Science.gov

Sample records for clamitans cabrera primates

  1. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Júnior, Edivaldo Costa Sousa; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T; Júnior, João Lídio S G V; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L; de Sá, Lilian Rose M

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053

  2. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T.; Júnior, João Lídio S. G. V.; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J.; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L.; de Sá, Lilian Rose M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053

  3. Effects of Local Habitat Variation on the Behavioral Ecology of Two Sympatric Groups of Brown Howler Monkey (Alouatta clamitans)

    PubMed Central

    Grelle, Carlos E. V.; Strier, Karen B.; Boubli, Jean P.

    2015-01-01

    Although the brown howler monkey (Alouatta clamitans) is a relatively well-studied Neotropical primate, its behavioral and dietary flexibility at the intra-population level remains poorly documented. This study presents data collected on the behavior and ecology of two closely located groups of brown howlers during the same period at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala in southeastern Brazil. One group occupied a primary valley habitat, henceforth the Valley Group (VG), and the other group occupied a regenerating hillside habitat, the Hill Group (HG). We hypothesized differences in the behavior and ecological parameters between these sympatric groups due to the predicted harsher conditions on the hillside, compared to the valley. We measured several habitat parameters within the home range of both groups and collected data on the activity budget, diet and day range lengths, from August to November 2005, between dawn and dusk. In total, behavioral data were collected for 26 (318 h) and 28 (308 h) sampling days for VG and HG, respectively. As we predicted, HG spent significantly more time feeding and consumed less fruit and more leaves than VG, consistent with our finding that the hillside habitat was of lower quality. However, HG also spent less time resting and more time travelling than VG, suggesting that the monkeys had to expend more time and energy to obtain high-energy foods, such as fruits and flowers that were more widely spaced in their hill habitat. Our results revealed that different locations in this forest vary in quality and raise the question of how different groups secure their home ranges. Fine-grained comparisons such as this are important to prioritize conservation and management areas within a reserve. PMID:26147203

  4. Intraspecific variation in the energetics of the Cabrera vole.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Frías, Elena; García-Perea, Rosa; Gisbert, Julio; Bozinovic, Francisco; Virgós, Emilio

    2015-12-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an intensively topic studied in ecophysiology for the purpose of understanding energy budgets of the species, variations of energy expenditure during their diary activities and physiological acclimatization to the environment. Establishing how the metabolism is assembled to the environment can provide valuable data to improve conservation strategies of endangered species. In this sense, metabolic differences associated to habitats have been widely reported in the interspecific level, however little is known about the intraspecific view of BMR under an environmental gradient. In this study, we researched the effect of the habitat on metabolic rate of an Iberian endemic species: Iberomys cabrerae. Animals were captured in different subpopulations of its altitudinal range and their MR was studied over a thermal gradient. MR was analyzed through a Linear Mixed Model (LMM) in which, in addition to thermal effects, the bioclimatic zone and sex also influenced the metabolism of the species. The beginning of thermoneutrality zone was set on 26.5°C and RMR was 2.3ml O2g(-1)h(-1), intermediate between both bioclimatic zones. Supramediterranean subpopulations started the Tlc earlier (24.9°C) and had higher RMR than the mesomediterranean ones (26.9°C). The thermal environment together with primary productivity conditions could explain this difference in the metabolic behaviour of the Cabrera voles. PMID:26319046

  5. Yellow fever impact on brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in Argentina: a metamodelling approach based on population viability analysis and epidemiological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eduardo S; Agostini, Ilaria; Holzmann, Ingrid; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Oklander, Luciana I; Kowalewski, Martín M; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Goenaga, Silvina; Martínez, Mariela; Lestani, Eduardo; Desbiez, Arnaud L J; Miller, Philip

    2015-11-01

    In South America, yellow fever (YF) is an established infectious disease that has been identified outside of its traditional endemic areas, affecting human and nonhuman primate (NHP) populations. In the epidemics that occurred in Argentina between 2007-2009, several outbreaks affecting humans and howler monkeys (Alouatta spp) were reported, highlighting the importance of this disease in the context of conservation medicine and public health policies. Considering the lack of information about YF dynamics in New World NHP, our main goal was to apply modelling tools to better understand YF transmission dynamics among endangered brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) populations in northeastern Argentina. Two complementary modelling tools were used to evaluate brown howler population dynamics in the presence of the disease: Vortex, a stochastic demographic simulation model, and Outbreak, a stochastic disease epidemiology simulation. The baseline model of YF disease epidemiology predicted a very high probability of population decline over the next 100 years. We believe the modelling approach discussed here is a reasonable description of the disease and its effects on the howler monkey population and can be useful to support evidence-based decision-making to guide actions at a regional level. PMID:26517499

  6. Yellow fever impact on brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in Argentina: a metamodelling approach based on population viability analysis and epidemiological dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eduardo S; Agostini, Ilaria; Holzmann, Ingrid; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Oklander, Luciana I; Kowalewski, Martín M; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Goenaga, Silvina; Martínez, Mariela; Lestani, Eduardo; Desbiez, Arnaud LJ; Miller, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In South America, yellow fever (YF) is an established infectious disease that has been identified outside of its traditional endemic areas, affecting human and nonhuman primate (NHP) populations. In the epidemics that occurred in Argentina between 2007-2009, several outbreaks affecting humans and howler monkeys (Alouatta spp) were reported, highlighting the importance of this disease in the context of conservation medicine and public health policies. Considering the lack of information about YF dynamics in New World NHP, our main goal was to apply modelling tools to better understand YF transmission dynamics among endangered brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) populations in northeastern Argentina. Two complementary modelling tools were used to evaluate brown howler population dynamics in the presence of the disease: Vortex, a stochastic demographic simulation model, and Outbreak, a stochastic disease epidemiology simulation. The baseline model of YF disease epidemiology predicted a very high probability of population decline over the next 100 years. We believe the modelling approach discussed here is a reasonable description of the disease and its effects on the howler monkey population and can be useful to support evidence-based decision-making to guide actions at a regional level. PMID:26517499

  7. The Primates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about primates, including definitions and examples. Includes the activities "Thumbless Relay" and "Face It," which relate attributes of primates. Includes a story about chimpanzees along with discussion questions about the story. Reproducible worksheets and a quiz are also provided. (TW)

  8. Juvenile Green Frog (Rana clamitans) Predatory Ability not Affected by Exposure to Carbaryl at Different Times During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melanie J.; Kleinhenz, Peter; Boone, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Larval exposure to pesticides can occur at different times during development, and can negatively impact amphibian fitness. We examined the effects of larval green frog (Rana clamitans) exposure to carbaryl at 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks of development on juvenile predatory ability. We did not find evidence that predatory ability was affected by exposure to carbaryl, which suggests that carbaryl does not have latent effects on the predatory performance of green frogs in subsequent life stages. PMID:21462236

  9. Direct and Indirect Horizontal Transmission of the Antifungal Probiotic Bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum on Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans) Tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Rebollar, Eria A; Simonetti, Stephen J; Shoemaker, William R; Harris, Reid N

    2016-04-01

    Amphibian populations worldwide are being threatened by the disease chytridiomycosis, which is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis To mitigate the effects of B. dendrobatidis, bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria has been shown to be a promising strategy. One way to implement bioaugmentation is through indirect horizontal transmission, defined as the transfer of bacteria from a host to the environment and to another host. In addition, direct horizontal transmission among individuals can facilitate the spread of a probiotic in a population. In this study, we tested whether the antifungal bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum could be horizontally transferred, directly or indirectly, in a laboratory experiment using Lithobates clamitans tadpoles. We evaluated the ability of J. lividumto colonize the tadpoles' skin and to persist through time using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We also tested whether the addition of J. lividum affected the skin community in L. clamitans tadpoles. We found that transmission occurred rapidly by direct and indirect horizontal transmission, but indirect transmission that included a potential substrate was more effective. Even though J. lividum colonized the skin, its relative abundance on the tadpole skin decreased over time. The inoculation of J. lividum did not significantly alter the skin bacterial diversity of L. clamitans tadpoles, which was dominated by Pseudomonas Our results show that indirect horizontal transmission can be an effective bioaugmentation method. Future research is needed to determine the best conditions, including the presence of substrates, under which a probiotic can persist on the skin so that bioaugmentation becomes a successful strategy to mitigate chytridiomycosis. PMID:26873311

  10. Thermal Acclimatization in Overwintering Tadpoles of the Green Frog, Lithobates clamitans (Latreille, 1801).

    PubMed

    Gray, Kathryn T; Escobar, Astrid M; Schaeffer, Paul J; Mineo, Patrick M; Berner, Nancy J

    2016-06-01

    Seasonal acclimatization permits organisms to maintain function in the face of environmental change. Tadpoles of the green frog (Lithobates clamitans) overwinter as tadpoles in much of their range. Because they are active in winter, we hypothesized that green frog tadpoles would display acclimatization of metabolic and locomotor function. We collected tadpoles in Sewanee, Tennessee (35.2°N) in winter and summer. Tadpoles collected during each season were tested at both winter (8°C) and summer (26°C) temperatures. Winter tadpoles were able to maintain swimming performance at both temperatures, whereas swimming performance decreased at cold temperatures in summer tadpoles. There was no evidence for seasonal acclimatization of whole-animal metabolic rate. Although whole-animal metabolic acclimatization was not observed, the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, citrate synthase, and lactate dehydrogenase measured in skeletal muscle homogenates showed higher activity in winter-acclimatized tadpoles indicating compensation for temperature. Further, the composition of muscle membranes of winter tadpoles had less saturated and more monounsaturated fatty acids and a higher ω-3 balance, unsaturation index, and peroxidation index than summer tadpoles. These data indicate that reversible phenotypic plasticity of thermal physiology occurs in larval green frog tadpoles. They appear to compensate for colder temperatures to maintain burst-swimming velocity and the ability to escape predators without the cost of maintaining a constant, higher standard metabolic rate in the winter. PMID:27194039

  11. Temperature alone does not explain patterns of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infections in the green frog Lithobates clamitans.

    PubMed

    Korfel, Chelsea A; Hetherington, Thomas E

    2014-07-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is an invasive, waterborne fungal pathogen that has caused significant declines and extinctions of amphibian species worldwide. Temperature is a major factor impacting the growth and spread of Bd, but little is known regarding the associated patterns in natural habitats. This study analyzed the temperature-associated trends, as correlated with season and microhabitat, of Bd prevalence and infection intensity in green frogs Lithobates clamitans in a temperate environment (central Ohio, USA). Bd was widely distributed at the study sites and found in more than half of the frogs sampled. Bd prevalence was significantly higher in the spring and in forested stream habitats compared to emergent wetland habitats. In contrast, Bd infection intensities tended to be higher in summer. Given the known temperature sensitivity of Bd as demonstrated in laboratory studies, these findings suggest that temperature may be an important factor determining Bd prevalence in green frogs at our study sites, but that factors other than temperature are more important in determining infection intensity. Our findings suggest that future monitoring of Bd among vulnerable species in regions experiencing seasonal temperature variation should study a range of environmental variables to better understand the dynamic relationship between Bd and its amphibian hosts. PMID:24991844

  12. Growth and development of larval green frogs (Rana clamitans) exposed to multiple doses of an insecticide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Bridges, C.M.; Rothermel, B.B.

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to determine how green frogs (Rana clamitans) are affected by multiple exposures to a sublethal level of the carbamate insecticide, carbaryl, in outdoor ponds. Tadpoles were added to 1,000-1 ponds at a low or high density which were exposed to carbaryl 0, 1, 2, or 3 times. Length of the larval period, mass, developmental stage, tadpole survival, and proportion metamorphosed were used to determine treatment effects. The frequency of dosing affected the proportion of green frogs that reached metamorphosis and the developmental stage of tadpoles. Generally, exposure to carbaryl increased rates of metamorphosis and development. The effect of the frequency of carbaryl exposure on development varied with the density treatment; the majority of metamorphs and the most developed tadpoles came from high-density ponds exposed to carbaryl 3 times. This interaction suggests that exposure to carbaryl later in the larval period stimulated metamorphosis, directly or indirectly, under high-density conditions. Our study indicates that exposure to a contaminant can lead to early initiation of metamorphosis and that natural biotic factors can mediate the effects of a contaminant in the environment.

  13. Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdsall, C.W.; Grue, C.E.; Anderson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Lead concentrations were determined in sediment and tadpoles of bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans from drainages along highways with different daily average traffic volumes (range, 4272 to I08,800 vehicles day-I) and from ponds >0.4 km from the nearest highway. Lead concentrations (mg kg--I dry weight) in sediment (7-8 to 940) were usually greater (4-5 times) than those in the tadpoles (bullfrog, 0,07 to 270; green frog, 0,90 to 240 mg kg-I). Lead concentrations in sediment (r =0.63) and in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = 0.69; green frog, r = 0.57) were positively correlated with average daily traffic volume. Lead concentrations in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = (). 76: green frog, r = 0.75) were also positively correlated with lead concentrations in sediment. At sites where both bullfrog and green frog tadpoles were collected. lead concentrations in the two species were closely related (r = 0.84). Lead concentrations in tadpoles living near highways may contribute to the elevated lead levels reported in wildlife that are potential tadpole predators. Dietary lead concentrations similar to those in our tadpoles have been associated with physiological and reproductive effects in some species of birds and mammals. However, additional data are needed to determine the hazards to predators of lead concentrations in tadpoles.

  14. Multiple sublethal chemicals negatively affect tadpoles of the green frog, Rana clamitans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, Michelle D.; Bridges, Christine M.; Fairchild, James F.; Little, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Many habitats may be exposed to multiple chemical contaminants, particularly in agricultural areas where fertilizer and pesticide use are common; however, the singular and interactive effects of contaminants are not well understood. The objective of our study was to examine how realistic, sublethal environmental levels of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0, 10, 20 mg/L and ammonium chloride control) and the common insecticide carbaryl (0 or 2.5 mg/L) individually and interactively affect the development, size, and survival of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles for 95 d in outdoor 1,000-L polyethylene ponds. We found that the combination of carbaryl and nitrate had a negative effect on development and mass of tadpoles compared to the positive effect that either contaminant had alone. Presence of carbaryl was generally associated with short-term increases in algal resources, including ponds exposed to both carbaryl and nitrate. However, with exposure to nitrate and carbaryl, tadpole mass and development were not positively affected as with one chemical stressor alone. The combination of these sublethal contaminants may reduce the ability of amphibians to benefit from food-rich environments or have metabolic costs. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering multiple stressors when evaluating population-level responses.

  15. Effects of carbaryl on green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles: Timing of exposure versus multiple exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Bridges, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of studies on pesticide impacts have evaluated the effects of single exposures. However, multiple exposures to a pesticide may be more prevalent. The objective of our study was to determine how multiple exposures versus single exposure at different times during development affected survival to metamorphosis, tadpole survival, tadpole mass, and tadpole developmental stage of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles reared at low and high density in outdoor cattle tank ponds. Tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl zero, one, two, or three times at 14-d intervals. We applied single doses of carbaryl at one of three times, specifically during early, mid, or late development. Overall, we found that multiple exposures had a greater impact than single exposures during development. More individuals reached metamorphosis in ponds exposed to multiple doses of carbaryl compared with controls, indicating that the presence of carbaryl stimulated metamorphosis. The presence of carbaryl in the aquatic environment also resulted in more developed tadpoles compared with controls. Tadpoles in control ponds did not reach metamorphosis and were less developed than individuals exposed to carbaryl; this effect indicates that, under ideal conditions, green frogs could overwinter in ponds so that greater size could be attained before metamorphosis in the following spring or summer. Our study demonstrated the importance of including realistic application procedures when evaluating the effects of a pesticide and that multiple exposures to a short-lived pesticide are more likely to affect an amphibian population.

  16. Parturition and potential infanticide in free-ranging Alouatta guariba clamitans.

    PubMed

    Martins, Valeska; Chaves, Óscar M; Neves, Mariana Beal; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2015-04-01

    Parturition is a key process of mammalian reproduction that is rarely documented in New World monkeys because it often occurs at night. However, diurnal births have been recorded in several species. In howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) they have often been observed during prolonged resting periods. Similarly, infanticide is a behavior observed quite infrequently. Infanticide in howler monkeys is often inferred from infant deaths or disappearances after group takeovers by nonresident male(s). Here we report the first observation of parturition and birth-related behaviors in the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) and the likely attack on the infant that caused its death. The mother was a multiparous female that lived in a ca. 3-ha Atlantic forest fragment in southern Brazil with nine group mates. The behavior ("all occurrences") sampling method was used to record birth-related behaviors and social interactions. The parturition occurred during the day of 27 October 2013 during a feeding session. The female showed no sign of contraction or birth delivery posture. Parturition began apparently after matrix rupture and release of the amniotic fluid. Expulsion of the newborn occurred between 1 and 3 min later (the exact moment of delivery was not observed). Then, the female held and licked the newborn and began to ingest the placenta and the umbilical cord. The other group members continued feeding and had no interaction with the parturient during the preparturition and parturition events. The infant died ca. 35 days later as a consequence of injuries to his forehead and face, potentially caused by a conspecific bite. Because the adult and subadult males chased the female in the day that the infant's wounds were detected, we believe that one of them might have been the aggressor. We discuss this putative case of infanticide in light of the potential motivation of each male. PMID:25739583

  17. Exposure of juvenile green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) in littoral enclosures to a glyphosate-based herbicide.

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher B; Gahl, Megan K; Pauli, Bruce D; Thompson, Dean G; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2011-07-01

    The majority of studies on the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides to amphibians have focused on larval life stages exposed in aqueous media. However, adult and juvenile amphibians may also be exposed directly or indirectly to herbicides. The potential for such exposures is of particular interest in the littoral zone surrounding wetlands as this is preferred habitat for many amphibian species. Moreover, it may be argued that potential herbicide effects on juvenile or adult amphibians could have comparatively greater influence on overall recruitment, reproductive potential and thus stability of local populations than effects on larvae. In this experiment, juvenile green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) were exposed to two concentrations (2.16 and 4.27 kg a.e./ha) of a glyphosate-based herbicide formulation (VisionMax®), which were based on typical application scenarios in Canadian forestry. The experimental design employed frogs inhabiting in situ enclosures established at the edge of small naturalized wetlands that were split in half using an impermeable plastic barrier. When analyzed using nominal target application rates, exposure to the glyphosate-based herbicide had no significant effect on survival, body condition, liver somatic index or the observed rate of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection. However, there were marginal trends in both ANOVA analysis and post-hoc regressions regarding B. dendrobatidis infection rates and liver somatic index in relation to measured exposure estimates. Results from this study highlight the importance of field research and the need to include multiple endpoints when examining potential effects of a contaminant on non-target organisms. PMID:21536331

  18. Transcriptome resources for the frogs Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, emphasizing antimicrobial peptides and conserved loci for phylogenetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Laura S.; Cornman, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed genetic resources for two North American frogs, Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, widespread native amphibians that are potential indicator species of environmental health. For both species, mRNA from multiple tissues was sequenced using 454 technology. De novo assemblies with Mira3 resulted in 50 238 contigs (N50 = 687 bp) and 48 213 contigs (N50 = 686 bp) for L. clamitans and P. regilla, respectively, after clustering with CD-Hit-EST and purging contigs below 200 bp. We performed BLASTX similarity searches against the Xenopus tropicalis proteome and, for predicted ORFs, HMMER similarity searches against the Pfam-A database. Because there is broad interest in amphibian immune factors, we manually annotated putative antimicrobial peptides. To identify conserved regions suitable for amplicon resequencing across a broad taxonomic range, we performed an additional assembly of public short-read transcriptome data derived from two species of the genus Rana and identified reciprocal best TBLASTX matches among all assemblies. Although P. regilla, a hylid frog, is substantially more diverged from the ranid species, we identified 56 genes that were sufficiently conserved to allow nondegenerate primer design with Primer3. In addition to providing a foundation for comparative genomics and quantitative gene expression analysis, our results enable quick development of nuclear sequence-based markers for phylogenetics or population genetics.

  19. The classical versus the Cabrera presentation system for resting electrocardiography: Impact on recognition and understanding of clinically important electrocardiographic changes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Anny; Wagner, Galen S; Pahlm, Olle

    2015-01-01

    The classical system for presentation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) reflects the electrical activity of the heart as viewed in the transverse plane by 6 leads with a single anatomically ordered sequence, V1-V6; but in the frontal plane by 6 leads with dual sequences, I, II, and III, and aVR, aVL, and aVF. However, there is also a single anatomically ordered sequence of leads, called the Cabrera display that presents the six frontal plane leads in their anatomically ordered sequence of: aVL, I, -aVR, II, aVF, and III. Although it has been recognized that the Cabrera system has clinical diagnostic advantages compared to the classical display, it is currently only used in Sweden. The primary explanation of why the Cabrera system has not been adopted internationally has been that analog ECG recorders had technical limitations. Currently, however, the classical system is most often seen as a historical remnant that prevails because of conservatism within the cardiology community. PMID:26051487

  20. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 on green frog (Rana clamitans) and leopard frog (Rana pipiens) hatching success, development, and metamorphosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenshield, M.L.; Jofre, M.B.; Karasov, W.H.

    1999-11-01

    Although increasing evidence links plana chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), to decreases in survival and reproduction of fish, mammals, and birds near Green Bay, Wisconsin, and the Great Lakes, USA, relatively little is known of their bioaccumulation or of their possible effects in amphibians. The authors exposed embryos and larvae of two ranid species commonly occurring in the Green Bay ecosystem, the green frog (Rana clamitans) and the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), to PCB 126, a model coplanar PCB compound. Nominal concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 50 {micro}g/L, and exposure lasted through metamorphosis. Tissue concentrations of PCB 126 in tadpoles that did not metamorphose by the end of the experiment ranged from 1.2 to 9,600 ng/g wet mass. No significant mortality of embryos occurred before hatching; however, survival of larvae was significantly reduced at the highest concentration for both species. Few deformities were observed, but the incidence of edema was significantly higher in tadpoles exposed to 50 {micro}g/L. Swimming speed and growth of tadpoles was also significantly reduced in this treatment. The percent of tadpoles that reached metamorphosis was significantly lower in green frogs at the highest concentration, and no leopard frogs survived past day 47 of the experiment in this treatment. At high concentrations, PCB 126 affected both ranid species; however, sublethal effects were not apparent for the parameters the authors measured at concentrations that occur in water in the Green Bay ecosystem.

  1. Petrology and geochemistry of the Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cribb, J.W.; Lewis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, located in the NW Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, is a heterogeneous intrusive complex composed of a zoned ultramafic-mafic core surrounded by tonalite and diorite. The batholith intrudes metasbasaltic rocks of the Duarte Complex of early Cretaceous age. The ultramafic-mafic core consists of peridotite, olivine-pyroxenite, pyroxenite, and augite-hypersthene gabbro-norite. Pyroxenites and gabbro-norites exhibit large scale interlayering and small scale layering involving a regular variation in the proportions of ortho- and clinopyroxene. Tonalities and diorites are mafic to leucocratic, some being porphyritic. Petrographic types include hornblende, hornblende-pyroxene, hornblende-biotite, and muscovite-biotite types. Aplites are abundant. Intrusive relations suggest that ultramafic-mafic complex is the oldest intrusive phase, and was partially amphibolitized during later intrusion of the felsic rocks. Ultramafic-mafic rocks contain 43-54% SiO/sub 2/ and MgO ranges from 8-45%. Trace and REE in these rocks are relatively depleted. Tonalitic rocks range in SiO/sub 2/ from 53-76%, with K/sub 2/O varying from 0.15-2.9%. In addition, they are LREE enriched. A small Eu anomaly is best explained by fractionation of plagioclase and hornblende. Trends shown by Rb-Sr data suggest that fractional crystallization of hornblende and plagioclase, that is high level fractionation, is the important factor in controlling chemical variation in the tonalites.

  2. Residence time and Posidonia oceanica in Cabrera Archipelago National Park, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfila, A.; Jordi, A.; Basterretxea, G.; Vizoso, G.; Marbà, N.; Duarte, C. M.; Werner, F. E.; Tintoré, J.

    2005-07-01

    Flushing time and residence time are studied in a small inlet in Cabrera National Park, Western Mediterranean Sea. Flushing time is studied using ADCP in situ data. Observed flushing time data are compared with the simulations from a three-dimensional coastal ocean numerical model. Residence time is assessed using virtual lagrangian particles and studying the number remaining within the analyzed domain. Results show a good agreement between observations and modeling estimations of the flushing time (i.e. 6 days from the ADCP data and 5.6 days from the numerical model). Residence time estimations yield a broad range of values, from 1 h in the Bay to over 30 days depending also on the horizontal and vertical position where particles were released. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model for the Port yields a value of 8.7 days. Results obtained for the residence time appear to have a determinant impact over the meadows of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, present inside the Port. Recirculation patterns and complex flows in coastal environments create a non-uniform distribution of the areas of accumulation of non-conservative properties that indicate that residence time concept is the correct approach when studying the impact of water transport over biological communities.

