a dose rate of 89 μGy day-1. The IRB and ORB daily averaged absorbed dose rates were higher than those observed during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-E mission (EXPOSE-E), whereas the GCR rate was smaller than that measured during the EXPOSE-E mission. The reason for this difference is much less surrounding constructions shielding of the R3DR instrument in comparison with the R3DE instrument.

  13. Effect of Zolpidem on Sleep Quality of Professional Firefighters; a Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Naseri Esfahani, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Professional firefighting is among the most demanding jobs. Prior studies have showed the notable prevalence of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters that may result in catastrophes. The aim of this study was in field confirmation of zolpidem usage (10 mg/PO/bed time) for short term management of poor sleeps quality among professional firefighters. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial among professional firefighters, 27 poor sleepers were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Two 14 days experimental periods were separated by a 14-day washout phase. Sleep quality was assessed using the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Six of the 27 enrolled voluntaries dropped out. Two rare side effects of zolpidem occurred in the study. A significant improvement of the PSQI score was detected in zolpidem period versus placebo in both groups (7.14 ± 3.02 vs 12.38 ± 2.51, P<0.001) although zolpidem had no significant effect on time of waking up (6.76 ± 1.21 vs.6.64 ± 1.27, P=0.89). Zolpidem significantly improved all components of PSQI (Subjective sleep quality, Sleep latency, Sleep duration, Habitual sleep efficiency, Sleep disturbances and Daytime dysfunction) in the current study except the use of sleep medication. Sleep onset latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality among firefighters in a previous study. Interestingly, sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the most treatment effect of zolpidem in the current study. Zolpidem can be used asa part of treatment regimens in short time management of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters. PMID:26553086

  14. Response of soil microbial communities to fire and fire-fighting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, A; Martín, A; Carballas, T; Díaz-Raviña, M

    2010-11-15

    Worldwide, fire-fighting chemicals are rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective and efficient tool in wildfires control and in prescribed burns for habitat management. However, despite its widespread use as water additives to control and/or slow the spread of fire, information concerning the impact of these compounds on soil ecosystems is scarce. In the present work we examine, under field conditions, the response of the microbial communities to three different fire-chemicals at normal doses of application. The study was performed with a Humic Cambisol over granite under heath, located in the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) with the following treatments: unburned soil (US) and burned soil added with water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). The microbial mass (microbial C), activity (β-glucosidase, urease) and community structure [phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) pattern] were measured on soil samples collected at different sampling times during a 5year period after a prescribed fire. The results showed a negative short-term effect of the fire on the microbial properties. The microbial biomass and activity levels tended to recover with time; however, changes in the microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) were still detected 5years after the prescribed fire. Compared to the burned soil added with water, the ammonium polyphosphate and the Firesorb treatments were the fire-fighting chemicals that showed a higher influence on the microbial communities over the whole study period. Our data indicated the usefulness of the PLFAs analysis to detect the long-term impact of both fire and fire-fighting chemicals on the soil microbial communities and hence on the soil quality of forest ecosystems. PMID:20888616

  15. Respiratory protection for firefighters--evaluation of CBRN canisters for use during overhaul.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leaton; Lutz, Eric A; Duncan, Michael; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, there are approximately 366,600 structural fires each year. After visible flames are extinguished, firefighters begin the overhaul stage of firefighting to smother remaining hot spots and initiate investigations. Typically during overhaul significant ambient concentrations of chemical contaminants remain. However, previous research suggests that the use of air purifying respirators (APR) fitted with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters may reduce occupational respiratory exposures. This pilot study used large-scale prescribed burns of representative structural materials to perform simultaneous, side-by-side, filtering and service-life evaluations of commercially available CBRN filters. Three types of CBRN canisters and one cartridge were challenged in repetitive post live-fire overhaul exposure tests using a sampling manifold apparatus. At a flow rate of 80 L/min, nine tests were conducted in the breathing zone for three different exposure durations (0-15 min, 0-30 min, and 0-60 min). Fifty different chemicals were identified for evaluation and results indicate that 21 of the 50 chemicals tested were in the air of the overhaul environment. Respirable particles and formaldehyde were consistently present above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) recommended exposure level (REL) and threshold limit ceiling value (TLVc), respectively. Each filter effectively reduced concentrations for respirable particulates below the maximum recommended level. Formaldehyde was reduced, but not consistently filtered below the TLVc. These results were consistent across all exposure durations. This study indicates that, regardless of brand, CBRN filters provide protection from the vast majority of particle and gas-phase contaminants. However, due to formaldehyde breakthrough, CBRN filters do not provide complete protection during firefighter overhaul. PMID:25738516

  16. Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights

    SciTech Connect

    Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

    2006-03-09

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

  17. Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12 μm and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 μm. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are

  18. Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snarski, Stephen; Scheibner, Karl; Shaw, Scott; Roberts, Randy; LaRow, Andy; Breitfeller, Eric; Lupo, Jasper; Nielson, Darron; Judge, Bill; Forren, Jim

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with very low false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type. The combined results of the high-intensity firefight data collect and a detailed systems study demonstrate

  19. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    Kleinberg, CR, Ryan, ED, Tweedell, AJ, Barnette, TJ, and Wagoner, CW. Influence of lower extremity muscle size and quality on stair-climb performance in career firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1613-1618, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training. PMID:26605810

  20. The influence of short-term firefighting activity on information processing performance.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Tina A; Horn, Gavin; Smith, Denise L; Fahey, George; Goldstein, Eric; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the following: effects of simulated firefighting (FF) activities under heat stress on sustained attention; whether incident rehabilitation (IR) influences performance; and relationships between performance, affect and personality. Firefighters performed ~18 min of FF. Attention, physiological, perceptual and psychological assessments were made before and after FF, IR and recovery. IR had no effects. Self-rated Energy increased, Tiredness decreased and Anxiety increased immediately post-FF; all returned to baseline 120 min post. The immediate effect of FF was faster reaction time (RT) followed by slowing after recovery. Perceived Energy at baseline was associated (p-values < 0.05) with faster and Tiredness with slower post-FF RTs; Accuracy was unaffected. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with RT before and 120 min following FF. RTs were faster following FF, accuracy was unchanged. Higher baseline Energy/lower Tiredness were associated with faster, less variable RTs at baseline and post-FF. Those with higher Conscientiousness had faster RTs. Research should further investigate higher-level cognitive processing following, or ideally during, FF. PMID:24670047

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substances in a firefighting training ground (FTG), distribution and potential future release.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Paxman, Christopher J; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigates the occurrence and fate of 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and one fluorotelomer sulfonate from a firefighting training ground (FTG) that was contaminated by intensive use of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). The contamination levels and their spatial and vertical distribution are assessed in the structure. At the surface of the pad, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is the dominant PFASs measured, with concentration varying from 10 to 200 μg g(-1). PFASs were also detected in a concrete core at up to 12 cm depth, suggesting the vertical movement and higher transport potential of shorter chain compounds. The estimated mass load of linear PFOS in this specific pad was >300 g with a total of 1.7 kg for the sum of all PFASs analyzed. The kinetics of desorption of PFOS, PFOA and 6:2FTS from the concrete into an overlaying static water volume has been measured under field conditions at two constant temperatures. Fitting the desorption data and estimated rainfall/runoff to a kinetic model suggests that this and similar firefighting training pads will likely remain a source of PFASs for many decades (t0.5=25 years for PFOS). PMID:25966923

