Science.gov

Sample records for city preliminary study

  1. Preliminary study of microzonation in South Tangerang City using analysis of Vs-30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, B. A.; Rudiyanto, A.; Ibrahim, G.; Ali, Y. H.; Perreira, A. T. F.; Trismahargyono

    2016-05-01

    A preliminary microzonation study was held in South Tangerang City region through the analysis of Vs-30 and. Vs-30 values was acquired from MASW (Multi Analysis Surface Method) Survey. The survey used PASI Multichannel Seismograph Type 16s24u in 8 (eight) different location around the South Tangerang City. After acquiring the data, the multichannel recording data was processed using Geopsy software to produce the 1-D Model of Shear Velocity in 30 meters depth. From the Vs-30 and we are able to determine the class of each site and the spatial distribution of Vs-30 and Dominant Period Values in South Tangerang City.From the Vs-30's results, The North Serpong Site had the highest Vs-30 values if compared with the other sites (318.5390393 m/s), and categorized as the D Class site. Ciputat site owned the lowest Vs-30 values (124.7685506 m/s) and categorized as the E Class Site. The range of Vs-30 values in South Tangerang from the Vs-30 spatial distribution map are about 120-320 m/s.

  2. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  4. Preliminary Report on Transitional Classes, New York City Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    The Transitional Class Program is a joint effort of the New York City Board of Education and the Community School Districts to provide a positive learning experience for children in their early school years who have fallen behind their peers. This preliminary report describes the program and examines its impact on student attendance. Student…

  5. Use of compost to restore a contaminated site in Southern Italy: preliminary study to assess compost efficiency in remediating a heavily polluted soil in Taranto city.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Vito Felice, Uricchio; Simona, Regano

    2014-05-01

    Soil pollution is one of the most soil relevant threats recognized in the world. Contamination affects soil quality and soil capacity to react against several land degradation processes (erosion, organic depletion, desertification, etc.). The identification of opportune strategies to hinder pollution is a fundamental requirement to restore soil quality. In particular, large attentions have got the techniques, which promote the decontamination, and at the same time, improve fertility allowing a new use of a soil restored. In this work we present a preliminary study to assess the use of compost (an organic fertilizer produced through a process of transformation and controlled stabilization of selected organic waste at the source) in remediating a heavily polluted soil in southern Italy. The study site is located in Taranto city (Apulia Region) and is contaminated predominantly by heavy metals and lightly by organic toxic compounds such us polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An exhaustive chemical characterization has been carried out on soil samples and then, a treatment with compost was applied on the study site. Successively, two data acquisition campaigns have been realized (after 4 and 7 months by compost treatment, respectively). Soil chemical analyses of texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, carbonate and water content have been carried out to investigate soil properties. In the polluted site chemical analyses of characterization showed low content of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and high level of carbonate. Heavy metals screenings, carried out through ICP-MS equipment, evidenced a massive contamination by Be, Se, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, while GC-MS investigations revealed a lower pollution by PCBs. The results of the monitoring campaigns showed a consistent reduction of the heavy metals concentrations: a higher decrease is observed after 7 months by compost treatment. At the same time, a considerable

  6. 76 FR 12957 - City of Tacoma, Washington; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Tacoma, Washington; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... Tacoma, Washington (Tacoma), filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of..., in Pierce County, Washington.\\1\\ The sole ] purpose of a preliminary permit, if issued, is to...

  7. A preliminary sketch of the georesources in Niamey city (Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadafora, Francesco; De Luca, Domenico A.; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela; Perotti, Luigi; Yadji, Guero; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; Moussa, Issaka; Harouna, Moussa; Moussa, Konaté

    2015-04-01

    The present paper is about a preliminary study of the georesources (water and raw materials for construction) of Niamey city (Niger). Such research is part of an UNICOO project (funded by the University of Turin) and connected to the Edulink Cooperation Project (R.U.S.S.A.D.E.), a multidisciplinary project between Italy, Niger, Burquina Faso and Tchad funded on ACP- EU cooperation program in Higher Education. The main goals are the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the surface water and groundwater, and of aggregates (exploited in sands and gravel quarries). More specifically, at the beginning of the study there was a census of wells and quarries in the Niamey area, with a consequent sampling survey (surface water and groundwater sampling and aggregate sampling). After that, an in situ characterization was set: measure of piezometric levels in wells, water characterization (pH, electrolytic conductivity, temperature, nitrate and ammonia concentration) and an in situ evaluation of the quarrying techniques and quarry exploitation (present and old quarries). The samples were analyzed in Earth Science Dep. (UNITO) to evaluate the content of the main anions and cations (chemical analysis of sampled water) and the size distribution of the materials coming from the investigated quarries. Schematic reports of wells and quarries (location and features) were produced with the support of a Geodatabase with all available data. Geomatics instruments and methodologies (Geotagged Photos, Digital Mapping, GNSS Survey, Satellite Multitemporal Maps,) were basic starting point for the field data collection and a fundamental aid for data arrangement and final dissemination. The present study evidenced the actual condition of surface water and groundwater, also highlighting local phenomena of pollution. Nitrate in groundwater, i.e., showed locally concentration up to 5 times the WHO limit (50 mg/L). Thanks to the local quarry survey it was possible to evaluate how the

  8. Preliminary studies of the effect of aerosols on nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miranda, Regina Maura; Andrade, Maria de Fátima; Fattori, Artemio Plana

    2005-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to perform a first evaluation of the particles and optical parameters influence on photolysis rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In order to achieve this objective an AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork—an inclusive federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks) database and TUV (Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible) model were used to calculate photolysis rates on cloudless days during specific periods (July and August) of the 2002 winter season. The main sources of ozone precursors in MASP (Metropolitam Area of São Paulo) are the burning of fuels—gasoline, ethanol and diesel. This blend of fuels generates a unique photochemical problem. Also in MASP the concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10) usually exceed the national standard of 150 μg m -3 for 24 h. It is described that the concentration of particulate matter affects the ozone formation, by its interaction with incident radiation and consequently affecting the photolysis rates. It is very important to have a good description of the behavior of these compounds, not only in the surface, but also in the whole column. This study presents the first results related to this subject. To characterize the influence of different particles in the photolysis rates, results were correlated to aerosol composition. Particles that are mostly composed of black carbon had a high impact, decreasing photolysis rates when their concentrations were high. Aerosol optical properties analyzed as single-scattering albedos were found to participate significantly in the reduction of photolysis rates. It was observed that urban aerosols in São Paulo reduce both photolysis rates (round 15%) and ozone concentrations. Comparing July and August, photolysis rates were lower in July due to solar position.

  9. A Discussion of Research Aims and Strategies for Studying Education in the Inner-City (A Critique of Non-Participant Observations). Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Carol

    The objective of naturalistic observations conducted in schools and homes in the inner city was to relate teacher expectation to pupil behavior. Following kindergarten observations, selected black children predicted as potentially successful and black children predicted as poor achievers were observed in their homes along with their mothers. This…

  10. Sioux City Riverbank Filtration Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, R.; Condon, J.; Johnson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The City of Sioux City (City) obtains a large percentage of their drinking water supply from both a horizontal collector well system and vertical wells located adjacent to the Missouri River. These wells are set in either the Missouri Alluvium or the Dakota Sandstone aquifer. Several of the collector well laterals extend out beneath the Missouri River, with the laterals being over twenty feet below the river channel bottom. Due to concerns regarding ground water under direct surface water influence, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) required the City to expand their water treatment process to deal with potential surface water contaminant issues. With the extensive cost of these plant upgrades, the City and Olsson Associates (OA) approached the IDNR requesting approval for assessing the degree of natural riverbank filtration for water treatment. If this natural process could be ascertained, the level of treatment from the plant could be reduced. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of surface water (i.e. Missouri River) filtration due to the underlying Missouri River sediments. Several series of microscopic particulate analysis where conducted, along with tracking of turbidity, temperature, bacteria and a full scale particle count study. Six particle sizes from six sampling points were assessed over a nine-month period that spanned summer, fall and spring weather periods. The project was set up in two phases and utilized industry accepted statistical analyses to identify particle data trends. The first phase consisted of twice daily sample collection from the Missouri River and the collector well system for a one-month period. Statistical analysis of the data indicated reducing the sampling frequency and sampling locations would yield justifiable data while significantly reducing sampling and analysis costs. The IDNR approved this modification, and phase II included sampling and analysis under this reduced plant for an eight

  11. City of Hoboken Energy Surety Analysis: Preliminary Design Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Baca, Michael J.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Eddy, John P.; Smith, Mark A.; Guttromson, Ross; Henry, Jordan M.; Jensen, Richard Pearson

    2014-09-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy devastated much of the U.S. northeast coastal areas. Among those hardest hit was the small community of Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the banks of the Hudson River across from Manhattan. This report describes a city-wide electrical infrastructure design that uses microgrids and other infrastructure to ensure the city retains functionality should such an event occur in the future. The designs ensure that up to 55 critical buildings will retain power during blackout or flooded conditions and include analysis for microgrid architectures, performance parameters, system control, renewable energy integration, and financial opportunities (while grid connected). The results presented here are not binding and are subject to change based on input from the Hoboken stakeholders, the integrator selected to manage and implement the microgrid, or other subject matter experts during the detailed (final) phase of the design effort.

  12. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  13. 75 FR 20589 - City of Oberlin, OH; Free Flow Power Missouri 1, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Oberlin, OH; Free Flow Power Missouri 1, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications April 12, 2010. On March 24, 2010, the City of Oberlin, Ohio (Oberlin) and Free Flow Power Missouri 1, LLC (Free Flow Power) filed preliminary permit applications, pursuant to section...

  14. 77 FR 23477 - City of New York; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of New York; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On March 1, 2012, the City of New York filed an...

  15. 78 FR 41398 - City of Berlin, Berlin Water Works; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Water Treatment Plant Hydroelectric Project (Project) to be located on a water supply conduit at the City of Berlin's municipal water treatment plant (WTP), in Coos County, New Hampshire. The sole purpose... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Berlin, Berlin Water Works; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

  16. Impacts of cool cities on air quality: A preliminary modeling assessment for Nashville TN, Dallas TX and Atlanta GA

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider

    1998-06-15

    Previous atmospheric modeling efforts that concentrated on the Los Angeles Basin suggested beneficial and significant air quality impacts from cool cities strategies. This paper discusses an extension of similar modeling efforts to three regions, Atlanta GA, Dallas - Ft. Worth TX, and Nashville TN, that experience smog and air quality problems. According to the older ozone air quality standard (120 ppb), these regions were classified as serious, moderate, and marginal, respectively, but may be out of compliance with respect to the newer, 80-ppb/8-hours standard. Results from this exploratory modeling work suggest a range of possible impacts on meteorological and air quality conditions. For example, peak ozone concentrations during each region's respective episode could be decreased by 1-6 ppb (conservative and optimistic scenarios, respectively) in Nashville, 5-15 ppb in Dallas - Fort Worth, and 5-12 ppb in Atlanta following implementation of cool cities. The reductions are generally smaller than those obtained from simulating the Los Angeles Basin but are still significant. In all regions, the simulations suggest, the net, domain-wide effects of cool cities are reductions in ozone mass and improvements in air quality. In Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas, urban areas benefiting from reduced smog reach up to 8460, 7350, and 12870 km{sup 2} in area, respectively. Results presented in this paper should be taken as exploratory and preliminary. These will most likely change during a more comprehensive modeling study to be started soon with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The main purpose of the present project was to obtain the initial data (emission inventories) for these regions, simulate meteorological conditions, and perform preliminary sensitivity analysis. In the future, additional regions will be simulated to assess the potential of cool cities in improving urban air quality.

  17. Housing and Health in Europe: Preliminary Results of a Pan-European Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, Xavier R.; Braubach, Matthias; Moissonnier, Brigitte; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Röbbel, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe has undertaken a large study to evaluate housing and health in 7 European cities. Methods. Survey tools were used to obtain information about housing and living conditions, health perception, and health status from a representative sample of the population in each city. Results. In Forli, Italy, the first city studied, preliminary findings indicate some important potential links between housing and health. Conclusions. These findings, when combined with those from the remaining European cities, will likely generate concrete recommendations for the allocation of resources to programs that can improve housing and health. PMID:12948980

  18. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  19. 75 FR 74702 - City of Whittier; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the... consist of the following: (1) An approximately 100-foot-long, 20-foot-high reinforced concrete dam; (2)...

  20. Preliminary results from two intensive campaigns characterizing urban aerosols at two high altitude cities in the Tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Velarde, F.; Moreno, I.; Weinhold, K.; Avila, F.

    2013-05-01

    Preliminary results from a short campaign carried out between September and December of 2012 at the cities of El Alto (16°30'36.09"S; 68°11'55.31"W; 4040 masl) and La Paz (16°30'13.83"S; 68° 7'45.56"W; 3580 masl), Bolivia are presented on this work. Particle size distribution was measured using a Mobility Particle Size Spectrometer (Reference of the World Calibration Center for Aerosol Physics) whereas concentration of black carbon was measured using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). In addition meteorological parameters as well as CO concentration were collected on both locations. In the case of El Alto, the instruments were located within the International Airport of the city at approximately 300 m from the main and only landing strip and at least 1.5 km away from the main roads. On the other hand, in the case of La Paz, the instruments were set up at the Planetarium of University Mayor de San Andres. The building is located besides a road with heavy traffic. Because the two cities are part of the same metropolitan area (the sites were located 7.5 km apart), the cars and trucks produce a similar signature and therefore both background and non-background urban aerosols were sampled during the campaign. In addition, an interesting case was registered at La Paz where a day with practically no vehicular traffic was studied.

  1. The Long Island City Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long Island City Business Development Corp., NY.

    In an effort to promote economic development in the Long Island City (New York) area, a study was conducted of the training and human resource needs of local manufacturing firms and the demographic characteristics of the local labor force. Specifically, the study sought to examine company needs, highlight programs available to address those needs,…

  2. Study Abroad and the City: Mapping Urban Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Study abroad by U.S. students, despite recent growth into non-western and rural destinations, often remains focused on cities, often very large and highly urbanized ones. While the destination cities for study abroad are located across the globe, European cities remain predominant, and thus, this article focuses on study abroad in one city. The…

  3. How to Study the City on Instagram

    PubMed Central

    Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship. PMID:27336728

  4. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    PubMed

    Boy, John D; Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship. PMID:27336728

  5. Armstrong City: A Permanent Settlement for Exo-Planetary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, J.

    Development of a permanent placement lunar base is the next fundamental step in an international program to explore and settle other planets within our solar system. While technical, operational, managerial and long-term issues must be considered, the establishment of a lunar facility can serve the preliminary needs of manned civilization in space. Numerous issues become apparent in the consideration of the activation of a lunar base. Specific and realistic determinations must be made about various types of interests in addition to the general conjectures given above. These activities include: - Spacecraft landings and vehicle systems - Crew selection, supplies and habitability - Power production and distribution - Risk management - Science and lunar activities - Base planning and configurations - Integrated operations and maintenance - Management. The development and activation of a lunar colony will require careful consideration to the future of space activities and operations in near Earth space. A lunar city, which we call Armstrong city, is defined by its own unique natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense. Armstrong City, a preliminary first lunar base, will most probably be serving as an extended "division" of Earth's space exploration offices. The reasons are very simple and practical. -First, the costs of maintaining a permanent space facility will be lower in the long run than the costs of a series of short duration, rotating manned bases, -Second, studies in long-term space habitation can effectively be carried out in relative safety, -Third, the initial tasks which need to be done will define and establish methodologies and issues for development of future extraterrestrial base concepts, and -Fourth, the complexities of the initial facilities necessary to sustain the citizens can be tempered through developing local resources and reproducible research. In order to bring about development of Armstrong City, four

  6. Geography and the Study of Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, James E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the development of urban geography since 1920 as a subfield of geography, explores the relationship between urban living and urban geography, and identifies major research concerns of urban geographers. Reviews geography literature relevant to the study of cities. (Author/DB)

  7. 76 FR 5585 - City of Astoria, OR; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Astoria, OR; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application... vault housing a single 40-kilowatt (kW) turbine/generator unit; and (2) an approximately...