  3. Modeling of oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles by using Cabrera Mott Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanova, Zamart; Zyskin, Maxim; Martirosyan, Karen

    2012-10-01

    Our research focuses on modeling new Nanoenergetic Gas-Generator (NGG) formulations that rapidly release a large amount of gaseous products and generates shock and pressure waves. Nanoenergetic thermite reagents include mixtures of Al and metal oxides such as bismuth trioxide and iodine pentoxide. The research problem is considered a spherically symmetric case and used the Cabrera Mott oxidation model to describe the kinetics of oxide growth on spherical Al nanoparticles for evaluating reaction time which a process of the reaction with oxidizer happens on the outer part of oxide layer of aluminum ions are getting in contact with an oxidizing agent and react. We assumed that a ball of Al of radius 20 to 50 nm is covered by a thin oxide layer 2-4 nm and is surrounded by abundant amount of oxygen stored by oxidizers. The ball is rapidly heated up to ignition temperature to initiate self-sustaining oxidation reaction. As a result highly exothermic reaction is generated. In the oxide layer of excess concentrations of electrons and ions are dependent on the electric field potential with the corresponding of the Gibbs factors and that it conducts to the solution of a nonlinear Poisson equation for the electric field potential in a moving boundary domain. Motion of the boundary is determined by the gradient of a solution on the boundary. We investigated oxidation model numerically, using the COMSOL software utilizing finite element analysis. The computing results demonstrate that oxidation rate increases with the decreasing particle radius.

  4. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini).

    PubMed

    Gifalli-Iughetti, Cristiani; Koiffmann, Célia P

    2009-10-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  5. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  6. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  7. Low detection of ranavirus DNA in wild postmetamorphic green frogs, Rana (Lithobates) clamitans, despite previous or concurrent tadpole mortality.

    PubMed

    Forzán, María J; Wood, John

    2013-10-01

    Ranavirus (Iridoviridae) infection is a significant cause of mortality in amphibians. Detection of infected individuals, particularly carriers, is necessary to prevent and control outbreaks. Recently, the use of toe clips to detect ranavirus infection through PCR was proposed as an alternative to the more frequently used lethal liver sampling in green frogs (Rana [Lithobates] clamitans). We attempted reevaluate the use of toe clips, evaluate the potential use of blood onto filter paper and hepatic fine needle aspirates (FNAs) as further alternatives, and explore the adequacy of using green frogs as a target-sampling species when searching for ranavirus infection in the wild. Samples were obtained from 190 postmetamorphic (≥1-yr-old) green frogs from five ponds on Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Three of the ponds had contemporary or recent tadpole mortalities due to Frog Virus 3 (FV3) ranavirus. PCR testing for ranavirus DNA was performed on 190 toe clips, 188 blood samples, 72 hepatic FNAs, and 72 liver tissue samples. Only two frogs were ranavirus-positive: liver and toe clip were positive in one, liver only was positive in the other; all blood and FNAs, including those from the two positive frogs, were negative. Results did not yield a definitive answer on the efficacy of testing each type of sample, but resemble what is found in salamanders infected with Ambystoma tigrinum (rana)virus. Findings indicate a low prevalence of FV3 in postmetamorphic green frogs on PEI (≤2.78%) and suggest that green frogs are poor reservoirs (carriers) for the virus. PMID:24502715

  8. Specific time of exposure during tadpole development influences biological effects of the insecticide carbaryl in green frogs (Lithobates clamitans).

    PubMed

    Boone, Michelle D; Hammond, S Austin; Veldhoen, Nik; Youngquist, Melissa; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-04-15

    The orchestration of anuran metamorphosis is initiated and integrated by thyroid hormones, which change dynamically during larval development and which may represent a target of disruption by environmental contaminants. Studies have found that some anurans experience increased rates of development when exposed to the insecticide carbaryl later in larval development, suggesting that this insecticide could affect thyroid hormone-associated biological pathways. However, the time in development when tadpoles are sensitive to insecticide exposure has not been clearly defined nor has the mechanism been tested. In two separate studies, we exposed recently hatched green frog (Lithobates clamitans) tadpoles to a single, three day carbaryl exposure in the laboratory at either 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks post-hatching. We examined the impact of carbaryl exposure on mRNA abundance patterns in the brains of frogs following metamorphosis months after a single three day exposure (experiment 1) and in tadpole tails three days after exposure (experiment 2) using cDNA microarrays and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analyses. For tadpoles reared through metamorphosis, we measured tadpole growth and development, as well as time to, mass at, and survival to metamorphosis. Although carbaryl did not significantly impact tadpole development, metamorphosis, or survival, clear exposure-related alterations in both tail and brain transcript levels were evident when tadpoles were exposed to carbaryl, particularly in tadpoles exposed at weeks 8 and 16 post-hatching, indicating both short-term and long-term alterations in mRNA expression. These results indicate that carbaryl can have long-lasting effects on brain development when exposure occurs at sensitive developmental stages, which may have implications for animal fitness and function later in the life cycle. PMID:23399446

  9. Trophic Discrimination Factors and Incorporation Rates of Carbon- and Nitrogen-Stable Isotopes in Adult Green Frogs, Lithobates clamitans.

    PubMed

    Cloyed, Carl S; Newsome, Seth D; Eason, Perri K

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is an increasingly useful ecological tool, but its accuracy depends on quantifying the tissue-specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) and isotopic incorporation rates for focal taxa. Despite the technique's ubiquity, most laboratory experiments determining TDFs and incorporation rates have focused on birds, mammals, and fish; we know little about terrestrial ectotherms, and amphibians in particular are understudied. In this study we used two controlled feeding experiments to determine carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope TDFs for skin, whole blood, and bone collagen and incorporation rates for skin and whole blood in adult green frogs, Lithobates clamitans. The mean (±SD) TDFs for δ(13)C were 0.1‰ (±0.4‰) for skin, 0.5‰ (±0.5‰) for whole blood, and 1.6‰ (0.6‰) for bone collagen. The mean (±SD) TDFs for δ(15)N were 2.3‰ (±0.5‰) for skin, 2.3‰ (±0.4‰) for whole blood, and 3.1‰ (±0.6‰) for bone collagen. A combination of different isotopic incorporation models was best supported by our data. Carbon in skin was the only tissue in which incorporation was best explained by two compartments, which had half-lives of 89 and 8 d. The half-life of carbon in whole blood was 69 d. Half-lives for nitrogen were 75 d for skin and 71 d for whole blood. Our results help fill a taxonomic gap in our knowledge of stable isotope dynamics and provide ecologists with a method to measure anuran diets. PMID:26658253

  10. Primate molecular divergence dates.

    PubMed

    Steiper, Michael E; Young, Nathan M

    2006-11-01

    With genomic data, alignments can be assembled that greatly increase the number of informative sites for analysis of molecular divergence dates. Here, we present an estimate of the molecular divergence dates for all of the major primate groups. These date estimates are based on a Bayesian analysis of approximately 59.8 kbp of genomic data from 13 primates and 6 mammalian outgroups, using a range of paleontologically supported calibration estimates. Results support a Cretaceous last common ancestor of extant primates (approximately 77 mya), an Eocene divergence between platyrrhine and catarrhine primates (approximately 43 mya), an Oligocene origin of apes and Old World monkeys (approximately 31 mya), and an early Miocene (approximately 18 mya) divergence of Asian and African great apes. These dates are examined in the context of other molecular clock studies. PMID:16815047

  11. Primate taxonomy: species and conservation.

    PubMed

    Rylands, Anthony B; Mittermeier, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Primatology as a discrete branch of science involving the study of primate behavior and ecology took off in the 1960s after discovery of the importance of primates as models for biomedical research and the realization that primates provide insights into the evolutionary history of humans. Osman Hill's unfortunately incomplete monograph series on the comparative anatomy and taxonomy of the primates(1) and the Napiers' 1967 A Handbook of Living Primates(2) recorded the world's view of primate diversity at this time. This taxonomy remained the baseline for nearly three decades, with the diversity of each genus being represented by some species, but extensively as subspecies. PMID:24591133

  12. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  13. What Is a Primate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of hands-on experiments that engage students in hypothesis testing and promotes active learning of the concepts of evolution and adaptation. Laboratory exercises demonstrate how features of the hands and eyes distinguish primates from other mammals. (SOE)

  14. Nonhuman Primate Ocular Biometry

    PubMed Central

    Augusteyn, Robert C.; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine ocular growth in nonhuman primates (NHPs) from measurements on ex vivo eyes. Methods We obtained NHP eyes from animals that had been killed as part of other studies or because of health-related issues. Digital calipers were used to measure the horizontal, vertical, and anteroposterior globe diameters as well as corneal horizontal and vertical diameters of excised globes from 98 hamadryas baboons, 551 cynomolgus monkeys, and 112 rhesus monkeys, at ages ranging from 23 to 360 months. Isolated lens sagittal thickness and equatorial diameter were measured by shadowphotogrammetry. Wet and fixed dry weights were obtained for lenses. Results Nonhuman primate globe growth continues throughout life, slowing toward an asymptotic maximum. The final globe size scales with negative allometry to adult body size. Corneal growth ceases at around 20 months. Lens diameter increases but thickness decreases with increasing age. Nonhuman primate lens wet and dry weight accumulation is monophasic, continuing throughout life toward asymptotic maxima. The dry/wet weight ratio reaches a maximum of 0.33. Conclusions Nonhuman primate ocular globe and lens growth differ in several respects from those in humans. Although age-related losses of lens power and accommodative amplitude are similar, lens growth and properties are different indicating care should be taken in extrapolating NHP observations to the study of human accommodation. PMID:26780314

  15. The primate seahorse rhythm.

    PubMed

    Campos, L M G; Cruz-Rizzolo, Roelf J; Pinato, L

    2015-07-10

    The main Zeitgeber, the day-night cycle, synchronizes the central oscillator which determines behaviors rhythms as sleep-wake behavior, body temperature, the regulation of hormone secretion, and the acquisition and processing of memory. Thus, actions such as acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval performed in the hippocampus are modulated by the circadian system and show a varied dependence on light and dark. To investigate changes in the hippocampus' cellular mechanism invoked by the day and night in a diurnal primate, this study analyzed the expression of PER2 and the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin in the hippocampus of Sapajus apella, a diurnal primate, at two different time points, one during the day and one during the dark phase. The PER2 protein expression peaked at night in the antiphase described for the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the same primate, indicating that hippocampal cells can present independent rhythmicity. This hippocampal rhythm was similar to that presented by diurnal but not nocturnal rodents. The CaBPs immunoreactivity also showed day/night variations in the cell number and in the cell morphology. Our findings provide evidence for the claim that the circadian regulation in the hippocampus may involve rhythms of PER2 and CaBPs expression that may contribute to the adaptation of this species in events and activities relevant to the respective periods. PMID:25862571

  16. Ethics of primate use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs.

  17. Brains, Genes and Primates

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  18. Primate models in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Douglas J; Kirk, Allan D

    2013-09-01

    Large animal models have long served as the proving grounds for advances in transplantation, bridging the gap between inbred mouse experimentation and human clinical trials. Although a variety of species have been and continue to be used, the emergence of highly targeted biologic- and antibody-based therapies has required models to have a high degree of homology with humans. Thus, the nonhuman primate has become the model of choice in many settings. This article will provide an overview of nonhuman primate models of transplantation. Issues of primate genetics and care will be introduced, and a brief overview of technical aspects for various transplant models will be discussed. Finally, several prominent immunosuppressive and tolerance strategies used in primates will be reviewed. PMID:24003248

  19. Leopard predation and primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Zuberbühler, Klaus; Jenny, David

    2002-12-01

    Although predation is an important driving force of natural selection its effects on primate evolution are still not well understood, mainly because little is known about the hunting behaviour of the primates' various predators. Here, we present data on the hunting behaviour of the leopard (Panthera pardus), a major primate predator in the Tai; forest of Ivory Coast and elsewhere. Radio-tracking data showed that forest leopards primarily hunt for monkeys on the ground during the day. Faecal analyses confirmed that primates accounted for a large proportion of the leopards' diet and revealed in detail the predation pressure exerted on the eight different monkey and one chimpanzee species. We related the species-specific predation rates to various morphological, behavioural and demographic traits that are usually considered adaptations to predation (body size, group size, group composition, reproductive behaviour, and use of forest strata). Leopard predation was most reliably associated with density, suggesting that leopards hunt primates according to abundance. Contrary to predictions, leopard predation rates were not negatively, but positively, related to body size, group size and the number of males per group, suggesting that predation by leopards did not drive the evolution of these traits in the predicted way. We discuss these findings in light of some recent experimental data and suggest that the principal effect of leopard predation has been on primates' cognitive evolution. PMID:12473487

  20. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Jonathan B; Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Travis, Dominic A; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E; Johnson, Timothy J; Knights, Dan

    2016-09-13

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  1. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a pressurizer spray valve inadverted fully opening transient and recovery by natural circulation in Jose Cabrera Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyo, R.; Rebollo, L.

    1993-06-01

    This document presents the comparison between the simulation results and the plant measurements of a real event that took place in JOSE CABRERA nuclear power plant in August 30th, 1984. The event was originated by the total, continuous and inadverted opening of the pressurizer spray valve PCV-400A. JOSE CABRERA power plant is a single loop Westinghouse PWR belonging to UNION ELECTRICA FENOSA, S.A. (UNION FENOSA), an Spanish utility which participates in the International Code Assessment and Applications Program (ICAP) as a member of UNIDAD ELECTRICA, S.A. (UNESA). This is the second of its two contributions to the Program: the first one was an application case and this is an assessment one. The simulation has been performed using the RELAP5/MOD2 cycle 36.04 code, running on a CDC CYBER 180/830 computer under NOS 2.5 operating system. The main phenomena have been calculated correctly and some conclusions about the 3D characteristics of the condensation due to the spray and its simulation with a 1D tool have been got.

  2. A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates

    PubMed Central

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E.; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N.; Horvath, Julie E.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C.; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (∼8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (∼90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species. PMID:21436896

  3. Retinal connectivity and primate vision

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barry B.; Martin, Paul R.; Grünert, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. PMID:20826226

  4. Retinal connectivity and primate vision.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barry B; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2010-11-01

    The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. PMID:20826226

  5. [Research proceedings on primate comparative genomics].

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng-Hong; Su, Bing

    2012-02-01

    With the accomplishment of genome sequencing of human, chimpanzee and other primates, there has been a great amount of primate genome information accumulated. Primate comparative genomics has become a new research field at current genome era. In this article, we reviewed recent progress in phylogeny, genome structure and gene expression of human and nonhuman primates, and we elaborated the major biological differences among human, chimpanzee and other non-human primate species, which is informative in revealing the mechanism of human evolution. PMID:22345018

  6. Pathogenesis of Varicelloviruses in primates

    PubMed Central

    Ouwendijk, Werner J.D.; Verjans, Georges M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Varicelloviruses in primates comprise the prototypic human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its non-human primate homologue simian varicella virus (SVV). Both viruses cause varicella as a primary infection, establish latency in ganglionic neurons and reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster in their respective hosts. VZV is endemic worldwide and although varicella is usually a benign disease in childhood, VZV reactivation is a significant cause of neurological disease in the elderly and in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenesis of VZV infection remains ill-defined, mostly due to the species restriction of VZV that impedes studies in experimental animal models. SVV infection of non-human primates parallels virological, clinical, pathological and immunological features of human VZV infection, thereby providing an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in its natural host. In this review, we discuss recent studies that provided novel insight in both the virus and host factors involved in the three elementary stages of Varicellovirus infection in primates: primary infection, latency and reactivation. PMID:25255989

  7. Neuroethology of primate social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Brent, Lauren J. N.; Adams, Geoffrey K.; Klein, Jeffrey T.; Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A neuroethological approach to human and nonhuman primate behavior and cognition predicts biological specializations for social life. Evidence reviewed here indicates that ancestral mechanisms are often duplicated, repurposed, and differentially regulated to support social behavior. Focusing on recent research from nonhuman primates, we describe how the primate brain might implement social functions by coopting and extending preexisting mechanisms that previously supported nonsocial functions. This approach reveals that highly specialized mechanisms have evolved to decipher the immediate social context, and parallel circuits have evolved to translate social perceptual signals and nonsocial perceptual signals into partially integrated social and nonsocial motivational signals, which together inform general-purpose mechanisms that command behavior. Differences in social behavior between species, as well as between individuals within a species, result in part from neuromodulatory regulation of these neural circuits, which itself appears to be under partial genetic control. Ultimately, intraspecific variation in social behavior has differential fitness consequences, providing fundamental building blocks of natural selection. Our review suggests that the neuroethological approach to primate behavior may provide unique insights into human psychopathology. PMID:23754410

  8. How does your crystal grow? A commentary on Burton, Cabrera and Frank (1951) ‘The growth of crystals and the equilibrium structure of their surfaces’

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The key ideas presented in the classic paper ‘The growth of crystals and the equilibrium structure of their surfaces’ by W. K. Burton, N. Cabrera and F. C. Frank, published in Philosophical Transactions A in 1951, are summarized and put in the context of both the state of knowledge at the time of publication and the considerable amount of work since that time that has built on and developed these ideas. Many of these developments exploit the huge increase in the capabilities of computer modelling that complement the original analytic approach of the paper. The dearth of relevant experimental data at the time of the original publication has been transformed by the application of increasingly sophisticated modern methods of surface science. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750141

  9. Migration matrices and surnames in populations with different isolation patterns: Val di Lima (Italian Apennines), Val di Sole (Italian Alps), and La Cabrera (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Calboli, Federico C F; Blanco Villegas, Maria José; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Marcello G; Paoli, Giorgio; Cavicchi, Sandro; Pettener, Davide

    2006-01-01

    Biodemographic methods are widely used to infer the genetic structure of human populations. In this study, we revise and standardize the procedures required by the migration matrix model of Malécot ([1950] Ann Univ Lyon Sci [A] 13:37-60), testing it in large historical-demographic databases of 85 populations from three mountain valleys with different degrees of isolation: Val di Lima (Italian Apennines, 21 parishes), Val di Sole, (Italian Alps, 27 parishes), and La Cabrera (Spain, 37 parishes). An add-on package (Biodem) for the R program is proposed to perform all calculations. Results from migration matrices are compared with those obtained from isonymic relationships. Migration and isonymy matrices are derived from 22,781 marriage records. Matrices are analyzed using a nonlinear isolation-by-distance (IBD) model and multivariate techniques (multidimensional scaling, Procrustes rotation, and cluster analysis). Microdifferentiation levels (F(ST)) from the migration data agree with the observed inbreeding values: higher values are found in La Cabrera (F(ST) = 0.0082), the most isolated population; Val di Lima (F(ST) = 0.0015) and Val di Sole (F(ST) = 0.0012) have lower values due to the larger parish population sizes and greater mobility. Temporal changes of F(ST) and IBD are analyzed using the migration matrix approach. The populations show a marked decline in F(ST) values in time, together with increased population mobility and emigration rates. In all three valleys, marital migration and isonymy yield similar results, suggesting that geographic distance is the most important factor structuring the populations. However, isonymy shows a lower correlation with geographic distance than migration matrices do. This difference can be attributed to the differing sensitivity of the methods for past migration events, and to genetic drift. PMID:16917890

  10. Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Plumptre, Andrew J; Cox, Debby

    2006-01-01

    Primate census techniques have been developed over the past 35-40 years yet there is still some confusion and great variation in the methods used. This precludes comparisons between sites where different techniques have been used. This paper discusses the variations between the methods that seem to be practiced currently and then describes a census of primates in the forests of western Uganda. Primate density and biomass varied greatly between forests as well as within forests and this is probably related to food availability. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) density was strongly correlated with nest encounter rates from reconnaissance walks in the forest. This result can be used to estimate chimpanzee density in forests where it is difficult to survey this species (e.g., due to security reasons). A total of 4,980 chimpanzee was estimated for Uganda which is higher than previously guessed, but still of conservation concern. Only four forests had more than 500 individuals which gives concern for long-term population viability. PMID:16132166

  11. Optogenetics in the nonhuman primate

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xue

    2013-01-01

    The nonhuman primate brain, the model system closest to the human brain, plays a critical role in our understanding of neural computation, cognition, and behavior. The continued quest to crack the neural codes in the monkey brain would be greatly enhanced with new tools and technologies that can rapidly and reversibly control the activities of desired cells at precise times during specific behavioral states. Recent advances in adapting optogenetic technologies to monkeys have enabled precise control of specific cells or brain regions at the millisecond timescale, allowing for the investigation of the causal role of these neural circuits in this model system. Validation of optogenetic technologies in monkeys also represents a critical preclinical step on the translational path of new generation cell-type-specific neural modulation therapies. Here, I discuss the current state of the application of optogenetics in the nonhuman primate model system, highlighting the available genetic, optical and electrical technologies, and their limitations and potentials. PMID:22341328

  12. Primate Experiments on SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aochi, J.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments to study how certain body systems are affected by the space environment are described. These experiments are to be conducted on space shuttle flights. How weightlessness affects two body systems of primates are the prime concern. Thermoregulation and fluid and electrolyte homeostasis are the two systems concerned. The thermoregulation project will provide data on how body temperature and circadian rhythms are affected in a weightlessness environment and the homeostasis in fluids and electrolyte levels will address the problem of body fluid shifts.

  13. Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Assessing Anxiety in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kristine; Pierre, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety can be broadly described as a psychological state in which normally innocuous environmental stimuli trigger negative emotional expectations. Human anxiety disorders are multidimensional and may be organic or acquired, situational or pervasive. The broad ranging nature of the anxiety phenotype speaks to the need for models that identify its various components and root causes to develop effective clinical treatments. The cross-species comparative approach to modeling anxiety disorders in animals aims to understand mechanisms that both contribute to and modulate anxiety. Nonhuman primate models provide an important bridge from nonprimate model systems because of the complexity of nonhuman primates’ biobehavioral capacities and their commonalities with human emotion. The broad goal of this review is to provide an overview of various procedures available to study anxiety in the nonhuman primate, with a focus on the behavioral aspects of anxiety. Commonly used methods covered in this review include assessing animals in their home environment or in response to an ethologically relevant threat, associative conditioning and startle response tests, and cognitive bias tests. We also discuss how these procedures can help veterinarians and researchers care for captive nonhuman primates. PMID:25225310

  15. [Reasons for not using primates in research].

    PubMed

    Sauer, U G

    2000-01-01

    In terms of physiological development, non-human primates are our next of kin in the animal kingdom. Scientists who oppose the use of primates for experimental purposes argue that due to the high degree of similarity between primates and humans, experiments that may not be performed on humans due to ethical reasons also should not be performed on primates. Taking neurophysiological experiments with primates as an example, it is discussed which consequences it would have for medical progress if the use of primates in research were abandoned altogether. Taking into account the alternatives available and the results gained with the animal tests, it is concluded that medical progress would be unimpeded, even though in some instances the exact same questions that currently are evaluated with the animal tests might no longer be pursued with the alternatives. PMID:11178554

  16. Primate communities: past, present, and possible future.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kaye E; Bidner, Laura R

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the fundamental causes of the structure of primate communities is important for studies of primate evolutionary history, primate behavioral ecology, and development of conservation strategies. Research into these structuring factors has benefited from new perspectives such as consideration of primate phylogenetic history, metacommunities, and interactions with predators and nonprimate competitors. This review presents the underlying factors of primate community structure within the biogeographic regions of Madagascar, the Neotropics, Africa, and Asia. One of the major differences among these locations likely resulted from the initial primate taxa that colonized each region (a single colonization event in the case of Madagascar and South America, and multiple radiations of higher-level taxa in Africa and Asia). As most primates live in forests, the differences among the forests in these locations, caused by various climatic influences, further influenced speciation and the development of primate communities. Within these habitats, species interactions with different groups of organisms were also instrumental in developing community dynamics. Through an investigation of these fundamental factors, we identify some of the most important effects on primate communities in each region. These findings suggest that low primate richness in Asia may be caused by either the abundance of dipterocarp trees or high levels of monsoon rains. High numbers of frugivores and a lack of folivores in neotropical communities may be associated with competition with sloths that were already present at the time of initial radiation. Climatic patterns which affect forest structure and productivity in Madagascar may be responsible for high numbers of folivorous lemurs. The identification of these factors are important for the conservation of existing primate communities, and indicate directions for future studies. PMID:15605389

  17. Bion 11 mission: primate experiments.

    PubMed

    Ilyin, E A; Korolkov, V I; Skidmore, M G; Viso, M; Kozlovskaya, I B; Grindeland, R E; Lapin, B A; Gordeev, Y V; Krotov, V P; Fanton, J W; Bielitzki, J T; Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Hines, J W

    2000-01-01

    A summary is provided of the major operations required to conduct the wide range of primate experiments on the Bion 11 mission, which flew for 14 days beginning December 24, 1996. Information is given on preflight preparations, including flight candidate selection and training; attachment and implantation of bioinstrumentation; flight and ground experiment designs; onboard life support and test systems; ground and flight health monitoring; flight monkey selection and transport to the launch site; inflight procedures and data collection; postflight examinations and experiments; and assessment of results. PMID:11543472

  18. Noninvasive Test for Tuberculosis Detection among Primates

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Lawrence; Shoyama, Fernanda Miyagaki; O’Malley, Melanie J.; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Asiimwe, Benon; Travis, Dominic A.; Singer, Randall S.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2015-01-01

    Traditional testing methods have limited epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis among free-living primates. PCR amplification of insertion element IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from fecal samples was evaluated as a noninvasive screening test for tuberculosis in primates. Active tuberculosis was detected among inoculated macaques and naturally exposed chimpanzees, demonstrating the utility of this test. PMID:25695329

  19. Nonhuman Primate Infections after Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Haustein, Silke V.; Kolterman, Amanda J.; Sundblad, Jeffrey J.; Fechner, John H.; Knechtle, Stuart J.