  2. When the smoke disappears: dealing with extinguishing chemicals in firefighting wastewater.

    PubMed

    Courtens, E N P; Meerburg, F; Mausen, V; Vlaeminck, S E

    2014-01-01

    Water is not enough. Nowadays, numerous chemicals are used for fire extinction. After use, however, these may unintentionally enter sewerage systems. In order to safely treat firefighting wastewater (FFWW), knowledge of the potential effects of these chemicals on biological treatment processes is essential. This study characterized and mimicked the composition of FFWW containing two powders, three foams and one foam degrader. Nitrogen (162-370 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1)) and phosphorus (173-320 mg PO4(3-)-P L(-1)) concentrations exceeded discharge limits, whereas chemical and biological oxygen demand, suspended solids and detergent concentrations remained sufficiently low. Adequate nutrient removal could be obtained through FeCl3 addition and nitrification/denitrification with acetate as substrate. In batch tests, residual nitrifying activities of 84, 81, 89, 95 and 93% were observed in the presence of powders, foams, foam degrader, synthetic and real FFWW, respectively. All categories showed higher denitrification rates than the control. Although the powders at first seemed to inhibit anammox activity at 82%, after pH correction anammox was fully feasible, allowing nitrogen removal through oxygen-limited nitrification/denitrification (OLAND). Detailed cost calculations indicated that OLAND could save 11% of capital and 68% of operational costs compared to nitrification/denitrification, identifying OLAND as the most recommendable process for nitrogen removal from firefighting wastewaters. PMID:24759534

  3. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hyder, Melissa L.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R. Sue; Poston, Walker S. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073

  4. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  5. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  6. Project CHOICE: #164. A Career Education Unit for Grades K-2. Firefighting. (Public Service Occupations Career Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit on firefighting is part of the Public Service Occupations Career Cluster included in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education). The units are designed to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking first and second grade classroom…

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  9. Firefighters. Grade Two. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Joan; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational cluster of public service, this unit entitled "Firefighters" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC) element (life-role…

  10. Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogen, David S.

    The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

  11. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  12. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring. PMID:26214379

  13. Interactive and additive influences of Gender, BMI and Apolipoprotein 4 on cognition in children chronically exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone. APOE 4 females are at highest risk in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Jewells, Valerie; Galaz-Montoya, Carolina; van Zundert, Brigitte; Pérez-Calatayud, Angel; Ascencio-Ferrel, Eric; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Sandoval-Cano, Marcela; Carlos, Esperanza; Solorio, Edelmira; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2016-10-01

    Children's air pollution exposures are associated with systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD, with higher risk for women. We assessed whether gender, BMI, APOE and metabolic variables in healthy children with high exposures to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) influence cognition. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was administered to 105 Mexico City children (12.32±5.4 years, 69 APOE 3/3 and 36 APOE 3/4). APOE 4v 3 children showed decrements on attention and short-term memory subscales, and below-average scores in Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ. APOE 4 females had higher BMI and females with normal BMI between 75-94% percentiles had the highest deficits in Total IQ, Performance IQ, Digit Span, Picture Arrangement, Block Design and Object Assembly. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in APOE 4 children p=0.006, while Gender was the main variable accounting for the difference in insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (p<.05). Gender, BMI and APOE influence children's cognitive responses to air pollution and glucose is likely a key player. APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75% to <94% BMI percentiles are at the highest risk of severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2SD from average IQ). Young female results highlight the urgent need for gender-targeted health programmes to improve cognitive responses. Multidisciplinary intervention strategies could provide paths for prevention or amelioration of female air pollution targeted cognitive deficits and possible long-term AD progression. PMID:27376929

  14. A Low-Glycemic Nutritional Fitness Program to Reverse Metabolic Syndrome in Professional Firefighters: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mary G.; Al-Zaiti, Salah S.; Liao, Limei; Martin, Heather N.; Butler, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk for cardiovascular events is higher for those with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it is known that firefighters have a fourfold risk for cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to quantify MetS prevalence and evaluate the effect of a low glycemic nutritional fitness program on the reduction of MetS risk factors among firefighters. Methods Professional firefighters were screened for MetS then enrolled in a low glycemic nutritional fitness program for a 12-week period. Anthropometric and physiologic measurements were obtained at the start and end of the program. Subjects with ≥3 of the following were positive for MetS: waist ≥40 (men) or ≥35 inches (women), BP≥135 (systole) or ≥85 (diastole) mmHg, fasting blood sugar ≥100mg/dl, triglycerides ≥150mg/dl, and high-density lipoproteins <40 (men) or <50 mg/dl (women). Weekly training was provided with low glycemic nutrition and regular fitness and evaluation of individual progress. Results Seventy-five firefighters (age 42+8yrs, mostly Caucasian men) had a total MetS prevalence of 46.7% (p<0.05 vs normal population). One platoon (10 men, age 48±5yrs) was enrolled in the 12-week program. Most (7/10) had MetS at the baseline, but this prevalence decreased significantly after 12 weeks to 3 subjects (p=0.02). On average, subjects had 3.2±1.6 vs 1.9±1.7 MetS risk factors (p<0.01) at baseline and 12 week interval, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS and MetS risk factors are higher among professional firefighters compared to general population. A short-duration low glycemic fitness program can successfully improve anthropometric and physiologic measures and reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:21263343

  15. Myth Exposed: Academically Deficient Students Gain 2.3 Grade Equivalents in Only One Semester at a 96% Black Inner-City Community College in South Central Los Angeles Or Inner-City Academic Acceleration: How to Structure a Developmental Skills Program so that Black, Inner-City Students Accelerate Their Academic Growth Rate to a Rate 5.9 Times as Great as They Have Achieved in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ruby; And Others

    The success of the Developmental Skills Program offered at Los Angeles Southwest College, a 96% black institution, is indicated by an average student grade equivalent gain of 2.3 years in one semester; a 5 year average accelerated academic growth rate that is 5.9 times the rate of academic growth black inner-city students have experienced in the…

  16. Firefighters muscular recovery after a heavy work bout in the heat.

    PubMed

    Oksa, Juha; Rintamäki, Hannu; Takatalo, Kaisa; Mäkinen, Tero; Lusa, Sirpa; Lindholm, Harri; Rissanen, Sirkka

    2013-03-01

    Occasionally firefighters need to perform very heavy bouts of work, such as smoke diving or clearing an accident site, which induce significant muscle fatigue. The time span for muscular recovery from such heavy work is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate firefighters' force-, neural-, metabolic-, and structural-related recovery after task-specific heavy work in the heat. Fifteen healthy firefighters (14 males and 1 female) performed a 20-min heavy work bout that simulated smoke diving and the clearance of an accident site at 35 °C. After the work, muscular recovery was evaluated by wrist flexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), average electromyography during MVC and during 10%MVC, rate of force production, motor response and stretch reflex responses, muscle oxygen consumption and oxygenation level, and wrist flexor muscle pennation angle. Recovery was followed for 4 h. Each of the 12 measured parameters changed significantly (p < 0.05) from those at baseline during the follow-up. Muscle oxygen consumption and the wrist flexor pennation angle remained elevated throughout the follow-up (oxygen consumption baseline, 12.9 ± 1.7 mL O2·min(-1)·(100 g)(-1); 4-h value, 17.5 ± 1.6 mL O2·min(-1)·(100 g)(-1); p < 0.05 and pennation angle baseline, 15.7 ± 0.8°; 4-h value, 17.8 ± 0.8°; p < 0.05). Muscle reoxygenation rate was elevated for up to 2 h (baseline, 2.3 ± 0.4 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1); 2-h value, 3.4 ± 0.4 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1); p < 0.05). The other 9 parameters recovered (were no longer significantly different from baseline) after 20 to 60 min. We concluded that the recovery order in main components of muscle function from fastest to slowest was force, neural, metabolic, and structural. PMID:23537021