  8. 76 FR 5584 - City of Salem, OR; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Salem, OR; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application.../generator unit at an installed capacity of 0.5 megawatt (MW); and (3) a new standard flow meter to...

  9. Preliminary study for the OFFELO

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    X-ray Optics-Free FEL Oscillator (OFFELO) has potential of becoming a choice for next generation light sources. Using electron beam for the feedback allows OFFELO to be completely tunable and to combine the peak power of high-gain SASE FELs with extremely narrow bandwidth of the oscillator. While the high-gain X-ray FELs has been studied in depth and has been successfully demonstrated, two other concepts (the transport and the feed-back) involved in OFFELO still need detail studies. In this short paper we focus on the simulation of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. In our initial studies of OFFELO studied the saturation of the system and also its evolution using Genesis 2.0 code with a homemade wrapping code. While and lattice design from the modulator to the radiator, in order to minimize the feedback information loss in transporting the beam.

  10. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and culture; and a…

  11. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  12. Galaxy collisions - A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, B. F.

    1980-01-01

    Collisions of spherical galaxies were studied in a series of numerical experiments to see what happens when galaxies collide. Each experiment starts with two model galaxies, each consisting of 50,000 stars, moving toward each other along a specified orbit. The series of experiments provides a systematic sampling of the parameter space spanned by the initial orbital energy and the initial angular momentum. Deeply penetrating collisions are emphasized. The collisions reported here scale to relative velocities as great as 500 km/s, well into the range for collisions within clusters of galaxies. It is found that: (1) the galaxies contract momentarily to about half their original sizes shortly after close passage; and (2) the initial galaxies blend into a single dynamical system while they are near each other.

  13. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  14. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  15. Study of City Landscape Heritage Using Lidar Data and 3d-City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinowicz, P.; Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    In contemporary town planning protection of urban landscape is a significant issue. It regards especially those cities, where urban structures are the result of ages of evolution and layering of historical development process. Specific panoramas and other strategic views with historic city dominants can be an important part of the cultural heritage and genius loci. Other hand, protection of such expositions introduces limitations for future based city development. Digital Earth observation techniques creates new possibilities for more accurate urban studies, monitoring of urbanization processes and measuring of city landscape parameters. The paper examines possibilities of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models for: a) evaluation of strategic city views, b) mapping landscape absorption limits, and c) determination protection zones, where the urbanization and buildings height should be limited. In reference to this goal, the paper introduces a method of computational analysis of the city landscape called Visual Protection Surface (VPS). The method allows to emulate a virtual surface above the city including protection of a selected strategic views. The surface defines maximum height of buildings in such a way, that no new facility can be seen in any of selected views. The research includes also analyses of the quality of simulations according the form and precision of the input data: airborne Lidar / DSM model and more advanced 3D-city models (incl. semantic of the geometry, like in CityGML format). The outcome can be a support for professional planning of tall building development. Application of VPS method have been prepared by a computer program developed by the authors (C++). Simulations were carried out on an example of the city of Dresden.

  16. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  17. Preliminary neutron crystallographic study of human transthyretin

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Melina; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Mason, Sax A.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Cooper, Jonathan B.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies of perdeuterated crystals of human transthyretin (TTR) have been carried out using the LADI-III and D19 diffractometers at the Institut Laue–Langevin in Grenoble. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full crystallographic analysis to a resolution of 2.0 Å using Laue diffraction and also illustrate the potential of using monochromatic instruments such as D19 for higher resolution studies where larger crystals having smaller unit cells are available. This study will yield important information on hydrogen bonding, amino-acid protonation states and hydration in the protein. Such information will be of general interest for an understanding of the factors that stabilize/destabilize TTR and for the design of ligands that may be used to counter TTR amyloid fibrillogenesis. PMID:22102249

  18. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  19. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10‑8 m3 kg‑1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  20. Usefullness of palatal rugae patterns in establishing identity: Preliminary results from Bengaluru city, India

    PubMed Central

    Indira, AP; Gupta, Manish; David, Maria Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Palatal rugoscopy is the name given to the study of palatal rugae. Rugae pattern are widely considered to remain unchanged during an individual's lifetime. The rugae pattern has the potential to remain intact by virtue of their internal position in the head when most other anatomical structures are destroyed or burned. Moreover, rugae pattern are considered to be unique similar to fingerprints and are advocated in personal identification. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to establish, individual identity using palatal rugae patterns. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 study models all of whom were subjects above 14 years old. Martin dos Santos’ classification was followed based on form and position to assess the individuality of rugae pattern. Results: Each individual had different rugae patterns including dizygous twins and the rugae patterns were not symmetrical, both in number and in its distribution. Conclusion: The preliminary study undertaken here shows no two palates are alike in terms of their rugae pattern. Palatal rugae possess unique characteristics as they are absolutely individualistic and therefore, can be used as a personal soft-tissue ‘oral’ print for identification in forensic cases. PMID:23087574

  1. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  2. Tipp City Exempted Village School Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crim, Kenneth; And Others

    Faced with declining enrollments and the recommendation to combine two middle schools, the Tipp City, Ohio, school board contacted consultants to examine the school facilities, focusing on current and future use, and look closely at past and current demographic data to project school enrollments. Data from the United States Census and from…

  3. 77 FR 41782 - City of Quincy; FFP Project 110, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    .... City of Quincy's proposed project would consist of: (1) Forty new 500-kilowatt submersible low-head...-generators, having a total combined generating capacity of 14 megawatts; (2) fourteen existing...

  4. 77 FR 41781 - City of Quincy; FFP Project 109, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    .... City of Quincy's proposed project would consist of: (1) Sixty new 500-kilowatt submersible low-head... megawatts; (2) fifteen existing submersible tainter gates; (3) a new 40-foot by 35-foot substation; (4)...

  5. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  6. Preliminary simulation study of a coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Cellier, R.; Pittet, P.; Quiquerez, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a preliminary study of coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensors (APiX) for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications is presented. In this preliminary work, some PEB prevention techniques found in literature have been studied by TCAD simulations adopting 2D Cylindrical geometrical models and 130nm CMOS process technological data.

  7. 78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 24, 2013, City of Astoria, Oregon (Astoria) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the...

  8. 78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On August 29, 2013, City of Barre, Vermont filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  9. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  10. Building Clean. The Control of Crime, Corruption, and Racketeering in the Public Construction Markets of New York City. A Preliminary Assessment of Efforts Made by the Office of the Inspector General, New York City School Construction Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H.; Tumin, R. Zachary

    The Office of the Inspector General of the New York City School Construction Authority (SCA) is attempting to secure the School Construction Authority and its building program from crime, corruption, and racketeering. This report is a preliminary assessment of this effort. It sets forth for practitioners and theorists the strategy that guided the…

  11. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  12. Ketamine Injection among High Risk Youth: Preliminary Findings from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Clatts, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine, a synthetic drug commonly consumed by high risk youth, produces a range of experiences, including sedation, dissociation, and hallucinations. While ketamine is more typically sniffed, we describe a small sample of young ketamine injectors (n=25) in New York City and highlight risks associated with this emerging type of injection drug use. Our findings indicate that the injection practices, injection groups, and use norms surrounding ketamine often differ from other injection drug use: intramuscular injections were more common than intravenous injections; injection groups were often large; multiple injections within a single episode were common; bottles rather than cookers were shared; and the drug was often obtained for free. Our findings suggest that the drug injection practices exercised by ketamine injectors place them at risk for bloodborne pathogens, such as HIV, HBV, and HCV. We conclude that ketamine injectors represent an emerging, though often hidden, population of injection drug users, particularly among high risk, street-involved youth. PMID:17440604

  13. Studying the Multilingual City: A GIS-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselinova, Ljuba Nikolova; Booza, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Work in two distinct disciplines, urban geography and sociolinguistics, readily points out the multiethnic and multilingual character of metropolitan areas. However, there is still demand for studies which establish the language structure of modern cities. For the purposes of this pilot study, we focus on the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA),…

  14. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  15. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  16. Preliminary study of volcano monitoring using geochemical composition of lichen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUAN, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, is bounded with Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which is not active since 200 ka. However, some evidences indicate that the latest explosion of volcanic ash was dated to 5-6 ka as well as TVG is so close to metropolis. The monitoring on TVG is crucial for crisis management. For monitoring TVG, changes of geochemical signal in some volcanic gases and hot springs are currently assessed by monthly sampling. The geochemistry of volcanic gas and hot spring represents a short-term condition on sampling time and is highly controlled by temperature and precipitation on the surface. A long-term average geochemistry will be very helpful to be compared with the results of volcanic gas and hot spring. A bioindicator not only has the ability to store geochemical compositions in their tissues but also has a wide geographical distribution. It is very suitable in this kind of study and lichen is one of the best bioindicators mainly because lichens grow slowly and have a large-scale dependence upon the environment for their nutrition, In TVG, the high SO2 content in the atmosphere results in the absence of fruticose lichen. On the contrary, crustos lichen is the most common species in the study area. For the preliminary analysis, one fruticose, four foliose and four crustos lichens were collected around the major emission centers of volcanic gas. According to the results of ICP-MS analysis, the abundances of heavy metals are generally in the order of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, V, Co and U. Factor analysis (FA) demonstrates that most of the metals show very high loadings in the first factor. This means that the fractionation of metals among different lichen species is minor and the geochemical compositions of lichen are possibly controlled by the same source (atmosphere). The second factor of FA includes Mn, Sr and Ba, which share the same oxidation state of +2 in acidic environment. This factor can describe the variation of Mn, Sr and Ba in the

  17. Simulations: A Case Study of City & Guilds' Newest Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrew; Dearing, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of City & Guilds' development of simulation-based assessments for its ICT user qualification. These simulations are authentic scenario-based replicas of word processing and spreadsheet software, which present a series of tasks that the test-taker completes as if they were using actual…

  18. Building momentum: an ethnographic study of inner-city redevelopment.

    PubMed Central

    Fullilove, M T; Green, L; Fullilove, R E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One factor contributing to the decay of inner-city areas, and to consequent excess mortality, is the massive loss of housing. This report studied the effects of a redevelopment project on social functioning in an inner-city community. METHODS: This ethnographic study included the following elements: a longitudinal study of 10 families living in renovated housing, repeated observations and photographing of the street scene, focus groups, and informal interviews with area residents. The project was located in the Bradhurst section of Harlem in New York City and was focused on a redevelopment effort sponsored by local congregations. RESULTS: Those who were able to move into newly renovated housing found that their living conditions were greatly improved. Neighborhood revitalization lagged behind the rehabilitation of individual apartment houses. This uneven redevelopment was a visual and sensory reminder of "what had been." Residents missed the warmth and social support that existed in Harlem before its decline. CONCLUSIONS: Rebuilding damaged housing contributes greatly to the well-being of inner-city residents. The current pace and scope of rebuilding are insufficient to restore lost vitality. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:10358672

  19. Study of spirometry in children from Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Namihira, D.; Strope, G.L.; Helms, R.W.; Pekow, P.; Bojalil, B.M.; Fernandez, F.

    1986-11-01

    A study was conducted in two elementary schools in Mexico City to determine values for pulmonary function tests in school-aged residents of Mexico City. The schools were located in Xalostoc, a highly industrialized area of Mexico City, and San Lorenzo, a suburban area of the city. Although data regarding atmospheric pollution were not available, there is an acknowledged higher level of macroenvironmental air pollution in Xalostoc. Pulmonary function tests were performed on 468 children in San Lorenzo and 405 children in Xalostoc. No differences between residents of the two communities for acute or chronic respiratory conditions were detected by questionnaire. The pulmonary function data demonstrate that boys have larger forced vital capacities (FVC) and forced expiratory flows over the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75) than girls. Slopes of regression lines for FVC but not for FEF25-75 are greater in boys and girls from Xalostoc than in boys and girls from San Lorenzo. This suggests that young children from Xalostoc may experience ill effects of air pollution but develop catch-up growth later. There were no important community or gender effects on slopes of regression lines for height and weight on age. In general, the regression lines for FVC and FEF25-75 were below regression lines reported for children of Mexican ancestry living at sea level.

  20. Applying for Your Own Job: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid

    2008-01-01

    This study undertook a small preliminary investigation of the contemporary employment practice of "applying for your own job". There has not yet been a specific study into the effect upon individuals and organisations of the practice of existing employees being required to apply for the same or a similar position in a competitive application…

  1. Spirituality and the Events of September 11: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Apple, Kevin J.; Aydlett, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Personal crises have been associated with spiritual growth. Sparked by the global response to the crisis of September 11, 2001, this study examined the relationship of spirituality and the September 11 tragedy using a sample of convenience from a college student population. This preliminary study used an experimental design to examine various…

  2. A Preliminary Study of Career Education in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, S. R.; Leung, Y. F.; Stewart, K.; Smith, A. C.; Roberts, G. L.; Dees, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a preliminary study on the Geosciences in Middle School, which was a career education program in the Southeastern U.S focusing on science based on Super's (1990) theory. The students (n = 80) were found to improve their interests in studying science, increase science knowledge, skills and awareness and highly satisfied with…

  3. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  4. Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Turner, Paul L.; Freeland, Margaret; Corbin, Sara; Driscoll, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This brief paper reports the results of two observational studies examining the impact of fines for youth tobacco possession on public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings are presented that suggest that when police issued warnings and tickets to reduce underage youth possession of tobacco, in both towns the number of youth smoking in public…

  5. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  6. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  7. Student Matriculation: A Proposal to Study a Preliminary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland, Ronnald W.; Berg, Ernest

    Developed for the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges (CCC) as part of a larger study of academic quality, this report presents a preliminary analysis of student matriculation, a guidance process which brings the student into an agreement with the college for the purpose of achieving the student's educational objectives through…

  8. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  9. 78 FR 62350 - City of Guttenberg; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Guttenberg Water Power Project to be located on the Mississippi River, near the township of Guttenberg, in Clayton... generation of the Guttenberg Water Power Project would be 63,400 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr....