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates, primarily rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and baboons (Papio spp.), have been used extensively in research models of solid organ transplantation, mainly because the nonhuman primate (NHP) immune system closely resembles that of the human. Nonhuman primates are also frequently the model of choice for preclinical testing of new immunosuppressive strategies. But the management of post-transplant nonhuman primates is complex, because it often involves multiple immunosuppressive agents, many of which are new and have unknown effects. Additionally, the resulting immunosuppression carries a risk of infectious complications, which are challenging to diagnose. Last, because of the natural tendency of animals to hide signs of weakness, infectious complications may not be obvious until the animal becomes severely ill. For these reasons the diagnosis of infectious complications is difficult among post-transplant NHPs. Because most nonhuman primate studies in organ transplantation are quite small, there are only a few published reports concerning infections after transplantation in nonhuman primates. Based on our survey of these reports, the incidence of infection in NHP transplant models is 14%. The majority of reports suggest that many of these infections are due to reactivation of viruses endemic to the primate species, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), polyomavirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–related infections. In this review, we address the epidemiology, pathogenesis, role of prophylaxis, clinical presentation, and treatment of infectious complications after solid organ transplantation in nonhuman primates. PMID:18323582

  20. Modeling Olfactory Bulb Evolution through Primate Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Heritage, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive characterizations of primates have usually included a reduction in olfactory sensitivity. However, this inference of derivation and directionality assumes an ancestral state of olfaction, usually by comparison to a group of extant non-primate mammals. Thus, the accuracy of the inference depends on the assumed ancestral state. Here I present a phylogenetic model of continuous trait evolution that reconstructs olfactory bulb volumes for ancestral nodes of primates and mammal outgroups. Parent-daughter comparisons suggest that, relative to the ancestral euarchontan, the crown-primate node is plesiomorphic and that derived reduction in olfactory sensitivity is an attribute of the haplorhine lineage. The model also suggests a derived increase in olfactory sensitivity at the strepsirrhine node. This oppositional diversification of the strepsirrhine and haplorhine lineages from an intermediate and non-derived ancestor is inconsistent with a characterization of graded reduction through primate evolution. PMID:25426851

  1. Heart xenotransplantation in primate models.

    PubMed

    Postrach, Johannes; Bauer, Andreas; Schmoeckel, Michael; Reichart, Bruno; Brenner, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is a potential solution for the worldwide persisting donor organ shortage. However, immunological and physiological barriers need to be overcome before the first clinical trials can be started. Nonhuman primates are considered the most suitable recipients in preclinical xenotransplantation models. Heterotopic abdominal cardiac xenotransplantation is a well-established nonworking heart model for immunological and biological studies on acute and delayed xenograft rejection and xenograft survival. Nevertheless, orthotopic life-supporting pig-to-baboon heart transplantation is the only accepted model for future cardiac xenotransplantation in humans so far. Survival times of 3 months in at least 60% of consecutive experiments have to be achieved and a minimum number of ten nonhuman primates have to survive for this period of time before clinical transplantation may be started. We recently introduced the heterotopic thoracic technique of pig-to-baboon heart transplantation. We believe that this technique combines the advantages of a working heart model with the safety of heterotopic transplantation. We describe the technical procedure of the three different pig-to-baboon models and give detailed information on perioperative care of the recipients. PMID:22565995

  2. Association of Primate Veterinarians 2014 Nonhuman Primate Housing Survey.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the Association of Primate Veterinarians supported conducting a survey to determine how NHP were housed in USDA-registered research facilities. The data generated were to be used to refute allegations in a petition filed with the USDA by the New England Antivivisectionist Society, which alleged that the proportion of NHP housed singly had not improved since the implementation of the standards contained in §3.81 of the Animal Welfare Regulations. The survey gathered housing information on approximately 90% of the NHP housed in research facilities in FY2014. That information documented that the number of NHP housed in groups or pairs has increased by 20 percentage points to 84% since the USDA's survey conducted in 2000 and 2001. This article describes the methodology and approach used to conduct the survey, summarizes the data obtained, and discusses the meaning of those data. PMID:27025809

  3. Special issue: Comparative biogeography of Neotropical primates.

    PubMed

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Di Fiore, Anthony; Boubli, Jean P

    2015-01-01

    New research presented in this special issue of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution on the "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Neotropical Primates" greatly improves our understanding of the evolutionary history of the New World monkeys and provides insights into the multiple platyrrhine radiations, diversifications, extinctions, and recolonizations that have taken place over time and over space in the Neotropics. Here, we synthesize genetic and biogeographic research from the past several years to construct an overarching hypothesis for platyrrhine evolution. We also highlight continuing controversies in Neotropical primate biogeography, such as whether the location of origin of platyrrhines was Africa or Asia; whether Patagonian fossil primates are stem or crown platyrrhines; and whether cis- and trans-Andean Neotropical primates were subject to vicariance through Andes mountain building, or instead diversified through isolation in mountain valleys after skirting around the Andes on the northwestern coast of South America. We also consider the role of the Amazon River and its major tributaries in shaping platyrrhine biodiversity, and how and when primates from the Amazon reached the Atlantic Forest. A key focus is on primate colonizations and extirpations in Central America, the Andes, and the seasonally dry tropical forests and savannas (such as the Llanos, Caatinga, and Cerrado habitats), all ecosystems that have been understudied up until now for primates. We suggest that most primates currently inhabiting drier open habitats are relatively recent arrivals, having expanded from rainforest habitats in the Pleistocene. We point to the Pitheciidae as the taxonomic group most in need of further phylogenetic and biogeographic research. Additionally, genomic studies on the Platyrrhini are deeply needed and are expected to bring new surprises and insights to the field of Neotropical primate biogeography. PMID:25451803

  4. Primates in 21st century ecosystems: does primate conservation promote ecosystem conservation?

    PubMed

    Norconk, Marilyn A; Boinski, Sue; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the American Journal of Primatology were among the participants in an invited symposium at the 2008 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation meeting in Paramaribo, Suriname. They were asked to assess how essential primates are to tropical ecosystems and, given their research interests, discuss how primate research contributes to the broader understanding about how ecosystems function. This introduction to the issue is divided into three parts: a review of the roles that nonhuman primates play in tropical ecosystems; the implementation of large-scale landscape methods used to identify primate densities; and concerns about the increasingly porous boundaries between humans, nonhuman primates, and pathogens. Although 20th century primate research created a rich database on individual species, including both theoretical and descriptive approaches, the dual effects of high human population densities and widespread habitat destruction should warn us that creative, interdisciplinary and human-related research is needed to solve 21st century problems. PMID:20677224

  5. Oligocene primates from China reveal divergence between African and Asian primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xijun; Li, Qiang; Li, Lüzhou; Beard, K Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Profound environmental and faunal changes are associated with climatic deterioration during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) roughly 34 million years ago. Reconstructing how Asian primates responded to the EOT has been hindered by a sparse record of Oligocene primates on that continent. Here, we report the discovery of a diverse primate fauna from the early Oligocene of southern China. In marked contrast to Afro-Arabian Oligocene primate faunas, this Asian fauna is dominated by strepsirhines. There appears to be a strong break between Paleogene and Neogene Asian anthropoid assemblages. Asian and Afro-Arabian primate faunas responded differently to EOT climatic deterioration, indicating that the EOT functioned as a critical evolutionary filter constraining the subsequent course of primate evolution across the Old World. PMID:27151861

  6. The Automated Primate Research Laboratory (APRL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of a self-contained automated primate research laboratory to study the effects of weightlessness on subhuman primates. Physiological parameters such as hemodynamics, respiration, blood constituents, waste, and diet and nutrition are analyzed for abnormalities in the simulated space environment. The Southeast Asian pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemistrina) was selected for the experiments owing to its relative intelligence and learning capacity. The objective of the program is to demonstrate the feasibility of a man-tended primate space flight experiment.

  7. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans. PMID:27575347

  8. The use of nonhuman primates in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, R. C. (Editor); Bourne, G. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Space related biomedical research involving nonhuman primates is reviewed. The scientific assets of various species and the instruments used for monitoring physiological processes during long duration experimentations are described.

  9. A Mitogenomic Phylogeny of Living Primates

    PubMed Central

    Finstermeier, Knut; Zinner, Dietmar; Brameier, Markus; Meyer, Matthias; Kreuz, Eva; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Primates, the mammalian order including our own species, comprise 480 species in 78 genera. Thus, they represent the third largest of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals. Although recent phylogenetic studies on primates are increasingly built on molecular datasets, most of these studies have focused on taxonomic subgroups within the order. Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have proven to be extremely useful in deciphering within-order relationships even up to deep nodes. Using 454 sequencing, we sequenced 32 new complete mt genomes adding 20 previously not represented genera to the phylogenetic reconstruction of the primate tree. With 13 new sequences, the number of complete mt genomes within the parvorder Platyrrhini was widely extended, resulting in a largely resolved branching pattern among New World monkey families. We added 10 new Strepsirrhini mt genomes to the 15 previously available ones, thus almost doubling the number of mt genomes within this clade. Our data allow precise date estimates of all nodes and offer new insights into primate evolution. One major result is a relatively young date for the most recent common ancestor of all living primates which was estimated to 66-69 million years ago, suggesting that the divergence of extant primates started close to the K/T-boundary. Although some relationships remain unclear, the large number of mt genomes used allowed us to reconstruct a robust primate phylogeny which is largely in agreement with previous publications. Finally, we show that mt genomes are a useful tool for resolving primate phylogenetic relationships on various taxonomic levels. PMID:23874967

  10. Contextualising primate origins--an ecomorphological framework.

    PubMed

    Soligo, Christophe; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2016-04-01

    Ecomorphology - the characterisation of the adaptive relationship between an organism's morphology and its ecological role - has long been central to theories of the origin and early evolution of the primate order. This is exemplified by two of the most influential theories of primate origins: Matt Cartmill's Visual Predation Hypothesis, and Bob Sussman's Angiosperm Co-Evolution Hypothesis. However, the study of primate origins is constrained by the absence of data directly documenting the events under investigation, and has to rely instead on a fragmentary fossil record and the methodological assumptions inherent in phylogenetic comparative analyses of extant species. These constraints introduce particular challenges for inferring the ecomorphology of primate origins, as morphology and environmental context must first be inferred before the relationship between the two can be considered. Fossils can be integrated in comparative analyses and observations of extant model species and laboratory experiments of form-function relationships are critical for the functional interpretation of the morphology of extinct species. Recent developments have led to important advancements, including phylogenetic comparative methods based on more realistic models of evolution, and improved methods for the inference of clade divergence times, as well as an improved fossil record. This contribution will review current perspectives on the origin and early evolution of primates, paying particular attention to their phylogenetic (including cladistic relationships and character evolution) and environmental (including chronology, geography, and physical environments) contextualisation, before attempting an up-to-date ecomorphological synthesis of primate origins. PMID:26830706

  11. Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine M; Webber, Amanda D

    2010-09-01

    Nonhuman primates (referred to as primates in this study) are sometimes revered as gods, abhorred as evil spirits, killed for food because they damage crops, or butchered for sport. Primates' perceived similarity to humans places them in an anomalous position. While some human groups accept the idea that primates "straddle" the human-nonhuman boundary, for others this resemblance is a violation of the human-animal divide. In this study we use two case studies to explore how people's perceptions of primates are often influenced by these animals' apparent similarity to humans, creating expectations, founded within a "human morality" about how primates should interact with people. When animals transgress these social rules, they are measured against the same moral framework as humans. This has implications for how people view and respond to certain kinds of primate behaviors, their willingness to tolerate co-existence with primates and their likely support for primate conservation initiatives. PMID:20806339

  12. Voice discrimination in four primates.

    PubMed

    Candiotti, Agnès; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-10-01

    One accepted function of vocalisations is to convey information about the signaller, such as its age-sex class, motivation, or relationship with the recipient. Yet, in natural habitats individuals not only interact with conspecifics but also with members of other species. This is well documented for African forest monkeys, which form semi-permanent mixed-species groups that can persist for decades. Although members of such groups interact with each other on a daily basis, both physically and vocally, it is currently unknown whether they can discriminate familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecific group members. We addressed this question with playbacks on monkey species known to form polyspecific associations in the wild: red-capped mangabeys, Campbell's monkeys and Guereza colobus monkeys. We tested subjects' discrimination abilities of contact calls of familiar and unfamiliar female De Brazza monkeys. When pooling all species, subjects looked more often towards the speaker when hearing contact calls of unfamiliar than familiar callers. When testing De Brazza monkeys with their own calls, we found the same effect with the longest gaze durations after hearing unfamiliar voices. This suggests that primates can discriminate, not only between familiar and unfamiliar voices of conspecifics, but also between familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecifics living within a close proximity. PMID:23800631

  13. Globin gene switching in primates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert M; Gumucio, Deborah; Goodman, Morris

    2002-11-01

    Evolutionary approaches to the identification of DNA sequences required for transcription of the genes of the beta-globin cluster are reviewed. Sequence alignments of non-coding regions from widely divergent species revealed many conserved motifs (phylogenetic footprints) that were putative transcription factor binding sites and candidate binding proteins were identified. The differential timing of the prosimian and simian gamma-globin genes was analyzed by identifying base changes in the vicinity of the phylogenetic footprints. These differential phylogenetic footprints were shown to bind different nuclear factors, and the behavior of constructs with human or galago gamma-promoters in transgenic mice indicated that DNA motifs near the gamma-globin genes are sufficient to determine the developmental stage of expression. Locus control region alignments have identified many conserved sequence differences outside of the hypersensitive sites. Globin protein and mRNA expression profiles during embryological development in a series of catarrhine (Old World monkeys and apes) and platyrrhine (New World monkeys) primates have been determined. While all catarrhines examined to date have globin expression patterns that are highly similar to the well-established human switching behavior, platyrrhines have inactivated their gamma 1 genes by a variety of mechanisms, and have an earlier gamma-beta switch. PMID:12443943

  14. Ancient single origin for Malagasy primates.

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, A D; Cartmill, M; Ruvolo, M; Smith, K; Vilgalys, R

    1996-01-01

    We report new evidence that bears decisively on a long-standing controversy in primate systematics. DNA sequence data for the complete cytochrome b gene, combined with an expanded morphological data set, confirm the results of a previous study and again indicate that all extant Malagasy lemurs originated from a single common ancestor. These results, as well as those from other genetic studies, call for a revision of primate classifications in which the dwarf and mouse lemurs are placed within the Afro-Asian lorisiforms. The phylogenetic results, in agreement with paleocontinental data, indicate an African origin for the common ancestor of lemurs and lorises (the Strepsirrhini). The molecular data further suggest the surprising conclusion that lemurs began evolving independently by the early Eocene at the latest. This indicates that the Malagasy primate lineage is more ancient than generally thought and places the split between the two strepsirrhine lineages well before the appearance of known Eocene fossil primates. We conclude that primate origins were marked by rapid speciation and diversification sometime before the late Paleocene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8643538

  15. Sperm Morphology Assessment in Captive Neotropical Primates.

    PubMed

    Swanson, W F; Valle, R R; Carvalho, F M; Arakaki, P R; Rodas-Martínez, A Z; Muniz, Japc; García-Herreros, M

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate sperm morphology in four neotropical primate species to compare the sperm morphological traits and the sperm morphometric parameters as a basis for establishing normative sperm standards for each species. Data from 80 ejaculates collected from four primate species, Callithrix jacchus, Callimico goeldii, Alouatta caraya and Ateles geoffroyi, were analysed for detection of sperm morphological alterations using subjective World Health Organization (WHO-2010) standards and Sperm Deformity Index (SDI) criteria, objective computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA) and subpopulation sperm determination (SSD) methods. There were multiple differences (p < 0.01) observed among primate species in values obtained from WHO-2010, SDI, CASMA and SSD sperm analysis methods. In addition, multiple significant positive and negative correlations were observed between the sperm morphological traits (SDI, Sperm Deformity Index Head Defects, Sperm Deformity Index Midpiece Defects, Sperm Deformity Index Tail Defects, Normal Sperm, Head Defects, Midpiece Defects and Tail Defects) and the sperm morphometric parameters (SSD, Area (A), Perimeter (P), Length (L), Width (W), Ellipticity, Elongation and Rugosity) (p ≤ 0.046). In conclusion, our findings using different evaluation methods indicate that pronounced sperm morphological variation exists among these four neotropical primate species. Because of the strong relationship observed among morphological and morphometric parameters, these results suggest that application of objective analysis methods could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help to establish valid normative sperm values for neotropical primates. PMID:27260333

  16. Neocortex size predicts deception rate in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Richard W.; Corp, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    Human brain organization is built upon a more ancient adaptation, the large brain of simian primates: on average, monkeys and apes have brains twice as large as expected for mammals of their size, principally as a result of neocortical enlargement. Testing the adaptive benefit of this evolutionary specialization depends on finding an association between brain size and function in primates. However, most cognitive capacities have been assessed in only a restricted range of species under laboratory conditions. Deception of conspecifics in social circumstances is an exception, because a corpus of field data is available that encompasses all major lines of the primate radiation. We show that the use of deception within the primates is well predicted by the neocortical volume, when observer effort is controlled for; by contrast, neither the size of the rest of the brain nor the group size exert significant effects. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neocortical expansion has been driven by social challenges among the primates. Complex social manipulations such as deception are thought to be based upon rapid learning and extensive social knowledge; thus, learning in social contexts may be constrained by neocortical size. PMID:15306289

  17. Operant Nociception in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Brian D.; Bergman, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a longstanding public health concern. Morphine-like opioids have long been front-line analgesics, but produce undesirable side effects that can limit their application. Slow progress in the introduction of novel improved medications for pain management over the last 5 decades has prompted a call for innovative translational research, including new preclinical assays. Most current in vivo procedures (e.g., tail flick, hot plate, warm water tail withdrawal) assay the effects of nociceptive stimuli on simple spinal reflexes or unconditioned behavioral reactions. However, clinical treatment goals may include the restoration of previous behavioral activities, which can be limited by medication-related side-effects that are not measured in such procedures. The present studies describe an apparatus and procedure to study the disruptive effects of nociceptive stimuli on voluntary behavior in nonhuman primates, and the ability of drugs to restore such behavior through their analgesic actions. Squirrel monkeys were trained to pull a cylindrical thermode for access to a highly palatable food. Next, sessions were conducted in which the temperature of the thermode was increased stepwise until responding stopped, permitting the determination of stable nociceptive thresholds. Tests revealed that several opioid analgesics, but not d-amphetamine or Δ9-THC, produced dose-related increases in threshold that were antagonist-sensitive and efficacy-dependent, consistent with their effects using traditional measures of antinociception. Unlike traditional reflex-based measures, however, the results also permitted the concurrent evaluation of response disruption, providing an index with which to characterize the behavioral selectivity of antinociceptive drugs. PMID:24968803

  18. The social nature of primate cognition

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that the enlarged brain size of the primates was selected for by social, rather than purely ecological, factors has been strongly influential in studies of primate cognition and behaviour over the past two decades. However, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis, also known as the social brain hypothesis, tends to emphasize certain traits and behaviours, like exploitation and deception, at the expense of others, such as tolerance and behavioural coordination, and therefore presents only one view of how social life may shape cognition. This review outlines work from other relevant disciplines, including evolutionary economics, cognitive science and neurophysiology, to illustrate how these can be used to build a more general theoretical framework, incorporating notions of embodied and distributed cognition, in which to situate questions concerning the evolution of primate social cognition. PMID:16191591

  19. Genetic correlates of the evolving primate brain

    PubMed Central

    Vallender, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous shifts in the size, structure, and function of the brain during primate evolution are ultimately caused by changes at the genetic level. Understanding what these changes are and how they effect the phenotypic changes observed lies at the heart of understanding evolutionary change. This chapter focuses on understanding the genetic basis of primate brain evolution, considering the substrates and mechanisms through which genetic change occurs. It also discusses the implications that our current understandings and tools have for what we have already discovered and where our studies will head in the future. While genetic and genomic studies have identified many regions undergoing positive selection during primate evolution, the findings are certainly not exhaustive and functional relevance remains to be confirmed. Nevertheless, a strong foundation has been built upon which future studies will emerge. PMID:22230621

  20. The ecology of primate material culture.

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. PMID:25392310

  1. Convergent evolution in primates and an insectivore

    SciTech Connect

    Boffelli, Dario; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.

    2003-04-16

    The cardiovascular risk factor apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) has a puzzling distribution among mammals, its presence being limited to a subset of primates and a member of the insectivore lineage, the hedgehog. To explore the evolutionary history of apo(a), we performed extensive genomic sequence comparisons of multiple species with and without an apo(a) gene product, such as human, baboon, hedgehog, lemurand mouse. This analysis indicated that apo(a) arose independently in a subset of primates, including baboon and human, and an insectivore, the hedgehog, and was not simply lost by species lacking it. The similar structural domains shared by the hedgehog and primate apo(a) indicate that they were formed by a unique molecular mechanism involving the convergent evolution of paralogous genes in these distantspecies.

  2. Ontogeny of the nasopalatine duct in primates.

    PubMed

    Shimp, Kristin L; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Bonar, Christopher J; Smith, Timothy D

    2003-09-01

    Ecological explanations have been put forward to account for the precocious or delayed development of patency in ducts leading to the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in certain mammals. Perinatal function may be related, in part, to the patency or fusion of the vomeronasal and nasopalatine (NPD) ducts. However, few studies have focused on NPD development in primates, which generally have a prolonged period of dependence during infancy. In this study we examined 24 prenatal primates and 13 neonatal primates, and a comparative sample of fetal mice and insectivores. In embryonic and early fetal Microcebus murinus, the NPD was completely fused, whereas in fetuses of later stages the duct was partially fused or completely patent. M. myoxinus of all stages demonstrated some degree of NPD fusion. In all other prenatal primates, the NPD was fused to some extent. Four prenatal insectivores (Tenrec ecaudatus) showed some degree of NPD fusion. In Mus musculus at 19 days gestation, the NPD was patent, although the anatomically separate VNO duct was fused. T. ecaudatus and most of the neonatal primates revealed complete NPD patency. An exception was Saguinus geoffroyi, which exhibited fusion of the NPD near the VNO opening. These observations may relate to differences in perinatal VNO function. The differences noted in our study suggest that M. murinus and M. myoxinus may differ in perinatal VNO functionality and perhaps in related behavior. Observations of neonatal primates suggest that NPD patency may be relatively common at birth and could serve other purposes in addition to being an access route for VNO stimuli. PMID:12923897

  3. Mouse-Based Research on Quiescent Primate Malaria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Markus, Miles B

    2016-04-01

    Mice engrafted with primate tissue make two important plasmodial dormancy-related questions researchable. The first is concerned with whether latent merozoites in the lymphatic system can give rise to relapse-like, recurrent malaria in primates. The second is that genetic evidence of hypnozoite activation as the source of relapsing primate malaria can be looked for. PMID:26961183

  4. Predictive value of primate models for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Haigwood, Nancy L

    2004-01-01

    A number of obstacles remain in the search for an animal model for HIV infection and pathogenesis that can serve to predict efficacy in humans. HIV-1 fails to replicate and cause disease except in humans or chimpanzees, thereby limiting our ability to evaluate compounds or vaccines prior to human testing. Despite this limitation, nonhuman primate lentivirus models have been established that recapitulate the modes of infection, disease course, and antiviral immunity that is seen in HIV infection of humans. These models have been utilized to understand key aspects of disease and to evaluate concepts in therapies and vaccine development. By necessity, animal models can only be validated after successful trials in humans and the determination of correlates of protection. Because the only vaccine product tested in phase III trials in humans failed to achieve the desired protective threshold, we are as yet unable to validate any of the currently used nonhuman primate models for vaccine research. In the absence of a validated model, many experts in the field have concluded that prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic concepts should bypass primate models, and rely solely upon the systematic testing of each individual and combined vaccine element in human phase I or I/II trials to determine their relative merits. Indeed, a large effort is underway to expand efforts to test all products as part of an international effort termed "The HIV Vaccine Enterprise", with major contributions from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This Herculean task could potentially be reduced if it were possible to utilize even partially validated nonhuman primate models as part of the screening efforts. The purpose of this article is to review the data from nonhuman primate models that have contributed to our understanding of lentivirus infection and pathogenesis, and to critically evaluate how well these models have predicted outcomes in humans. Key features of the models developed to date are

  5. The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

  6. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  7. Disproportional Representation of Primates in the Ecological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Eckhard W.; Zinner, Dietmar; Ganzhorn, Jörg U.