  17. Effects of Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy on Thermoregulation in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    McEntire, Serina J.; Reis, Steven E.; Suman, Oscar E.; Hostler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart attack is the most common cause of line-of-duty death in the fire service. Daily aspirin therapy is a preventative measure used to reduce the morbidity of heart attacks but may decrease the ability to dissipate heat by reducing skin blood flow. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, firefighters were randomized to receive 14 days of therapy (81-mg aspirin or placebo) before performing treadmill exercise in thermal-protective clothing in a hot room [38.8 ± 2.1°C, 24.9 ± 9.1% relative humidity (RH)]. Three weeks without therapy was provided before crossing to the other arm. Firefighters completed a baseline skin blood-flow assessment via laser Doppler flowmetry; skin was heated to 44°C to achieve maximal cutaneous vasodilation. Skin blood flow was measured before and after exercise in a hot room, and at 0 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes of recovery under temperature conditions (25.3 ± 1.2°C, 40.3 ± 13.7% RH). Platelet clotting time was assessed before drug administration, and before and after exercise. Results Fifteen firefighters completed the study. Aspirin increased clotting time before and after exercise compared with placebo (p = 0.003). There were no differences in absolute skin blood flow between groups (p = 0.35). Following exercise, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was 85 ± 42% of maximum in the aspirin and 76 ± 37% in the placebo groups. The percentage of maximal CVC did not differ by treatment before or after recovery. Neither maximal core body temperature nor heart rate responses to exercise differed between trials. Conclusion There were no differences in skin blood flow during uncompensable heat stress following exercise after aspirin or placebo therapy. PMID:26929836

  18. Chitotriosidase is a Biomarker for the Resistance to World Trade Center Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soo Jung; Nolan, Anna; Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Kwon, Sophia; Naveed, Bushra; Schenck, Edward; Tsukiji, Jun; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Weiden, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose World Trade Center (WTC) exposure caused airflow obstruction years after exposure. Chitinases and IgE are innate and humoral mediators of obstructive airway disease. We investigated if serum expression of chitinases and IgE early after WTC exposure predicts subsequent obstruction. Methods With a nested case-control design, 251 FDNY personnel had chitotriosidase, YKL-40 and IgE measured in serum drawn within months of 9/11/2001. The main outcome was subsequent Forced Expiratory Volume after one second/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) less than the lower limit of normal (LLN). Cases (N=125) had abnormal FEV1/FVC whereas controls had normal FEV1/FVC (N=126). In a secondary analysis, resistant cases (N=66) had FEV1 (≥107%) one standard deviation above the mean. Logistic regression adjusted for age, BMI, exposure intensity and post-exposure FEV1/FVC modeled the association between early biomarkers and later lung function. Results Cases and Controls initially lost lung function. Controls recovered to pre-9/11 FEV1 and FVC while cases continue to decline. Cases expressed lower serum chitotriosidase and higher IgE levels. Increase in IgE increased the odds of airflow obstruction and decreased the odds of above average FEV1. Alternately, increasing chitotriosidase decreased the odds of abnormal FEV1/FVC and increased the odds of FEV1≥107%. Serum YKL-40 was not associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in this cohort. Conclusions Increased serum chitotriosidase reduces the odds of developing obstruction after WTC-particulate matter exposure and is associated with recovery of lung function. Alternately, elevated IgE is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and progressive lung function decline. PMID:23744081

  19. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  20. Technology transfer from space to earth - The NASA Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Anuskiewicz, T.; Keune, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    Responding to the recent demand of fire services for a better equipment, NASA has prepared two improved versions of Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) by taking advantage of the spacesuit design. In the new FBS, the conventional oxygen tube is replaced by a 40% lighter air tube with twice as much pressure. The load is attached to a wide waist belt and distributed on the hips instead of the shoulder, thus making it easier to carry. The two versions of the FBS are essentially the same, the only difference being the capacities of the air tubes. Also the face mask used is smaller, lighter and provides better vision and mobility. The FBS had a notable impact, with the fire departments reporting improved efficiency. Unlike other technology transfer cases, the FBS concept is commercially successful in finding diverse fields of application.

  1. Variability in performance on a work simulation test of physical fitness for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Liam; Rogers, Todd; Docherty, David; Petersen, Stewart

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian Forces Firefighter Physical Fitness Maintenance Evaluation (FF PFME) requires firefighters in full fire-protective ensemble, including self-contained breathing apparatus, to correctly complete 10 work-related tasks on a measured and calibrated course. Fitness for duty is inferred from completion time of the course. We hypothesized that completion time may be dependent on pacing strategy and day-to-day fluctuations in biological function. To examine variability in performance, 20 females and 31 males (mean ± SD; age, 27.6 ± 10.5 years; height, 176.7 ± 8.3 cm; mass, 77.3 ± 13.4 kg) were familiarized with the FF PFME and then completed the test on 6 separate days. Pre-test behaviours (e.g., sleep, diet) and test conditions (e.g., calibration, time of day) were consistent. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in completion time between tests 1 and 6 (18.7%) and between all sequential pairs (e.g., tests 1 and 2). There was also a small but significant increase in the fraction of total test time for task completion and a corresponding decrease in the time to transition between tasks. The performance improvements cannot be explained by differences in effort (heart rate and perceived exertion). Coefficient of variation for tests 1, 2, and 3 was 7% and for tests 4, 5, and 6 was 2.6%. The results indicate the importance of practice on performance and the potential for false-positive or false-negative decision errors if biological variability is not taken into account. PMID:25781347

  2. Firefighter feedback during active cooling: a useful tool for heat stress management?

    PubMed

    Savage, Robbie J; Lord, Cara; Larsen, Brianna L; Knight, Teagan L; Langridge, Peter D; Aisbett, Brad

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring an individual's thermic state in the workplace requires reliable feedback of their core temperature. However, core temperature measurement technology is expensive, invasive and often impractical in operational environments, warranting investigation of surrogate measures which could be used to predict core temperature. This study examines an alternative measure of an individual's thermic state, thermal sensation, which presents a more manageable and practical solution for Australian firefighters operating on the fireground. Across three environmental conditions (cold, warm, hot & humid), 49 Australian volunteer firefighters performed a 20-min fire suppression activity, immediately followed by 20 min of active cooling using hand and forearm immersion techniques. Core temperature (Tc) and thermal sensation (TS) were measured across the rehabilitation period at five minute intervals. Despite the decline in Tc and TS throughout the rehabilitation period, there was little similarity in the magnitude or rate of decline between each measure in any of the ambient conditions. Moderate to strong correlations existed between Tc and TS in the cool (0.41, p<0.05) and hot & humid (0.57, p<0.05) conditions, however this was resultant in strong correlation during the earlier stages of rehabilitation (first five minutes), which were not evident in the latter stages. Linear regression revealed TS to be a poor predictor of Tc in all conditions (SEE=0.45-0.54°C) with a strong trend for TS to over-predict Tc (77-80% of the time). There is minimal evidence to suggest that ratings of thermal sensation, which represent a psychophysical assessment of an individual's thermal comfort, are an accurate reflection of the response of an individual's core temperature. Ratings of thermal sensation can be highly variable amongst individuals, likely moderated by local skin temperature. In account of these findings, fire managers require a more reliable source of information to guide

  3. A comparison of cooling techniques in firefighters after a live burn evolution

    PubMed Central

    Colburn, Deanna; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Morley, Julia L; Goss, Fredric L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Moore, Charity G; Hostler, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective We compared two active cooling devices to passive cooling in a moderate (≈22°C) temperature environment on heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc) recovery when applied to firefighters following 20 min. of fire suppression. Methods Firefighters (23 male, 2 female) performed 20 minutes of fire suppression at a live fire evolution. Immediately following the evolution, the subjects removed their thermal protective clothing and were randomized to receive forearm immersion (FI), ice water perfused cooling vest (CV) or passive (P) cooling in an air-conditioned medical trailer for 30 minutes. Heart rate and deep gastric temperature were monitored every five minutes during recovery. Results A single 20-minute bout of fire suppression resulted in near maximal HR (175±13 - P, 172±20 - FI, 177±12 beats•min−1 - CV) when compared to baseline (p < 0.001), a rapid and substantial rise in Tc (38.2±0.7 - P, 38.3±0.4 - FI, 38.3±0.3° - CV) compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and mass lost from sweating of nearly one kilogram. Cooling rates (°C/min) differed (p = 0.036) by device with FI (0.05±0.04) providing higher rates than P (0.03±0.02) or CV (0.03±0.04) although differences over 30 minutes were small and recovery of body temperature was incomplete in all groups. Conclusions During 30 min. of recovery following a 20-minute bout of fire suppression in a training academy setting, there is a slightly higher cooling rate for FI and no apparent benefit to CV when compared to P cooling in a moderate temperature environment. PMID:21294631