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the ground-water-flow system in the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guswa, John H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Areal distribution of calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride concentrations were analyzed to provide information on the hydrologic and geochemical relationships between aquifers. Ground water is generally of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Jordan Sandstone and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer generally decreases from southwest to northeast across the study area. This decrease probably reflects differences in the quality of recharge water and geochemical processes within the aquifers, such as ion exchange.

  11. Municipal Water Demand Study, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Richard; Cotton, Arthur W.

    1985-07-01

    By using a multiple regression model, this longitudinal study analyzes the methods and results of the factors which influence water consumption in Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma during the 20-year period of 1961 through 1980. The explanatory variables utilized in the model include the average price of water per thousand liters (X1); constant per capita income (X2); average monthly precipitation measured in millimeters (X3); average monthly temperatures in °C(X4); and number of households per thousand population (X5). The results indicate that average price and per capita income were predictive variables for Oklahoma City's water demand, while only per capita income was found to be a predictor for consumption in Tulsa.

  12. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  13. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  14. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  15. [Preliminary study of early sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M C; Saucier, J F

    1991-08-01

    The long term effects of sexual abuse are often measured by measuring behaviours such as social adjustment, job stability and marriage. This study was conducted to add to these internal measures. Using a semi-prospective instrument adapted from G. Kelly's repertory grid, the adolescents' perceptions of themselves and significant others are measured. Three hundred and twelve female adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 (average age = 16) participated in the study; 79 presented with non sexual behaviour disorders (delinquency, stealing, etc.), 56 presented with serious sexual behaviour disorders (prostitution, persistent sexual promiscuity) and 177 presented with no problems requiring psychosocial intervention. Various analyses (descriptive, multiple variance, regression analysis) showed that sexual abuse significantly affects many of the adolescents' perceptions. Sexually abused adolescents perceived their two real parents as less competent and their ideal mother and father as less protective than adolescents who had not been abused. In contrast, their perception of self and the ideal self was not affected by the sexual abuse, a finding which will spark discussion. PMID:1933745

  16. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  17. A Preliminary Immunologic Study of Urinary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Raymond; Pollak, Victor E.

    1966-01-01

    The clearances of seven different proteins were measured by a quantitative immunodiffusion technique in 15 patients with proteinuria. All urines were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis. The renal histology was evaluated in each case, and no correlation was found between histologic changes and the urinary protein excretion. This observation was confirmed by both immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. No specific urinary protein excretion pattern was found in six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. High-molecular-weight proteins were rarely found in urine, even when the glomerular basement membrane was definitely thickened. Low-molecular-weight proteins were often observed, but their clearances were variable. The results do not support the suggestion that protein clearances are valuable diagnostic and prognostic tools in renal diseases. They also do not support the view that glomerular filtration is the sole factor responsible for the final patterns of urinary proteins; tubular reabsorption is probably another important factor. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:20328484

  18. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  19. Spectral detection of thalassemia: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thalassemias (Thal) are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders arising out of mutations in the chromosomes 11 or 16. These disorders lead to poor oxygen delivery to blood vessels and consequent splenomegaly, bone deformities, and shorter life spans. The most common detection methods for Thal are complete blood count (CBC) followed by electrophoresis and molecular diagnosis methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping. These methods involve sophisticated instrumentations and are cumbersome and expensive. Results In this study an innovative spectral detection method, based on the fluorescence spectra of a set of biomolecules (tyrosine, tryptophan, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide and porphyrins) found in blood components is presented. An algorithm based on the spectral features of such biomolecules of blood components of 20 Thal patients (10 female and 10 male) and 18 age adjusted normal controls (4 female and 14 male) demonstrate reasonable level of classification with sensitivity and specificity values exceeding 90%. Conclusion This new technique could be of significant value for Thal detection, diagnosis, and subsequent genetic counselling and could be adapted for use in small primary health centres. PMID:24679334

  20. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students. PMID:15648478

  1. The Copenhagen City Heart Study (Østerbroundersøgelsen)

    PubMed Central

    Aguib, Yasmine; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study, also known as “Østerbroundersøgelsen”, is a large prospective cardio-vascular population study of 20,000 women and men that was launched in 1975 by Dr Peter Schnohr and Dr Gorm Jensen together with statistician Jørgen Nyboe and Prof. A. Tybjærg Hansen. The original purpose of the study was to focus on prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. During the years many other aspects have been added to the study: pulmonary diseases, heart failure, arrhythmia, alcohol, arthrosis, eye diseases, allergy, epilepsia, dementia, stress, vital exhaustion, social network, sleep-apnoe, ageing and genetics. In this review we highlight unique aspects of the Copenhagen City Heat Study (CCHS) and its outcome in investigations of clinical and molecular aspects of health and disease in the regional and global population. To increase the impact of population studies with a focus on risk and prevention of cardiovascular and related diseases and to maximize the likelihood of identifying disease causes and effective therapeutics, lessons learned from past research should be applied to the design, implementation and interpretation of future studies. PMID:26779513

  2. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  3. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  4. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  5. Clean Cities Case Study: UPS delivers with Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Frailey, M.

    1999-08-30

    In the fall of 1994, the UPS fleet in Landover, Maryland, began operating 20 vehicles on CNG. UPS selected CNG because natural gas is an abundant domestic resource that is available in almost every city in the US, and it also generally costs less than other fuels. The UPS project, funded by DOE through NREL and managed by TRI, was designed to test the feasibility of using CNG in a medium-duty pick-up and delivery fleet. This study is intended only to illustrate approaches that organizations could use in adopting AFVs into their fleets.

  6. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Housing Areas: Lessons from Oaxaca City, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Arthur D.

    The anthropological study of the city's role in the evolution of human systems requires the use of both macro and micro levels of analysis. From the macro perspective, the city is viewed as part of a wider complex society, while from the micro point of view, the city provides the context for understanding specific human institutions or processes…

  7. An Empirical Study of the School Zone Law in Three Cities in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownsberger, William N.; Aromaa, Susan

    This study of the 1989 Massachusetts' School Anti-Drug law reviewed 443 drug dealing cases in three cities. After selecting cities and drug dealing cases, researchers reviewed District Attorney case files and extracted selected data items (primarily from police reports). They mapped incident locations, schools, and parks in the cities; computed…

  8. Tree STEM Reconstruction Using Vertical Fisheye Images: a Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berveglieri, A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  9. Preliminary Study of a Hybrid Helicon-ECR Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Hala, A.; Oksuz, L.; Ximing, Zhu

    2016-08-01

    A new type of hybrid discharge is experimentally investigated in this work. A helicon source and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source were combined to produce plasma. As a preliminary study of this type of plasma, the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) method was used to obtain values of electron temperature and density under a series of typical conditions. Generally, it was observed that the electron temperature decreases and the electron density increases as the pressure increased. When increasing the applied power at a certain pressure, the average electron density at certain positions in the discharge does not increase significantly possibly due to the high degree of neutral depletion. Electron temperature increased with power in the hybrid mode. Possible mechanisms of these preliminary observations are discussed.

  10. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming. PMID:20557254

  11. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  12. Public health assessment for tri-cities Barrel Company, Inc. , Fenton, Broome County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980509285. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-18

    The Tri-Cities Barrel Company, Inc., facility was included on the original New York State Registry of Hazardous Waste Sites in June 1980 when it was discovered that hazardous waste had been discharged to ground surface and to unlined lagoons. This site was later placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). Four monitoring wells were drilled and sampled during a preliminary site investigation. The on-site contamination of groundwater was documented by sampling of monitoring wells in 1986. One private well near the site showed low levels of ethylbenzene, meta-xylene and ortho-xylene; it is not clear, however, if this was related to the site. A second sample was taken from this well in 1990 and did not detect any contaminants. Since the preliminary report, additional waste lagoons have been identified and the site was expanded to include the entire 13 acres owned by the Tri-Cities Barrel Company. A remedial investigation is currently ongoing. Based on information reviewed, this site is an indeterminate public health hazard because the extent of contamination in groundwater has not been defined and contamination in areas north of I-88 has not been confirmed or defined. The primary health concern associated with exposure to chemicals at the site comes from their potential to cause cancer in humans or animals.

  13. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  14. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Hirschkron, R.; Koch, C. C.; Neitzel, R. E.; Vinson, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric design and mission evaluations of advanced turbofan configurations were conducted for future transport aircraft application. Economics, environmental suitability and fuel efficiency were investigated and compared with goals set by NASA. Of the candidate engines which included mixed- and separate-flow, direct-drive and geared configurations, an advanced mixed-flow direct-drive configuration was selected for further design and evaluation. All goals were judged to have been met except the acoustic goal. Also conducted was a performance risk analysis and a preliminary aerodynamic design of the 10 stage 23:1 pressure ratio compressor used in the study engines.

  15. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  16. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  17. Driving phobia in the city of Houston: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mathew, R J; Weinman, M L; Semchuk, K M; Levin, B L

    1982-08-01

    To study the fear of driving phenomenon the authors contacted 48 subjects who, in response to a newspaper article, had expressed an intense fear of driving in the city of Houston and compared them with an age- and sex-matched control group. The information elicited from the subjects suggested the existence of a driving phobia. No significant differences emerged between the phobic subjects and the controls on relevant driving history and background. Although the phobic subjects reported significantly higher levels of anxiety while driving in normal and difficult situations, most of them reported anxiety of phobic intensity only about difficult driving situations, such as driving on freeways and in congested traffic. PMID:7091430

  18. Empirical study of air quality in Barreiro city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J. N.; Teodoroa, M. F.; Coelho, L. M.; Carvalho, M. G.

    2014-10-01

    The main objective of the work is to study the impact of air pollution on children's health in Portugal and more specifically in the city of Barreiro. We use the suitability of general linear methods (GLM) as a tool to estimate a model which relates air qualityand health. With detail, this relationship is investigated for the case of the effects of small particles on health. It was difficult to find clear and unambiguous correlations in particle dispersion, air quality and health. After a previous treatment of data, the models are estimated and validated by GLM. At the end of this process, the best models are selected using validation tests and residual analysis. The results are promising but some work using different statistical methods is ongoing.

  19. Studies of atmospheric aerosols in Mexico City using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J.; Crespo, I.; González, S.; López-Suárez, A.; Morales, M. A.; Pablo, B.; Paredes-Gutiérrez, R.

    1997-02-01

    Along the years 1993-1995 several studies of atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were performed. Typically, samples were collected in morning periods (8:00 h to 14:00 h) following different protocols, using a Stacking Filter Unit of the Davis design, separating particles with sizes between 2.5 μm and 15 μm (known as coarse fraction, deposited on polycarbonate filters) and smaller than 2.5 μm (known as fine fraction, collected on Teflon or polycarbonate filters). Elemental analysis of the particulate matter deposited onto the filters was done with Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). A summary of the results for the fine fraction is presented, including mean elemental concentrations, and results of multivariate statistical analyses, such as Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The influence of meteorological parameters to the local elemental concentrations is discussed on the basis of multivariate statistics.

  20. An overview of photochemical smog studies in Australian cities

    SciTech Connect

    Physick, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of photochemical smog is being addressed by authorities in the five major cities of Australia. Detrimental levels of smog are exceeded occasionally in the larger cities of Sydney and Melbourne, while the geographic features and meteorology of Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide suggest potentially unacceptable levels as those cities continue to grow. Motor vehicles are the dominant source of precursor emissions for smog and this is reflected in the comparison by Ahmet and van Dijk (1994) of hourly-averaged ozone exceedences for Australia`s major cities, i.e., the number of exceedences is roughly proportional to the population. Although statistics such as these can be strongly influenced by the distribution of monitors within a network, the relatively low exceedence threshold (0.08 ppm) probably ensures that the results are a realistic indicator of the relative extent of the problem in each city.

  1. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  2. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  3. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  4. Preliminary paleomagnetic study of the Thetford Mines Ordovician Ophiolite (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Chiara, Anita; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Extension associated with oceanic ridges at divergent plate boundaries is characterized by normal faulting and episodic magma supply. Studies in modern oceanic settings suggest locally along ridges both lower crust and upper mantle peridotites may be exhumed to the seafloor in features known as oceanic core complexes (OCC). OCC are characterized by long-lived low-angle detachment faults that extend for 10s of km, and that are crosscut by high-angle normal faults oriented parallel to the rift axis. Here we present preliminary results from 12 paleomagnetic sites sampled on an example of fossilized Ordovician OCC preserved in the in the Canadian Appalachians, the Southern Quebec ophiolites. These were obducted and subjected to polyphase deformation during Palaeozoic orogeny along the Laurentian margin of Iapetus. Although locally obscured by tectonic fabrics and structures, the original relationships between the ophiolitic mantle, the overlying plutonic section, and onlapping Ordovician siliciclastic rocks can be reconstructed within the Thetford-Mines ophiolite. Preliminary results from AMS and Thermal demagnetization experiments record a remarkably consistent overprint from the youngest (Acadian) phase of Paleozoic orogeny. Although complicating further study of intra-oceanic deformation along the detachment fault in the original OCC, the results provide further insights into the progressive overprint of deformation events as recorded by AMS.

  5. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  6. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  7. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  8. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  9. Characterization of burns using hyperspectral imaging technique - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos

    2015-02-01

    Surgical burn treatment depends on accurate estimation of burn depth. Many methods have been used to asses burns, but none has gained wide acceptance. Hyperspectral imaging technique has recently entered the medical research field with encouraging results. In this paper we present a preliminary study (case presentation) that aims to point out the value of this optical method in burn wound characterization and to set up future lines of investigation. A hyperspectral image of a leg and foot with partial thickness burns was obtained in the fifth postburn day. The image was analyzed using linear spectral unmixing model as a tool for mapping the investigated areas. The article gives details on the mathematical bases of the interpretation model and correlations with clinical examination pointing out the advantages of hyperspectral imaging technique. While the results were encouraging, further more extended and better founded studies are being prepared before recognizing hyperspectral imaging technique as an applicable method of burn wound assessment. PMID:24997530

  10. Preliminary study: isotopic safeguards techniques (IST) LMFBR fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P. J.; Kroc, T. K.

    1980-06-01

    This memorandum presents the preliminary results of the effort to investigate the applicability of isotope correlation techniques (ICT), formulated for the LWR system, to the LMFBR fuel cycle. The detailed isotopic compositional changes with burnup developed for the CRBR was utilized as the reference case. This differs from the usual LMFBR design studies in that the core uranium is natural uranium rather than depleted. Nevertheless, the general isotopic behavior should not differ significantly and does allow an initial insight into the expected behavior of isotopic correlations for the LMFBR power systems such as: the U.K. PFR and reprocessing plant; the French Phenix and Superphenix; and the US reference conceptual design studies (CDS) of homogeneous and heterogeneous LMFBR systems as they are developed.