    2013-01-01

    We address the question why papers dealing with the ecology of primates are so sparsely represented in the general ecological literature. A literature analyses based on entries in Web of Science and PrimateLit reveals that despite a large number of papers published on primates in general and on the ecology of primates, only a very small fraction of these papers is published in high-ranking international ecological journals. We discuss a number of potential reasons for the disproportion and highlight the problems associated with experimental research on wild primates and constraints on sample size as major issues. PMID:24339882

  8. Homeostasis in primates in hyperacceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Various homeostatic responses of a nonhuman primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) to acute changes in the acceleration environment were examined. When these animals were exposed to a hyperdynamic field the body temperature was consistently depressed and the animals showed behavioral indications of increased drowsiness. Further, time of day played a significant role in influencing these responses.

  9. Primate Thalamus: More Than Meets an Eye.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Damian J; Fitzpatrick, David; Kerr, Jason N D

    2016-01-25

    A recent study shows conclusively that the koniocellular layers of the marmoset dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus have binocularly responsive neurons. This adds a new twist to the traditional view about binocular processing in the primate visual system and raises questions about the role of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in early binocular processing. PMID:26811887

  10. Alu insertion loci and platyrrhine primate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ray, David A; Xing, Jinchuan; Hedges, Dale J; Hall, Michael A; Laborde, Meredith E; Anders, Bridget A; White, Brittany R; Stoilova, Nadica; Fowlkes, Justin D; Landry, Kate E; Chemnick, Leona G; Ryder, Oliver A; Batzer, Mark A

    2005-04-01

    Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) make very useful phylogenetic markers because the integration of a particular element at a location in the genome is irreversible and of known polarity. These attributes make analysis of SINEs as phylogenetic characters an essentially homoplasy-free affair. Alu elements are primate-specific SINEs that make up a large portion of the human genome and are also widespread in other primates. Using a combination wet-bench and computational approach we recovered 190 Alu insertions, 183 of which are specific to the genomes of nine New World primates. We used these loci to investigate branching order and have produced a cladogram that supports a sister relationship between Atelidae (spider, woolly, and howler monkeys) and Cebidae (marmosets, tamarins, and owl monkeys) and then the joining of this two family clade to Pitheciidae (titi and saki monkeys). The data support these relationships with a homoplasy index of 0.00. In this study, we report one of the largest applications of SINE elements to phylogenetic analysis to date, and the results provide a robust molecular phylogeny for platyrrhine primates. PMID:15737586

  11. Remarkable ancient divergences amongst neglected lorisiform primates

    PubMed Central

    Nekaris, K. Anne‐Isola; Perkin, Andrew; Bearder, Simon K.; Pimley, Elizabeth R.; Schulze, Helga; Streicher, Ulrike; Nadler, Tilo; Kitchener, Andrew; Zischler, Hans; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Lorisiform primates (Primates: Strepsirrhini: Lorisiformes) represent almost 10% of the living primate species and are widely distributed in sub‐Saharan Africa and South/South‐East Asia; however, their taxonomy, evolutionary history, and biogeography are still poorly understood. In this study we report the largest molecular phylogeny in terms of the number of represented taxa. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 86 lorisiform specimens, including ∼80% of all the species currently recognized. Our results support the monophyly of the Galagidae, but a common ancestry of the Lorisinae and Perodicticinae (family Lorisidae) was not recovered. These three lineages have early origins, with the Galagidae and the Lorisinae diverging in the Oligocene at about 30 Mya and the Perodicticinae emerging in the early Miocene. Our mitochondrial phylogeny agrees with recent studies based on nuclear data, and supports Euoticus as the oldest galagid lineage and the polyphyletic status of Galagoides. Moreover, we have elucidated phylogenetic relationships for several species never included before in a molecular phylogeny. The results obtained in this study suggest that lorisiform diversity remains substantially underestimated and that previously unnoticed cryptic diversity might be present within many lineages, thus urgently requiring a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this primate group. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London PMID:26900177

  12. Quantification of neocortical ratios in stem primates.

    PubMed

    Long, Adam; Bloch, Jonathan I; Silcox, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Extant euprimates (=crown primates) have a characteristically expanded neocortical region of the brain relative to that of other mammals, but the timing of that expansion in their evolutionary history is poorly resolved. Examination of anatomical landmarks on fossil endocasts of Eocene euprimates suggests that significant neocortical expansion relative to contemporaneous mammals was already underway. Here, we provide quantitative estimates of neocorticalization in stem primates (plesiadapiforms) relevant to the question of whether relative neocortical expansion was uniquely characteristic of the crown primate radiation. Ratios of neocortex to endocast surface areas were calculated for plesiadapiforms using measurements from virtual endocasts of the paromomyid Ignacius graybullianus (early Eocene, Wyoming) and the microsyopid Microsyops annectens (middle Eocene, Wyoming). These data are similar to a published estimate for the plesiadapid, Plesiadapis tricuspidens, but contrast with those calculated for early Tertiary euprimates in being within the 95% confidence intervals for archaic mammals generally. Interpretation of these values is complicated by the paucity of sampled endocasts for older stem primates and euarchontogliran outgroups, as well as by a combination of effects related to temporal trends, allometry, and taxon-unique specializations. Regardless, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift in brain organization occurred in the first euprimates, likely in association with elaborations to the visual system. PMID:25693873

  13. Chewing variation in lepidosaurs and primates.

    PubMed

    Ross, C F; Baden, A L; Georgi, J; Herrel, A; Metzger, K A; Reed, D A; Schaerlaeken, V; Wolff, M S

    2010-02-15

    Mammals chew more rhythmically than lepidosaurs. The research presented here evaluated possible reasons for this difference in relation to differences between lepidosaurs and mammals in sensorimotor systems. Variance in the absolute and relative durations of the phases of the gape cycle was calculated from kinematic data from four species of primates and eight species of lepidosaurs. The primates exhibit less variance in the duration of the gape cycle than in the durations of the four phases making up the gape cycle. This suggests that increases in the durations of some gape cycle phases are accompanied by decreases in others. Similar effects are much less pronounced in the lepidosaurs. In addition, the primates show isometric changes in gape cycle phase durations, i.e. the relative durations of the phases of the gape cycle change little with increasing cycle time. In contrast, in the lepidosaurs variance in total gape cycle duration is associated with increases in the proportion of the cycle made up by the slow open phase. We hypothesize that in mammals the central nervous system includes a representation of the optimal chew cycle duration maintained using afferent feedback about the ongoing state of the chew cycle. The differences between lepidosaurs and primates do not lie in the nature of the sensory information collected and its feedback to the feeding system, but rather the processing of that information by the CNS and its use feed-forward for modulating jaw movements and gape cycle phase durations during chewing. PMID:20118308

  14. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  15. Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Phillips, Katie; Striebel, James; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease is a prion disease of cervids. Assessment of its zoonotic potential is critical. To evaluate primate susceptibility, we tested monkeys from 2 genera. We found that 100% of intracerebrally inoculated and 92% of orally inoculated squirrel monkeys were susceptible, but cynomolgus macaques were not, suggesting possible low risk for humans. PMID:24751215

  16. Olfactory Receptor Patterning in a Higher Primate

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Lisa F.; Saraiva, Luis R.; Kuang, Donghui; Yoon, Kyoung-hye

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system detects a plethora of environmental chemicals that are perceived as odors or stimulate instinctive behaviors. Studies using odorant receptor (OR) genes have provided insight into the molecular and organizational strategies underlying olfaction in mice. One important unanswered question, however, is whether these strategies are conserved in primates. To explore this question, we examined the macaque, a higher primate phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report that the organization of sensory inputs in the macaque nose resembles that in mouse in some respects, but not others. As in mouse, neurons with different ORs are interspersed in the macaque nose, and there are spatial zones that differ in their complement of ORs and extend axons to different domains in the olfactory bulb of the brain. However, whereas the mouse has multiple discrete band-like zones, the macaque appears to have only two broad zones. It is unclear whether the organization of OR inputs in a rodent/primate common ancestor degenerated in primates or, alternatively became more sophisticated in rodents. The mouse nose has an additional small family of chemosensory receptors, called trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), which may detect social cues. Here we find that TAARs are also expressed in the macaque nose, suggesting that TAARs may also play a role in human olfactory perception. We further find that one human TAAR responds to rotten fish, suggesting a possible role as a sentinel to discourage ingestion of food harboring pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25209267

  17. Olfactory receptor patterning in a higher primate.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Lisa F; Saraiva, Luis R; Kuang, Donghui; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Buck, Linda B

    2014-09-10

    The mammalian olfactory system detects a plethora of environmental chemicals that are perceived as odors or stimulate instinctive behaviors. Studies using odorant receptor (OR) genes have provided insight into the molecular and organizational strategies underlying olfaction in mice. One important unanswered question, however, is whether these strategies are conserved in primates. To explore this question, we examined the macaque, a higher primate phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report that the organization of sensory inputs in the macaque nose resembles that in mouse in some respects, but not others. As in mouse, neurons with different ORs are interspersed in the macaque nose, and there are spatial zones that differ in their complement of ORs and extend axons to different domains in the olfactory bulb of the brain. However, whereas the mouse has multiple discrete band-like zones, the macaque appears to have only two broad zones. It is unclear whether the organization of OR inputs in a rodent/primate common ancestor degenerated in primates or, alternatively became more sophisticated in rodents. The mouse nose has an additional small family of chemosensory receptors, called trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), which may detect social cues. Here we find that TAARs are also expressed in the macaque nose, suggesting that TAARs may also play a role in human olfactory perception. We further find that one human TAAR responds to rotten fish, suggesting a possible role as a sentinel to discourage ingestion of food harboring pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25209267

  18. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena. PMID:25457970

  19. Nonhuman Primate Models in Translational Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Daadi, Marcel M.; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell–based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena. PMID:25457970

  20. The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or postpartum estrogens and progestogens on maternal behavior are less clear. Prolactin is thought to play a role in promoting paternal and alloparental care in primates, but little is known about the relationship between this hormone and maternal behavior. High circulating cortisol levels appear to enhance arousal and responsiveness to infant stimuli in young, relatively inexperienced female primates, but interfere with the expression of maternal behavior in older and more experienced mothers. Among neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, preliminary evidence indicates that oxytocin and endogenous opioids affect maternal attachment to infants, including maintenance of contact, grooming, and responses to separation. Brain serotonin affects anxiety and impulsivity, which in turn may affect maternal behaviors such as infant retrieval or rejection of infants’ attempts to make contact with the mother. Although our understanding of the neuroendocrine correlates of primate maternal behavior has grown substantially in the last two decades, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects, e.g., the extent to which these mechanisms may involve changes in perception, emotion, or cognition. PMID:20888383

  1. Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review.

    PubMed

    Blair, Mary E; Sterling, Eleanor J; Hurley, Martha M

    2011-11-01

    Vietnam has the highest number of primate taxa overall (24-27) and the highest number of globally threatened primate taxa (minimum 20) in Mainland Southeast Asia. Conservation management of these species depends in part on resolving taxonomic uncertainties, which remain numerous among the Asian primates. Recent research on genetic, morphological, and acoustic diversity in Vietnam's primates has clarified some of these uncertainties, although a number of significant classification issues still remain. Herein, we summarize and compare the major current taxonomic classifications of Vietnam's primates, discuss recent advances in the context of these taxonomies, and suggest key areas for additional research to best inform conservation efforts in a region crucial to global primate diversity. Among the most important next steps for the conservation of Vietnam's primates is a new consensus list of Asian primates that resolves current differences between major taxonomies, incorporates recent research advances, and recognizes units of diversity at scales below the species-level, whether termed populations, morphs, or subspecies. Priority should be placed on recognizing distinct populations, regardless of the species concept in use, in order to foster the evolutionary processes necessary for primate populations to cope with inevitable environmental changes. The long-term conservation of Vietnam's primates depends not only on an accepted and accurate taxonomy but also on funding for on-the-ground conservation activities, including training, and the continued dedication and leadership of Vietnamese researchers and managers. PMID:21948330

  2. Nonhuman primate dermatology: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Joseph A.; Didier, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In general, veterinary dermatologists do not have extensive clinical experience of nonhuman primate (NHP) dermatoses. The bulk of the published literature does not provide an organized evidence-based approach to the NHP dermatologic case. The veterinary dermatologist is left to extract information from both human and veterinary dermatology, an approach that can be problematic as it forces the clinician to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions based on two very disparate bodies of literature. A more cohesive approach to NHP dermatology – without relying on assumptions that NHP pathology most commonly behaves similarly to other veterinary and human disease – is required. This review of the dermatology of NHP species includes discussions of primary dermatoses, as well as diseases where dermatologic signs represent a significant secondary component, provides a first step towards encouraging the veterinary community to study and report the dermatologic diseases of nonhuman primates. PMID:19490576

  3. The neurobiology of primate vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Eliades, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of non-human primate communication revealed vocal behaviors far more complex than previously appreciated. Understanding the neural basis of these communicative behaviors is important as it has the potential to reveal the basic underpinnings of the still more complex human speech. The latest work revealed vocalization-sensitive regions both within and beyond the traditional boundaries of the central auditory system. The importance and mechanisms of multi-sensory face-voice integration in vocal communication are also increasingly apparent. Finally, studies on the mechanisms of vocal production demonstrated auditory-motor interactions that may allow for self-monitoring and vocal control. We review the current work in these areas of primate communication research. PMID:25062473

  4. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23370180

  5. Effective primate conservation education: gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Susan K

    2010-05-01

    Conservation education goals generally include influencing people's conservation awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. Effective programs can help foster sustainable behavior, improve public support for conservation, reduce vandalism and poaching in protected areas, improve compliance with conservation regulations, increase recreation carrying capacities, and influence policies and decisions that affect the environment. Primate conservation problems cut across many disciplines, and primate conservation education must likewise address cross-disciplinary issues. Conservation educators must incorporate both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills to develop effective programs, and the skill set must stretch beyond pedagogy. Expertise needed comes from the areas of planning, collaboration, psychology, entertainment, and evaluation. Integration of these elements can lead to greater program success. PMID:20041471

  6. [Ecotourism disturbances to non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng-Lai; Xiang, Zuo-Fu

    2013-02-01

    In tandem with economic growth and rising living conditions, ecotourism has increasingly gained popularity among the Chinese public. Non-human primates, as charismatic animals and the closest relatives of human beings, have shown a strong affinity in attracting the general public and raising money, and for that reason a variety of monkey parks, valleys, and islands are becoming increasingly popular in China. Though successful in raising a substantial sum of money for the managing agency of a nature reserve, there may be negative impacts on monkey groups used in ecotourism. Here, to establish effective guards for non-human primates involved in ecotourism, we present a review on tourism disturbance and summarize the negative impacts on behavioral patterns, reproduction, and health condition of animals. PMID:23389980

  7. Molecular evolution of prolactin in primates.

    PubMed

    Wallis, O Caryl; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa O; Makri, Georgia; Wallis, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Pituitary prolactin, like growth hormone (GH) and several other protein hormones, shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change contrast with long periods of slow evolution. A period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of prolactin in primates, leading to marked sequence differences between human prolactin and that of nonprimate mammals. We have defined this burst more precisely by sequencing the coding regions of prolactin genes for a prosimian, the slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), and a New World monkey, the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Slow loris prolactin is very similar in sequence to pig prolactin, so the episode of rapid change occurred during primate evolution, after the separation of lines leading to prosimians and higher primates. Marmoset prolactin is similar in sequence to human prolactin, so the accelerated evolution occurred before divergence of New World monkeys and Old World monkeys/apes. The burst of change was confined largely to coding sequence (nonsynonymous sites) for mature prolactin and is not marked in other components of the gene sequence. This and the observations that (1) there was no apparent loss of function during the episode of rapid evolution, (2) the rate of evolution slowed toward the basal rate after this burst, and (3) the distribution of substitutions in the prolactin molecule is very uneven support the idea that this episode of rapid change was due to positive adaptive selection. In the slow loris and marmoset there is no evidence for duplication of the prolactin gene, and evidence from another New World monkey (Cebus albifrons) and from the chimpanzee and human genome sequences, suggests that this is the general position in primates, contrasting with the situation for GH genes. The chimpanzee prolactin sequence differs from that of human at two residues and comparison of human and chimpanzee prolactin gene sequences suggests that noncoding regions associated with regulating

  8. [Experimental whooping cough of nonhuman primate].

    PubMed

    Kubrava, D T; Medkova, A Iu; Siniashina, L N; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzharia, I G; Barkaia, V S; Elistratova, Zh V; Karataev, G I; Mikvabia, Z Ia; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable success in study of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors, pathogenesis of whooping cough, duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence, types and mechanisms of immune response are still keep underinvestigated. It can be explained by the absence ofadequate experimental animal model for pertussis study. Our study estimates clinical and laboratory parameters of whooping cough in non-human primates of the Old World in the process of intranasan infection by virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Also the duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence in animals was investigated. 14 animal units of 4 species of non-human primates of the Old World were used for intranasal infection. The examination of infect animals included: visual exploration of nasopharynx, thermometry, clinical and biochemical blood analyses, identification ofB. pertussis, using microbiologic and molecular genetic analyses, estimation of innate and adoptive immune factors. The development of infectious process was accompanied by generation of B. pertussis bacteria, catarrhal inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa, leucocytosis, hypoglycemia specific for pertussis, and activation of innate and adaptive immunity for all primates regardless of specie were seen. While repeated experimental infection in primates single bacterial colonies were registered during only first week after challenge. It occurs like the absence of inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa and the lack of laboratory marks of whooping cough, recorded after first challenge. The evident booster effect of humoral immunity was observed. As a model for investigation of B. pertussis bacteria persistence and immune response against whooping cough we suggest the usage of rhesus macaque as more available to experiments. PMID:24340642

  9. Fear generalization in the primate amygdala.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Jennifer; Paz, Rony

    2015-02-01

    Broad generalization of negative memories is a potential etiology for anxiety disorders, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We developed a non-human primate model that replicates behavioral observations in humans and identifies specific changes in tuning properties of amygdala neurons: the width of auditory tuning increases with the distance of its center from the conditioned stimulus. This center-width relationship can account for better detection and at the same time explain the wide stimulus generalization. PMID:25531573

  10. Classification and automatic transcription of primate calls.

    PubMed

    Versteegh, Maarten; Kuhn, Jeremy; Synnaeve, Gabriel; Ravaux, Lucie; Chemla, Emmanuel; Cäsar, Cristiane; Fuller, James; Murphy, Derek; Schel, Anne; Dunbar, Ewan

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports on an automated and openly available tool for automatic acoustic analysis and transcription of primate calls, which takes raw field recordings and outputs call labels time-aligned with the audio. The system's output predicts a majority of the start times of calls accurately within 200 milliseconds. The tools do not require any manual acoustic analysis or selection of spectral features by the researcher. PMID:27475207

  11. Ecological importance of trichromatic vision to primates.

    PubMed

    Dominy, N J; Lucas, P W

    2001-03-15

    Trichromatic colour vision, characterized by three retinal photopigments tuned to peak wavelengths of approximately 430 nm, approximately 535 nm and approximately 562 nm (refs 1, 2), has evolved convergently in catarrhine primates and one genus of New World monkey, the howlers (genus Alouatta). This uniform capacity to discriminate red-green colours, which is not found in other mammals, has been proposed as advantageous for the long-range detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves (which frequently flush red in the tropics) against a background of mature foliage. Here we show that four trichromatic primate species in Kibale Forest, Uganda, eat leaves that are colour discriminated only by red-greenness, a colour axis correlated with high protein levels and low toughness. Despite their divergent digestive systems, these primates have no significant interspecific differences in leaf colour selection. In contrast, eaten fruits were generally discriminated from mature leaves on both red-green and yellow-blue channels and also by their luminance, with a significant difference between chimpanzees and monkeys in fruit colour choice. Our results implicate leaf consumption, a critical food resource when fruit is scarce, as having unique value in maintaining trichromacy in catarrhines. PMID:11268211

  12. Ontogenetic correlates of diet in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Leigh, S R

    1994-08-01

    This study assesses ontogenetic correlates of diet in anthropoid primates. Associations between body weight growth, adult size, and diet are evaluated for a sample of 42 primate species, of which 8 are classifiable as "folivores." The hypothesis that folivores show a pattern of growth that differs from "nonfolivores" is tested. Ontogenetic variation is summarized through use of parametric and nonparametric regression analysis. Several analytical techniques, including broad interspecific and detailed comparisons among species of similar adult size, are applied. This investigation indicates a clear association between body weight ontogeny and diet: folivorous species grow more rapidly over a shorter duration than comprably sized nonfolivorus species. A positive correlation between adult size and diet is not unambiguously established in this sample. A threshold (at around 1 kg) below which insectivory is very common may adequately characterize the association between adult size and diet in anthropoid primates. Above this threshold, adult size does not appear to covary predictably with diet. Evolutionary correlates of the ontogenetic pattern seen in folivores may include a variety of factors. The distinctive pattern of development in folivores may relate to the profile of ecological and social risks that these species face. Morphophysiological advantages to rapid growth may relate to a need for accelerated alimentary (dental and gut) development. The implications of ontogenetic variation in folivores are discussed. PMID:7977677

  13. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kari L; Kay, Richard F

    2012-02-22

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The 'expensive-tissue hypothesis' (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans. PMID:21831898

  14. The appropriation of glucose through primate neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2014-12-01

    The human brain is considerably larger and more energetically costly than that of other primate species. As such, discovering how human ancestors were able to provide sufficient energy to their brains is a central theme in the study of hominin evolution. However, many discussions of metabolism frequently omit the different ways in which energy, primarily glucose, is used once made available to the brain. In this review, we discuss two glucose metabolic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis, and their respective contributions to the energetic and anabolic budgets of the brain. While oxidative phosphorylation is a more efficient producer of energy, aerobic glycolysis contributes essential molecules for the growth of the brain and maintaining the structure of its cells. Although both pathways occur in the brain throughout the lifetime, aerobic glycolysis is a critical pathway during development, and oxidative phosphorylation is highest during adulthood. We outline how elevated levels of aerobic glycolysis may support the protracted neurodevelopmental sequence of humans compared with other primates. Finally, we review the genetic evidence for differences in metabolic function in the brains of primates and explore genes that may provide insight into how glucose metabolism may differ across species. PMID:25110208

  15. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies. PMID:20872879

  16. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research. PMID:14965782

  17. Nonhuman Primates, Human Need, and Ethical Constraints.

    PubMed

    DeGrazia, David

    2016-07-01

    "The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates," by Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller, is an exceptionally timely contribution to the literature on animal research ethics. Animal research has long been both a source of high hopes and a cause for moral concern. When it comes to infection challenge studies with nonhuman primates, neither the hope-to save thousands of human lives from such diseases as Ebola and Marburg-nor the concern-the conviction that primates deserve especially strong protections-could be much higher. Coming just a few years after the National Institutes of Health adopted the Institute of Medicine's recommendations regarding chimpanzees, Barnhill and colleagues attempt to nudge the clarification and specification-one might say the evolution-of NHP research ethics and regulation. They assert that NHP challenge studies "are not justified by marginal gains in human safety or by efficacy gains that are unlikely to translate directly into saving human lives or preventing morbidity." How, in turn, is their standard-which, although stringent, does permit causing NHPs to suffer and die for human benefit-to be justified? PMID:27417866