  4. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  5. Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

  6. Validation of the Compassion Fatigue Short Scale among Chinese medical workers and firefighters: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Binghai; Hu, Mengna; Yu, Shitian; Jiang, Yiru; Lou, Baona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the C-Compassion Fatigue (CF)-Short Scale among 4 independent samples of Chinese emergency workers (medical workers and firefighters). Design Cross-sectional. Setting 6 hospitals in Zhejiang Province and 12 fire stations in Shanghai. Participants Emergency workers (medical and firefighters) were consecutively recruited and divided into 4 groups: the MW1 group (medical workers, n=167), the FF1 group (firefighters, n=157), the MW2 group (medical workers, n=265) and the FF2 group (firefighters, n=231). Interventions All patients completed the C-CF-Short Scale to identify factors associated with compassion fatigue. The MW1 and FF1 groups were used for the exploratory analyses. The MW2 and FF2 groups were used for the confirmatory factor analyses. Primary and secondary outcome measures Factor loading, correlations with previously validated questionnaires (the Ego-Resiliency Scale, the Social Support Questionnaire and the Job Pressure Scale) and Cronbach's α coefficient were tested for each factor. Results The C-CF-Short Scale demonstrated excellent construct validity and good internal consistency. Specifically, the results of exploratory factor analyses in the MW1 and FF1 groups showed that secondary trauma and job burnout were associated with compassion fatigue in these emergency workers. The confirmatory factor analyses in the MW2 and FF2 groups indicated that all the fit indices of the 2-factor model were satisfactory. Finally, the Cronbach's α coefficient of each factor was excellent. Conclusions The findings suggest that the C-CF-Short Scale has good psychometric properties and can be applied to study Chinese emergency workers. PMID:27363817

  7. The impact of different types of textile liners used in protective footwear on the subjective sensations of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Irzmańska, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents ergonomic evaluation of footwear used with three types of textile liners differing in terms of design and material composition. Two novel textile composite liners with enhanced hygienic properties were compared with a standard liner used in firefighter boots. The study involved 45 healthy firefighters from fire and rescue units who wore protective footwear with one of the three types of liners. The study was conducted in a laboratory under a normal atmosphere. The ergonomic properties of the protective footwear and liners were evaluated according to the standard EN ISO 20344:2012 as well as using an additional questionnaire concerning the thermal and moisture sensations experienced while wearing the footwear. The study was conducted on a much larger group of subjects (45) than that required by the ISO standard (3) to increase the reliability of subjective evaluations. Some statistically significant differences were found between the different types of textile liners used in firefighter boots. It was confirmed that the ergonomic properties of protective footwear worn in the workplace may be improved by the use of appropriate textile components. PMID:25479972

  8. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  9. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  10. A systematic review of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among police officers, firefighters, EMTs, and paramedics.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    First responders-police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and paramedics-experience significant job-related stressors and exposures that may confer increased risk for mental health morbidities (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], suicidal thoughts and behaviors) and hastened mortality (e.g., death by suicide). Inherent in these occupations, however, are also factors (e.g., camaraderie, pre-enlistment screening) that may inoculate against the development or maintenance of psychiatric conditions. Several reviews of the literature have documented the prevalence and potency of PTSD among first responders; the value of these extant reviews is considerable. Nonetheless, the literature has not been systematically described with regard to suicidality. In this systematic review, we present 63 quantitative studies examining suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and/or fatalities among first responders; identify population-specific risk and protective factors; and pinpoint strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Findings reveal elevated risk for suicide among first responders; however, studies utilizing more rigorous methodologies (e.g., longitudinal designs, probability sampling strategies) are sorely needed. First responders have an armamentarium of resources to take care of others; it is the duty of researchers, clinicians, and the public to aid in taking care of their health as well, in part by reducing suicide risk. PMID:26719976

  11. The European, Japanese and US protective helmet, gloves and boots for firefighters: thermoregulatory and psychological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Yamamoto, Yota; Oe, Riichi; Son, Su-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and subjective responses of the European, Japanese (JPN) and US firefighters' helmet, gloves and boots for international standardisation. Three experimental conditions were evaluated (clothing mass: 9.4, 8.2 and 10.1 kg for the three conditions, respectively) at the air temperature of 32°C and 60% relative humidity. The results showed that there was no significant difference among the three conditions in oxygen consumption, heart rate, total sweat rate, rectal temperature and mean skin temperature, whereas peripheral temperatures and subjective perceptions were lower in the JPN condition than in the other conditions (P < 0.05). These results indicate that a 0.5-kg reduction in helmet mass and a 1.1-kg reduction in boot mass during exercise resulted in a significant decrease in head and leg temperatures and subjective perceptions, while a 1.9-kg reduction in total clothing mass had insignificant influences on the metabolic burden and overall body temperature. PMID:24798188

  12. Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

  13. Chiropractic management of a 47-year–old firefighter with lumbar disk extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This case report describes the effect of exercise-based chiropractic treatment on chronic and intractable low back pain complicated by lumbar disk extrusion. Clinical Features A 47-year–old male firefighter experienced chronic, unresponsive low back pain. Pre- and posttreatment outcome analysis was performed on numeric (0-10) pain scale, functional rating index, and the low back pain Oswestry data. Secondary outcome assessments included a 1-rep maximum leg press, balancing times, push-ups and sit-ups the patient performed in 60 seconds, and radiographic analysis. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated with Pettibon manipulative and rehabilitative techniques. At 4 weeks, spinal decompression therapy was incorporated. After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient's self-reported numeric pain scale had reduced from 6 to 1. There was also overall improvement in muscular strength, balance times, self-rated functional status, low back Oswestry scores, and lumbar lordosis using pre- and posttreatment radiographic information. Conclusion Comprehensive, exercise-based chiropractic management may contribute to an improvement of physical fitness and to restoration of function, and may be a protective factor for low back injury. This case suggests promising interventions with otherwise intractable low back pain using a multimodal chiropractic approach that includes isometric strengthening, neuromuscular reeducation, and lumbar spinal decompression therapy. PMID:19646377

  14. City scale pollen concentration variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  15. RESPIRATORY DAMAGE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO URBAN POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are chronically exposed to complex mixtures of air pollutants. In a cross-sectional arm of our study, we investigated the association between exposure to SWMMC atmosphere and nasal abnormalities, hyperinflation, and intersti...

  16. EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ON THE SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE UNIT - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Youth Exposed to Violence: The Role of Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Budge, Stephanie L.; McKay, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 174 inner-city urban high school students, this study examined the degree to which family and peer support would moderate the negative impact of exposure to violence on academic performance, symptoms of distress, and persistence intentions. Over 94% of the students reported having been exposed to at least one form of community…

  18. Effects of liquid cooling garments on recovery and performance time in individuals performing strenuous work wearing a firefighter ensemble.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages of 15 min exercise at 75% VO2max, and 10 min rest following each exercise stage. During each session, one of the following six conditions was administered in a randomized order: control (no cooling, CON); air ventilation of exhaust SCBA gases rerouted into the PFE (AV); top cooling garment (TCG); TCG combined with AV (TCG+AV); a shortened whole body cooling garment (SCG), and SCG combined with AV (SCG+AV). Results showed that total PT completed was longer under SCG and SCG+AV compared with CON, AV, TCG, and TCG+AV (p<0.01). Magnitude of core temperature (Tc) elevation was significantly decreased when SCG was utilized (p<0.01), and heart rate recovery rate (10 min) was enhanced under SCG, SCG+AV, TCG, and TCG+AV compared with CON (p<0.05). Estimated Esw rate (kg·h(-1)) was the greatest in CON, 1.62 (0.37), and the least in SCG+AV 0.98 (0.44): (descending order: CON>AV>TCG=TCG+AV>SCG>SCG+AV) without a statistical difference between the conditions (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggest that the application of LCG underneath the PFE significantly improves the recovery during a short period of rest and prolongs performance time in subsequent bouts of exercise. LCG also appears to be an effective method for body cooling that promotes heat dissipation during uncompensable heat stress. PMID:21660834

  19. Optimal body balance disturbance tolerance skills as a methodological basis for selection of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks.