  11. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way. PMID:21667381

  12. Reactivity to sensations in borderline personality disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Ahn, Roianne; Geiger, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are widely considered to have problems with emotional reactivity. However, the specific kinds of stimuli that are associated with heightened emotional reactivity in BPD have not been well characterized. Thus, it is unclear whether the emotional dysfunction in BPD occurs in response to any emotionally evocative stimuli, or to specific classes of stimuli. In this study, we used subjective measures (self-report and interview-based) to compare reactivity to sensations (auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, visual) between participants with BPD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 50). Controlling for trait negative emotional reactivity, individuals with BPD reported being significantly more reactive across sensory stimuli. However, the difference between controls and BPD was significantly greater for reactivity to auditory stimuli compared to other sensory stimuli. Findings from this study provide preliminary data suggesting individuals with BPD may be characterized by heightened self-reported reactivity to aversive sounds. PMID:22023306

  13. Exercise Is Good for You, Even in Polluted Cities: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158686.html Exercise Is Good for You, Even in Polluted Cities: ... the same time as supporting physical activity." Regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, diabetes and ...

  14. Exercise Is Good for You, Even in Polluted Cities: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158686.html Exercise Is Good for You, Even in Polluted Cities: ... the same time as supporting physical activity." Regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, diabetes and ...

  15. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect , (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final

  16. Engineering seismological studies in and around Zagazig city, Sharkia, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Eraki, M.; Mohamed, A. A.; El-Kenawy, A. A.; Toni, M. S.; Shimaa, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the ground vibrations using Nakamura technique to evaluate the relation between the ground conditions and the earthquake characteristics. Microtremor measurements were carried out at 55 sites in and around Zagazig city. The signals were processed using horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the soil deposits and its corresponding H/V amplitude. Seismic measurements were acquired at nine sites for recording the surface waves. The recorded waveforms were processed using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method to infer the shear wave velocity profile. The obtained fundamental frequencies were found to be ranging from 0.7 to 1.7 Hz and the maximum H/V amplitude reached 6.4. These results together with the average shear wave velocity in the surface layers were used for the estimation of the thickness of the upper most soft cover layers (depth to bedrock). The sediment thickness generally increases at the northeastern and southwestern parts of the area which is in good agreement with the local geological structure. The results of this work showed the zones of higher potential damage in the event of an earthquake in the study area.

  17. Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations

  18. Preliminary studies of electromagnetic sounding of cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, A.; Warne, L.; Bednarczyk, S.; Elachi, C.

    1978-01-01

    The internal structure of a comet could be determined with a spacecraft borne electromagnetic sounder. A dielectric profile of the comet could be produced in direct analogy with terrestrial glacier and ice sheet sounding experiments. This profile would allow the detection of a rocky core or ice layers if they exist, just as layers in the ice and the bedrock interface have been clearly observed through the Greenland ice sheet. It would also provide a gross estimate of the amount of dust in the icy region. Models for the response of the nucleus and cometary plasma to electromagnetic sounding are developed and used to derive experimental parameters. A point system design was completed. Preliminary engineering study results indicate that the sounder is well within the bounds of current space technology.

  19. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  20. Mathematical modeling of normal pharyngeal bolus transport: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, M W; Rosendall, B; Finlayson, B A

    1998-07-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a common clinical symptom associated with many diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular diseases, and cancer. Its complications include choking, aspiration, malnutrition, cachexia, and dehydration. The goal in dysphagia management is to provide adequate nutrition and hydration while minimizing the risk of choking and aspiration. It is important to advance the individual toward oral feeding in a timely manner to enhance the recovery of swallowing function and preserve the quality of life. Current clinical assessments of dysphagia are limited in providing adequate guidelines for oral feeding. Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics of pharyngeal bolus transport provides a unique opportunity for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a special case of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In CFD, the flow of a fluid in a space is modeled by covering the space with a grid and predicting how the fluid moves from grid point to grid point. FEA is capable of solving problems with complex geometries and free surfaces. A preliminary pharyngeal model has been constructed using FEA. This model incorporates literature-reported, normal, anatomical data with time-dependent pharyngeal/upper esophageal sphincter (UES) wall motion obtained from videofluorography (VFG). This time-dependent wall motion can be implemented as a moving boundary condition in the model. Clinical kinematic data can be digitized from VFG studies to construct and test the mathematical model. The preliminary model demonstrates the feasibility of modeling pharyngeal bolus transport, which, to our knowledge, has not been attempted before. This model also addresses the need and the potential for CFD in understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Improvements of the model are underway. Combining the model with individualized clinical data should potentially

  1. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of quadrupole

  2. Evaluation of Education of Inner City Handicapped Children, Case Studies in Five Cities. Volume I, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported was an evaluation of the education of inner city (IC) handicapped children in five cities. Focused on were an assessment of present education programs, a comparison of services provided IC children with services provided non-inner city (NIC) children, a determination of needs unique to handicapped children in inner city areas, formulation…

  3. Dynamic study of land-use in Yining City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiangping; Wei, Lu

    2009-10-01

    Based on models of land-use, the paper analyzes urban sprawl from the macroscopic to the micro level, predicts the demand for construction land in the city expansion, and presents the law between total amount of urban land demand and urban space expansion. Then by combining the data with current urban land and natural resources round the city, the paper appraises the rationality of the developed-land which will have changed their use-nature, to appraisal the feasibility and utilization ratio of the undeveloped land and nature resource which will be developed in nearly future, find out the irrationality that may appear in the urban space expanding, thus restrain through planning and policy. With the rapid develop of western regions in recent years, different with the eastern coastal zone; the western city is beginning its own urbanization process. Yili Prefecture, as the window of the development of western regions, is expected to see fast development within a few years. Meanwhile, to Yili Prefecture, the topographical ground form condition is complicated, the natural resources is extremely abundant, once it is destroyed will cause irretrievable losses. Under this background, how to handle the relation between city's development and natural environment and resources well, taking the urban development path that can be constant becomes the important subject that we can't avoid. So this paper uses linear regression mode and dynamics, offer valuable reference for smooth development of the city.

  4. Facilitating Community Change. A Case Study of Marin City Families First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiett, Douglas; And Others

    This report documents the development and progress of Marin City Families First (MCFF), a project undertaken in Marin City (California) in 1993 by the Far West Laboratory's (FWL) Center for Child and Family Studies. Its goal was to develop a model comprehensive child and family support system for low-income communities. In pursuing its objective…

  5. Studying and Teaching about the Internal Environments of Single-Structure Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Michael L.

    The field of urban geography has as its prime foci the study and teaching of the spatial relationships that exist among the various structures, areas, and inhabitants within cities. The idea of a single-structure city, a building where people can live, work, and be entertained with a climatically-controlled environment is no longer a utopian…

  6. Options for New York City's Branch Libraries. A Report Prepared for the Library Study Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    This report of the findings of a year-long policy analysis of New York City's three public branch library systems, carried out by the Nova Institute in cooperation with a study committee composed of city and library officials, opens with a brief historic account of the development of the New York Public Library, the Brooklyn Public Library, and…

  7. Study of Adult Vocational Education Programs in Three Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytic Systems, Inc., Vienna, VA.

    A study was conducted in three cities (Philadelphia, Cleveland, and San Francisco), selected to represent a cross section of major cities based on resident socio-economic characteristics, industrial base, and school system configuration. The effect of the decision of local school administrators concerning the critical needs of the community with…

  8. The Model Cities Project of the Department of Education in New Jersey. Report of a Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, J. Gerald

    This report provides a case study of cooperation between the New Jersey Department of Education and the Model Cities Program to improve State education planning and to restructure grant administration machinery. To assist the project, the Department provided onsite technical assistance to the model cities. According to the report, the Department…

  9. Archaeoastronomical Information in the Study of Cremation Necropolis: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, J.; Cerde, M. L.; Rodríguez, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work remarks the significance that archaeoastronomical studies have for archaeological research. These studies provide us data about the perception that ancient societies had about astronomical events and how these facts were added to their religious and ideological world. Thus, archaeoastronomy become a valuable source of information when aimed to solve any question involving the ancient societies. We take as reference in this work some of the Late Bronze Age{'}s cremation necropolis, representatives of usually called Urnfields, to check if their design can be related to some celestial phenomena: Can Bech de Baix (Gerona), Can Pitieu-Can Roqueta(Barcelona), Molá (Tarragona), Can Missert (Tarragona), Les Obagues (Tarragona), La Colomina (Lleida) and La Torraza (Navarra). Likewise a new standard in archaeological excavations maps is proposed. This will allow getting the information more available and improving further studies.

  10. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.; Bergman, W.; Beason, D.

    1994-07-18

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blowout. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  11. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  12. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  13. Preliminary Trade Study of Phase Change Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Leimkeuhler, Thomas; Quinn, Gregory; Golliher, Eric

    2006-01-01

    For short durations, phase change based heat rejection systems are a very effective way of removing heat from spacecraft. Future NASA vehicles, such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), will require non-radiative heat rejection systems during at least a portion of the planned mission, just as their predecessors have. While existing technologies are available to modify, such as Apollo era sublimators, or the Space Shuttle Flash Evaporator System (FES), several new technologies are under development or investigation to progress beyond these existing heat rejection systems. Examples include the Multi-Fluid Evaporator developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, improvements upon the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator originally developed for the X-38 program, and a Compact Flash Evaporator System (CFES). Other possibilities evaluate new ways of operating existing designs. The new developments are targeted at increasing operating life, expanding the environments in which the system can operate, improving the mass and volume characteristics, or some combination of these or other improvements. This paper captures the process and results of a preliminary trade study performed at Johnson Space Center to compare the various existing and proposed phase change based heat rejection systems for the CEV. Because the new systems are still in development, and the information on existing systems is extrapolation, this trade study is not meant to suggest a final decision for future vehicles. The results of this early trade study are targeted to aid the development efforts for the new technologies by identifying issues that could reduce the chances of selection for the CEV.

  14. Experience from the Argentine Pegvisomant Observational Study: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    García Basavilbaso, N; Guitelman, M; Nagelberg, A; Stalldecker, G; Carabelli, A; Bruno, O; Danilowitz, K; Manavela, M; Mallea Gil, S; Ballarino, C; Guelman, R; Katz, D; Fidalgo, S; Leal, R; Fideleff, H; Servidio, M; Bruera, D; Librandi, F; Chervin, A; Vitale, M; Basso, A

    2010-01-01

    The GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant is an efficient agent to achieve biochemical control of acromegaly in those cases refractory to surgery and medical therapy with somatostatin analogs. We conducted an observational multicenter study consisting of data collection in accordance with the standard management of patients with acromegaly in everyday practice. We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients, 23 females, who were treated with pegvisomant due to the lack of biochemical response or intolerance to the somatostatin analogs. The objective was to monitor long-term safety and efficacy of the antagonist. 82% of the patients had previous pituitary surgery, 53.6% radiotherapy and 96.4% received medical therapy for acromegaly. Only 19.2% of the patients had pituitary residual tumor size larger than 1 cm, the remainder harbored a microadenoma or no visible tumor in the pituitary images. In terms of biochemical efficacy, IGF-I levels decreased to normal ranges in 45% and 58.8% of patients after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, the daily mean dose of pegvisomant being 9.6+/-1.1 mg. Adverse events, potentially related to pegvisomant were reported in 6 patients (21.4%), local injection site reaction and elevated liver enzymes being the most frequent. Tumor size did not show enlargement in the evaluated population (15 patients) during the period of the study. This paper presents preliminary data from a small observational study in Argentina which represents the first database in our country. PMID:20616494

  15. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  16. a Study of City Traffic in Afternoon Rush Hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávalos, Edgar; Huang, D. W.; Huang, W. N.

    2013-06-01

    The traffic of vehicles from downtown to suburban areas is investigated numerically. We propose a cellular automaton to simulate the traffic of vehicles within a city regulated by traffic lights. Both traffic flow and travel time are presented and we discuss some strategies to optimize these quantities.

  17. Aurora City Schools Kindergarten Math Readiness Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora City Schools, OH.

    The program goals and objectives for Kindergarten mathematics readiness in Aurora City Schools are listed and described. Consideration of Kindergarten Philosophy, the diverse population of students, the organizational design of adopted textbooks, child development and learning styles, are all assessed in establishing scope and sequence. The…

  18. Titan Lake Probe: The Ongoing NASA Decadal Study Preliminary Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter; Brockwell, Tim; Elliot, John; Reh, Kim; Spencer, John; Outer Planets Satellites Decadal Subpanel, The

    2010-05-01

    This talk provides an update on the scientific requirements and preliminary design of a Titan Lake Probe for a future NASA Flagship mission. The starting point for this study is the joint NASA ESA TSSM mission. Using this as a starting point we have revisited the scientific requirements and expanded them to include the possibility of a lake floater and a submersible. The preliminary results of this ongoing study will be presented. The scientific objectives of a Titan Lake Probe mission are: 1) to understand the formation and evolution of Titan and its atmosphere through measurement of the composition of the target lake (e.g., Kraken Mare), with particular emphasis on the isotopic composition of dissolved minor species and on dissolved noble gases, 2) to study the lake-atmosphere interaction in order to determine the role of Titan's lakes in the methane cycle, 3) to investigate the target lake as a laboratory for both pre-biotic organic chemistry in both water (or ammonia-enriched water) solutions and non-water solvents, and 4) to determine if Titan has an interior ocean by measuring tidal changes in the level of the lake over the course of Titan's sixteen-day orbit. The driving requirements for the mission are: 1) the need to land on and explore the lake at depth while adequately communicating the data back to Earth via either direct to Earth or relay communications, 2) thermal design that allows sustained (>32 days) sampling of the 94K lake environment, and 3) a mass spectrometer inlet system that allows sampling of gas, liquid, and solids from the 94K environment. The primary payload is an analytical chemistry laboratory that includes an inlet system for sampling gas, liquid, and solids in and above the lake feeding two capable mass spectrometers that determine the organic and isotopic composition of the sampled materials. The instrumentation also includes a meteorological package that can measure the rate of gas exchange between the lake and the atmosphere, and

  19. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented.

  20. Physico-Chemical profile of Puga Khanda: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Baragi, Pramod C.; Baragi, Umapati C.; Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the oldest known form of medicine in the world. However, the quality control and the assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components. Herbal drugs, singlely or in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and the standardization of finished herbal products. Many formulations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text for Vrushyatwa (aphrodisiac). Puga Khanda is one among such formulations. Aim: To develop preliminary physico-chemical profile of Puga Khanda. Materials and Methods: Puga Khanda was prepared in three batches as per the classical reference mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The formulation was subjected for physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The study revealed that organoleptic characters, pH and extractive values of all 3 samples were almost equal. All the samples had 60% of sugar needed for preservation and 2/3rd of it was non reducing sugar. The total alkaloids ranged from 0.002 to 0.004% w/w. In TLC study the entire samples showed similar pattern except the 2nd sample of Puga Khanda. PMID:25364209

  1. A Preliminary Study of a Solar-Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Duane W.

    1961-01-01

    A preliminary study is made of some problems associated with the sending of an instrumented probe close to the Sun for the purpose of gathering and telemetering back to Earth information concerning solar phenomena and circumsolar space. The problems considered are primarily those relating to heating and to launch requirements. A nonanalytic discussion of the communications problem of a solar-probe mission is presented to obtain order-of-magnitude estimates of the output and weight of an auxiliary power supply which might be required. From the study it is believed that approaches to the Sun as close as about 4 or 5 million miles do not present insuperable difficulties insofar as heating and communications are concerned. Guidance requirements, in general, do not appear to be stringent. However, in terms of current experience, velocity requirements may be large. It is found, for example, that to achieve perihelion distances between the orbit of Mercury and the visible disc of the Sun, total burnout velocities ranging between 50,000 and 100,000 feet per second are required.