  18. THE KINEMATICS OF PRIMATE MIDFOOT FLEXIBILITY

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Thomas M.; Ball, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a unique assessment of primate intrinsic foot joint kinematics based upon bone pin rigid cluster tracking. It challenges the assumption that human evolution resulted in a reduction of midfoot flexibility, which has been identified in other primates as the “midtarsal break.” Rigid cluster pins were inserted into the foot bones of human, chimpanzee, baboon and macaque cadavers. The positions of these bone pins were monitored during a plantarflexion-dorsiflexion movement cycle. Analysis resolved flexion-extension movement patterns and the associated orientation of rotational axes for the talonavicular, calcaneocuboid and lateral cubometatarsal joints. Results show that midfoot flexibility occurs primarily at the talonavicular and cubometatarsal joints. The rotational magnitudes are roughly similar between humans and chimps. There is also a similarity among evaluated primates in the observed rotations of the lateral cubometatarsal joint, but there was much greater rotation observed for the talonavicular joint, which may serve to differentiate monkeys from the hominines. It appears that the capability for a midtarsal break is present within the human foot. A consideration of the joint axes shows that the medial and lateral joints have opposing orientations, which has been associated with a rigid locking mechanism in the human foot. However, the potential for this same mechanism also appears in the chimpanzee foot. These findings demonstrate a functional similarity within the midfoot of the hominines. Therefore, the kinematic capabilities and restrictions for the skeletal linkages of the human foot may not be as unique as has been previously suggested. PMID:25234343

  19. Phylogenomics of primates and their ancestral populations

    PubMed Central

    Siepel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Genome assemblies are now available for nine primate species, and large-scale sequencing projects are underway or approved for six others. An explicitly evolutionary and phylogenetic approach to comparative genomics, called phylogenomics, will be essential in unlocking the valuable information about evolutionary history and genomic function that is contained within these genomes. However, most phylogenomic analyses so far have ignored the effects of variation in ancestral populations on patterns of sequence divergence. These effects can be pronounced in the primates, owing to large ancestral effective population sizes relative to the intervals between speciation events. In particular, local genealogies can vary considerably across loci, which can produce biases and diminished power in many phylogenomic analyses of interest, including phylogeny reconstruction, the identification of functional elements, and the detection of natural selection. At the same time, this variation in genealogies can be exploited to gain insight into the nature of ancestral populations. In this Perspective, I explore this area of intersection between phylogenetics and population genetics, and its implications for primate phylogenomics. I begin by “lifting the hood” on the conventional tree-like representation of the phylogenetic relationships between species, to expose the population-genetic processes that operate along its branches. Next, I briefly review an emerging literature that makes use of the complex relationships among coalescence, recombination, and speciation to produce inferences about evolutionary histories, ancestral populations, and natural selection. Finally, I discuss remaining challenges and future prospects at this nexus of phylogenetics, population genetics, and genomics. PMID:19801602

  20. "Monogamy" in Primates: Variability, Trends, and Synthesis: Introduction to special issue on Primate Monogamy.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L; Bales, Karen L

    2016-03-01

    This paper is the introduction to a special issue on "'Monogamy' in Primates: Variability, Trends, and Synthesis." The term "monogamy" has undergone redefinition over the years, and is now generally understood to refer to certain social characteristics rather than to genetic monogamy. However, even the term "social monogamy" is used loosely to refer to species which exhibit a spectrum of social structures, mating patterns, and breeding systems. Papers in this volume address key issues including whether or not our definitions of monogamy should change in order to better represent the social and mating behaviors that characterize wild primates; whether or not primate groups traditionally considered monogamous are actually so (by any definition); ways in which captive studies can contribute to our understanding of monogamy; and what selective pressures might have driven the evolution of monogamous and non-monogamous single female breeding systems. Am. J. Primatol. 78:283-287, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26317875

  1. Comparative primate genomics: emerging patterns of genome content and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Advances in genome sequencing technologies have created new opportunities for comparative primate genomics. Genome assemblies have been published for several primates, with analyses of several others underway. Whole genome assemblies for the great apes provide remarkable new information about the evolutionary origins of the human genome and the processes involved. Genomic data for macaques and other nonhuman primates provide valuable insight into genetic similarities and differences among species used as models for disease-related research. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding primate genome content and dynamics and offers a series of goals for the near future. PMID:24709753

  2. Comparative primate genomics: emerging patterns of genome content and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Richard A

    2014-05-01

    Advances in genome sequencing technologies have created new opportunities for comparative primate genomics. Genome assemblies have been published for various primate species, and analyses of several others are underway. Whole-genome assemblies for the great apes provide remarkable new information about the evolutionary origins of the human genome and the processes involved. Genomic data for macaques and other non-human primates offer valuable insights into genetic similarities and differences among species that are used as models for disease-related research. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding primate genome content and dynamics, and proposes a series of goals for the near future. PMID:24709753

  3. Why is a landscape perspective important in studies of primates?

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-10-01

    With accelerated deforestation and fragmentation through the tropics, assessing the impact that landscape spatial changes may have on biodiversity is paramount, as this information is required to design and implement effective management and conservation plans. Primates are expected to be particularly dependent on the landscape context; yet, our understanding on this topic is limited as the majority of primate studies are at the local scale, meaning that landscape-scale inferences are not possible. To encourage primatologists to assess the impact of landscape changes on primates, and help future studies on the topic, we describe the meaning of a "landscape perspective" and evaluate important assumptions of using such a methodological approach. We also summarize a number of important, but unanswered, questions that can be addressed using a landscape-scale study design. For example, it is still unclear if habitat loss has larger consistent negative effects on primates than habitat fragmentation per se. Furthermore, interaction effects between habitat area and other landscape effects (e.g., fragmentation) are unknown for primates. We also do not know if primates are affected by synergistic interactions among factors at the landscape scale (e.g., habitat loss and diseases, habitat loss and climate change, hunting, and land-use change), or whether landscape complexity (or landscape heterogeneity) is important for primate conservation. Testing for patterns in the responses of primates to landscape change will facilitate the development of new guidelines and principles for improving primate conservation. PMID:24715680

  4. Comparative analysis of the primate X-inactivation center region and reconstruction of the ancestral primate XIST locus

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Julie E.; Sheedy, Christina B.; Merrett, Stephanie L.; Diallo, Abdoulaye Banire; Swofford, David L.; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program; Green, Eric D.; Willard, Huntington F.

    2011-01-01

    Here we provide a detailed comparative analysis across the candidate X-Inactivation Center (XIC) region and the XIST locus in the genomes of six primates and three mammalian outgroup species. Since lemurs and other strepsirrhine primates represent the sister lineage to all other primates, this analysis focuses on lemurs to reconstruct the ancestral primate sequences and to gain insight into the evolution of this region and the genes within it. This comparative evolutionary genomics approach reveals significant expansion in genomic size across the XIC region in higher primates, with minimal size alterations across the XIST locus itself. Reconstructed primate ancestral XIC sequences show that the most dramatic changes during the past 80 million years occurred between the ancestral primate and the lineage leading to Old World monkeys. In contrast, the XIST locus compared between human and the primate ancestor does not indicate any dramatic changes to exons or XIST-specific repeats; rather, evolution of this locus reflects small incremental changes in overall sequence identity and short repeat insertions. While this comparative analysis reinforces that the region around XIST has been subject to significant genomic change, even among primates, our data suggest that evolution of the XIST sequences themselves represents only small lineage-specific changes across the past 80 million years. PMID:21518738

  5. Diurnality, nocturnality, and the evolution of primate visual systems.

    PubMed

    Ankel-Simons, F; Rasmussen, D T

    2008-01-01

    Much of the recent research on the evolution of primate visual systems has assumed that a minimum number of shifts have occurred in circadian activity patterns over the course of primate evolution. The evolutionary origins of key higher taxonomic groups have been interpreted by some researchers as a consequence of a rare shift from nocturnality to diurnality (e.g., Anthropoidea) or from diurnality to nocturnality (e.g., Tarsiidae). Interpreting the evolution of primate visual systems with an ecological approach without parsimony constraints suggests that the evolutionary transitions in activity pattern are more common than what would be allowed by parsimony models, and that such transitions are probably less important in the origin of higher level taxa. The analysis of 17 communities of primates distributed widely around the world and through geological time shows that primate communities consistently contain both nocturnal and diurnal forms, regardless of the taxonomic sources of the communities. This suggests that primates in a community will adapt their circadian pattern to fill empty diurnal or nocturnal niches. Several evolutionary transitions from one pattern to the other within narrow taxonomic groups are solidly documented, and these cases probably represent a small fraction of such transitions throughout the Cenozoic. One or more switches have been documented among platyrrhine monkeys, Malagasy prosimians, Eocene omomyids, Eocene adapoids, and early African anthropoids, with inconclusive but suggestive data within tarsiids. The interpretation of living and extinct primates as fitting into one of two diarhythmic categories is itself problematic, because many extant primates show significant behavioral activity both nocturnally and diurnally. Parsimony models routinely interpret ancestral primates to have been nocturnal, but analyses of morphological and genetic data indicate that they may have been diurnal, or that early primate radiations were likely to

  6. Why Primates? The Importance of Nonhuman Primates for Understanding Human Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Santos, Laurie R.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the thematic collection by noting some striking similarities in the cognitive abilities of human infants and nonhuman primates. What are the implications of these similarities for our comprehension of human infant cognition? After providing a brief historical and conceptual background on comparative behavioral research, we discuss how…

  7. Evolutionary time-scale of primate bocaviruses.

    PubMed

    Babkin, Igor V; Tyumentsev, Alexander I; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Kurilshikov, Alexander M; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Zhirakovskaya, Elena V; Netesov, Sergei V; Tikunova, Nina V

    2013-03-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, occurring mostly in young children and elderly people. Four bocavirus genotypes (HBoV1-HBoV4) have been found so far. Since there were no data on the contribution of HBoV to gastroenteritis in Russia, 1781 fecal samples collected from infants hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Novosibirsk, Russia during one year were tested for the presence of nucleic acids from HBoV and three major gastrointestinal viruses (rotavirus A, norovirus II, and astrovirus). HBoV was detected only in 1.9% of the samples: HBoV1 was detected in 0.6% and HBoV2, in 1.3%. Complete genome sequencing of three Novosibirsk isolates was performed. An evolutionary analysis of these sequences and the available sequences of human and great apes bocaviruses demonstrated that the current HBoV genotypes diverged comparatively recently, about 60-300years ago. The independent evolution of bocaviruses from chimpanzees and gorillas commenced at the same time period. This suggests that these isolates of great apes bocaviruses belong to separate genotypes within the species of human bocavirus, which is actually the primate bocavirus. The rate of mutation accumulation in the genome of primate bocaviruses has been estimated as approximately 9×10(-4)substitutions/site/year. It has been demonstrated that HBoV1 diverged from the ancestor common with chimpanzee bocavirus approximately 60-80years ago, while HBoV4 separated from great apes bocaviruses about 200-300years ago. The hypothesis postulating independent evolution of HBoV1 and HBoV4 genotypes from primate bocaviruses has been proposed. PMID:23313830

  8. The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Anne; Joffe, Steven; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-07-01

    In the midst of the recent Ebola outbreak, scientific developments involving infection challenge experiments on nonhuman primates (NHPs) sparked hope that successful treatments and vaccines may soon become available. Yet these studies pose a stark ethical quandary. On the one hand, they represent an important step in developing novel therapies and vaccines for Ebola and the Marburg virus, with the potential to save thousands of human lives and to protect whole communities from devastation; on the other hand, they intentionally expose sophisticated animals to severe suffering and a high risk of death. Other studies that infect NHPs with a lethal disease in order to test interventions that may prove beneficial for humans pose the same ethical difficulty. Some advocates have argued that all research on primates should be phased out, and ethicists have questioned whether a moral justification of primate research is possible. A 2010 European Union directive banned virtually all research on great apes, and 2013 guidelines from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), based upon recommendations in an influential 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, eliminated most biomedical research with chimpanzees in the United States. But studies involving other NHPs face no comparable restrictions. Should research on NHPs other than great apes be subject to tighter restrictions than it currently is? In this article, we explore this general question in the context of one particular type of biomedical research: infection challenge studies. We advocate a presumptive prohibition on infection challenge experiments in NHPs, but we also argue that exceptions to this prohibition are permissible, subject to strict substantive and procedural safeguards, when necessary to avert substantial loss of human life or severe morbidity for a substantial number of people. PMID:27417865

  9. Biorhythms and space experiments with nonhuman primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    Man's response to exposure to spaceflight and weightlessness is expressed in physiological adjustments which involve his health and ability to function. The amplitude and periodicity of fluctuations in biological processes affect various functions and responses to provocative stimuli. Primates and other species are subjected to tests to determine the consequences of an altered biorhythm on work and performance, emotional stability, biomedical evaluation in space, the ability to cope with the unexpected, and susceptibility to infection, toxicity, radiation, drugs, and stress. Factors in the environment or operational setup which can change the physiological baseline must be determined and controlled.

  10. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Nico M.; Pier, Naomi M.; Reeder, Deeann M.; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2–317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3–483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across

  11. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned.

    PubMed

    Franz, Nico M; Pier, Naomi M; Reeder, Deeann M; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-07-01

    Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2-317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3-483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across treatments

  12. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice. PMID:26536365

  13. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R.; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice. PMID:26536365

  14. Multimedia in Anthropology: A Guide to the Nonhuman Primates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Frances D.

    This paper describes a primatology project using computer assisted learning and interactive multimedia to help students at the University of Toronto (Canada) learn about non-human primates. The purpose of the interactive program is to present the "natural history" of the majority of the 200-plus species of non-human primates in constant…

  15. Very young infants' responses to human and nonhuman primate vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brock; Perszyk, Danielle R; Waxman, Sandra R

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence from very young human infants' responses to human and nonhuman primate vocalizations offers new insights - and brings new questions - to the forefront for those who seek to integrate primate-general and human-specific mechanisms of acoustic communication with theories of language acquisition. PMID:25514943

  16. What Cognitive Representations Support Primate Theory of Mind?

    PubMed

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-01

    Much recent work has examined the evolutionary origins of human mental state representations. This work has yielded strikingly consistent results: primates show a sophisticated ability to track the current and past perceptions of others, but they fail to represent the beliefs of others. We offer a new account of the nuanced performance of primates in theory of mind (ToM) tasks. We argue that primates form awareness relations tracking the aspects of reality that other agents are aware of. We contend that these awareness relations allow primates to make accurate predictions in social situations, but that this capacity falls short of our human-like representational ToM. We end by explaining how this new account makes important new empirical predictions about primate ToM. PMID:27052723

  17. Linking genotypes, phenotypes, and fitness in wild primate populations.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Brenda J; Lawler, Richard R

    2011-01-01

    In the decade since the first draft of the human genome was announced, genome sequencing projects have been initiated for an additional twenty-some primate species. Within the next several years, genome sequence data will likely become available for all primate genera and for most individuals within some primate populations. At the same time, gene mapping and association studies of humans and other organisms are rapidly advancing our understanding of the genetic bases of behavioral and morphological traits. Primatologists are especially well-placed to take advantage of this coming flood of genetic data. Here we discuss what this new era of primate genomics means for field primatology and highlight some of the unprecedented opportunities it will afford, particularly with regard to examining the genetic basis of primate adaptation and diversity. PMID:22034168

  18. Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Leigh, Steven R; Consortium, Primate Microbiome; White, Bryan A; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host–microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important

  19. Men, primates, and germs: an ongoing affair.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Prugnolle, Frank; Leroy, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates are phylogenetically (i.e., genetically) related and share pathogens that can jump from one species to another. The specific strategies of three groups of pathogens for crossing the species barrier among primates will be discussed. In Africa, gorillas and chimpanzees have succumbed for years to simultaneous epizootics (i.e.. "multi-emergence") of Ebola virus in places where they are in contact with Chiropters, which could be animal reservoirs of these viruses. Human epidemics often follow these major outbreaks. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have an ancient history of coevolution and many interspecific exchanges with their natural hosts. Chimpanzee and gorilla SIVs have crossed the species barrier at different times and places, leading to the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2. Other retroviruses, such as the Simian T-Lymphotropic Viruses and Foamiviruses, have also a unique ancient or recent history of crossing the species barrier. The identification of gorilla Plasmodium parasites that are genetically close to P. falciparum suggests that gorillas were the source of the deadly human P. falciparum. Nonhuman plasmodium species that can infect humans represent an underestimated risk. PMID:23239237

  20. Incisor microwear of Sumatran anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Ungar, P S

    1994-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that incisor microwear reflects diet and feeding adaptations of anthropoids. However, such studies have been largely qualitative, and interpretations have relied on anecdotal references to diet and tooth use reported in the socioecology literature. The current study relates incisor microwear in four anthropoid primates to specific ingestive behaviors and food types. Central incisor casts of wild-shot museum specimens of Hylobates lar, Macaca fascicularis, Pongo pygmaeus, and Presbytis thomasi were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and analyzed using a semiautomated image analysis procedure. Microwear patterns were used to generate predictions regarding diet and anterior tooth use. These predictions were evaluated using data collected during a 1 year study of feeding behavior of these same taxa in the wild (Ungar, 1992, 1994a,b). Results suggest that (1) enamel prism relief is associated with the effectiveness of etching reagents in foods, (2) dental calculus buildup results from a lack of incisor use and perhaps the ingestion of sugar-rich foods, (3) striation density varies with degree of anterior tooth use in the ingestion of abrasive food items, (4) striation breadth is proposed to relate to the ratio of exogenous grit to phytoliths consumed; and (5) preferred striation orientation indicates the direction that food items are pulled across the incisors during ingestion. It is concluded that incisor microwear studies can contribute to the understanding of diets and feeding behaviors of extinct primates. PMID:7943190

  1. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  2. The role of piloerection in primate thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, George; Jablonski, Nina G; Sussman, Robert W; Kelley, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The insulating properties of the primate integument are influenced by many factors, including piloerection, which raises the hair and insulates the body by creating motionless air near the skin's surface. The involuntary muscles that control piloerection, the musculi arrectores pilorum (MAP), are mostly absent except on the tail in most strepsirhines, and are entirely absent in tarsiers and some lorisids. The absence of piloerection and the reduced effectiveness of pilary insulation in preventing heat loss affected the evolution of behavior and metabolic thermoregulation in these animals. In lemurs, this situation contributed to the use of positional and social behaviors such as sunning and huddling that help maintain thermal homeostasis during day-night and seasonal temperature cycles. It also contributed in many lemurs and lorises to the evolution of a wide variety of activity patterns and energy-conserving metabolic patterns such as cathemerality, daily torpor, and hibernation. The absence of functional MAP in strepsirhines and tarsiers implies the absence of effective piloerection in early primates, and the reacquisition of whole-body MAP in ancestral anthropoids prior to the separation of platyrrhine and catarrhine lineages. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24192984

  3. Evolutionary history of chromosome 10 in primates.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Lucia; Ventura, Mario; Tempesta, Sergio; Rocchi, Mariano; Archidiacono, Nicoletta

    2002-11-01

    We have tracked the evolutionary history of chromosomes homologous to HSA10 (PHYL-10) in primates using appropriate panels of PCP, YAC, and BAC probes. This approach allowed us to delineate more precisely the PHYL-10 constitution in the ancestor of catarrhine, platyrrhine, and prosimians. The results suggest that (i) in the ancestor of prosimians PHYL-10 was organized in two separate PHYL-10p and PHYL-10q chromosomes; (ii) in the progenitor of New World monkeys PHYL-10p was a separate chromosome, while PHYL-10q was associated with a chromosome homologous to HSA16; (iii) in the ancestor of Old World monkeys PHYL-10 was a unique chromosome with a marker order corresponding to the orang form. We have also analyzed the cat, chosen as an outgroup for its very conserved karyotype. In agreement with published data our experiments show that the PHYL-10 in cat is structured in two blocks, PHYL-10p and PHYL-10q, both as part of larger chromosomes. The overall data indicate that, contrary to common opinion, PHYL-10p and PHYL-10q were distinct chromosomes in the primate ancestor. Analysis of the Saimiri sciureus (SSC) PHYL-10q marker order showed that it was isosequential with the Callithrix jacchus PHYL-10q, as well as with the PHYL-10q platyrrhine ancestral form. The SSC centromere, nevertheless, was located in a different chromosomal region, therefore suggesting that a centromeric repositioning event occurred in this species. PMID:12424526

  4. Short hyperdynamic profiles influence primate temperature regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    Primates have been shown to be sensitive to hyperdynamic fields. That is, when exposed to + 2Gz, body temperature falls. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative sensitivity of these animals to short centrifugation profiles which mimic the gravitational envelope seen on the Space Shuttle during launch (8 minutes, 2.9 Gz max) and re-entry (19 min, 1.7 Gz max). Four loosely restrained squirrel monkeys, isolated from additional external stimuli, were exposed to these profiles. During launch simulation, the temperatures never fell markedly below control levels. However, subsequent to return to 1G, the recovery phase showed decreases in body temperature in all four animals averaging 0.4 C over the next 10 to 15 minutes. The two animals exposed to the reentry profile showed decreases in body temperature within five minutes of the onset of centrifugation. Maximum fall in body temperature was reached by the end of the centrifugation phase and averaged 0.7 C. Thus, the temperature regulation system of this primate is sensitive to short hyperdynamic field exposures.

  5. Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth

    PubMed Central

    Trevathan, Wenda

    2015-01-01

    The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an ‘obstetric dilemma’ whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. PMID:25602069

  6. Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.