    PubMed

    Jagiełło, Władysław; Wójcicki, Zbigniew; Barczyński, Bartłomiej J; Litwiniuk, Artur; Kalina, Roman Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the methodology of optimal choice of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks. 27 firefighters were analyzed: aged from 22-50 years of age, and with 2-27 years of work experience. Body balance disturbance tolerance skills (BBDTS) measured by the 'Rotational Test' (RT) and time of transition (back and forth) on a 4 meter beam located 3 meters above the ground, was the criterion for simulation of a rescue task (SRT). RT and SRT were carried out first in a sports tracksuit and then in protective clothing. A total of 4 results of the RT and SRT is the substantive base of the 4 rankings. The correlation of the RT and SRT results with 3 criteria for estimating BBDTS and 2 categories ranged from 0.478 (p<0.01) - 0.884 (p<0.01) and the results of SRT 0.911 (p<0.01). The basic ranking very highly correlated indicators of SRT (0.860 and 0.844), while the 6 indicators of RT only 2 (0.396 and 0.381; p<0.05). There was no correlation between the results of the RT and SRT, but there was an important partial correlation of these variables, but only then was the effect stabilized. The Rotational Test is a simple and easy to use tool for measuring body balance disturbance tolerance skills. However, the BBDTS typology is an accurate criteria for forecasting on this basis, including the results of accurate motor simulations, and the periodic ability of firefighters to solve the most difficult rescue tasks. PMID:24738515

  20. The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Barr, David; Reilly, Thomas; Gregson, Warren

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each bout was separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which one of four conditions were administered: ice vest (VEST), hand/forearm immersion (W), ice vest combined with hand/forearm immersion (VEST + W) and control (CON). Core temperature was significantly lower at the end of the recovery period in the VEST + W (37.97 ± 0.23°C) and W (37.96 ± 0.19°C) compared with the VEST (38.21 ± 0.12°C) and CON (38.29 ± 0.25°C) conditions and remained consistently lower throughout the second bout of exercise. Heart rate responses during the recovery period and bout 2 were similar between the VEST + W and W conditions which were significantly lower compared with the VEST and CON which did not differ from each other. Mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the start of bout 2 in the cooling conditions compared with CON; these differences reduced as exercise progressed. These findings demonstrate that hand/forearm immersion (~19°C) is more effective than ice vests in reducing the physiological strain when firefighters re-enter structural fires after short rest periods. Combining ice vests with hand/forearm immersion provides no additional benefit. PMID:21079990

  1. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  2. Box City Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  3. [Vaccines and exposed occupations].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The use of safe and efficacious vaccines in occupational settings to protect workers from diseases to which they may be exposed is obvious and has been included in the employment law. Healthcare workers are particular exposed. Immunization has two purposes : protect the worker from contracting a disease, but also prevent him from disseminating the disease to weakened patients. It is important not only to take into account existing recommendations for immunization, but also to envisage their extension to teachers and staff of nurseries and primary schools. Routine vaccination against whooping cough, varicella, measles and hepatitis A is particularly warranted in these categories. Recommendations should also extend to medical students who are too often poorly protected and insufficiently warned against potential occupational exposure to pathogens and dissemination to their patients. PMID:17433233

  4. [Typhus in Mexico City in 1915].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Martha Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    The year 1915 was particularly difficult; it was characterized by droughts, famines, and outbreaks of diseases including typhus.This text exposes its spread in Mexico City as well as the measures implemented to combat it, carried out before knowing the etiology of the illness, focused on cleaning up the environment and the measures undertaken afterwards with the aim of delousing people. PMID:27160626

  5. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  6. Pain, health perception and sleep: impact on the quality of life of firefighters/rescue professionals1

    PubMed Central

    Marconato, Rafael Silva; Monteiro, Maria Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the quality of life of firefighters and rescue professionals, and characterize their socio-demographic, health, work and lifestyle profile. Methods: cross-sectional study that used a socio-demographic, lifestyle, health, work data questionnaire and the WHOQOL-BREF quality of life aspects, in Fire Department bases, Civil Air Patrol Group of the Military Police and Rescue Group of Emergency Services. Results: ninety professionals participated in this study - 71 firefighters, 9 nurses, 7 doctors and 3 flight crew members. The average age of the group was 36.4 ± 7.8 years; they worked about 63.7 hours per week; 20.2% reported pain in the last week and 72.7% had body mass index above 25 kg/m2. The average of the WHOQOL-BREF domains was: physical (74.6), psychological (75.2), social (76.5) and environmental (58.7). Significant association was found (Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation) between the WHOQOL-BREF domains and pain in the past six months, in the last week, health perception, job satisfaction, hours of sleep, domestic tasks and study. Conclusion: the main factors related to quality of life were presence of pain, health perception, sleep and domestic activity. PMID:26625988

  7. Experimental studies of microwave propagation through fires for through-wall, search-and-rescue radar in firefighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Andrew Kenneth Gerken

    Finding people trapped inside of a burning house is extremely difficult, dangerous, and time consuming. Smoke, heat, unfamiliar floor plans, and possible structural collapse all combine to challenge a firefighter's ability to find a person. Thermal imaging cameras, the most advanced technology available to firefighters today, are able to see through smoke but are unable to see through walls and household items. Through-wall radar and vital-sign detection radar offer an imaging modality that may be able to help firefighters find victims from outside of a room or even a house. Flames can interact with electromagnetic (radar) waves because the flames create a weakly-ionized plasma. Previous work has looked at small flames fueled by pure gases or flames from wildfires. Combustable items in a house are typically petroleum-based products that have different combustion reactions compared to previously studied flames and fire-induced plasmas. Because of this, it is unknown how electromagnetic waves interact with flames found in a house fire. This dissertation investigates the question of how electromagnetic waves interact with flames in a house fire. This is an open problem, with many variables, that poses a subtle and difficult measurement task. This work focuses on creating experimental techniques to explore this problem. From an electromagnetic metrology perspective, the physical phenomena of interest are difficult to measure due to ill-defined physical boundaries, characteristics lengths of varying magnitude, inhomogeneity, and varying time scales. The experimental methods studied here primarily focus on transmission measurements through flames a few feet in height. Additionally, this work presents a proof-of-concept two-wire transmission line for bench-scale, material-characterization of solids, liquids, gases, and flames. Results from this work provide a metrological foundation for future studies in this area. An experimental setup that can withstand direct exposure

  8. Measurement of functional capacity requirements to aid in development of an occupation-specific rehabilitation training program to help firefighters with cardiac disease safely return to work.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Roberts, Joanne; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Bartlett, Charles

    2009-03-15

    We designed a study to measure the functional capacity requirements of firefighters to aid in the development of an occupation-specific training program in cardiac rehabilitation; 23 healthy male firefighters with no history of heart disease completed a fire and rescue obstacle course that simulated 7 common firefighting tasks. They wore complete personal protective equipment and portable metabolic instruments that included a data collection mask. We monitored each subject's oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and working heart rate, then calculated age-predicted maximum heart rates (220 - age) and training target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). During performance of the obstacle course, the subjects' mean working heart rates and peak heart rates were higher than the calculated training target heart rates (t(22) = 5.69 [working vs target, p <0.001] and t(22) = 15.14 [peak vs target, p <0.001]). These findings, with mean results for peak VO(2) (3,447 ml/min) and metabolic equivalents (11.9 METs), show that our subjects' functional capacity greatly exceeded that typically attained by patients in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs (5 to 8 METs). In conclusion, our results indicate the need for intense, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training that will help firefighters safely return to work after a cardiac event. PMID:19268728

  9. An Educational Intervention for Police and Firefighters for Elders at Risk: Limits of Education Alone as a Strategy for Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusbaum, N. J.; Mistretta, M.; Wegner, J.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research project aimed at the health care needs of the vulnerable community-dwelling elderly, an educational intervention was delivered to police and firefighters in worksite settings. A single educational intervention proved insufficient to produce lasting attitudinal and behavioral change as measured by follow-up surveys 3 and 6…

  10. Short-term test-retest reliability of the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire items and scales among professional firefighters.