  2. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  3. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-08-15

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  4. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    PubMed

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

  5. A preliminary study of Mars rover/sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council recommends that a Mars Sample Return mission be undertaken before the year 2000. Comprehensive studies of a Mars Sample Return mission have been ongoing since 1984. The initial focus of these studies was an integrated mission concept with the surface rover and sample return vehicle elements delivered to Mars on a single launch and landed together. This approach, to be carried out as a unilateral U.S. initiative, is still a high priority goal in an Augmented Program of exploration, as the SSEC recommendation clearly states. With this background of a well-understood mission concept, NASA decided to focus its 1986 study effort on a potential opportunity not previously examined; namely, a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission which would involve a significant aspect of international cooperation. As envisioned, responsibility for the various mission operations and hardware elements would be divided in a logical manner with clearly defined and acceptable interfaces. The U.S. and its international partner would carry out separately launched but coordinated missions with the overall goal of accomplishing in situ science and returning several kilograms of surface samples from Mars. Important considerations for implementation of such a plan are minimum technology transfer, maximum sharing of scientific results, and independent credibility of each mission role. Under the guidance and oversight of a Mars Exploration Strategy Advisory Group organized by NASA, a study team was formed in the fall of 1986 to develop a preliminary definition of a flight-separable, cooperative mission. The selected concept assumes that the U.S. would undertake the rover mission with its sample collection operations and our international partner would return the samples to Earth. Although the inverse of these roles is also possible, this study report focuses on the rover functions of MRSR because rover operations have not

  6. Bisphenol a exposure in Mexico City and risk of prematurity: a pilot nested case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Presence of Bisphenol A (BPA) has been documented worldwide in a variety of human biological samples. There is growing evidence that low level BPA exposure may impact placental tissue development and thyroid function in humans. The aim of this present pilot study was to determine urinary concentrations of BPA during the last trimester of pregnancy among a small subset of women in Mexico City, Mexico and relate these concentrations to risk of delivering prematurely. Methods A nested case-control subset of 60 participants in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to ENvironmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) study in Mexico City, Mexico were selected based on delivering less than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation and greater than 37 weeks of gestation. Third trimester archived spot urine samples were analyzed by online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results BPA was detected in 80.0% (N = 48) of the urine samples; total concentrations ranged from < 0.4 μg/L to 6.7 μg/L; uncorrected geometric mean was 1.52 μg/L. The adjusted odds ratio of delivering less than or equal to 37 weeks in relation to specific gravity adjusted third trimester BPA concentration was 1.91 (95%CI 0.93, 3.91, p-value = 0.08). When cases were further restricted to births occurring prior to the 37th week (n = 12), the odds ratio for specific-gravity adjusted BPA was larger and statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions This is the first study to document measurable levels of BPA in the urine of a population of Mexican women. This study also provides preliminary evidence, based on a single spot urine sample collected during the third trimester, that pregnant women who delivered less than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation and prematurely (< 37 weeks) had higher urinary concentrations of BPA compared to women delivering after 37 weeks. PMID:20955576

  7. Health assessment for Packaging Corporation of America, Filer City, Manistee County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980794747. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-10

    Packaging Corporation of America is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located in Filer City, Stronach Township, Manistee County, Michigan. The Packaging Corporation of America (PCA) and its prior owner, American Box Board Company (ABBCo), have operated a neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulping mill in Filer City for the production of corrugated medium for corrugated boxes. Seepage lagoons operated from 1951 through 1974, receiving a total of 7.2 billion gallons of waste materials. Inorganic chemicals detected in lagoon sediments in 1986 include (with maximum concentrations in ppm): aluminum, 6,250; barium, 633; cadmium, 33; calcium, 228,000; chromium, 29; copper, 173; iron, 25,900; lead, 128; magnesium, 11,300; manganese, 2,200; mercury, 2.5; nickel, 20; potassium, 8,940; sodium, 74,300; vanadium, 15; and zinc, 2,080. A similar profile of inorganics was found in subsurface soils and ground water in 1987. Arsenic and cadmium were also detected off-site in high concentrations in a monitoring well sample from 1981. Organic chemicals were also detected in the ground water in the 1987 sampling. These included (maximum concentrations in ppb); 2-butanone, 1,700; tetrachloroethene, 18; chloroform, 8.7; bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 10; phenol, 70,000; 2-methylphenol, 6,200; 4-methylphenol, 16,000; and benzoic acid, 240,000. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time. Human exposure to heavy metals and organic chemicals may occur via ground water contamination.

  8. Preliminary study of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-I; Weng, Li-Jen; Su, Yi-Jen; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2006-10-01

    This description concerns the development of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms and the selection of its items for a Taiwanese sample. 102 Taiwanese outpatients (28 men, 74 women) with major depressive disorder completed a 44-item preliminary scale. All had experienced a major depressive episode but had not been treated by antidepressants within the prior two weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered to evaluate the validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS). Items, 12 for the Depression Subscale and 10 for the Somatic Subscale, were selected for the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale according to their frequency and their association with rated severity of depression and clinical practices. The mean Hamilton Depression score was 23.9 (SD = 5.2) versus 38.4 (SD = 11.3) for the total DSSS; means for the Depression subscale were 23.5 +/- 6.0 and the Somatic subscale 14.9 +/- 6.8. Cronbach alpha was .88 for the total DSSS, .78 for the Depression subscale, and .86 for the Somatic subscale. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the two scales was .59 (p <.01). The new scale had adequate internal consistency reliability and convergent validity. Much study is required to assess its structure, item characteristics, and in judging its applicability and limitations, and sensitivity to cultural differences in clinical settings. PMID:17153806

  9. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists. PMID:19823679

  10. Relationship between electrohysterogram and internal uterine pressure: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rabotti, C; Mischi, M; van Laar, J O E H; Aelen, P; Oei, S G; Bergmans, J W M

    2006-01-01

    Electrohysterography (EHG) is a promising technique for monitoring the uterine activity, based on electrical recordings on the abdominal surface. However, a quantitative estimation of the internal uterine pressure (IUP) by means of EHG is not available for clinical practice. In this paper we present a preliminary study on the estimation of the mechanical uterine activity from abdominal EHG measurements. For the EHG analysis we use two different Time Frequency Distributions (TFD): the spectrogram and the Wigner-Ville Distribution. We assume the EHG to be the sum of frequency modulated signals. Based on this assumption, the IUP is estimated from the unnormalized first moment of the TFD. Eventually, a third order polynomial model is applied to the estimated IUP in order to improve the estimate accuracy. A recent method for detection of uterine contraction by EHG is employed for comparison of the performance. The algorithms were tested on two patient recordings. The results were compared with a reference IUP which is simultaneously measured by an intrauterine catheter. The IUP estimated by our method showed a correlation coefficient with the reference IUP (R=0.93) higher than that achieved by the comparison method (R=0.85). Therefore the proposed method may be considered as a promising clinical technique for accurate non invasive IUP measurements. PMID:17946058

  11. The treatment of nonstreptococcal pharyngitis with erythromycin: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Marlow, R A; Torrez, A J; Haxby, D

    1989-01-01

    This preliminary study evaluated the effectiveness of enteric-coated erythromycin in the treatment of adults with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. Twenty-six patients, aged 12 or older, with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either enteric-coated erythromycin or placebo for 10 days. Each day the patients rated the soreness of their throats and how sick they felt. The use of erythromycin appeared to decrease the median number of days for the feeling of sickness to improve (two days versus four days, P less than .01) as well as to decrease the median number of days for the feeling of sickness to resolve (three-and-a-half days versus five days, P less than .05). This apparent improvement in sickness occurred even though there was no significant decrease in the soreness of the throat in patients treated with erythromycin compared to those patients treated with placebo. Treatment with enteric-coated erythromycin appeared to shorten the time until improvement in this group of adults with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. PMID:2612797

  12. Predicting use of hearing protection: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Kelemen, M J

    1993-09-01

    The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health targeted noise-induced hearing loss as one of the top 10 occupational hazards. Research has been directed toward reducing noise exposure rather than identifying the factors associated with workers' decision consistently to use hearing protection. The long-term goal of this program of research is to develop a causal model explaining workers' use of hearing protection to guide development of nursing interventions. This study was a preliminary one to prepare for testing Pender's health-promotion model (HPM) as a causal model. Ninety-eight skilled tradesmen completed written questionnaires at their work site. Although 98% indicated they were supposed to wear protection, their reported use averaged 50.3% of the time. Reported use significantly and positively correlated with workers' perceptions of the benefits and self-efficacy of use, value of outcomes regarding keeping out noise and increased well-being, and health-promoting behaviors in the areas of self-actualization and stress management. Perceptions of barriers of use were significantly and negatively related to use. In regression analyses of use of hearing protection on components of the HPM and dimensions of health behavior and lifestyle, one component of the HPM (benefits) and two dimensions of health behavior and lifestyle (self-actualization and interpersonal support) significantly predicted use, accounting for 24% of the variance in use of protection. Knowledge of the predictors of hearing protection use will ultimately aid nurses in implementing interventions, increasing use, and decreasing hearing losses. PMID:8234157

  13. A Preliminary Study of Sex Differences in Emotional Experience.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Aguilar, Azalea; Barrios, Fernando A

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary approaches have proposed that women possess an advantage over men in emotional functioning to promote attachment for child-rearing. Likewise, sex differences have been reported in traits such as personality and empathy, traits that likely modulate emotional processing. In this preliminary study, sex differences in emotional processing were analyzed, including empathy as a social emotion and personality traits, as well as whether there exist relationships between those measures. Young volunteers (N = 105) indicated the emotional valence, activation, and dominance that they experience in situations categorized as emotionally positive, negative, or neutral. The results of comparison between sexes supported the approach that women showed more sensitivity to high activation and dominance for positive emotions and empathy, and men were more sensitive to negative situations. Correlation analysis showed only one positive relationship between scores of Self-transcendence, a subscale of Temperament and Character Inventory, with activation scores of neutral situations, but not with emotionally charged situations, perhaps because emotions are context-dependent processes while personality traits are considered context-independent descriptions of habits. These findings should be replicated to enrich knowledge about problems in emotional processing. PMID:27154367

  14. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  15. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  16. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying. PMID:20521174

  17. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  18. A Multilevel Regression Model for Geographical Studies in Sets of Non-Adjacent Cities

    PubMed Central

    Marí-Dell’Olmo, Marc; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, small-area-based ecological regression analyses have been published that study the association between a health outcome and a covariate in several cities. These analyses have usually been performed independently for each city and have therefore yielded unrelated estimates for the cities considered, even though the same process has been studied in all of them. In this study, we propose a joint ecological regression model for multiple cities that accounts for spatial structure both within and between cities and explore the advantages of this model. The proposed model merges both disease mapping and geostatistical ideas. Our proposal is compared with two alternatives, one that models the association for each city as fixed effects and another that treats them as independent and identically distributed random effects. The proposed model allows us to estimate the association (and assess its significance) at locations with no available data. Our proposal is illustrated by an example of the association between unemployment (as a deprivation surrogate) and lung cancer mortality among men in 31 Spanish cities. In this example, the associations found were far more accurate for the proposed model than those from the fixed effects model. Our main conclusion is that ecological regression analyses can be markedly improved by performing joint analyses at several locations that share information among them. This finding should be taken into consideration in the design of future epidemiological studies. PMID:26308613

  19. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  20. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  1. A Preliminary Feasibility Study On Seismic Monitoring Of Polymer Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P. K.; Park, C.; Lim, B.; Nam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polymer flooding using water with soluble polymers is an enhanced oil recovery technique, which intends to maximize oil-recovery sweep efficiency by minimizing fingering effects and as a result creating a smooth flood front; polymer flooding decreases the flow rates within high permeability zone while enhances those of lower permeabilities. Understanding of fluid fronts and saturations is critical to not only optimizing polymer flooding but also monitoring the efficiency. Polymer flooding monitoring can be made in single well scale with high-resolution wireline logging, in inter-well scale with tomography, and in reservoir scale with surface survey. For reservoir scale monitoring, this study makes a preliminary feasibility study based on constructing rock physics models (RPMs), which can bridge variations in reservoir parameters to the changes in seismic responses. For constructing RPMs, we change reservoir parameters with consideration of polymer flooding to a reservoir. Time-lapse seismic data for corresponding RPMs are simulated using a time-domain staggered-finite-difference modeling with implementation of a boundary condition of conventional perfect match layer. Analysis on time-lapse seismic data with respect to the changes in fluid front and saturation can give an insight on feasibility of surface seismic survey to polymer flooding. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2012T100201588). Myung Jin Nam was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0014684).

  2. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  3. Preliminary report on the groundwater isotope study in the Brentwood Region

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Campbell, K.R.

    1994-10-12

    Under contract with the City of Brentwood and auxiliary support by the East Contra Costa Irrigation District (ECCID), a preliminary research assessment of the groundwater resources beneath the Brentwood region is complete. The research was performed by an isotope geochemistry approach rather than traditional hydrogeological methods. The isotope approach is inexpensive relative to the traditional methods and has been used here mostly as a tracer that details the source, migration paths, and migration rates of existing groundwater supplies. In addition, the isotope results provide a quantitative framework in which to answer questions important to Brentwood including: (1) What is the long-term and short-term sustainability of the groundwater resources relative to current urban growth projections? (2) How can the good water quality be maximized in groundwater wells under short and long-term groundwater use schemes? (3) What underground areas exist within the Brentwood region that indicate untapped groundwater supplies that may provide plentiful, good quality water? This preliminary report focuses only on the first question. The second and third questions will be addressed in the final report to be completed by January 1, 1995. Furthermore, the conclusions in this preliminary report of how much groundwater is available for use will be incorporated into the Groundwater Management Plan currently being developed by the ECCID in conjunction with the City of Brentwood.