    PubMed

    Trevathan, Wenda

    2015-03-01

    The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. PMID:25602069

  7. Chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Shozo; Thorgeirsson, Unnur P.; Adamson, Richard H.

    2008-01-01

    This review covers chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates performed by the National Cancer Institute, USA, to provide hitherto unavailable information on their susceptibility to compounds producing carcinogenic effects in rodents. From autopsy records of 401 breeders and untreated controls, incidences of spontaneous malignant tumors were found to be relatively low in cynomolgus (1.9%) and rhesus monkeys (3.8%), but higher in African green monkeys (8%). Various chemical compounds, and in particular 6 antineoplastic agents, 13 food-related compounds including additives and contaminants, 1 pesticide, 5 N-nitroso compounds, 3 heterocyclic amines, and 7 “classical” rodent carcinogens, were tested during the 34 years period, generally at doses 10∼40 times the estimated human exposure. Results were inconclusive in many cases but unequivocal carcinogenicity was demonstrated for IQ, procarbazine, methylnitrosourea and diethylnitrosamine. Furthermore, negative findings for saccharine and cyclamate were in line with results in other species. Thus susceptibility to carcinogens is at least partly shared by nonhuman primates and rodents. PMID:18941297

  8. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Day, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:27589665

  9. Dynamic actin gene family evolution in primates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Yijun; Wen, Tieqiao; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Actin is one of the most highly conserved proteins and plays crucial roles in many vital cellular functions. In most eukaryotes, it is encoded by a multigene family. Although the actin gene family has been studied a lot, few investigators focus on the comparison of actin gene family in relative species. Here, the purpose of our study is to systematically investigate characteristics and evolutionary pattern of actin gene family in primates. We identified 233 actin genes in human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, rhesus monkey, and marmoset genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that actin genes in the seven species could be divided into two major types of clades: orthologous group versus complex group. Codon usages and gene expression patterns of actin gene copies were highly consistent among the groups because of basic functions needed by the organisms, but much diverged within species due to functional diversification. Besides, many great potential pseudogenes were found with incomplete open reading frames due to frameshifts or early stop codons. These results implied that actin gene family in primates went through "birth and death" model of evolution process. Under this model, actin genes experienced strong negative selection and increased the functional complexity by reproducing themselves. PMID:23841080

  10. Conditioned sexual arousal in a nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Charles T; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ziegler, Toni E; Ferris, Craig F

    2011-05-01

    Conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in several species from fish to humans but has not been demonstrated in nonhuman primates. Controversy exists over whether nonhuman primates produce pheromones that arouse sexual behavior. Although common marmosets copulate throughout the ovarian cycle and during pregnancy, males exhibit behavioral signs of arousal, demonstrate increased neural activation of anterior hypothalamus and medial preoptic area, and have an increase in serum testosterone after exposure to odors of novel ovulating females suggestive of a sexually arousing pheromone. Males also have increased androgens prior to their mate's ovulation. However, males presented with odors of ovulating females demonstrate activation of many other brain areas associated with motivation, memory, and decision making. In this study, we demonstrate that male marmosets can be conditioned to a novel, arbitrary odor (lemon) with observation of erections, and increased exploration of the location where they previously experienced a receptive female, and increased scratching in post-conditioning test without a female present. This conditioned response was demonstrated up to a week after the end of conditioning trials, a much longer lasting effect of conditioning than reported in studies of other species. These results further suggest that odors of ovulating females are not pheromones, strictly speaking and that marmoset males may learn specific characteristics of odors of females providing a possible basis for mate identification. PMID:21029736

  11. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Shively, Carol A.; Day, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:27589665

  12. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. PMID:22394275

  13. The comparative anatomy of the forelimb veins of primates.

    PubMed Central

    Thiranagama, R; Chamberlain, A T; Wood, B A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen forelimbs taken from 62 individuals belonging to 17 primate genera were dissected to reveal the entire course of the superficial venous system. The course of the deep venous system was also documented in at least one forelimb of each primate genus, and the number and location of perforating veins was recorded in 18 human and 45 non-human primate limbs. In Pan, Gorilla and in about 25% of human specimens the lateral superficial vein was confined to the forearm, while in all other primates, and in the majority of humans, this vein extended from the carpus to the clavicular region. Only Pongo and humans exhibited a second main superficial vein on the medial side of the forearm. In all primates the deep veins of the forelimb usually accompanied the arteries. Thus variation in the deep venous system reflected the different arterial patterns exhibited by these primates. The number of perforating veins in the forelimb was related to the length of the limb. Primate genera with longer forelimbs had more perforators, though not as many as would be expected if the number of perforators scaled linearly with limb length. PMID:2514175

  14. Primate assemblage structure in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests.

    PubMed

    Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Peres, Carlos A

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable variation in primate species richness across neotropical forest sites, and the richest assemblages are found in western Amazonia. Forest type is an important determinant of the patterns of platyrrhine primate diversity, abundance, and biomass. Here we present data on the assemblage structure of primates in adjacent unflooded (terra firme) and seasonally inundated (várzea and igapó) forests in the lower Purús region of central-western Brazilian Amazonia. A line-transect census of 2,026 km in terra firme, 2,309 km in várzea, and 277 km in igapó was conducted. Twelve primate species were recorded from 2,059 primate group sightings. Although terra firme was found to be consistently more species-rich than várzea, the aggregate primate density in terra firme forest was considerably lower than that in the species-poor várzea. Consequently, the total biomass estimate was much higher in várzea compared to either terra firme or igapó forest. Brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were the most abundant species in terra firme, but were outnumbered by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri cf. ustus) in the várzea. The results suggest that floodplain forest is a crucial complement to terra firme in terms of primate conservation in Amazonian forests. PMID:16229024

  15. Evolution of the primate cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene.

    PubMed

    Adkins, R M; Honeycutt, R L

    1994-03-01

    We examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene from 25 primates (4 hominoids, 8 Old World monkeys, 2 New World monkeys, 2 tarsiers, 7 lemuriforms, 2 lorisiforms). Marginal support was found for three phylogenetic conclusions: (1) sister-group relationship between tarsiers and a monkey/ape clade, (2) placement of the aye-aye (Daubentonia) sister to all other strepsirhine primates, and (3) rejection of a sister-group relationship of dwarf lemurs (i.e., Cheirogaleus) with lorisiform primates. Stronger support was found for a sister-group relationship between the ring-tail lemur (Lemur catta) and the gentle lemurs (Hapalemur). In congruence with previous studies on COII, we found that the monkeys and apes have undergone a nearly two-fold increase in the rate of amino acid replacement relative to other primates. Although functionally important amino acids are generally conserved among all primates, the acceleration in amino acid replacements in higher primates is associated with increased variation in the amino terminal end of the protein. Additionally, the replacement of two carboxyl-bearing residues (glutamate and aspartate) at positions 114 and 115 may provide a partial explanation for the poor enzyme kinetics in cross-reactions between the cytochromes c and cytochrome c oxidases of higher primates and other mammals. PMID:8006990

  16. Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Didier, E S; MacLean, A G; Mohan, M; Didier, P J; Lackner, A A; Kuroda, M J

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the biological process of declining physiologic function associated with increasing mortality rate during advancing age. Humans and higher nonhuman primates exhibit unusually longer average life spans as compared with mammals of similar body mass. Furthermore, the population of humans worldwide is growing older as a result of improvements in public health, social services, and health care systems. Comparative studies among a wide range of organisms that include nonhuman primates contribute greatly to our understanding about the basic mechanisms of aging. Based on their genetic and physiologic relatedness to humans, nonhuman primates are especially important for better understanding processes of aging unique to primates, as well as for testing intervention strategies to improve healthy aging and to treat diseases and disabilities in older people. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are the predominant monkeys used in studies on aging, but research with lower nonhuman primate species is increasing. One of the priority topics of research about aging in nonhuman primates involves neurologic changes associated with cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Additional areas of research include osteoporosis, reproductive decline, caloric restriction, and their mimetics, as well as immune senescence and chronic inflammation that affect vaccine efficacy and resistance to infections and cancer. The purpose of this review is to highlight the findings from nonhuman primate research that contribute to our understanding about aging and health span in humans. PMID:26869153

  17. Primate chromosome evolution: ancestral karyotypes, marker order and neocentromeres.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, R; Rocchi, M; Capozzi, O; Roberto, R; Misceo, D; Ventura, M; Cardone, M F; Bigoni, F; Archidiacono, N

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 the Japanese macaque was the first species for which the homology of the entire karyotype was established by cross-species chromosome painting. Today, there are chromosome painting data on more than 50 species of primates. Although chromosome painting is a rapid and economical method for tracking translocations, it has limited utility for revealing intrachromosomal rearrangements. Fortunately, the use of BAC-FISH in the last few years has allowed remarkable progress in determining marker order along primate chromosomes and there are now marker order data on an array of primate species for a good number of chromosomes. These data reveal inversions, but also show that centromeres of many orthologous chromosomes are embedded in different genomic contexts. Even if the mechanisms of neocentromere formation and progression are just beginning to be understood, it is clear that these phenomena had a significant impact on shaping the primate genome and are fundamental to our understanding of genome evolution. In this report we complete and integrate the dataset of BAC-FISH marker order for human syntenies 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 12, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22 and the X. These results allowed us to develop hypotheses about the content, marker order and centromere position in ancestral karyotypes at five major branching points on the primate evolutionary tree: ancestral primate, ancestral anthropoid, ancestral platyrrhine, ancestral catarrhine and ancestral hominoid. Current models suggest that between-species structural rearrangements are often intimately related to speciation. Comparative primate cytogenetics has become an important tool for elucidating the phylogeny and the taxonomy of primates. It has become increasingly apparent that molecular cytogenetic data in the future can be fruitfully combined with whole-genome assemblies to advance our understanding of primate genome evolution as well as the mechanisms and processes that have led to the origin of the human genome. PMID

  18. Biomechanical research of joints: IV. the biohinge of primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renxiang; Yu, Jie; Lan, Zu-yun; Qu, Wen-ji; Zhang, Hong-zi; Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Liang

    1991-04-01

    In this paper moire topography is applied to study the femoral articular facies of the knee of Primates. For compari son with each other of different families of Primates we suggest the comparative targets a y and the grade G of the moire contour fringes on two condyles of knee of Primates and comparative study of the articulation of knee between the Macaca assamensis M cellaud Presbytis phayrei Rhinopithecus roxellanae Hylobates concolor leucogenys Nycticebus concany Gorilla gorilla Anthropopithecus troglodytes Sirnia satyrus and human being are given. The results may be useful reference in the study of Biomechanics Zoology and Anthropology.

  19. The Evolution of Primate Communication and Metacommunication

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Against the prior view that primate communication is based only on signal decoding, comparative evidence suggests that primates are able, no less than humans, to intentionally perform or understand impulsive or habitual communicational actions with a structured evaluative nonconceptual content. These signals convey an affordance‐sensing that immediately motivates conspecifics to act. Although humans have access to a strategic form of propositional communication adapted to teaching and persuasion, they share with nonhuman primates the capacity to communicate in impulsive or habitual ways. They are also similarly able to monitor fluency, informativeness and relevance of messages or signals through nonconceptual cues. PMID:27134332

  20. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. PMID:25600585

  1. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties

    PubMed Central

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L.; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics – including sentence and discourse processing – can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. PMID:25600585

  2. Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

    2010-06-01

    Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

  3. MBL1 gene in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Segat, Ludovica; Crovella, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    With the aim of investigating the evolution of MBL1P1 (MBL1) gene, we analyzed the MBL1 coding region sequences in several specimens of two species of great apes, two species of Hylobatidae, four species of Cercopithecidae, and one Platyrrhine species, and in human beings. An indication for a progressive silencing of the molecule has been found. We found a ∼300 bp insertion in the first intron of MBL1 in the Cercopithecidae that could explain the different splicing between primates species and possibly why Macaca mulatta is able to produce a complete protein, whereas in human beings the protein product is truncated. Based on our genetic findings, we could speculate that all the Cercopithecidae (presenting the 300-bp insertion) may express MBL1 mature protein like the M mulatta, whereas the lesser and great apes, which lack this insertion as do human beings, may have only the truncated pseudogene. PMID:21889966

  4. Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals

    PubMed Central

    Allen, William L.; Stevens, Martin; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal visual signals have the potential to act as an isolating barrier to prevent interbreeding of populations through a role in species recognition. Within communities of competing species, species recognition signals are predicted to undergo character displacement, becoming more visually distinctive from each other, however this pattern has rarely been identified. Using computational face recognition algorithms to model primate face processing, we demonstrate that the face patterns of guenons (tribe: Cercopithecini) have evolved under selection to become more visually distinctive from those of other guenon species with whom they are sympatric. The relationship between the appearances of sympatric species suggests that distinguishing conspecifics from other guenon species has been a major driver of diversification in guenon face appearance. Visual signals that have undergone character displacement may have had an important role in the tribe’s radiation, keeping populations that became geographically separated reproductively isolated on secondary contact. PMID:24967517

  5. IACUC Review of Nonhuman Primate Research

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Suzette D.; Coleman, Kristine; Hobbs, Theodore R.; Lutz, Corrine

    2013-01-01

    This article will detail some of the issues that must be considered as institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) review the use of nonhuman primates (NHPs) in research. As large, intelligent, social, long-lived, and non-domesticated animals, monkeys are amongst the most challenging species used in biomedical research and the duties of the IACUC in relation to reviewing research use of these species can also be challenging. Issues of specific concern for review of NHP research protocols that are discussed in this article include scientific justification, reuse, social housing requirements, amelioration of distress, surgical procedures, and humane endpoints. Clear institutional policies and procedures as regards NHP in these areas are critical, and the discussion of these issues presented here can serve as a basis for the informed establishment of such policies and procedures. PMID:24174445

  6. Isolation of Pancreatic Islets from Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Berman, Dora M

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) constitute a highly relevant pre-clinical animal model to develop strategies for beta cell replacement. The close phylogenetic and immunologic relationship between NHP and humans results in cross-reactivity of various biological agents with NHP cells, as well as a very similar cytoarchitecture between islets from human and NHP that is strikingly different from that observed in rodent islets. The composition and location of endocrine cells in human or NHP islets, randomly distributed and associated with blood vessels, have functional consequences and a predisposition for paracrine interactions. Furthermore, translation of approaches that proved successful in rodent models to the clinic has been limited. Consequently, data collected from NHP studies can form the basis for an IND submission to the FDA. This chapter describes in detail the key aspects for isolation of islets from NHP, from organ procurement up to assessment of islet function, comparing and emphasizing the similarities between isolation procedures for human and NHP islets. PMID:27586422

  7. MULTIPLEXING IN THE PRIMATE MOTION PATHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Huk, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by reviewing recent work on 3D motion processing in the primate visual system. Some of these results suggest that 3D motion signals may be processed in the same circuitry already known to compute 2D motion signals. Such “multiplexing” has implications for the study of visual cortical circuits and neural signals. A more explicit appreciation of multiplexing— and the computations required for demultiplexing— may enrich the study of the visual system by emphasizing the importance of a structured and balanced “encoding / decoding” framework. In addition to providing a fresh perspective on how successive stages of visual processing might be approached, multiplexing also raises caveats about the value of “neural correlates” for understanding neural computation. PMID:22811986

  8. Effect of toloxatone on behaviour of primates.

    PubMed

    Giono-Barber, H; Giono-Barber, P; Milhaud, C L; Klein, M J; Gouret, C; Raynaud, G

    1977-01-01

    1. The effects of (3-methyl)-3-phenyl-5-hydroxy-methyl-2-oxazolidinone (toloxatone) were studied on the behaviour of three species of primates: baboon, rhesus monkeys and chimpanzee. 2. The activity against reserpine-induced depression is observed in baboon as in rodents. 2. The administration of toloxatone induces three effects which probably have the same origin: suppression of feeding inhibition of the subordinate baboon, improvement of escape reaction in the conditioned chimpanzee, increase in general activity and the active component of social behaviour in grouped rhesus monkeys. These three effects can be interpreted as resulting from the stimulating effect of toloxatone, or more precisely from a disinhibiting effect. 4. Contrary to amphetamine, toloxatone does not induce, even at high or repeated doses, behavioural disturbances. PMID:409416

  9. Prosocial primates: selfish and unselfish motivations

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Frans B. M.; Suchak, Malini

    2010-01-01

    Non-human primates are marked by well-developed prosocial and cooperative tendencies as reflected in the way they support each other in fights, hunt together, share food and console victims of aggression. The proximate motivation behind such behaviour is not to be confused with the ultimate reasons for its evolution. Even if a behaviour is ultimately self-serving, the motivation behind it may be genuinely unselfish. A sharp distinction needs to be drawn, therefore, between (i) altruistic and cooperative behaviour with knowable benefits to the actor, which may lead actors aware of these benefits to seek them by acting cooperatively or altruistically and (ii) altruistic behaviour that offers the actor no knowable rewards. The latter is the case if return benefits occur too unpredictably, too distantly in time or are of an indirect nature, such as increased inclusive fitness. The second category of behaviour can be explained only by assuming an altruistic impulse, which—as in humans—may be born from empathy with the recipient's need, pain or distress. Empathy, a proximate mechanism for prosocial behaviour that makes one individual share another's emotional state, is biased the way one would predict from evolutionary theories of cooperation (i.e. by kinship, social closeness and reciprocation). There is increasing evidence in non-human primates (and other mammals) for this proximate mechanism as well as for the unselfish, spontaneous nature of the resulting prosocial tendencies. This paper further reviews observational and experimental evidence for the reciprocity mechanisms that underlie cooperation among non-relatives, for inequity aversion as a constraint on cooperation and on the way defection is dealt with. PMID:20679114

  10. Prosocial primates: selfish and unselfish motivations.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Frans B M; Suchak, Malini

    2010-09-12

    Non-human primates are marked by well-developed prosocial and cooperative tendencies as reflected in the way they support each other in fights, hunt together, share food and console victims of aggression. The proximate motivation behind such behaviour is not to be confused with the ultimate reasons for its evolution. Even if a behaviour is ultimately self-serving, the motivation behind it may be genuinely unselfish. A sharp distinction needs to be drawn, therefore, between (i) altruistic and cooperative behaviour with knowable benefits to the actor, which may lead actors aware of these benefits to seek them by acting cooperatively or altruistically and (ii) altruistic behaviour that offers the actor no knowable rewards. The latter is the case if return benefits occur too unpredictably, too distantly in time or are of an indirect nature, such as increased inclusive fitness. The second category of behaviour can be explained only by assuming an altruistic impulse, which-as in humans-may be born from empathy with the recipient's need, pain or distress. Empathy, a proximate mechanism for prosocial behaviour that makes one individual share another's emotional state, is biased the way one would predict from evolutionary theories of cooperation (i.e. by kinship, social closeness and reciprocation). There is increasing evidence in non-human primates (and other mammals) for this proximate mechanism as well as for the unselfish, spontaneous nature of the resulting prosocial tendencies. This paper further reviews observational and experimental evidence for the reciprocity mechanisms that underlie cooperation among non-relatives, for inequity aversion as a constraint on cooperation and on the way defection is dealt with. PMID:20679114

  11. The major histocompatibility complex of primates.

    PubMed

    Heise, E R; Cook, D J; Schepart, B S; Manning, C H; McMahan, M R; Chedid, M; Keever, C A

    1987-08-31

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes cell surface glycoproteins that function in self-nonself recognition and in allograft rejection. Among primates, the MHC has been well defined only in the human; in the chimpanzee and in two species of macaque monkeys the MHC is less well characterized. Serologic, biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that the basic organization of the MHC linkage group has been phylogenetically conserved. However, the number of genes and their linear relationship on the chromosomes differ between species. Class I MHC loci encode molecules that are the most polymorphic genes known. These molecules are ubiquitous in their tissue distribution and typically are recognized together with nominal antigens by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Class II MHC loci constitute a smaller family of serotypes serving as restricting elements for regulatory T lymphocytes. The distribution of class II antigens is limited mainly to cell types serving immune functions, and their expression is subject to up and down modulation. Class III loci code for components C2, C4 and Factor B (Bf) of the complement system. Interspecies differences in the extent of polymorphism occur, but the significance of this finding in relation to fitness and natural selection is unclear. Detailed information on the structure and regulation of MHC gene expression will be required to understand fully the biologic role of the MHC and the evolutionary relationships between species. Meanwhile, MHC testing has numerous applications to biomedical research, especially in preclinical tissue and organ transplantation studies, the study of disease mechanisms, parentage determination and breeding colony management. In this review, the current status of MHC definition in nonhuman primates will be summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the CyLA system of M. fascicularis which is a major focus in our laboratory. A highly polymorphic cynomolgus MHC has been partially characterized and consists

  12. Theory of mind in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Heyes, C M

    1998-02-01

    Since the BBS article in which Premack and Woodruff (1978) asked "Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?," it has been repeatedly claimed that there is observational and experimental evidence that apes have mental state concepts, such as "want" and "know." Unlike research on the development of theory of mind in childhood, however, no substantial progress has been made through this work with nonhuman primates. A survey of empirical studies of imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, role-taking, and perspective-taking suggests that in every case where nonhuman primate behavior has been interpreted as a sign of theory of mind, it could instead have occurred by chance or as a product of nonmentalistic processes such as associative learning or inferences based on nonmental categories. Arguments to the effect that, in spite of this, the theory of mind hypothesis should be accepted because it is more parsimonious than alternatives or because it is supported by convergent evidence are not compelling. Such arguments are based on unsupportable assumptions about the role of parsimony in science and either ignore the requirement that convergent evidence proceed from independent assumptions, or fail to show that it supports the theory of mind hypothesis over nonmentalist alternatives. Progress in research on theory of mind requires experimental procedures that can distinguish the theory of mind hypothesis from nonmentalist alternatives. A procedure that may have this potential is proposed. It uses conditional discrimination training and transfer tests to determine whether chimpanzees have the concept "see." Commentators are invited to identify flaws in the procedure and to suggest alternatives. PMID:10097012

  13. Early primate evolution in Afro-Arabia.

    PubMed

    Seiffert, Erik R

    2012-11-01

    The peculiar mammalian fauna that inhabited Afro-Arabia during the Paleogene first came to the attention of the scientific community in the early part of the twentieth century, when Andrews1 and Schlosser2 published their landmark descriptions of fossil mammals from the Fayum Depression in northern Egypt. Their studies revealed a highly endemic assemblage of land mammals that included the first known Paleogene records of hyraxes, proboscideans, and anthropoid primates, but which lacked ancestors of many iconic mammalian lineages that are found in Africa today, such as rhinos, zebras, bovids, giraffes, and cats. Over the course of the last century, the Afro-Arabian Paleogene has yielded fossil remains of several other endemic mammalian lineages,3 as well as a diversity of prosimian primates,4 but we are only just beginning to understand how the continent's faunal composition came to be, through ancient processes such as the movement of tectonic plates, changes in climate and sea level, and early phylogenetic splits among the major groups of placental mammals. These processes, in turn, made possible chance dispersal events that were critical in determining the competitive landscape--and, indeed, the survival--of our earliest anthropoid ancestors. Newly discovered fossils indicate that the persistence and later diversification of Anthropoidea was not an inevitable result of the clade's competitive isolation or adaptive superiority, as has often been assumed, but rather was as much due to the combined influences of serendipitous geographic conditions, global cooling, and competition with a group of distantly related extinct strepsirrhines with anthropoid-like adaptations known as adapiforms. Many of the important details of this story would not be known, and could never have been predicted, without the fossil evidence that has recently been unearthed by field paleontologists. PMID:23280921

  14. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  15. Harms and deprivation of benefits for nonhuman primates in research.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope; Fuentes, Agustín

    2014-04-01

    The risks of harm to nonhuman primates, and the absence of benefits for them, are critically important to decisions about nonhuman primate research. Current guidelines for review and practice tend to be permissive for nonhuman primate research as long as minimal welfare requirements are fulfilled and human medical advances are anticipated. This situation is substantially different from human research, in which risks of harms to the individual subject are typically reduced to the extent feasible. A risk threshold is needed for the justification of research on nonhuman primates, comparable to the way risk thresholds are set for vulnerable human subjects who cannot provide informed consent. Much of the laboratory research conducted today has inadequate standards, leading to common physical, psychological, and social harms. PMID:24627264

  16. Bat hepadnaviruses and the origins of primate hepatitis B viruses.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Andrea; Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2016-02-01

    The origin of primate HBV (family Hepadnaviridae) is unknown. Hepadnaviruses are ancient pathogens and may have been associated with old mammalian lineages like bats for prolonged time. Indeed, the genetic diversity of bat hepadnaviruses exceeds that of extant hepadnaviruses in other host orders, suggesting a long evolution of hepadnaviruses in bats. Strikingly, a recently detected New World bat hepadnavirus is antigenically related to HBV and can infect human hepatocytes. Together with genetically diverse hepadnaviruses from New World rodents and a non-human primate, these viruses argue for a New World origin of ancestral orthohepadnaviruses. Multiple host switches of bat and primate viruses are evident and bats are likely sources of ancestral hepadnaviruses acquired by primates. PMID:26897577

  17. The scaling of frontal cortex in primates and carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Eliot C.; Allman, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Size has a profound effect on the structure of the brain. Many brain structures scale allometrically, that is, their relative size changes systematically as a function of brain size. Here we use independent contrasts analysis to examine the scaling of frontal cortex in 43 species of mammals including 25 primates and 15 carnivores. We find evidence for significant differences in scaling between primates and carnivores. Primate frontal cortex hyperscales relative to the rest of neocortex and the rest of the brain. The slope of frontal cortex contrasts on rest of cortex contrasts is 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.30) for primates, which is significantly greater than isometric. It is also significantly greater than the carnivore value of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.07). This finding supports the idea that there are substantial differences in frontal cortex structure and development between the two groups. PMID:15007170

  18. Light responses of primate and other mammalian cones

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li-Hui; Luo, Dong-Gen; Yau, King-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Retinal cones are photoreceptors for daylight vision. For lower vertebrates, cones are known to give monophasic, hyperpolarizing responses to light flashes. For primate cones, however, they have been reported to give strongly biphasic flash responses, with an initial hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization beyond the dark level, now a textbook dogma. We have reexamined this primate-cone observation and, surprisingly, found predominantly monophasic cone responses. Correspondingly, we found that primate cones began to adapt to steady light at much lower intensities than previously reported, explainable by a larger steady response to background light for a monophasic than for a biphasic response. Similarly, we have found a monophasic cone response for several other mammalian species. Thus, a monophasic flash response may in fact be the norm for primate and other mammalian cones as for lower-vertebrate cones. This revised information is important for ultimately understanding human retinal signal processing and correlating with psychophysical data. PMID:24550304

  19. The earliest fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.; Beard, K. C.

    1990-01-01

    Recently obtained material of the early Eocene primate Notharctus venticolus, including two partial skulls from a single stratigraphic horizon, provides the geologically earliest evidence of sexual dimorphism in canine size and shape in primates and the only unequivocal evidence for such dimorphism in strepsirhines. By analogy with living platyrrhines, these data suggest that Notharctus venticolus may have lived in polygynous social groups characterized by a relatively high level of intermale competition for mates and other limited resources. The anatomy of the upper incisors and related evidence imply that Notharctus is not as closely related to extant lemuriform primates as has been recently proposed. The early Eocene evidence for canine sexual dimorphism reported here, and its occurrence in a nonanthropoid, indicates that in the order Primates such a condition is either primitive or evolved independently more than once.