    PubMed

    Choi, BongKyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Dobson, Marnie; Schnall, Peter L; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the short-term test-retest reliability of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERIQ). Seventeen JCQ and six ERIQ items were qualitatively reviewed by 19 firefighters in focus groups. The items were then administered twice to 81 firefighters with a time interval of 1-8 weeks. The short-term reliability of the JCQ and ERIQ items and scales with the four-point Likert item responses was at least fair or moderate with several complementary statistical methods. It improved substantially when the four-point responses were simplified into the two ('agree' or 'disagree') responses. The JCQ psychological demands and the ERIQ effort scales were among the least reliable scales and their items were most frequently indicated by the firefighters to be clarified. The responses of professional firefighters to the JCQ and ERIQ items and scales were stable during an 8-week period, particularly when dichotomous item responses were used. PMID:24712524

  11. New Ways of Learning to Fight Fires? Learning Processes and Contradictions in Distance and On-Campus Firefighter Training in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a comparative study on firefighter students' learning processes in a technology-supported distance training course and a traditional campus training course in Sweden. Based on student interviews and observations of exercises, the article aims to describe and analyse the impact on learning processes when…

  12. Firefighter Training in Sweden: From Face-to-Face Learning in Training Grounds to Distance Learning--A Challenge for Exercise Instructors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When distance learning supported by digital technologies was introduced in firefighter training in Sweden some years ago, training exercise instructors accustomed to face-to-face teaching in the field had to adapt their professional roles to an electronic landscape with a number of new opportunities and constraints. Based on activity theory and…

  13. Absolute vs. weight-related maximum oxygen uptake in firefighters: fitness evaluation with and without protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus among age group.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  14. The City as Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…

  15. The management of heat stress for the firefighter: a review of work conducted on behalf of the Toronto Fire Service.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Selkirk, Glen A

    2006-07-01

    This report provides a summary of research conducted through a grant provided by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness of the firefighter. For the first phase, subjects wore their protective ensemble and carried their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and performed very light, light, moderate or heavy work at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C. Thermal and evaporative resistance coefficients were obtained from thermal manikin testing that allowed the human physiological responses to be compared with modeled data. Predicted continuous work times were then generated using a heat strain model that established limits for increases in body temperature to 38.0 degrees C, 38.5 degrees C and 39.0 degrees C. Three experiments were conducted for the second phase of the project. The first study revealed that replacing the duty uniform pants that are worn under the bunker pants with shorts reduced the thermal strain for activities that lasted longer than 60 min. The second study examined the importance of fluid replacement. The data revealed that fluid replacement equivalent to at least 65% of the sweat lost increased exposure time by 15% compared with no fluid replacement. The last experiment compared active and passive cooling. Both the use of a mister or forearm and hand submersion in cool water significantly increased exposure time compared with passive cooling that involved only removing most of the protective clothing. Forearm and hand submersion proved to be most effective and produced dramatic increases in exposure time that approximated 65% compared with the passive cooling procedure. When the condition of no fluid replacement and passive cooling was compared with fluid

  16. Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few

  17. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  18. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  19. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  20. [Determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates in fire-fighting foam and other materials by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiming; Cheng, Yan; Chen, Wei; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Xi; Wang, Zheng

    2010-02-01

    A novel method based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS) in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents. The PFOS residue was extracted with water at first by ultrasonic, then separated by high-speed centrifugation. The supernatant was purified by pre-conditioned solid phase extraction (SPE) micro-column, and the extract was filtrated through a membrane with 0.2 microm diameter. The filtrated liquid was analyzed by HPLC using acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (80 : 20, v/v) as mobile phase. The PFOS was detected by using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) on a tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis of the PFOS can be performed by using the relative abundance of two daughter ions of PFOS, and the quantitative analysis was performed by external standard method. The linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.002 - 0.1 mg/L with a linear correlation coefficient (r2 ) of 0.998. The spiked recoveries for PFOS in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents were 93.4% - 103%, 93.2% - 102% and 91.8% - 102% with the relative standard deviation of 0.48% - 3.52%, 0.78% - 1.79% and 0.47% - 3.47%, respectively. And the detection limit for PFOS was 2 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), which can meet the requirement for the PFOS restriction in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents in the EU directives. With high accuracy and sensitivity, the method is simple and rapid, and can be used for PFOS inspection in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents. PMID:20556959

  1. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space

  2. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  3. Eating Together at the Firehouse: How Workplace Commensality Relates to the Performance of Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Kniffin, Kevin M.; Wansink, Brian; Devine, Carol M.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative activities among coworkers can provide valuable group-level benefits; however, previous research has often focused on artificial activities that require extraordinary efforts away from the worksite. We investigate organizational benefits that firms might obtain through various supports for coworkers to engage in commensality (i.e., eating together). We conducted field research within firehouses in a large city to explore the role that interacting over food might have for work-group performance. Using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, our field research shows a significant positive association between commensality and work-group performance. Our findings establish a basis for research and practice that focuses on ways that firms can enhance team performance by leveraging the mundane and powerful activity of eating. PMID:27226698

  4. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

  5. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E

    2003-07-01

    The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity. PMID:12836977

  6. Mexico City Aerosol Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J.; Holder, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    A radiative impact study was conducted in Mexico City during MILAGRO/MIRAGE campaign in March of 2006. On a day when the predominant wind was from the north to the south, authors measured radiative properties of the atmosphere in six locations across the city ranging from the city center, through the city south limits and the pass leading out of the city (causing pollutants to funnel through the area). A large change in aerosol optical properties has been noticed. The aerosol optical depth has generally increased outside of the city and angstrom coefficient has changed significantly towards smaller values. Aerosol size distribution was calculated using SkyRadPack. The total optical depths allowed coincidental lidar data to calculate total extinction profiles for all the locations for 1064nm.

  7. Social support moderates the impact of demands on burnout and organizational connectedness: a two-wave study of volunteer firefighters.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Jasmine Y; Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Winefield, Anthony H

    2013-01-01

    This two-wave study of volunteers examined the effect of family and friend support on the relationship between volunteer demands (emotional demands and work-home conflict) on the one hand, and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) and organizational connectedness on the other hand. It was hypothesized that family and friend support would moderate the relationship between (a) demands at Time 1 (T1) and burnout at Time 2 (T2); and (b) demands at T1 and organizational connectedness at T2. Hypotheses were tested among 126 Australian volunteer firefighters, who were followed up over 1 year. Results showed that support moderated the relationship between work-home conflict and exhaustion, but not between emotional demands and exhaustion. In addition, family and friend support moderated the relationship between both volunteer demands at T1 and cynicism and organizational connectedness at T2. These results suggest that support from family and friends is a critical resource in coping with the demands related to volunteer work and may protect volunteers from burnout, while helping them to stay connected to volunteering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23276192

  8. Specialisation and training for fire-fighters driving heavy rescue vehicles: consequences for the development of operators?