  4. City of Klamath Falls, Oregon Geothermal Power Plant Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Brown, PE; Stephen Anderson, PE, Bety Riley

    2011-07-31

    The purpose of the Klamath Falls project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined thermal distribution system and power generation facility. The city of Klamath Falls operates a geothermal district heating system which would appear to be an attractive opportunity to install a power generation system. Since the two wells have operated reliably and consistently over many years, no new sources or resource exploration would be necessary. It appears that it will cost more to construct, operate, maintain and amortize a proposed geothermal facility than the long?term value of the power it would produce. The success of a future project will be determined by whether utility power production costs will remain low and whether costs of construction, operations, or financing may be reduced. There are areas that it would be possible to reduce construction cost. More detailed design could enable the city to obtain more precise quotes for components and construction, resulting in reduction in contingency projections. The current level of the contingency for uncertainty of costs is between $200,000 and $300,000. Another key issue with this project appears to be operation cost. While it is expected that only minimal routine monitoring and operating expenses will occur, the cost of water supply and waste water disposal represents nearly one quarter of the value of the power. If the cost of water alone could be reduced, the project could become viable. In addition, the projected cost of insurance may be lower than estimated under a city?wide policy. No provisions have been made for utilization of federal tax incentives. If a transaction with a third-party owner/taxpayer were to be negotiated, perhaps the net cost of ownership could be reduced. It is recommended that these options be investigated to determine if the costs and benefits could be brought together. The project has good potential, but like many alternative energy projects today, they only work economically if the

  5. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

  6. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El-Paso-Ciudad Juarez area is one of the largest metropolitan areas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Sources of air pollutants inlcude the more than 18 million vehicles, which annually cross between the two cities, heavily traveled roads and interstate freeways, and local indust...

  7. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  8. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures < 1200 mmHg (compared to normal systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg) and thermal coagulation zones < 3 mm (including the seal). This preliminary study describes in vivo testing of a laser probe in a porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels < 6 mm diameter using incident 1470-nm laser power of 35 W for 1-5 s. The probe was evaluated for hemostasis after sealing isolated and bundled vasculature of abdomen and hind leg, as well as liver and lung parenchyma. Sealed vessel samples were collected for histological analysis of lateral thermal damage. Hemostasis was achieved in 57 of 73 seals (78%). The probe consistently sealed vasculature in small bowel mesentery, mesometrium, and gastro splenic and epiploic regions. Seal performance was less consistent on hind leg vasculature including saphenous arteries and bundles and femoral and iliac arteries. Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  9. Preliminary results of spectral reflectance studies of tycho crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Coombs, C. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Bell, J. F.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and interpretation of near infrared spectra obtained for both the interior and exterior deposits associated with the Tycho crater is presented. Specific objectives were: (1) to determine the composition and stratigraphy of the highland crust in the Tycho target site; (2) to determine the likely composition of the primary ejecta which may be present in ray deposits; (3) to investigate the nature of spectral units defined in previous studies; (4) to further investigate the nature and origin of both the bright and dark haloes around the rim crest; and (5) to compare the compositions determined for the Tycho units with those of the Aristarchus crater as well as typical highland deposits. The spectra obtained for the interior areas exhibit similar spectral features. These include relatively strong 1 micron absorption bands whose minima are centered between 0.97 and 0.99 microns and shallow to intermediate continuum slopes. The spectra generally exhibit indications of a 1.3 micron feature consistent with the presence of Fe(2+) bearing plagioclase feldspar. The strong 1 micron absorption features indicate a dominant high Ca clinopyroxene component. Results obtained from the ejecta deposits show that the spectrum of the inner, bright halo is almost identical with those obtained for interior units. The spectrum of the dark halo exhibits a wide, relatively shallow absorption feature centered at 1.01 microns, a 1.3 micron absorption, and a steep continuum slope. This spectrum is interpreted as indicating the presence of pyroxene, Fe-bearing feldspar, and a significant component of Fe-bearing impact melt glass. Finally, the spectra of spots inside Tycho show similarity with certain spectra for Aristarchus. However, the suite of spectra obtained for Tycho exhibits a different trend in terms of band center versus width.

  10. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  11. Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

  12. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  13. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns. PMID:26422266

  14. Strategies to Reduce the Harmful Effects of Extreme Heat Events: A Four-City Study

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; McCormick, Sabrina; Sampson, Natalie; Buxton, Miatta A.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; Catalano, Linda; Conlon, Kathryn C.; Parker, Edith A.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme heat events (EHEs) are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ—cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure) impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24531122

  15. A comparative study of the mobile population in Wuhan and other major cities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y

    1997-01-01

    This study examined population mobility among residents of 5 cities in China: Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen. Data were obtained from the 1995 Sample Survey of 1% of Wuhan Population and provincial Statistical Yearbooks. The total mobile population in China has increased from 20-80 million during 1982-95. Shanghai is the largest Chinese city. Beijing has a large proportion of international and internal migrants. Guangzhou is a capital city that was the first to adopt economic reforms. Migration fueled development in Shenzhen. A larger mobile population was related to larger population density. The mobile population was 20% in all cities, 30% of central city population, and 140.5% of the central city of Shenzhen. Beijing and Shanghai had the highest growth rates. Construction accounts for the largest percentage of business-related mobile population in Wuhan, Beijing, and Shanghai. Manufacturing accounts for the largest percentage in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Most of the mobile population in capital cities such as Wuhan and Guangzhou, originates from within the provinces. The largest percentage of mobile population in Beijing and Shanghai come from adjacent provinces. Guangzhou receives many migrants from adjacent Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. 47.8-78.8% of mobile population were farmers. More migrants are men. Educational levels are low. The mobile population contributes to industry and informational/cultural exchange. The migrants detract from urban areas in population pressure on housing and services, shortages of employment, illegal activities and crime, and unplanned births. PMID:12294143

  16. Urban Growth Scenarios of a Future MEGA City: Case Study Ahmedabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, A.; Kraus, V.; Steinnocher, K.

    2016-06-01

    The study of urban areas and their development focuses on cities, their physical and demographic expansion and the tensions and impacts that go along with urban growth. Especially in developing countries and emerging national economies like India, consistent and up to date information or other planning relevant data all too often is not available. With its Smart Cities Mission, the Indian government places great importance on the future developments of Indian urban areas and pays tribute to the large-scale rural to urban migration. The potentials of urban remote sensing and its contribution to urban planning are discussed and related to the Indian Smart Cities Mission. A case study is presented showing urban remote sensing based information products for the city of Ahmedabad. Resulting urban growth scenarios are presented, hotspots identified and future action alternatives proposed.

  17. [Microbiological study of spiced chicken burgers in Tripoli City, Libya].

    PubMed

    El Shrek, Y M; Ali, M R M

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the microbiological quality of uncooked and cooked spiced chicken burger in restaurants and fast food places in Tripoli city and surrounding areas. Thus 120 samples (64 cooked and 56 uncooked) were analysed microbiologically. All the samples were highly contaminated with bacteria: 66.6%, 25.9%, 29.6%, 20.3% and 12.9% of the uncooked samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli 0157:H7 and salmonella respectively. Additionally 10.9%, 3.1%, 4.68%, 3.12% and 1.56 of the cooked samples were contaminated with E. coli, Aeromonas spp., E. coli 0157:H7, S. aureus and salmonella respectively. PMID:22888625

  18. Associations between Green Space and Health in English Cities: An Ecological, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space. PMID:25775020

  19. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement.

  20. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  1. (D, L) polylactide microspheres as embolic agent. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Flandroy, P; Grandfils, C; Collignon, J; Thibaut, A; Nihant, N; Barbette, S; Jerome, R; Teyssie, P

    1990-01-01

    Owing to their shape, accurately calibrated microspheres appear to be very suitable material for distal embolization. Moreover, the biocompatible (D, L) polyactide (PLA) microspheres possess two other valuable advantages: easy adjustment of their biodegradation rate, and incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents during their production. The authors describe the preparation of these (D, L) PLA microspheres and their clinical applications as a preliminary step to arterial chemoembolization. PMID:2234391

  2. Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: A Preliminary Study for microCT Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Montano Garcia, C.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.

    2006-09-08

    Preliminary measurements for microCT dosimetry are reported in this work, using TLD-100 crystals (1x1x1 mm3) within a solid water phantom specially designed with approximate dimensions of a mouse. A dose dependence as a function of radial distance and position along the axis of the phantom was found. Because of the smaller doses used in this work we can say that it is feasible to perform dosimetry measurements with high accuracy using TLD-100 microcubes.

  3. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  4. Computing and information sciences preliminary engineering design study

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J O; Pearson, E W; Thomas, J J; Brothers, J W; Campbell, W K; DeVaney, D M; Jones, D R; Littlefield, R J; Peterson, M J

    1991-04-01

    This document presents the preliminary design concept for the integrated computing and information system to be included in the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EMSL is scheduled for completion and occupancy in 1994 or 1995 and will support the DOE environmental mission, in particular hazardous waste remediation. The focus of the report is on the Computing and Information Sciences engineering task of providing a fully integrated state-of-the-art computing environment for simulation, experimentation and analysis in support of molecular research. The EMSL will house two major research organizations, the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) and part of the Environmental Sciences Research Center (ESRC). Included in the report is a preliminary description of the computing and information system to be included. The proposed system architecture is based on a preliminary understanding of the EMSL users' needs for computational resources. As users understand more about the scientific challenges they face, the definition of the functional requirements will change. At the same time, the engineering team will be gaining experience with new computing technologies. Accordingly, the design architecture must evolve to reflect this new understanding of functional requirements and enabling technologies. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Surface Albedo in Cities: Case Study in Sapporo and Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Hirofumi; Takamura, Tamio

    2014-12-01

    The surface albedo of two large cities in Japan was measured using a pyranometer mounted on a helicopter to avoid the bidirectional reflectance distribution. The daytime albedo was 0.12 in the cities, which was less than that of a nearby forest (0.16). The albedo was dependent on building structure in the cities; the albedo was lower in areas with more buildings, and decreased as the aspect ratio of street canyons increased. There are two reasons for this dependency: the multiple reflection of radiation in the building canopy, as has been shown in many previous studies, and the sparse vegetation in urban areas. These two factors concurrently determine the albedo in a real city, where the vegetation amount decreases as the plan roof ratio increases.

  6. Numerical Study of the Effect of Urbanization on the Climate of Desert Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Samy

    This study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate and predict the changes in local climate attributed to the urbanization for five desert cities. The simulations are performed in the fashion of climate downscaling, constrained by the surface boundary conditions generated from high resolution land-use maps. For each city, the land-use maps of 1985 and 2010 from Landsat satellite observation, and a projected land-use map for 2030, are used to represent the past, present, and future. An additional set of simulations for Las Vegas, the largest of the five cities, uses the NLCD 1992 and 2006 land-use maps and an idealized historical land-use map with no urban coverage for 1900. The study finds that urbanization in Las Vegas produces a classic urban heat island (UHI) at night but a minor cooling during the day. A further analysis of the surface energy balance shows that the decrease in surface Albedo and increase effective emissivity play an important role in shaping the local climate change over urban areas. The emerging urban structures slow down the diurnal wind circulation over the city due to an increased effective surface roughness. This leads to a secondary modification of temperature due to the interaction between the mechanical and thermodynamic effects of urbanization. The simulations for the five desert cities for 1985 and 2010 further confirm a common pattern of the climatic effect of urbanization with significant nighttime warming and moderate daytime cooling. This effect is confined to the urban area and is not sensitive to the size of the city or the detail of land cover in the surrounding areas. The pattern of nighttime warming and daytime cooling remains robust in the simulations for the future climate of the five cities using the projected 2030 land-use maps. Inter-city differences among the five urban areas are discussed.

  7. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of thermostable RNase HIII from Bacillus stearothermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Hyongi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2005-03-01

    A thermostable ribonuclease HIII from B. stearothermophilus (Bst RNase HIII) was crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were performed. Plate-like overlapping polycrystals were grown by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 283 K.

  9. Urban sustainable energy development: A case study of the city of Philadelphia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, Iraklis

    This study explores the role of cities in sustainable energy development through a governance-informed analysis. Despite the leading position of municipalities in energy sustainability, cities have been mostly conceptualized as sites where energy development is shaped by external policy scales, i.e. the national level. A growing body of research, however, critiques this analytical perspective, and seeks to better understand the type of factors and dynamics that influence energy sustainability within a multi-level policy context for urban energy. Given that particular circumstances are applicable across cities, a context-specific analysis can provide insight regarding how sustainable energy development takes place in urban areas. In applying such an analytical perspective on urban energy sustainability, this study undertakes a qualitative case study analysis for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by looking at four key local policy initiatives relevant to building energy efficiency and solar electricity development at the municipal government and city-wide level. The evaluation of the initiatives suggests that renewable electricity use has increased substantially in the city over the last years but the installed capacity of local renewable electricity systems, including solar photovoltaics, is low. On the other hand, although the city has made little progress in meeting its building energy efficiency targets, more comprehensive action is taken in this area. The study finds that the above outcomes have been shaped mainly by four factors. The first is the city government's incremental policy approach aiming to develop a facilitative context for local action. The second is the role that a diverse set of stakeholders have in local sustainable energy development. The third is the constraints that systemic policy barriers create for solar power development. The fourth is the ways through which the relevant multi-level policy environment structures the city

  10. Case-control study of bladder cancer using city directories as a source of occupational data

    SciTech Connect

    Steenland, K.; Burnett, C.; Osorio, A.M.

    1987-08-01

    Commercial city directories, currently produced in 1250 United States cities, potentially provide yearly information on occupation and employer for all city residents over age 18 years. To investigate the usefulness of these occupational data, the authors have conducted a case-control study of male bladder cancer mortality in Hamilton County, Ohio (which includes Cincinnati). A total of 731 bladder cancer cases who died during 1960-1982 were matched on age, sex, race, date-of-death, and residence at death to two controls per case. Risks of bladder cancer death were calculated by occupation, industry, and specific employer, using both city directories (multiple statements) and death certificates (single statement). Four companies showed a significant excess bladder cancer risk when using city directories. Only one would have been identified using death certificates, which ask for usual lifetime type of industry rather than a specific company name. Using city directories, significant positive associations were found between bladder cancer and occupation as an engineer, tailor, carpenter, furnace operator, blending machine operator, chemist, pressing machine operator, house cleaner, or salesman. For industry, the authors found significant positive associations for the textile, chemical, grain mill, foundry, petroleum, building service, entertainment, and advertising industries. A significant increase in risk for those with 20 or more years of employment was seen for those employed as truck drivers and furnace operators, or those employed in the railroad industry. A check of the validity of city directory data indicated that 77 per cent of the listings agreed with Social Security earnings reports for employer in any given year. One limitation of Hamilton County city directory data was the fairly large number of yearly listings without any occupational data (15 per cent for occupation, 36 per cent for employer).

  11. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY.

    SciTech Connect

    MOSS, STEVEN

    2005-04-29

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine.