  20. Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jandy B.; Schmitt, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in the ankle plantar flexors of primates and make comparisons to other mammals. The data suggest that great apes, atelines, and lorisines exhibit similarity in the mass distribution of the triceps surae. We conclude that variation in triceps surae may be related to the shared locomotor mode exhibited by these groups and that triceps surae morphology, which approaches that of humans, may be related to frequent use of semiplantigrade locomotion and vertical climbing. PMID:22567288

  1. Molecular cytotaxonomy of primates by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wienberg, J; Jauch, A; Stanyon, R; Cremer, T

    1990-10-01

    A new strategy for analyzing chromosomal evolution in primates is presented using chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization. Biotin-labeled DNA libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes are hybridized to chromosome preparations of catarrhines, platyrrhines, and prosimians. By this approach rearrangements of chromosomes that occurred during hominoid evolution are visualized directly at the level of DNA sequences, even in primate species with pronounced chromosomal shuffles. PMID:2249853

  2. Eye-Blink Behaviors in 71 Species of Primates

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Hideoki; Omori, Yasuko; Hirokawa, Kumi; Ohira, Hideki; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the associations between eye-blink behaviors and various other factors in primates. We video-recorded 141 individuals across 71 primate species and analyzed the blink rate, blink duration, and “isolated” blink ratio (i.e., blinks without eye or head movement) in relation to activity rhythms, habitat types, group size, and body size factors. The results showed close relationships between three types of eye-blink measures and body size factors. All of these measures increased as a function of body weight. In addition, diurnal primates showed more blinks than nocturnal species even after controlling for body size factors. The most important findings were the relationships between eye-blink behaviors and social factors, e.g., group size. Among diurnal primates, only the blink rate was significantly correlated even after controlling for body size factors. The blink rate increased as the group size increased. Enlargement of the neocortex is strongly correlated with group size in primate species and considered strong evidence for the social brain hypothesis. Our results suggest that spontaneous eye-blinks have acquired a role in social communication, similar to grooming, to adapt to complex social living during primate evolution. PMID:23741522

  3. A Genome-Wide Landscape of Retrocopies in Primate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Fábio C.P.; Galante, Pedro A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication is a key factor contributing to phenotype diversity across and within species. Although the availability of complete genomes has led to the extensive study of genomic duplications, the dynamics and variability of gene duplications mediated by retrotransposition are not well understood. Here, we predict mRNA retrotransposition and use comparative genomics to investigate their origin and variability across primates. Analyzing seven anthropoid primate genomes, we found a similar number of mRNA retrotranspositions (∼7,500 retrocopies) in Catarrhini (Old Word Monkeys, including humans), but a surprising large number of retrocopies (∼10,000) in Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys), which may be a by-product of higher long interspersed nuclear element 1 activity in these genomes. By inferring retrocopy orthology, we dated most of the primate retrocopy origins, and estimated a decrease in the fixation rate in recent primate history, implying a smaller number of species-specific retrocopies. Moreover, using RNA-Seq data, we identified approximately 3,600 expressed retrocopies. As expected, most of these retrocopies are located near or within known genes, present tissue-specific and even species-specific expression patterns, and no expression correlation to their parental genes. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that mRNA retrotransposition is an active mechanism in primate evolution and suggest that retrocopies may not only introduce great genetic variability between lineages but also create a large reservoir of potentially functional new genomic loci in primate genomes. PMID:26224704

  4. Primates and the Evolution of Long-Slow Life Histories

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland

    2011-01-01

    Summary Primates are characterized by relatively late ages at first reproduction, long lives and low fertility. Together, these traits define a life-history of reduced reproductive effort. Understanding the optimal allocation of reproductive effort, and specifically reduced reproductive effort, has been one of the key problems motivating the development of life history theory. Because of their unusual constellation of life-history traits, primates play an important role in the continued development of life history theory. In this review, I present the evidence for the reduced reproductive effort life histories of primates and discuss the ways that such life-history tactics are understood in contemporary theory. Such tactics are particularly consistent with the predictions of stochastic demographic models, suggesting a key role for environmental variability in the evolution of primate life histories. The tendency for primates to specialize in high-quality, high-variability food items may make them particularly susceptible to environmental variability and explain their low reproductive-effort tactics. I discuss recent applications of life history theory to human evolution and emphasize the continuity between models used to explain peculiarities of human reproduction and senescence with the long, slow life histories of primates more generally. PMID:21959161

  5. Afrotarsius chatrathi, first tarsiiform primate (? Tarsiidae) from Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, E.L.; Bown, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Tarsiiform primates have long been regarded as a Laurasian group, with an extensive fossil record in the Eocene of North America and Europe1-4 and two important but less well-known records from Asia5,6. The only living genus is Tarsius (Tarsiidae), whereas all of the fossil tarsier-like primates are usually placed in the extinct family Omomyidae3. We now report the discovery of Afrotarsius chatrathi from early Oligocene rocks of Fayum Province, Egypt. This is the first known tarsiiform primate from Africa. Compared with fossil primates, the molar tooth morphology of this diminutive prosimian is most similar to that of the European Eocene microchoerine Pseudoloris; however, the closest similarity is to the molars of Tarsius. Because the phylogenetic relationships among living Tarsius and the omomyids remain unclear7,8 and because of the fragmentary nature of the only known specimen of this new primate, allocation of Afrotarsius to either Omomyidae or Tarsiidae is necessarily provisional. As we believe that its molar teeth are more like those of Tarsius than of any omomyids (including Pseudoloris), we tentatively assign the new genus to the extant family Tarsiidae as its only known fossil representative. Recovery of a Tarsius-like primate from Africa suggests that it or its ancestors might have been immigrants from Europe, may have been derived from an unknown Asian stock related to the ancestry of Tarsius, or may have originated in Africa. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic studies of wild primates have used a wide range of tissues to infer diet and model the foraging ecologies of extinct species. The use of mismatched tissues for such comparisons can be problematic because differences in amino acid compositions can lead to small isotopic differences between tissues. Additionally, physiological and dietary differences among primate species could lead to variable offsets between apatite carbonate and collagen. To improve our understanding of the isotopic chemistry of primates, we explored the apparent enrichment (ε*) between bone collagen and muscle, collagen and fur or hair keratin, muscle and keratin, and collagen and bone carbonate across the primate order. We found that the mean ε* values of proteinaceous tissues were small (≤1‰), and uncorrelated with body size or phylogenetic relatedness. Additionally, ε* values did not vary by habitat, sex, age, or manner of death. The mean ε* value between bone carbonate and collagen (5.6 ± 1.2‰) was consistent with values reported for omnivorous mammals consuming monoisotopic diets. These primate-specific apparent enrichment values will be a valuable tool for cross-species comparisons. Additionally, they will facilitate dietary comparisons between living and fossil primates. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-010-1701-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20628886

  7. Primate postcrania from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Ciochon, Russell L.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Simons, Elwyn L.

    2001-01-01

    Fossil primates have been known from the late middle to late Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar since the description of Pondaungia cotteri in 1927. Three additional primate taxa, Amphipithecus mogaungensis, Bahinia pondaungensis and Myanmarpithecus yarshensis, were subsequently described. These primates are represented mostly by fragmentary dental and cranial remains. Here we describe the first primate postcrania from Myanmar, including a complete left humerus, a fragmentary right humerus, parts of left and right ulnae, and the distal half of a left calcaneum, all representing one individual. We assign this specimen to a large species of Pondaungia based on body size and the known geographic distribution and diversity of Myanmar primates. Body weight estimates of Pondaungia range from 4,000 to 9,000 g, based on humeral length, humeral midshaft diameter, and tooth area by using extant primate regressions. The humerus and ulna indicate that Pondaungia was capable of a wide variety of forelimb movements, with great mobility at the shoulder joint. Morphology of the distal calcaneus indicates that the hind feet were mobile at the transverse tarsal joint. Postcrania of Pondaungia present a mosaic of features, some shared in common with notharctine and adapine adapiforms, some shared with extant lorises and cebids, some shared with fossil anthropoids, and some unique. Overall, Pondaungia humeral and calcaneal morphology is most consistent with that of other known adapiforms. It does not support the inclusion of Pondaungia in Anthropoidea. PMID:11438722

  8. Primate postcrania from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ciochon, R L; Gingerich, P D; Gunnell, G F; Simons, E L

    2001-07-01

    Fossil primates have been known from the late middle to late Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar since the description of Pondaungia cotteri in 1927. Three additional primate taxa, Amphipithecus mogaungensis, Bahinia pondaungensis and Myanmarpithecus yarshensis, were subsequently described. These primates are represented mostly by fragmentary dental and cranial remains. Here we describe the first primate postcrania from Myanmar, including a complete left humerus, a fragmentary right humerus, parts of left and right ulnae, and the distal half of a left calcaneum, all representing one individual. We assign this specimen to a large species of Pondaungia based on body size and the known geographic distribution and diversity of Myanmar primates. Body weight estimates of Pondaungia range from 4,000 to 9,000 g, based on humeral length, humeral midshaft diameter, and tooth area by using extant primate regressions. The humerus and ulna indicate that Pondaungia was capable of a wide variety of forelimb movements, with great mobility at the shoulder joint. Morphology of the distal calcaneus indicates that the hind feet were mobile at the transverse tarsal joint. Postcrania of Pondaungia present a mosaic of features, some shared in common with notharctine and adapine adapiforms, some shared with extant lorises and cebids, some shared with fossil anthropoids, and some unique. Overall, Pondaungia humeral and calcaneal morphology is most consistent with that of other known adapiforms. It does not support the inclusion of Pondaungia in Anthropoidea. PMID:11438722

  9. Primate spatial strategies and cognition: introduction to this special issue.

    PubMed

    Garber, Paul A; Dolins, Francine L

    2014-05-01

    Wild primates face significant challenges associated with locating resources that involve learning through exploration, encoding, and recalling travel routes, orienting to single landmarks or landmark arrays, monitoring food availability, and applying spatial strategies that reduce effort and increase efficiency. These foraging decisions are likely to involve tradeoffs between traveling to nearby or distant feeding sites based on expectations of resource productivity, predation risk, the availability of other nearby feeding sites, and individual requirements associated with nutrient balancing. Socioecological factors that affect primate foraging decisions include feeding competition, intergroup encounters, mate defense, and opportunities for food sharing. The nine research papers in this Special Issue, "Primate Spatial Strategies and Cognition," address a series of related questions examining how monkeys, apes, and humans encode, internally represent, and integrate spatial, temporal, and quantity information in efficiently locating and relocating productive feeding sites in both small-scale and large-scale space. The authors use a range of methods and approaches to study wild and captive primates, including computer and mathematical modeling, virtual reality, and detailed examinations of animal movement using GPS and GIS analyses to better understand primate cognitive ecology and species differences in decision-making. We conclude this Introduction by identifying a series of critical questions for future research designed to document species-specific differences in primate spatial cognition. PMID:24395033

  10. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence.

    PubMed

    Reader, Simon M; Hager, Yfke; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-04-12

    There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single 'general intelligence' factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of behavioural innovation, social learning, tool use, extractive foraging and tactical deception, in 62 primate species. All exhibited strong positive associations in principal component and factor analyses, after statistically controlling for multiple potential confounds. This highly correlated composite of cognitive traits suggests social, technical and ecological abilities have coevolved in primates, indicative of an across-species general intelligence that includes elements of cultural intelligence. Our composite species-level measure of general intelligence, 'primate g(S)', covaried with both brain volume and captive learning performance measures. Our findings question the independence of cognitive traits and do not support 'massive modularity' in primate cognition, nor an exclusively social model of primate intelligence. High general intelligence has independently evolved at least four times, with convergent evolution in capuchins, baboons, macaques and great apes. PMID:21357224

  11. A Genome-Wide Landscape of Retrocopies in Primate Genomes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Fábio C P; Galante, Pedro A F

    2015-08-01

    Gene duplication is a key factor contributing to phenotype diversity across and within species. Although the availability of complete genomes has led to the extensive study of genomic duplications, the dynamics and variability of gene duplications mediated by retrotransposition are not well understood. Here, we predict mRNA retrotransposition and use comparative genomics to investigate their origin and variability across primates. Analyzing seven anthropoid primate genomes, we found a similar number of mRNA retrotranspositions (∼7,500 retrocopies) in Catarrhini (Old Word Monkeys, including humans), but a surprising large number of retrocopies (∼10,000) in Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys), which may be a by-product of higher long interspersed nuclear element 1 activity in these genomes. By inferring retrocopy orthology, we dated most of the primate retrocopy origins, and estimated a decrease in the fixation rate in recent primate history, implying a smaller number of species-specific retrocopies. Moreover, using RNA-Seq data, we identified approximately 3,600 expressed retrocopies. As expected, most of these retrocopies are located near or within known genes, present tissue-specific and even species-specific expression patterns, and no expression correlation to their parental genes. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that mRNA retrotransposition is an active mechanism in primate evolution and suggest that retrocopies may not only introduce great genetic variability between lineages but also create a large reservoir of potentially functional new genomic loci in primate genomes. PMID:26224704

  12. Comparative primate energetics and hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Leonard, W R; Robertson, M L

    1997-02-01

    There is currently great interest in developing ecological models for investigating human evolution. Yet little attention has been given to energetics, one of the cornerstones of modern ecosystem ecology. This paper examines the ecological correlates of variation in metabolic requirements among extant primate species, and uses this information to draw inferences about the changes in energy demands over the course of human evolution. Data on body size, resting metabolism, and activity budgets for selected anthropoid species and human hunter-gatherers are used to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE). Analyses indicate that relative energy expenditure levels and day ranges are positively correlated with diet quality; that is, more active species tend to consume more energy-rich diets. Human foragers fall at the positive extremes for modern primates in having high expenditure levels, large ranges, and very high quality diets. During hominid evolution, it appears that TEE increased substantially with the emergence of Homo erectus. This increase is partly attributable to larger body size as well as likely increases in day range and activity level. Assuming similar activity budgets for all early hominid species, estimated TEE for H. erectus is 40-45% greater than for the australopithecines. If, however, it is assumed that the evolution of early Homo was also associated with a shift to a more "human-like" foraging strategy, estimated expenditure levels for H. erectus are 80-85% greater than in the australopithecines. Changing patterns of resource distribution associated with the expansion of African savannas between 2.5 and 1.5 mya may been the impetus for a shift in foraging behavior among early members of the genus Homo. Such ecological changes likely would have made animal foods a more attractive resource. Moreover, greater use of animal foods and the resulting higher quality diet would have been important for supporting the larger day ranges and greater energy

  13. Functional Analysis of the Primate Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Hohn, Bianca; Scherf, Heike; Schmidt, Manuela; Krause, Cornelia; Witzel, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the shoulder girdle are in most cases restricted to morphological comparisons and rarely aim at elucidating function in a strictly biomechanical sense. To fill this gap, we investigated the basic functional conditions that occur in the shoulder joint and shoulder girdle of primates by means of mechanics. Because most of nonhuman primate locomotion is essentially quadrupedal walking—although on very variable substrates—our analysis started with quadrupedal postures. We identified the mechanical situation at the beginning, middle, and end of the load-bearing stance phase by constructing force parallelograms in the shoulder joint and the scapulo-thoracal connection. The resulting postulates concerning muscle activities are in agreement with electromyographical data in the literature. We determined the magnitude and directions of the internal forces and explored mechanically optimal shapes of proximal humerus, scapula, and clavicula using the Finite Element Method. Next we considered mechanical functions other than quadrupedal walking, such as suspension and brachiation. Quadrupedal walking entails muscle activities and joint forces that require a long scapula, the cranial margin of which has about the same length as the axillary margin. Loading of the hand in positions above the head and suspensory behaviors lead to force flows along the axillary margin and so necessitate a scapula with an extended axillary and a shorter cranial margin. In all cases, the facies glenoidalis is nearly normal to the calculated joint forces. In anterior view, terrestrial monkeys chose a direction of the ground reaction force requiring (moderate) activity of the abductors of the shoulder joint, whereas more arboreal monkeys prefer postures that necessitate activity of the adductors of the forelimb even when walking along branches. The same adducting and retracting muscles are recruited in various forms of suspension. As a mechanical consequence, the scapula is in a more

  14. Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R

    2014-07-01

    From finding food to choosing mates, animals must make intertemporal choices that involve fitness benefits available at different times. Species vary dramatically in their willingness to wait for delayed rewards. Why does this variation across species exist? An adaptive approach to intertemporal choice suggests that time preferences should reflect the temporal problems faced in a species's environment. Here, I use phylogenetic regression to test whether allometric factors relating to body size, relative brain size and social group size predict how long 13 primate species will wait in laboratory intertemporal choice tasks. Controlling for phylogeny, a composite allometric factor that includes body mass, absolute brain size, lifespan and home range size predicted waiting times, but relative brain size and social group size did not. These findings support the notion that selective pressures have sculpted intertemporal choices to solve adaptive problems faced by animals. Collecting these types of data across a large number of species can provide key insights into the evolution of decision making and cognition. PMID:24827445

  15. Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    From finding food to choosing mates, animals must make intertemporal choices that involve fitness benefits available at different times. Species vary dramatically in their willingness to wait for delayed rewards. Why does this variation across species exist? An adaptive approach to intertemporal choice suggests that time preferences should reflect the temporal problems faced in a species's environment. Here, I use phylogenetic regression to test whether allometric factors relating to body size, relative brain size and social group size predict how long 13 primate species will wait in laboratory intertemporal choice tasks. Controlling for phylogeny, a composite allometric factor that includes body mass, absolute brain size, lifespan and home range size predicted waiting times, but relative brain size and social group size did not. These findings support the notion that selective pressures have sculpted intertemporal choices to solve adaptive problems faced by animals. Collecting these types of data across a large number of species can provide key insights into the evolution of decision making and cognition. PMID:24827445

  16. Stereometrics In Primate Taxonomy And Phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creel, Norman

    1980-07-01

    Studies of the systematic relationships within the primate taxa Homo, Hylobatidae (lesser apes), Hominoidea (apes and man) and Colobinae (Asian and African leaf monkeys) are described. All are based in large part on multivariate statistical analyses of cranial morphology. Adequate quantification of the frequently complex and subtle differences in the morphology of the animals being compared, as well as the inclusion of statistically adequate samples of as many presumed species or other groups of interest as possible, are essential to the success of such analyses. Two methods of stereometric measurement have been developed to make this possible. In initial studies of the Hylobatidae and the Hominoidea, a simple mechanical device was designed which determines the tri-dimensional coordinates of an anatomical point by measuring an angle and two distances. An improved version was used in an investigation of Subsaharan human crania. In a taxonomic revision of the Colobinae now in progress, crania are photographed in several views with a pair of metric cameras; point coordinates are then measured in a modified stereoplotter and the views rotated mathematically into a single coordinate system. Although stereometrics is only one component in a complex system of analysis, it is an extremely important one. Taxonomic revisions of the described scope and depth could not be carried out with conventional methods of measurement without a much greater commitment of resources, if at all.

  17. Experimental schistosomiasis in primates in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P.; von Lichtenberg, F.; Goatly, K. D.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory infection of animals with Schistosoma haematobium is generally unsatisfactory as adult worms invariably inhabit the portal venous system rather than the vesical plexus as in man. However, it was thought that certain primates might prove more valuable for experimental studies of schistosomiasis than the usual laboratory animals. Baboons, Papio anubis, were therefore exposed to cercariae of S. haematobium and the pattern of egg excretion in stools and urine was followed quantitatively. Histological studies of various organs were made and it was found that although eggs were excreted in the faeces, they were also passed in the urine and that tissue changes in the bladder were similar to those found in human infections. It is suggested that the sequelae of S. haematobium infection found in man might develop in baboons and that the animal may be useful for studying their development in the laboratory. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 8FIG. 11FIG. 4FIG. 10FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 5 PMID:4968348

  18. FTIR study of primate color visual pigments

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kota; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    How do we distinguish colors? Humans possess three color pigments; red-, green-, and blue-sensitive proteins, which have maximum absorbance (λmax) at 560, 530, and 420 nm, respectively, and contribute to normal human trichromatic vision (RGB). Each color pigments consists of a different opsin protein bound to a common chromophore molecule, 11-cis-retinal, whereas different chromophore-protein interactions allow preferential absorption of different colors. However, detailed experimental structural data to explain the molecular basis of spectral tuning of color pigments are lacking, mainly because of the difficulty in sample preparation. We thus started structural studies of primate color visual pigments using low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which needs only 0.3 mg protein for a single measurement. Here we report the first structural data of monkey red- (MR) and green- (MG) sensitive pigments, in which the information about the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules is contained. Molecular mechanism of color discrimination between red and green pigments will be discussed based on the structural data by FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:27493516

  19. Nepotistic cooperation in non-human primate groups

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Joan B.

    2009-01-01

    Darwin was struck by the many similarities between humans and other primates and believed that these similarities were the product of common ancestry. He would be even more impressed by the similarities if he had known what we have learned about primates over the last 50 years. Genetic kinship has emerged as the primary organizing force in the evolution of primate social organization and the patterning of social behaviour in non-human primate groups. There are pronounced nepotistic biases across the primate order, from tiny grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) that forage alone at night but cluster with relatives to sleep during the day, to cooperatively breeding marmosets that rely on closely related helpers to rear their young, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females who acquire their mother's rank and form strict matrilineal dominance hierarchies, male howler monkeys that help their sons maintain access to groups of females and male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that form lasting relationships with their brothers. As more evidence of nepotism has accumulated, important questions about the evolutionary processes underlying these kin biases have been raised. Although kin selection predicts that altruism will be biased in favour of relatives, it is difficult to assess whether primates actually conform to predictions derived from Hamilton's rule: br > c. In addition, other mechanisms, including contingent reciprocity and mutualism, could contribute to the nepotistic biases observed in non-human primate groups. There are good reasons to suspect that these processes may complement the effects of kin selection and amplify the extent of nepotistic biases in behaviour. PMID:19805431

  20. Nepotistic cooperation in non-human primate groups.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan B

    2009-11-12

    Darwin was struck by the many similarities between humans and other primates and believed that these similarities were the product of common ancestry. He would be even more impressed by the similarities if he had known what we have learned about primates over the last 50 years. Genetic kinship has emerged as the primary organizing force in the evolution of primate social organization and the patterning of social behaviour in non-human primate groups. There are pronounced nepotistic biases across the primate order, from tiny grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) that forage alone at night but cluster with relatives to sleep during the day, to cooperatively breeding marmosets that rely on closely related helpers to rear their young, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females who acquire their mother's rank and form strict matrilineal dominance hierarchies, male howler monkeys that help their sons maintain access to groups of females and male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that form lasting relationships with their brothers. As more evidence of nepotism has accumulated, important questions about the evolutionary processes underlying these kin biases have been raised. Although kin selection predicts that altruism will be biased in favour of relatives, it is difficult to assess whether primates actually conform to predictions derived from Hamilton's rule: br > c. In addition, other mechanisms, including contingent reciprocity and mutualism, could contribute to the nepotistic biases observed in non-human primate groups. There are good reasons to suspect that these processes may complement the effects of kin selection and amplify the extent of nepotistic biases in behaviour. PMID:19805431

  1. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  2. LOGISMOS-B for primates: primate cortical surface reconstruction and thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Sanchez, Mar; Shi, Yundi; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Cortical thickness and surface area are important morphological measures with implications for many psychiatric and neurological conditions. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of the cortical surface from 3D MRI scans is challenging due to the variable anatomy of the cortex and its highly complex geometry. While many methods exist for this task in the context of the human brain, these methods are typically not readily applicable to the primate brain. We propose an innovative approach based on our recently proposed human cortical reconstruction algorithm, LOGISMOS-B, and the Laplace-based thickness measurement method. Quantitative evaluation of our approach was performed based on a dataset of T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans from 12-month-old macaques where labeling by our anatomical experts was used as independent standard. In this dataset, LOGISMOS-B has an average signed surface error of 0.01 +/- 0.03mm and an unsigned surface error of 0.42 +/- 0.03mm over the whole brain. Excluding the rather problematic temporal pole region further improves unsigned surface distance to 0.34 +/- 0.03mm. This high level of accuracy reached by our algorithm even in this challenging developmental dataset illustrates its robustness and its potential for primate brain studies.