    PubMed

    Vidal-Gomel, Christine; Delgoulet, Catherine; Gébaï, Déborah

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken in France at the request of a local fire and rescue school in order to conduct an analysis of driving two types of heavy rescue vehicle with a view to improving training. This study took place in a context of specialisation: the drivers of these vehicles will henceforth only perform this type of task. Consequently, specific training has been designed in advance. Our study concerns the improvement of this training, taking account of the particularities of driving these vehicles in emergency situations typical to the profession of fire-fighters. The results stress first that driving of rescue vehicles in emergency situations is a multidimensional collective activity. Driving strategies identified share certain common objectives: "optimising trajectories", warn other road users, anticipate their behaviour and leave room for manoeuvre to counter and react to any unexpected behaviour. They include risks management for the potential victims of the incident and the risk of accidents during the journey. These initial results help identify certain recommendations for the training courses dealing with driving vehicles in emergency situations. They also provide a warning concerning the possible consequences of driver specialisation. PMID:22317522

  9. Scientists Pick U.S. Cities Where Zika Might Hit This Summer

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Cities Where Zika Might Hit This Summer Weather and travel patterns could expose people as far ... the southern and eastern United States as the weather warms, according to experts at the National Center ...

  10. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  11. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  12. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  13. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  14. CITY III Player's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game in which participants make decisions affecting the economic, governmental, and social conditions of a simulated urban area. In CITY III, the computer stores all the relevant statistics for the area, updates data when changes are made, and prints out yearly reports. The computer also simulates…

  15. CITY III Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game of an urban system involving player operation of and interaction with economic, social, and government components. The role of operator in the game is to take the handwritten inputs (decisions) from the CITY III participants, process them, and return output which initiates the next round of…

  16. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  17. Public Health Concerns Associated with the New York City Blackout of 1977.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2016-08-01

    The 1977 New York City blackout began at 9:36 p.m. on 13 July and lasted some 25 h until 10:39 p.m. on 14 July. The New York City Department of Health rapidly set up a Blackout Contingency Plan, established priorities, and mobilized its staff to address remedial interventions. Top priorities included water supplies, sewage disposal, perishable food supplies, hospital and emergency room services, solid waste disposal, beach contamination with untreated sewage , and assisting those on electrically powered home life support systems. The 1977 blackout occurred during an extended heat wave. An analysis of total deaths and deaths due to pulmonary and cardiovascular/renal diseases by day correlated with temperatures. However, there was no direct correlation with the blackout itself, in part perhaps because of the confounding influence of high temperatures. The increase of deaths on very hot days outside of the blackout period lends strong support to the relationship between increased deaths and high ambient temperatures. The 1977 New York City blackout was distinguished from those of 1965 and 2003 by violence, arson, and looting that occurred in several areas. These acts resulted in 204 civilian injuries, 436 police injuries, 80 firefighter injuries, and 1037 fires. The violence, arson, and looting caused extensive long-term physical and functional damage to certain areas of two boroughs of the city, Brooklyn and the Bronx. Although the New York City Department of Health had not previously established a disaster preparedness plan, its professionals quickly rose to the occasion because they were able to draw upon vast public health practice experience and ingenuity. PMID:27220853

  18. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  19. Exercise-Based Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention for Firefighters: Contrasting the Fitness- and Movement-Related Adaptations to Two Training Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Using exercise to enhance physical fitness may have little impact on performers' movement patterns beyond the gym environment. This study examined the fitness and movement adaptations exhibited by firefighters in response to 2 training methodologies. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to a movement-guided fitness (MOV), conventional fitness (FIT), or control (CON) group. Before and after 12 weeks of training, participants performed a fitness evaluation and laboratory-based test. Three-dimensional lumbar spine and frontal plane knee kinematics were quantified. Five whole-body tasks not included in the interventions were used to evaluate the transfer of training. FIT and MOV groups exhibited significant improvements in all aspects of fitness; however, only MOV exhibited improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control when performing each transfer task (effect sizes [ESs] of 0.2-1.5). FIT exhibited less controlled spine and frontal plane knee motions while squatting, lunging, pushing, and pulling (ES: 0.2-0.7). More MOV participants (43%) exhibited only positive posttraining changes (i.e., improved control), in comparison with FIT (30%) and CON (23%). Fewer negative posttraining changes were also noted (19, 25, and 36% for MOV, FIT, and CON). These findings suggest that placing an emphasis on how participants move while exercising may be an effective training strategy to elicit behavioral changes beyond the gym environment. For occupational athletes such as firefighters, soldiers, and police officers, this implies that exercise programs designed with a movement-oriented approach to periodization could have a direct impact on their safety and effectiveness by engraining desirable movement patterns that transfer to occupational tasks. PMID:25763518

  20. Effective UV radiation dose in polyethylene exposed to weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Mota, R.; Soto-Bernal, J. J.; Rosales-Candelas, I.; Calero Marín, S. P.; Vega-Durán, J. T.; Moreno-Virgen, R.

    2009-09-01

    In this work we quantified the effective UV radiation dose in orange and colorless polyethylene samples exposed to weather in the city of Aguascalientes, Ags. Mexico. The spectral distribution of solar radiation was calculated using SMART 2.9.5.; the samples absorption properties were measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy and the quantum yield was calculated using samples reflectance properties. The determining factor in the effective UV dose is the spectral distribution of solar radiation, although the chemical structure of materials is also important.

  1. Does Suspected Sleep Disordered Breathing Impact on the Sleep and Performance of Firefighting Volunteers during a Simulated Fire Ground Campaign?

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Sarah M.; Smith, Bradley P.; Windler, Samantha; Dorrian, Jillian; Ferguson, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate sleep is fundamental to workplace performance. For volunteer firefighters who work in safety critical roles, poor performance at work can be life threatening. Extended shifts and sleeping conditions negatively impact sleep during multi-day fire suppression campaigns. Having sleep disordered breathing (SDB) could contribute further to sleep deficits. Our aim was to investigate whether those with suspected SDB slept and performed more poorly during a fire ground simulation involving sleep restriction. Participants, n = 20 participated in a 3-day-4-night fire ground simulation. Based on oximetry desaturation index data collected during their participation, participants were retrospectively allocated to either a SDB (n = 8) or a non-SDB group (n = 12). The simulation began with an 8 h Baseline sleep (BL) followed by two nights of restricted (4 h) sleep and an 8 h recovery sleep (R). All sleeps were recorded using a standard electroencephalography (EEG) montage as well as oxygen saturation. During the day, participants completed neurobehavioral (response time, lapses and subjective fatigue) tasks. Mixed effects ANOVA were used to compare differences in sleep and wake variables. Analyses revealed a main effect of group for Total sleep (TST), REM , wake after sleep onset (WASO) and Arousals/h with the SDB group obtaining less TST and REM and greater WASO and Arousals/h. The group × night interaction was significant for N3 with the SDB group obtaining 42 min less during BL. There was a significant main effect of day for RRT, lapses and subjective fatigue and a significant day × group interaction for RRT. Overall, the SDB group slept less, experienced more disturbed sleep and had poorer response time performance, which was exacerbated by the second night of sleep restriction. This could present a safety concern, particularly during longer campaigns and is worthy of further investigation. In addition, we would recommend promotion of awareness of SDB, its symptoms

  2. Does Suspected Sleep Disordered Breathing Impact on the Sleep and Performance of Firefighting Volunteers during a Simulated Fire Ground Campaign?

    PubMed

    Jay, Sarah M; Smith, Bradley P; Windler, Samantha; Dorrian, Jillian; Ferguson, Sally A

    2016-02-01

    Adequate sleep is fundamental to workplace performance. For volunteer firefighters who work in safety critical roles, poor performance at work can be life threatening. Extended shifts and sleeping conditions negatively impact sleep during multi-day fire suppression campaigns. Having sleep disordered breathing (SDB) could contribute further to sleep deficits. Our aim was to investigate whether those with suspected SDB slept and performed more poorly during a fire ground simulation involving sleep restriction. Participants, n = 20 participated in a 3-day-4-night fire ground simulation. Based on oximetry desaturation index data collected during their participation, participants were retrospectively allocated to either a SDB (n = 8) or a non-SDB group (n = 12). The simulation began with an 8 h Baseline sleep (BL) followed by two nights of restricted (4 h) sleep and an 8 h recovery sleep (R). All sleeps were recorded using a standard electroencephalography (EEG) montage as well as oxygen saturation. During the day, participants completed neurobehavioral (response time, lapses and subjective fatigue) tasks. Mixed effects ANOVA were used to compare differences in sleep and wake variables. Analyses revealed a main effect of group for Total sleep (TST), REM , wake after sleep onset (WASO) and Arousals/h with the SDB group obtaining less TST and REM and greater WASO and Arousals/h. The group × night interaction was significant for N3 with the SDB group obtaining 42 min less during BL. There was a significant main effect of day for RRT, lapses and subjective fatigue and a significant day × group interaction for RRT. Overall, the SDB group slept less, experienced more disturbed sleep and had poorer response time performance, which was exacerbated by the second night of sleep restriction. This could present a safety concern, particularly during longer campaigns and is worthy of further investigation. In addition, we would recommend promotion of awareness of SDB, its symptoms

  3. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  4. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  5. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  6. City College of New York CITY FACTS, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, NY. City Coll.