  12. Preliminary Results From the C-Pulse® OPTIONS HF European Multicenter Post-Market Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Antonia; Krabatsch, Thomas; Schmitto, Jan D.; Hetzer, Roland; Seidel, Mirko; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Hotz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background The C-Pulse® System is an extra-aortic balloon counterpulsation device. It is used to treat patients with heart failure disease in NYHA functional class III or ambulatory class IV. Material/Methods We present preliminary site-reported 6-month data from 3 centers in Germany as part of the prospective observational post-market OPTIONS HF study. Results Between May 2013 and March 2014, the C-Pulse System was implanted in 8 patients (7 male) with a mean age of 61.6±9.3 years. Four had ischemic and 4 had non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. No stroke, myocardial infarction, major bleeding, or major infection due to the device were reported. One patient developed non-device-related refractory tachycardia with worsening heart failure 12 h after surgery and underwent left ventricular assist device implantation. Within 6 months of observation, functional status improved from NYHA III to II in 5 patients, and 2 remained in NYHA III. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 24.3±7.9% to 44.5±4.5% (p<0.0001). Mean Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall score improved from 28.6±19.1 to 59.1±22.5 (p=0.0183). Six-minute walk test was performed in 6 out of 7 patients at follow-up. The mean distance improved from 252.0±85.1 m to 279.2±87.5 m (p>0.05). One patient was weaned off the device after 6 months of support. Conclusions The C-Pulse System provides a therapeutic option for patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure and seems to improve quality of life and cardiac function over time. PMID:26887528

  13. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    within the border of Jinjiang City, and counties in Putian City, in Longxi City, and in Xiamen Prefecture. Guangdong immigrants came from cities, places in the Pearl River Delta area and the Tan River Valley, counties in Xingmei hakka area, and Hainan Island. 90% of immigrants settled in southeast Asia (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Burma, Vietnam, Kampuchea, and Laos), and 8% came to North America and Latin America. Most were men, young, not well educated, and unemployed. PMID:12319210

  14. Study of marble deterioration at City Hall, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.J.; Castillo, R.

    1984-01-01

    Constructed in 1930 at a cost of over one million dollars, the City Hall in Schenectady, New York, is listed in the U.S. Register of Historical Buildings. The masonry materials were the finest available at the time of construction; granite, fire hardened exterior brick and Vermont marble - Imperical Danby, an equivalent to Carrara marble from Italy. It is known today that the lack of impurities in the Imperial Danby leads to weak crystalline properties. Cleaned with water, sponges and stiff brushes upon completion of construction, the exterior was not cleaned over a fifty-year period. The research indicated that the marble grains are being structurally weakened by a chemical conversion process of marble to gypsum crystals. The surface zone of chemical activity (2-5 mm) shows the presence of fly ash and iron particles and points to the possibility of a catalytic mechanism for the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate. This research has established symptoms which are consistent with prior reported research into building material deterioration. However, the results presented are not supportive of one mechanism over another.

  15. Decontamination of Johnston Island Coral: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kochen, R.L.

    1986-02-17

    A preliminary investigation was completed on the characterization and decontamination of coral samples from Johnston Island. These samples were found to contain individual particles (2 to 0.25 mm) of contaminated coral as well as a piece of contaminated magnetic metal. They ranged in activity from about 70 to 811 nCi Am-241. The decontamination methods investigated were froth flotation, ferrite treatment, attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment and dry sieving. Dry sieving, the more effective technique, separated about 42 wt % of the coral into a decontaminated fraction. This fraction (>4 mm) contained about 0.5% of the total activity. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Socialism. Grade Ten, Unit Two, 10.2. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Helen

    The socialism unit of the tenth grade level of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) explores a selected history of socialist thought and the theoretical model of socialism. Three case studies of socialism are explored: Great Britain, Sweden, and Israel. The case studies are designed to answer questions concerning…

  17. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  18. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  19. A preliminary study of the modified Ericsson for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, J.; Louis, J. F.; Juhasz, A.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modifications of the Ericsson cycle are analyzed for their application as high power, compact and reliable space power systems. They use the same components as the technologically advanced and reliable Brayton system. These modifications approximate the Ericsson cycle's isothermal expansion by several stages of expansion with reheat and the isothermal compression by several compression stages with intercooling. Preliminary cycle analysis including non-ideal components indicates potential advantages in both power per unit area and efficiency over the Brayton system. Evaluation of the system mass indicates a significant mass and radiator area advantage of a Modified Ericsson cycle using one reheat and one expansion stage when a high temperature titanium radiator is used. Whereas the configuration using one reheat and one intercooling with two stages of compression and expansion provided the lowest mass per unit power using a lower temperature aluminum radiator.

  20. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Moore, Thomas J.; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000-hr included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy (referred to as SmCo in this paper), Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-yr life with a monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport. Determination of contamination kinetics and the effects on structural integrity will require additional testing.

  1. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Immigrants from the Appalachian Region to the City of Columbus, Ohio: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rico-Velasco, Jesus Antonio

    The major purpose of the study was to provide information and test specific hypotheses about the causes and nature of the process of migration and the adjustment of Appalachian migrants to the city of Columbus, Ohio. In the study, the Appalachian region was approached not only as a geographic area but also as an ecological structure, a cultural…

  3. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  4. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  5. Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    2008-07-08

    The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (T{sub b}) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of T{sub b} obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous.

  6. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2016-01-01

    In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens’ quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%. PMID:27304957

  7. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2016-01-01

    In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens' quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%. PMID:27304957

  8. Reanalysis of the Harvard Six Cities Study, part I: validation and replication.

    PubMed

    Krewski, D; Burnett, R T; Goldberg, M; Hoover, K; Siemiatycki, J; Abrahamowicz, M; White, W

    2005-01-01

    Because the results of the Harvard Six Cities Study played a critical role in the establishment of the current U.S. ambient air quality objective for fine particles (PM(2.5)), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, industry, and nongovernmental organizations called for an independent reanalysis of this study to validate the original findings reported by Dockery and colleagues in the New England Journal of Medicine (vol. 329, pp. 1753-1759) in 1993. Validation of the original findings was accomplished by a detailed statistical audit and replication of original results. With the exception of occupational exposure to dust (14 discrepancies of 249 questionnaires located for evaluation) and fumes (15/249), date of death (2/250), and cause of death (2/250), the audit identified no discrepancies between the original questionnaires and death certificates in the audit sample and the analytic file used by the original investigators. The data quality audit identified a computer programming problem that had resulted in early censorship in 5 of the 6 cities, which resulted in the loss of approximately 1% of the reported person-years of follow-up; the reanalysis team updated the Six Cities cohort to include the missing person-years of observation, resulting in the addition of 928 person-years of observation and 14 deaths. The reanalysis team was able to reproduce virtually all of the original numerical results, including the 26% increase in all-cause mortality in the most polluted city (Stubenville, OH) as compared to the least polluted city (Portage, WI). The audit and validation of the Harvard Six Cities Study conducted by the reanalysis team generally confirmed the quality of the data and the numerical results reported by the original investigators. The discrepancies noted during the audit were not of epidemiologic importance, and did not substantively alter the original risk estimates associated with particulate air pollution, nor the main conclusions reached by the

  9. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a south China coastal city: comparison with east Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Wai, K M; Tanner, P A; Tam, C W F

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+ concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from our collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO42, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO3- and Ca2+), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. PMID:16190210

  10. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a South China coastal city: comparison with East Asian cities

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Wai; P.A. Tanner; C.W.F. Tam

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from the collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO{sub 3}- and Ca{sup 2+}), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. 36 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Geothermal resource, engineering and economic feasibility study for the City of Ouray, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-07-31

    A geothermal energy feasibility study has been performed for the City of Ouray, Colorado, to determine the potential economic development opportunities to the City. The resource assessment indicates the resource to be associated with the Ouray fault zone, the Leadville limestone formation, the high thermal gradient in the area of the San Juan mountains, and the recharge from precipitation in the adjacent mountains. Four engineering designs of alternative sizes, costs, applications, and years of start-up have been defined to offer the City a range of development scales. Life cycle cost analyses have been conducted for cases of both public and private ownership. All systems are found to be feasible on both economic and technical grounds. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  12. A hydrogeological conceptual approach to study urban groundwater flow in Bucharest city, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhemacha, Mohamed Amine; Gogu, Constantin Radu; Serpescu, Irina; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Bica, Ioan

    2015-05-01

    Management of groundwater systems in urban areas is necessary and can be reliably performed by means of mathematical modeling combined with geospatial analysis. A conceptual approach for the study of urban hydrogeological systems is presented. The proposed approach is based on the features of Bucharest city (Romania) and can be adapted to other urban areas showing similar characteristics. It takes into account the interaction between groundwater and significant urban infrastructure elements that can be encountered in modern cities such as subway tunnels and water-supply networks, and gives special attention to the sewer system. In this respect, an adaptation of the leakage factor approach is proposed, which uses a sewer-system zoning function related to the conduits' location in the aquifer system and a sewer-conduits classification function related to their structural and/or hydraulic properties. The approach was used to elaborate a single-layered steady state groundwater flow model for a pilot zone of Bucharest city.

  13. Preliminary study of a centrifugal-flow singlet oxygen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, W; Deng, L; Yang, H; Sha, G; Zhang, C

    2008-02-28

    By using the concept of a high-pressure, gravity-independent singlet oxygen generator (SOG) proposed by Emanuel and based on the principle that a rotating fluid is capable of producing an enormous centrifugal force, a novel-type centrifugal-flow singlet oxygen generator (CFSOG) was designed and constructed. In this device, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) was generated in the reaction of gaseous Cl{sub 2} with a rotating basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) liquid flow and then was removed from the BHP liquid phase by the centrifugal force. Meanwhile, the microdroplets formed during the Cl{sub 2}+BHP reaction were removed from the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) gas flow by the centrifugal force produced by the high-speed flow along an arc-shaped channel. Preliminary investigations showed that, because the specific reactive surface area of this SOG was noticeably larger than that of the jet-SOG normally used in current chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs), the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) yield of {approx}60%, the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) partial pressure as high as 31 Torr, and chlorine utilisation higher than 96% were realised. Moreover, steady operation was obtained. (laser components)

  14. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: background and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Norton, S J; Schultz, M C; Reed, C M; Braida, L D; Durlach, N I; Rabinowitz, W M; Chomsky, C

    1977-09-01

    Certain deaf-blind persons have been taught, through the Tadoma method of speechreading, to use vibrotactile cues from the face and neck to understand speech. This paper reports the results of preliminary tests of the speechreading ability of one adult Tadoma user. The tests were of four major types: (1) discrimination of speech stimuli; (2) recognition of words in isolation and in sentences; (3) interpretation of prosodic and syntactic features in sentences; and (4) comprehension of written (Braille) and oral speech. Words in highly contextual environments were much better perceived than were words in low-context environments. Many of the word errors involved phonemic substitutions which shared articulatory features with the target phonemes, with a higher error rate for vowels than consonants. Relative to performance on word-recognition tests, performance on some of the discrimination tests was worse than expected. Perception of sentences appeared to be mildly sensitive to rate of talking and to speaker differences. Results of the tests on perception of prosodic and syntactic features, while inconclusive, indicate that many of the features tested were not used in interpreting sentences. On an English comprehension test, a higher score was obtained for items administered in Braille than through oral presentation. PMID:904318

  15. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  16. Preliminary study of a dispersed fringe type sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Gen-Rong; Wang, Yue-Fei; Li, Ye-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Telescopes with large aspherical primary mirrors collect more light and are therefore sought after by astronomers. Instead of using a single large one-piece mirror, smaller segments can be assembled into a useable telescopic primary. Because the segments must fit together to create the effect of a single mirror, segmented optics present unique challenges to the fabrication and testing that are absent in monolithic optics. A dispersed fringe sensor (DFS) using a broadband point source is an efficient method for cophasing and is also highly automated and robust. Unlike the widely adopted Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor and curvature wavefront sensor with edge sensors for calibration of relative pistons, DFS can estimate the piston between segments by only using the spectrum formed by the transmissive grating's dispersion, and therefore can replace the edge sensors, which are difficult to calibrate. We introduce the theory of the DFS and Dispersed Hartmann Sensor (DHS) for further utilization of the coarse phasing method of DFS. According to the theory, we bring out the preliminary system design of the cophasing experimental system based on DFS and DHS which is now established in our institute. Finally, a summary is reached.

  17. Marin City Families First: Three Case Studies. Ruby and James: A Second Chance. Eleanor: Standing on My Own. Freda: The Value of Family. Child and Family Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    Marin City is an isolated African American community located in mostly affluent Marin County, California. Thirty-six percent of households in Marin City fall below the poverty line. This report provides three case studies from the Marin City Families First (MCFF) program, an intervention that aims to develop a model comprehensive child and family…

  18. Surrounding greenness, proximity to city parks and pregnancy outcomes in Kaunas cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Vencloviene, Jone; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uždanaviciute, Inga; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that green space can improve the health and well-being of urban residents. However, there has been no consistent evidence of the effect of city parks on reproductive health. We investigated whether surrounding greenness levels and/or distance to city parks affect birth outcomes. This study was based on 3292 singleton live-births from the Kaunas birth cohort, Lithuania (2007–2009), who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. Residential surrounding greenness level was ascertained as average of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within buffers of 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m of each maternal home and distance to a city park was defined as distance to boundaries of the nearest city park. For each indicator of green space exposure, linear or logistic regression models were constructed to estimate change in birth outcomes adjusted for relevant covariates. An increase in distance to a city parks was associated with an increase in risk of preterm birth and decrease of gestational age. We found a statistically significant association between low surrounding greenness and term low birth weight. After assessing effect modification based on the low surrounding greenness (NDVI-500 < median) and the distance to city parks (>1000 m), we found increased risks for low birth weight (OR 2.23, 1.20–4.15), term low birth weight (OR 2.97, 1.04–8.45) and preterm birth (OR 1.77, 1.10–2.81) for subjects with low surrounding greenness and farther distance from a park. Both higher surrounding greenness level and proximity to park have beneficial effects on pregnancy outcomes. A beneficial park effect on foetal growth is most apparent in the environment with low surrounding greenness level. Further investigation is needed to confirm this association. PMID:25757723

  19. Studies of acid aerosols in six cities and in a new multi-city investigation: Design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Speizer, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the on-going Harvard Study on the Health Effects of Sulfur Dioxide and Respirable Particulates, the authors have developed monitoring equipment for acidic particles that can be used in multiple field settings. Preliminary data suggest that these strong acid aerosol measurements may correlate with respiratory symptoms more closely than similar measurements of particulate matter less than 15 micro m in size. These results have led to the beginning of a U.S.-Canadian cooperative study to assess the chronic effects of acid aerosols on the health of North American children. Communities are being selected on the basis of anticipated levels of H2SO4 in ambient air along with predicted levels of ozone and nitrates. Each community will undergo a 1-year period of every other day, 24-hr monitoring with newly developed monitoring equipment that will allow for quantification of H ion concentrations, as well as for specific measures of ozone and acid fractions. At the end of the 1-year period, while measurements are still being made, approximately 600 children aged 7 to 11 in each of up to 24 communities will be assessed with standardized questionnaires completed by parents, and pulmonary function will be measured in the children while in school. By estimating chronic exposure from the year-long measurement of acid aerosols and consideration of specific criteria for selecting communities to study; the authors hope to minimize potential confounding to allow us to assess the chronic impact of strong acid in the atmosphere on the respiratory health of these children.