    CITY FACTS is an annual publication of the City College of New York's (CCNY's) Institutional Research Office. It contains four main sections: Executive Summary and Commentary on CITY FACTS Tables, Student Data over the Past Decade, Employee and Financial Data, and Reference Sources. A brief commentary on each of the City Facts tables is included…

  7. The Sustainable City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  8. The sustainable city

    SciTech Connect

    Gangloff, D.

    1995-05-01

    Natural marshes are replacing expensive man-made sewage treatment plants. Leaves that once wound up in landfills are now enhancing soils. Ecological landscaping is cooling entire communities and reducing energy use. In coming to view our cities as ecosystems, we are learning to apply the concepts and principles that have sustained rural forests and farms for generations. The question now is, how can those concepts be applied to cities, and how can individual citizens - as well as community leaders - act to improve the sustainability of the places they call home. This article discusses the following topics in reference to developing cities which can sustain themselves: energy efficiency; pollution and waste reduction; capturing natural processes (taking advantage of species that thrive in and benefit the city); merging ecological, economic, and social factors. 6 figs.

  9. Cincinnati; Our Convention City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchin, Anna

    1970-01-01

    During Easter week, 1971, Cincinnati will be the hostess of the 50th anniversary convention of the Catholic Library Association. Items of historical interest concerning the city are briefly described. (NH)

  10. Noise in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2001-05-01

    Mexico City is known to be the largest city in the world, inhabited by some 20 percent of the national population, so noise pollution is not strange to it, particularly in view of the fact that industry is not concentrated, but rather spread throughout the city. The international airport also lies within the city limits, in the midst of residential areas. The heavy traffic during rush hours in the morning and in the evening and the activities of the populace, together with special events, produce a noise problem that is difficult to assess and to solve. Nevertheless, with educational programs begun several years ago and noise campaigns planned for the near future, in addition to existing regulations, the problem is not completely out of control. This paper presents a discussion of the general noise problem and describes how authorities and institutions are dealing with it.

  11. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  12. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  13. Learning Cities on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  14. Use of the bootstrap method to develop a physical fitness test for public safety officers who serve as both police officers and firefighters.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Lee, John; Shock, Tiffany; Kennedy, Kathleen; Pate, Scotty

    2014-07-01

    Physical fitness testing is a common tool for motivating employees with strenuous occupations to reach and maintain a minimum level of fitness. Nevertheless, the use of such tests can be hampered by several factors, including required compliance with US antidiscrimination laws. The Highland Park (Texas) Department of Public Safety implemented testing in 1991, but no single test adequately evaluated its sworn employees, who are cross-trained and serve as police officers and firefighters. In 2010, the department's fitness experts worked with exercise physiologists from Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital to develop and evaluate a single test that would be equitable regardless of race/ethnicity, disability, sex, or age >50 years. The new test comprised a series of exercises to assess overall fitness, followed by two sequences of job-specific tasks related to firefighting and police work, respectively. The study group of 50 public safety officers took the test; raw data (e.g., the number of repetitions performed or the time required to complete a task) were collected during three quarterly testing sessions. The statistical bootstrap method was then used to determine the levels of performance that would correlate with 0, 1, 2, or 3 points for each task. A sensitivity analysis was done to determine the overall minimum passing score of 17 points. The new physical fitness test and scoring system have been incorporated into the department's policies and procedures as part of the town's overall employee fitness program. PMID:24982558

  15. Health hazard evaluation of police officers and firefighters after Hurricane Katrina--New Orleans, Louisiana, October 17-28 and November 30-December 5, 2005.

    PubMed

    2006-04-28

    In the weeks after Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, reports of increased injuries and symptoms of physical illness and psychological strain among New Orleans police officers and firefighters prompted CDC to conduct a health hazard evaluation of these two groups. Questionnaires were distributed to members of the New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) and New Orleans Fire Department (NOFD) 7-13 weeks after the hurricane. This report summarizes the results of that evaluation, which determined that upper respiratory and skin rash symptoms were the most common physical symptoms reported by police officers and firefighters and lacerations and sprains were the most common injuries. In addition, approximately one third of the respondents reported either depressive symptoms or symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or both. These results underscore the need to incorporate the safety and health of emergency responders into existing disaster preparedness plans and to provide periodic responder training and education in tasks unique to disaster situations. Clinical follow-up of the physical and psychological health of emergency responders should be conducted to better understand, monitor, and treat their health conditions. PMID:16645571

  16. Evaluating the physical demands on firefighters using track-type stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Hedman, Glenn E; Reichelt, Paul A; Park, Sanghyun; Conrad, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    The physical demands on firefighting personnel were investigated when using different types of track-type stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings as a function of staircase width and evacuation urgency. Twelve firefighters used five track-type stair descent devices during simulated urgent and non-urgent evacuations. The devices were evaluated under two staircase width conditions (1.12, and 1.32 m), and three devices were also evaluated under a narrower staircase condition (0.91 m). Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, spine motion, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, task durations and descent velocities. Stair descent speeds favored the devices that had shorter fore/aft dimensions when moving through the landing. EMG results indicated that there were tradeoffs due to design features, particularly on the landings where the physical demands tended to be greater. On the landings, devices that could be rolled on four wheels reduced the deltoid and bicep activation levels. PMID:25113864

  17. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  18. Using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in Assessing Seismic Risk for Taipei City and New Taipei City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Wang, Yu-Ju; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Ke, Siao-Syun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluate the seismic hazard and risk for Taipei city and new Taipei city, which are important municipalities and the most populous cities in Taiwan. The evaluation of seismic risk involves the combination of three main components: probabilistic seismic hazard model, exposure model defining the spatial distribution of elements exposed to the hazard and vulnerability functions capable of describing the distribution of percentage of loss for a set of intensity measure levels. Seismic hazard at Taipei city and New Taipei city assumed as the hazard maps are presented in terms of ground motion values expected to be exceed at a 10% probability level in 50 years (return period 475 years) and a 2% probability level in 50 years (return period 2475 years) according to the Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM), which assesses two seismic hazard models for Taiwan. The first model adopted the source parameters of 38 seismogenic structures identified by the TEM geologists. The other model considered 33 active faults and was published by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), Taiwan, in 2010. The 500m by 500m Grid-based building data were selected for the evaluation which capable of providing detail information about the location, value and vulnerability classification of the exposed elements. The results from this study were evaluated by the Openquake engine, the open-source software for seismic risk and hazard assessment developed within the global earthquake model (GEM) initiative. Our intention is to give the first attempt on the modeling the seismic risk from hazard in an open platform for Taiwan. An analysis through disaggregation of hazard components will be also made to prioritize the risk for further policy making.

  19. The Myths and Realities of Age Limits for Law Enforcement and Firefighting Personnel. A Report by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    A study examined current age limitation policies affecting Federal public safety personnel and the interrelationship between job performance and aging. The study concluded that mandatory retirement of competent law enforcement officers and firefighters is unnecessary and wasteful and that the Federal Government's failure to recognize this problem…

  20. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data