  20. Studies of acid aerosols in six cities and in a new multi-city investigation: design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Speizer, F.E.

    1989-02-01

    Techniques for measuring acid aerosols in the ambient environment have been developed only recently. As part of the on-going Harvard Study on the Health Effects of Sulfur Dioxide and Respirable Particulates, we have developed monitoring equipment for acidic particles that can be used in multiple field settings. Preliminary data suggest that these strong acid aerosol measurements may correlate with respiratory symptoms more closely than similar measurements of particulate matter less than 15 microns in size. These results have led to the beginning of a U.S.-Canadian cooperative study to assess the chronic effects of acid aerosols on the health of North American children. Communities are being selected on the basis of anticipated levels of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in ambient air along with predicted levels of ozone and nitrates. Each community will undergo a 1-year period of every other day, 24-hr monitoring with newly developed monitoring equipment that will allow for quantification of H+ ion concentrations, as well as for specific measures of ozone and acid fractions. At the end of the 1-year period, while measurements are still being made, approximately 600 children aged 7 to 11 in each of up to 24 communities will be assessed with standardized questionnaires completed by parents, and pulmonary function will be measured in the children while in school. By estimating chronic exposure from the year-long measurement of acid aerosols and consideration of specific criteria for selecting communities to study, we hope to minimize potential confounding to allow us to assess the chronic impact of strong acid in the atmosphere on the respiratory health of these children.

  1. THREE CITIES STUDY OF WELFARE REFORM AND THE WELL-BEING OF CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies the effects of the 1996 Welfare Reform Bill on children in three Northeastern, Southwestern and Midwestern cities, Boston, San Antonio, and Chicago, over a four-year period. The project also addresses the broader issue of the effects of parental time and money resources o...

  2. Selective Energy Feasibility Study -- Richmond College, City University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consulting Engineer, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A study of the presently available data on magnitude, duration, and coincidence of electrical demands determined that onsite electrical power generation in the form of a selective energy system should be incorporated within the central utilities plant projected for the Richmond College Campus of the City University of New York (CUNY). (Author/MLF)

  3. PARTICIPANTS AND PARTICIPATION, A STUDY OF SCHOOL POLICY IN NEW YORK CITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GITTELL, MARILYN

    A 3-YEAR STUDY OF DECISION MAKING IN THE NEW YORK CITY SCHOOLS EXPLORES THE POLITICAL FORCES AFFECTING EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND EVALUATES THE RELATIVE OPENNESS OF THE SYSTEM. POLICY MAKERS INCLUDE THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, 31 LOCAL SCHOOL BOARDS, THE SUPERINTENDENT, THE HEAD OFFICE STAFF, THE FIELD STAFF (PRINCIPALS, ASSISTANT PRINCIPALS, DISTRICT…

  4. Capitalism. Grade Ten. Unit One, 10.1. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Norman

    The tenth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) deals with the political-economic systems in the United States. The first unit of the sequence focuses specifically on capitalism in a democracy. The document deals with both the theoretical and practical aspects of capitalism. The theoretical section…

  5. A modeling study of aeolian erosion enhanced by surface wind confluences over Mexico City

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using erosion and air quality models, a study on the effect of PM10 episodes in Mexico City is presented. The important contribution of Aeolian erosion on urban air quality, its genesis, morphology, location and regional implications such as the role played by surface confluences, the dry Lake of T...

  6. Lessons Learned from a Four Year Case Study of Preparing Teachers for Inner-City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Jane

    A 4-year case study was done of a partnership program between the Houston (Texas) Independent School District and Texas A&M University's College of Education (College Station) designed to prepare student teachers for work in inner-city public schools. The two institutions worked together through four collaborative decision-making councils to form…

  7. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  8. The Growth and Structure of Cities Program: An Innovative Approach to Urban Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryn Mawr Coll., PA.

    The long term aims of the Growth and Structure of Cities major at Bryn Mawr College are to introduce into the curriculum an interdisciplinary program which builds on existing strengths within the college and which offers students the opportunity to study the changing character of the contemporary urban environment in an historical, aesthetic, and…

  9. Application of the stormwater management model to a piedmont city: a case study of Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijun; Huang, Guoru; Wu, Chuanhao

    2014-01-01

    The stormwater management model (SWMM) was adapted and calibrated to Jinan, a typical piedmont city in China, to verify the large-scale applicability of the model to piedmont cities. Fourteen storms were used for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model predicted the measured data with satisfactory accuracy and reliability. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to evaluate the impact of the model parameters; it showed that: (1) the model outputs were most sensitive to imperviousness and conduit roughness; and (2) infiltration parameters and depression storage play an important role in total runoff and peak flow. The urban drainage system of Jinan was assessed using urban design storms with the calibrated model, and the effects of engineered flood control measures were evaluated. The overall results demonstrate that SWMM is applicable on a large scale to piedmont cities. PMID:25225933

  10. New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt,V.; Crosson, K. M.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2008-12-16

    The New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning Pilot Study is one of several projects funded by Sandia National Laboratories under the U.S. Department of Energy Energy-Water Nexus Program. These projects are intended to clarify some key issues and research needs identified during the Energy-Water Nexus Roadmapping activities. The objectives of the New York City Pilot Project are twofold: to identify energy-water nexus issues in an established urban area in conjunction with a group of key stakeholders and to define and apply an integrated energy and water decision support tool, as proof-of-concept, to one or more of these issues. During the course of this study, the Brookhaven National Laboratory project team worked very closely with members of a Pilot Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee members brought a breadth of experience across the energy, water and climate disciplines, and all are well versed in the particular issues faced by an urban environment, and by New York City in particular. The first task was to identify energy-water issues of importance to New York City. This exercise was followed by discussion of the qualities and capabilities that an ideal decision support tool should display to address these issues. The decision was made to start with an existing energy model, the New York City version of the MARKAL model, developed originally at BNL and now used globally by many groups for energy analysis. MARKAL has the virtue of being well-vetted, transparent, and capable of calculating 'material' flows, such as water use by the energy system and energy requirements of water technology. The Steering Committee members defined five scenarios of interest, representing a broad spectrum of New York City energy-water issues. Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers developed a model framework (Water-MARKAL) at the desired level of detail to address the scenarios, and then attempted to gather the New York City-specific information required to

  11. Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang

    2014-05-01

    Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible strong motion levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within strong motion network but not close enough to the strong motion stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole Taiwan and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this

  12. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  13. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabarivasal, N.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  14. Study Abroad and the City: Bringing the Lessons Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Study abroad's purpose, once conceived primarily as a means for acquiring knowledge in a content area as well as language acquisition, began in the 1980s to be considered a vehicle for helping American students become less "parochial" and better prepared to live and work in a globalized world. To achieve these goals, students must be able to…

  15. 76 FR 34071 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund I; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ..., proposing to study the feasibility of hydropower at the City of Austin's Longhorn Dam located on the Lower Colorado River in Travis County, Texas. The sole purpose of a preliminary permit, if issued, is to...

  16. [Methodology and social, demographic, cognitive, and frailty profiles of community-dwelling elderly from seven Brazilian cities: the FIBRA Study].

    PubMed

    Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes de; Eulálio, Maria do Carmo; Cabral, Benedita Edina; Siqueira, Maria Eliane Catunda de; Santos, Geraldine Alves dos; Moura, José Guilherme de Arruda

    2013-04-01

    A study was designed to identify conditions of frailty in relation to social, demographic, health, cognitive, functional, and psychosocial variables in community-dwelling elderly. The article presents the methodology and preliminary data. A total of 3,478 elderly (65 years and older) were selected from probabilistic samples of seven Brazilian cities chosen by convenience and participated in a data collection session in a community setting. The following characteristics predominated: women (67.7%), married (48%) or widowed (36.4%), living with a son or daughter and family (52.6%), head of family (64.5%), and 1-4 years of schooling (49%); 28.8% were illiterate and 24.8% presented a cognitive deficit; 9.1% were frail, 51.8% pre-frail, and 39.1% non-frail. There were more frail individuals among women, those 80 years or older, the widowed, the illiterate, those who had never attended school, and those with cognitive deficit. In general, the social and demographic data corroborate Brazilian epidemiological studies, while those on frailty, cognitive status, and schooling corroborate the international literature. PMID:23568307

  17. A reconnaissance study of radon concentration in Hamadan city, Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabari Vasal, Naghi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 107.87 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this reconnaissance study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993, although further work is required to confirm these results. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable 'surficial' deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats to distribute water underground, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings. Keywords: Radon; health; dwellings; clay floors; alluvial fan; surficial geology; Hamadan; Iran

  18. Kids in the city study: research design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised), an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. Methods/Design The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits) assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. Discussion This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population. PMID:21781341

  19. Rethinking urban space in cities - A study of parks in Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Markandey, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Urban areas being economically diversified attract large streams of migrants making for a burgeoning population. This is more prevalent in the developing countries. The concomitants of this are high density, heavy traffic movement and increased pollution levels. To reduce the stressful life of city dwellers it is important to have open spaces, where one can pursue leisure time activities a few removes from clutter. A public space is a space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public parks, libraries etc, are typically considered public space. The term ‘public space’ is also often misconstrued to mean other things such as ‘gathering place’, which is an element of the larger concept of social space. Hyderabad, the historical city is the capital of Telangana, India and extends from longitude 78o23’ to 78o33’E and latitude of 17o17’ to 17o31’N. It is the second largest city in terms of area and fifth largest in terms of population. It is one of the fastest growing cities in India. There is a huge influx of people from other states in search of better opportunities. The main objectives of the study are; to study the sprawl and changing demographic structure of the city of Hyderabad, to study the accessibility of parks, to study the need for the emergence of a local public sphere. The data base will be mainly on secondary data collected from various government sources. A primary survey will be conducted based on a structured questionnaire. GIS and other mapping techniques will be applied to analyse the data.

  20. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  1. Programs and Policies That Work: Helping Schools in the Middle. A Study of Junior High Schools in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Alliance for the Public Schools, New York, NY.

    During the fall of 1985, the New York Alliance for the Public Schools, in cooperation with the New York City Board of Education, sponsored this study of 14 New York City public junior high schools which had shown significant improvement in reading and attendance over a five-year period (1980-85). The goal of the study was to identify changes in…

  2. Pollution: Problems and Solutions. Grade Nine, Unit One, 9.1 Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce

    The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…

  3. N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

  4. Manual restraint and shows of force: the City-128 study.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; Van Der Merwe, Marie; Paterson, Brodie; Stewart, Duncan

    2012-02-01

    Manual restraint is used to manage disturbed behaviour by patients. This study aimed to assess the relationship of manual restraint and show of force to conflict behaviours, the use of containment methods, service environment, physical environment, patient routines, staff characteristics, and staff group variables. Data from a multivariate, cross-sectional study of 136 acute psychiatric wards in England were used to conduct this analysis. Manual restraint was used less frequently on English acute psychiatric wards (0.20 incidents per day) than show of force (0.28 incidents per day). Both were strongly associated with the proportion of patients subject to legal detention, aggressive behaviours, and the enforcement of treatment and detention. Medical, nursing, and security guard staff provision were associated in different ways with variations in the use of these coercive interventions. An effective ward structure of rules and routines was associated with less dependence on these control methods. Training for manual restraint should incorporate the scenarios of attempted absconding and enforcement of treatment, as well as violent behaviour. Attempts to lessen usage of these interventions could usefully focus on increasing the availability of medical staff to patients, reducing reliance on security guards and establishing a good ward structure. PMID:21733054

  5. Prospective study of coroner's autopsies in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aligbe, J U; Akhiwu, W O; Nwosu, S O

    2002-10-01

    A prospective study of 726 cases of coroner's autopsies carried out over a period of two years (1st January, 1996 - 31st December, 1997) was reviewed. The causes and circumstances of death are defined and classified into natural and unnatural deaths. Fifty cases (6.3%) were children while the remaining 676 cases (93.1%) were adults in a male to female ratio of 2.6 to 1. The most common indications for coroner's autopsies were sudden unnatural deaths (SUDs) accounting for 485 cases (66.8%) and also sudden unexpected natural deaths (SUNDs) (241 cases) accounting for 33.2%. In the first category, road traffic accidents accounted for 86.7% of cases with deaths involving motor vehicle drivers and their passengers (41.8%); pedestrians (37.1%); and motorcyclists and their passengers (18.6%). The commonest causes of death in all road traffic accidents were craniocerebral injuries and haemorrhagic shock. In the second category the most common causes of sudden unexpected natural death were cardiovascular diseases resulting from complications of hypertension (54.7%) occurring in apparently healthy individuals. Other causes of death were pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, typhoid fever and neoplastic diseases. This study showed that in Nigeria, with an increasing acquisition of dietary and life style habits of the developed western world, there is becoming a concomitant risk of deaths from road traffic accidents and sudden unexpected natural deaths from hypertensive cardiovascular disease. PMID:12487517

  6. Identification of Emerging Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Huete, John M.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a chronic disorder that often begins in early childhood; however, few studies have examined the onset of SIB in young children. This preliminary study reports on the identification, assessment, and observation of SIB in 32 children who had begun to engage in SIB within the previous 6 months. Participants were under…

  7. Preliminary Study: Special Education Doctoral Students' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Morningstar, Mary E.; Jung, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated 118 special education doctoral students' knowledge of and attitudes toward self-determination. In addition, this study examined the relationship between self-determination coursework and special education doctoral students' perceptions of how well they were prepared for implementing self-determination…

  8. A Preliminary Study of Guided Math in Title I Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Katherine Roberts

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to provide a preliminary examination of the relationship between the implementation of Guided Math and student achievement in Title I schools as measured by the percentage of students who met or exceeded the standard for the Georgia Mathematics CRCT. The study examined data from thirty Title I elementary schools in one suburban…

  9. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  10. Study of Strains of The Earth Surface In Large Cities By Satellite Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, L.; Genike, A.; Guseva, T.

    In recent years the problem of learning modern geodynamic processes has increased sharply both within the limits of all terrestrial globe, and in its separate regions. Terri- tories of large cities are the focus of increased attention. Severe distractions of build- ings and engineering facilities take place due to strains on the earth's surface caused by intensive development of underground space, violations and disturbance of hy- drocondition, vibrations of a geologic medium by transportation facilities, and other reasons. Such phenomena became a reason for geodesic monitoring of the largest megalopolis of Russia, the city of Moscow. A geodynamic GPS network was created. The network encompasses the city and its suburbs. At the present time, nine series of high-precision measurements were taken by GPS, mainly during spring and fall seasons. The results of this analysis indicated that the strain on the outer layer of geologic patterns could reach 1-4 centimeters in the territory of Moscow. The central part of the city presents peculiar lowering. The joint analysis of geodesic, geophysical and geologic studies al- lowed the conclusion to be drawn that level variations of groundwaters and formation of depressive whirlpools are the reasons for these deformations. Results of GPS monitoring demonstrate the necessity to continue keeping track of developing strains on the earth's surface, as well as performing additional geophysical observations.