  3. Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates

    PubMed Central

    Opie, Christopher; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Shultz, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Although common in birds, social monogamy, or pair-living, is rare among mammals because internal gestation and lactation in mammals makes it advantageous for males to seek additional mating opportunities. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of social monogamy among mammals: as a male mate-guarding strategy, because of the benefits of biparental care, or as a defense against infanticidal males. However, comparative analyses have been unable to resolve the root causes of monogamy. Primates are unusual among mammals because monogamy has evolved independently in all of the major clades. Here we combine trait data across 230 primate species with a Bayesian likelihood framework to test for correlated evolution between monogamy and a range of traits to evaluate the competing hypotheses. We find evidence of correlated evolution between social monogamy and both female ranging patterns and biparental care, but the most compelling explanation for the appearance of monogamy is male infanticide. It is only the presence of infanticide that reliably increases the probability of a shift to social monogamy, whereas monogamy allows the secondary adoption of paternal care and is associated with a shift to discrete ranges. The origin of social monogamy in primates is best explained by long lactation periods caused by altriciality, making primate infants particularly vulnerable to infanticidal males. We show that biparental care shortens relative lactation length, thereby reducing infanticide risk and increasing reproductive rates. These phylogenetic analyses support a key role for infanticide in the social evolution of primates, and potentially, humans. PMID:23898180

  4. Led by the nose: Olfaction in primate feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, was a latecomer to the systematic investigation of primate sensory ecology after long years in which it was considered to be of minor importance. This view shifted with the growing understanding of its role in social behavior and the accumulation of physiological studies demonstrating that the olfactory abilities of some primates are on a par with those of olfactory-dependent mammals such as dogs and rodents. Recent years have seen a proliferation of physiological, behavioral, anatomical, and genetic investigations of primate olfaction. These investigations have begun to shed light on the importance of olfaction in the process of food acquisition. However, integration of these works has been limited. It is therefore still difficult to pinpoint large-scale evolutionary scenarios, namely the functions that the sense of smell fulfills in primates' feeding ecology and the ecological niches that favor heavier reliance on olfaction. Here, we review available behavioral and physiological studies of primates in the field or captivity and try to elucidate how and when the sense of smell can help them acquire food. PMID:26267435

  5. The bony labyrinth of the early platyrrhine primate Chilecebus.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xijun; Flynn, John J; Wyss, André R

    2010-12-01

    We document the morphology of the bony labyrinth of Chilecebus carrascoensis, one of the best preserved early platyrrhines known, based on high resolution CT scanning and 3D digital reconstruction. The cochlea is low and conical in form, as in other anthropoids, but has only 2.5 spiral turns. When the allometric relationship with body mass is considered, cochlear size is similar to that in extant primates. The relative size of the semicircular canals, which is well within the range of other primates, indicates that Chilecebus carrascoensis was probably not as agile in its locomotion as other small-bodied platyrrhines such as Leontopithecus rosalia, Saguinus oedipus, and Callithrix jacchus, but it probably was not a suspensory acrobat or a slow climber. The proportion, shape, and orientation of the semicircular canals in Chilecebus carrascoensis also mirror that typically seen in extant primates. However, no single variable can be used for predicting the locomotor pattern in Chilecebus carrascoensis. Based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) scores we calculated rescaled Euclidean distances for various taxa; primates with similar locomotor patterns tend to share shorter distances. Results for Chilecebus carrascoensis underscore its general resemblance to living quadrupedal primate taxa, but it is not positioned especially near any single living taxon. PMID:20952046

  6. Depolarising primate experimentation: the good, the bad and the determined.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Michelle

    2009-12-01

    Until I began working at FRAME, I was not really aware of the Three Rs or FRAME's work to promote and progress them. It soon became clear to me that it made scientific sense and that it could make a difference to many thousands of laboratory animals. As an alternatives advocate, I regularly experience optimism, frustration and determination. This is illustrated most clearly by the primate research dilemma. Here, I describe the positive and negative experiences I have had whilst working toward the goal of replacing primate experiments, and how these have led me to undertake a multidisciplinary PhD project on primate use in biomedical research. The aim is to examine how research scientists view the opportunities and challenges involved in the use of primates in biomedical science, and to investigate the feasibility of phasing out their use. As a result of the research, I hope to provide a new perspective, to depolarise the debate and bring about a constructive dialogue between all parties as to how and when primate research could be replaced. PMID:20105018

  7. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  8. Primate iPS cells as tools for evolutionary analyses.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Stephanie; Kircher, Martin; Vieth, Beate; Haase, Alexandra; Merkert, Sylvia; Beier, Jennifer; Göhring, Gudrun; Glage, Silke; Schambach, Axel; Curnow, Eliza C; Pääbo, Svante; Martin, Ulrich; Enard, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are regarded as a central tool to understand human biology in health and disease. Similarly, iPSCs from non-human primates should be a central tool to understand human evolution, in particular for assessing the conservation of regulatory networks in iPSC models. Here, we have generated human, gorilla, bonobo and cynomolgus monkey iPSCs and assess their usefulness in such a framework. We show that these cells are well comparable in their differentiation potential and are generally similar to human, cynomolgus and rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs). RNA sequencing reveals that expression differences among clones, individuals and stem cell type are all of very similar magnitude within a species. In contrast, expression differences between closely related primate species are three times larger and most genes show significant expression differences among the analyzed species. However, pseudogenes differ more than twice as much, suggesting that evolution of expression levels in primate stem cells is rapid, but constrained. These patterns in pluripotent stem cells are comparable to those found in other tissues except testis. Hence, primate iPSCs reveal insights into general primate gene expression evolution and should provide a rich source to identify conserved and species-specific gene expression patterns for cellular phenotypes. PMID:24631741

  9. Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara S.; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.; Bronikowski, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Women rarely give birth after ∼45 y of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles, menopause, at ∼50 y of age after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Furthermore, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out a unique detailed comparative study of reproductive senescence in seven species of nonhuman primates in natural populations, using long-term, individual-based data, and compared them to a population of humans experiencing natural fertility and mortality. In four of seven primate species we found that reproductive senescence occurred before death only in a small minority of individuals. In three primate species we found evidence of reproductive senescence that accelerated throughout adulthood; however, its initial rate was much lower than mortality, so that relatively few individuals experienced reproductive senescence before death. In contrast, the human population showed the predicted and well-known pattern in which reproductive senescence occurred before death for many women and its rate accelerated throughout adulthood. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that reproductive senescence in midlife, although apparent in natural-fertility, natural-mortality populations of humans, is generally absent in other primates living in such populations. PMID:23898189

  10. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

  11. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  12. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  13. [Differentiation of human and nonhuman primate ribs].

    PubMed

    May, E; Martins, M

    1985-01-01

    The ribs of 9 human beings and 6 animal-primates (4 Pongidae and 2 Cercopithecidae of 2 different species) had been examined metrically with regard to their relative dimensions and proportions. Special care was taken as well of the differentiation of single ribs of one individual as of interspecific differentiation. Generally the Pongidae show the greatest relative-dimensions. This concerns both the diameter as the length. The individuals of the genus Homo have medium-sized dimensions, while the Cercopithecidae have the smallest. In this way a first grouping of the measurements becomes possible. As for the rib-diameter Homo concurs more with the Pongidae than with the Cercopithecidae. At first from the rib-proportions resulted an indication to special similarity between the Pongidae and recent man from whom the Cercopithecidae distinctively differ as it is shown by the indices angulus-sternal end/tuberculum-angulus. A divariate presentation of the measurements of this index, however, proves that Homo concerning the single measurements occupies an intermediate position between the Pongidae and the Cercopithecidae in this case, too (Fig. 5). The examination of the craniocaudal trend of different ribmeasurements (length, depth and area of the rib-arc) produced a special similarity of the 4 upper ribs between the Pongidae and Homo. In the region of the lower chest a great conformity between the Pongidae and the Cercopithecidae became obvious in this respect. A different trend shows up in Homo - probably as an expression of the transformation-process in the human chest. The intraspecific morphometric discrimination of the single ribs proves to be especially difficult, above all between the 7th to 10th rib, if the ribs of an individual are not completely present. It is, however, possible in some cases by means of some measurements and indices of these ribs. PMID:4083514

  14. Primate Kinship: Contributions from Cayo Santiago.

    PubMed

    Berman, Carol M

    2016-01-01

    Research on Cayo Santiago and Japan deserves credit for launching the study of primate kinship and for continuing to help shape it in important ways. This review describes the origins of kinship research on Cayo Santiago, beginning with Donald Sade's pioneering work establishing the concepts of kin preferences, matrilineal dominance systems and incest avoidance. It then reviews subsequent research by later Cayo Santiago researchers and alumni, focusing primarily on maternal kinship. Together these researchers have greatly expanded our knowledge of kin preferences in rhesus in terms of (i) what age-sex classes, behaviors and types of kin show them, (ii) the ways in which kinship interfaces with rank, sex, age, and dispersal patterns, and (iii) the graded and variably limited nature of kin preferences in terms of degree of relatedness. Second, the argument for kin selection at least for some types of behavior has survived challenges posed by several alternative explanations, and has been both strengthened by recent findings of paternal kin preferences and narrowed by studies showing that unilateral altruism may extend only to very close kin. Third, work on Cayo Santiago has contributed to an appreciation that both current conditions and inherent social characteristics may influence the strength of kin preferences, and fourth, it has contributed to an understanding of the possible origins of our own species' family systems. Cayo Santiago became a leader in kinship research in large part because of management practices that produce known extended lineages. These lineages have promoted and accelerated research on kinship, prompting other researchers to investigate its importance in other groups and species, where its effects only then became clear. The extended lineages remain valuable tools for research on a species that lives in a broad range of environments in the wild, including those with key parallels to Cayo Santiago. PMID:25704962

  15. Calorie Restriction and Aging in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kemnitz, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    In the 75 years since the seminal observation of Clive McCay that restriction of calorie intake extends the lifespan of rats, a great deal has been learned about the effects of calorie restriction (CR; reduced intake of a nutritious diet) on aging in various short-lived animal models. Studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of CR on health, the rate of aging, and longevity. Two prospective investigations of the effects of CR on long-lived nonhuman primate (NHP) species began nearly 25 years ago and are still under way. This review presents the design, methods, and main findings of these and other important contributing studies, which have generally revealed beneficial effects of CR on physiological function and the retardation of disease consistent with studies in other species. Specifically, prolonged CR appears to extend the lifespan of rhesus monkeys, which exhibited lower body fat; slower rate of muscle loss with age; lower incidence of neoplasia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and endometriosis; improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; and no apparent adverse effect on bone health, as well as a reduction in total energy expenditure. In addition, there are no reports of deleterious effects of CR on reproductive endpoints, and brain morphology is preserved by CR. Adrenal and thyroid hormone profiles are inconsistently affected. More research is needed to delineate the mechanisms of the desirable outcomes of CR and to develop interventions that can produce similar beneficial outcomes for humans. This research offers tremendous potential for producing novel insights into aging and risk of disease. PMID:21411859

  16. Forest fragmentation as cause of bacterial transmission among nonhuman primates, humans, and livestock, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tony L; Gillespie, Thomas R; Rwego, Innocent B; Estoff, Elizabeth L; Chapman, Colin A

    2008-09-01

    We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were approximately 75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased approximately 3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased from moderate to high. Bacteria harbored by humans and livestock were approximately twice as similar to those of red-tailed guenons, which habitually enter human settlements to raid crops, than to bacteria of other primate species. Tending livestock, experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms, and residing near a disturbed forest fragment increased genetic similarity between a participant's bacteria and those of nearby primates. Forest fragmentation, anthropogenic disturbance within fragments, primate ecology, and human behavior all influence bidirectional, interspecific bacterial transmission. Targeted interventions on any of these levels should reduce disease transmission and emergence. PMID:18760003

  17. Primate evolution of the recombination regulator PRDM9

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jerrod J.; Roach, David J.; Thomas, James H.; Shendure, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The PRDM9 gene encodes a protein with a highly variable tandem-repeat zinc finger (ZF) DNA-binding domain that plays a key role in determining sequence-specific hotspots of meiotic recombination genome-wide. Here we survey the diversity of the PRDM9 ZF domain by sequencing this region in 64 primates from 18 species, revealing 68 unique alleles across all groups. We report ubiquitous positive selection at nucleotide positions corresponding to DNA contact residues and the expansion of ZFs within clades, which confirms the rapid evolution of the ZF domain throughout the primate lineage. Alignment of Neanderthal and Denisovan sequences suggests that PRDM9 in archaic hominins was closely related to present-day human alleles that are rare and specific to African populations. In the context of its role in reproduction, our results are consistent with variation in PRDM9 contributing to speciation events in primates. PMID:25001002

  18. Infant abuse and neglect: lessons from the primate laboratory.

    PubMed

    Reite, M

    1987-01-01

    We review the several areas in which research on nonhuman primates contributes to our understanding of child abuse and neglect in human children. One special advantage of primate studies is that the experimental method can be utilized to examine the short- and long-term effects of relatively well-defined and circumscribed alterations in early experience and the manner in which they can affect later behavioral and physiological development. Four studies in M. nemestrina (pigtail) monkeys are described in which relatively short social separation experiences in infancy were associated with evidence of persistent changes in certain aspects of social behavioral functioning and immunological functioning, up to six years later, when the previously separated animals were in late adolescence or early adulthood. Such findings suggest that nonhuman primates may be used as animal model systems with considerable relevance to issues surrounding human child abuse and neglect. PMID:3676891

  19. First evidence for functional vomeronasal 2 receptor genes in primates.

    PubMed

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Mundy, Nicholas I; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2013-02-23

    Two classes of vomeronasal receptor genes, V1R and V2R, occur in vertebrates. Whereas, V1R loci are found in a wide variety of mammals, including primates, intact V2R genes have thus far only been described in rodents and marsupials. In primates, the V2R repertoire has been considered degenerate. Here, we identify for the first time two intact V2R loci in a strepsirrhine primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), and demonstrate their expression in the vomeronasal organ. Putatively functional orthologues are present in two other strepsirrhines, whereas, both loci are pseudogenes in a range of anthropoid species. The functional significance of the loci is unknown, but positive selection on one of them is consistent with an adaptive role in pheromone detection. Finally, conservation of V2R loci in strepsirrhines is notable, given their high diversity and role in MUP and MHC detection in rodents. PMID:23269843

  20. Primate-specific evolution of an LDLR enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian-Fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2005-12-01

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often been invoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecular examples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study we identified an anthropoid primate-specific sequence element that contributed to the regulatory evolution of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Using a combination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisons coupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we found that a functional cholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within a pre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Our study demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalian regulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primate lineage leading to human.

  1. The Jaw Adductor Resultant and Estimated Bite Force in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jonathan M. G.; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Logan, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    We reconstructed the jaw adductor resultant in 34 primate species using new data on muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and data on skull landmarks. Based on predictions by Greaves, the resultant should (1) cross the jaw at 30% of its length, (2) lie directly posterior to the last molar, and (3) incline more anteriorly in primates that need not resist large anteriorly-directed forces. We found that the resultant lies significantly posterior to its predicted location, is significantly posterior to the last molar, and is significantly more anteriorly inclined in folivores than in frugivores. Perhaps primates emphasize avoiding temporomandibular joint distraction and/or wide gapes at the expense of bite force. Our exploration of trends in the data revealed that estimated bite force varies with body mass (but not diet) and is significantly greater in strepsirrhines than in anthropoids. This might be related to greater contribution from the balancing-side jaw adductors in anthropoids. PMID:22611496

  2. Comparative RNA sequencing reveals substantial genetic variation in endangered primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Melsted, Páll; Marioni, John C.; Wang, Ying; Bainer, Russell; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Michelini, Katelyn; Zehr, Sarah; Yoder, Anne D.; Stephens, Matthew; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies in primates have yielded important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape genetic diversity and revealed the likely genetic basis for certain species-specific adaptations. To date, however, these studies have focused on only a small number of species. For the majority of nonhuman primates, including some of the most critically endangered, genome-level data are not yet available. In this study, we have taken the first steps toward addressing this gap by sequencing RNA from the livers of multiple individuals from each of 16 mammalian species, including humans and 11 nonhuman primates. Of the nonhuman primate species, five are lemurs and two are lorisoids, for which little or no genomic data were previously available. To analyze these data, we developed a method for de novo assembly and alignment of orthologous gene sequences across species. We assembled an average of 5721 gene sequences per species and characterized diversity and divergence of both gene sequences and gene expression levels. We identified patterns of variation that are consistent with the action of positive or directional selection, including an 18-fold enrichment of peroxisomal genes among genes whose regulation likely evolved under directional selection in the ancestral primate lineage. Importantly, we found no relationship between genetic diversity and endangered status, with the two most endangered species in our study, the black and white ruffed lemur and the Coquerel's sifaka, having the highest genetic diversity among all primates. Our observations imply that many endangered lemur populations still harbor considerable genetic variation. Timely efforts to conserve these species alongside their habitats have, therefore, strong potential to achieve long-term success. PMID:22207615

  3. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Amanda D.; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L.; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D.; Timm, Robert M.; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Perry, George H.; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. PMID:26739880

  4. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D; Timm, Robert M; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B; Perry, George H; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. PMID:26739880

  5. Primate dietary ecology in the context of food mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Coiner-Collier, Susan; Scott, Robert S; Chalk-Wilayto, Janine; Cheyne, Susan M; Constantino, Paul; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Elgart, Alison A; Glowacka, Halszka; Loyola, Laura C; Ossi-Lupo, Kerry; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Talebi, Mauricio G; Sala, Enrico A; Sieradzy, Pawel; Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wright, Barth W; Yamashita, Nayuta; Lucas, Peter W; Vogel, Erin R

    2016-09-01

    Substantial variation exists in the mechanical properties of foods consumed by primate species. This variation is known to influence food selection and ingestion among non-human primates, yet no large-scale comparative study has examined the relationships between food mechanical properties and feeding strategies. Here, we present comparative data on the Young's modulus and fracture toughness of natural foods in the diets of 31 primate species. We use these data to examine the relationships between food mechanical properties and dietary quality, body mass, and feeding time. We also examine the relationship between food mechanical properties and categorical concepts of diet that are often used to infer food mechanical properties. We found that traditional dietary categories, such as folivory and frugivory, did not faithfully track food mechanical properties. Additionally, our estimate of dietary quality was not significantly correlated with either toughness or Young's modulus. We found a complex relationship among food mechanical properties, body mass, and feeding time, with a potential interaction between median toughness and body mass. The relationship between mean toughness and feeding time is straightforward: feeding time increases as toughness increases. However, when considering median toughness, the relationship with feeding time may depend upon body mass, such that smaller primates increase their feeding time in response to an increase in median dietary toughness, whereas larger primates may feed for shorter periods of time as toughness increases. Our results emphasize the need for additional studies quantifying the mechanical and chemical properties of primate diets so that they may be meaningfully compared to research on feeding behavior and jaw morphology. PMID:27542555

  6. Induction of hepatocellular carcinoma in nonhuman primates by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, R.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Several compounds were evaluated in nonhuman primates for their potential to induce neoplasms, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The compounds can be classified into three groups: food contaminants, model rodent carcinogens, and nitrosamines. All three compounds in the food contaminants group, namely, aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, and methylazoxymethanol acetate, induced HCC. None of the model rodent carcinogens tested consistently induced HCC in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Three of four nitrosamines evaluated induced HCC in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. One nitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, is a predictable and potent inducer of HCC and is useful for establishment of a nonhuman primate model for numerous oncologic studies.

  7. Primate-Specific Evolution of an LDLR Enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian-fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2006-06-28

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often beeninvoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecularexamples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study, weidentified an anthropoid primate specific sequence element thatcontributed to the regulatory evolution of the LDL receptor. Using acombination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisonscoupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we show that a functionalcholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within apre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Ourstudy demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalianregulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primatelineage leading to human.

  8. Internet-based atlas of the primate spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, Hironobu; Tanaka, Ikuko; Senoo, Aya; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Akazawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Yasuhisa; Watson, Charles

    2011-05-01

    In 2009, we reported an online brain atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) at http://marmoset-brain.org:2008. Here we report new digital images of the primate spinal cord sections added to the website. We prepared histological sections of every segment of the spinal cord of the common marmoset, rhesus monkey and Japanese monkey with various staining techniques. The sections were scanned with Carl Zeiss MIRAX SCAN at light microscopic resolution. Obtained digital data were processed and converted into multi-resolutionary images with Adobe Photoshop and Zoomify Design. These images of the primate spinal cords are now available on the web via the Internet. PMID:21291922

  9. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use. PMID:24807743

  10. 76 FR 677 - Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...CDC is proposing to amend its regulations for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), Chlorocebus aethiops (African green), and Macaca mulatta (rhesus) monkeys to all NHPs. Filovirus testing will continue to be required only for Old World NHPs. CDC also is proposing to reduce the frequency at......

  11. Voice processing in human and non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Humans share with non-human primates a number of voice perception abilities of crucial importance in social interactions, such as the ability to identify a conspecific individual from its vocalizations. Speech perception is likely to have evolved in our ancestors on the basis of pre-existing neural mechanisms involved in extracting behaviourally relevant information from conspecific vocalizations (CVs). Studying the neural bases of voice perception in primates thus not only has the potential to shed light on cerebral mechanisms that may be—unlike those involved in speech perception—directly homologous between species, but also has direct implications for our understanding of how speech appeared in humans. In this comparative review, we focus on behavioural and neurobiological evidence relative to two issues central to voice perception in human and non-human primates: (i) are CVs ‘special’, i.e. are they analysed using dedicated cerebral mechanisms not used for other sound categories, and (ii) to what extent and using what neural mechanisms do primates identify conspecific individuals from their vocalizations? PMID:17118926

  12. Efficient Generation of Nonhuman Primate Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bonan; Trobridge, Grant D.; Zhang, Xiaobing; Watts, Korashon L.; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Wohlfahrt, Martin; Adair, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential for regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Thus far, iPS cells have typically been generated using integrating viral vectors expressing various reprogramming transcription factors; nonintegrating methods have been less effective and efficient. Because there is a significant risk of malignant transformation and cancer involved with the use of iPS cells, careful evaluation of transplanted iPS cells will be necessary in small and large animal studies before clinical application. Here, we have generated and characterized nonhuman primate iPS cells with the goal of evaluating iPS cell transplantation in a clinically relevant large animal model. We developed stable Phoenix-RD114-based packaging cell lines that produce OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC, and KLF4 (OSCK) expressing gammaretroviral vectors. Using these vectors in combination with small molecules, we were able to efficiently and reproducibly generate nonhuman primate iPS cells from pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). The established nonhuman primate iPS cells exhibited pluripotency and extensive self-renewal capacity. The facile and reproducible generation of nonhuman primate iPS cells using defined producer cells as a source of individual reprogramming factors should provide an important resource to optimize and evaluate iPS cell technology for studies involving stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:21058905

  13. Comparative Analysis of Alu Repeats in Primate Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Alu repeats are SINEs (Short intersperse repetitive elements) which enjoy a successful application in genome evolution, population biology, phylogenetics and forensics. Human Alu consensus sequences were widely used as surrogates in nonhuman primate studies with an assumption that all p...

  14. Social drive and the evolution of primate hearing

    PubMed Central

    Ramsier, Marissa A.; Cunningham, Andrew J.; Finneran, James J.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and function of primate communication have attracted much attention, and vocal signals, in particular, have been studied in detail. As a general rule, larger social groups emit more types of vocal signals, including those conveying the presence of specific types of predators. The adaptive advantages of receiving and responding to alarm calls are expected to exert a selective pressure on the auditory system. Yet, the comparative biology of primate hearing is limited to select species, and little attention has been paid to the effects of social and vocal complexity on hearing. Here, we use the auditory brainstem response method to generate the largest number of standardized audiograms available for any primate radiation. We compared the auditory sensitivities of 11 strepsirrhine species with and without independent contrasts and show that social complexity explains a significant amount of variation in two audiometric parameters—overall sensitivity and high-frequency limit. We verified the generality of this latter result by augmenting our analysis with published data from nine species spanning the primate order. To account for these findings, we develop and test a model of social drive. We hypothesize that social complexity has favoured enhanced hearing sensitivities, especially at higher frequencies. PMID:22641824

  15. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Contributions from Comparative Research with Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…

  16. Nonhuman primate vocalizations support categorization in very young human infants.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Alissa L; Hespos, Susan J; Waxman, Sandra R

    2013-09-17

    Language is a signature of our species and our primary conduit for conveying the contents of our minds. The power of language derives not only from the exquisite detail of the signal itself but also from its intricate link to human cognition. To acquire a language, infants must identify which signals are part of their language and discover how these signals are linked to meaning. At birth, infants prefer listening to vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates; within 3 mo, this initially broad listening preference is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. Moreover, even at this early developmental point, human vocalizations evoke more than listening preferences alone: they engender in infants a heightened focus on the objects in their visual environment and promote the formation of object categories, a fundamental cognitive capacity. Here, we illuminate the developmental origin of this early link between human vocalizations and cognition. We document that this link emerges from a broad biological template that initially encompasses vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates (but not backward speech) and that within 6 mo this link to cognition is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. At 3 and 4 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations promote object categorization, mirroring precisely the advantages conferred by human vocalizations, but by 6 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations no longer exert this advantageous effect. This striking developmental shift illuminates a path of specialization that supports infants as they forge the foundational links between human language and the core cognitive processes that will serve as the foundations of meaning. PMID:24003164

  17. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  18. Alopecia: Possible Causes and Treatments, Particularly in Captive Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce alopecia. Numerous factors may be related to hair loss and range from naturally occurring processes (for example, seasonality, aging) to various biologic dysfunctions, including vitamin and mineral imbalances, endocrine disorders, immunologic diseases, and genetic mutations. We also address bacterial and fungal infections, infestation by parasites, and atopic dermatitis as possible causes of alopecia. Finally, we examine the role of psychogenic factors, such as stress. Depending on the presumed cause of the hair loss, various treatment strategies can be pursued. Alopecia in nonhuman primates is a multifaceted disorder with many potential sources. For this reason, appropriate testing for various disease conditions should be completed before alopecia is considered to be related to stress. PMID:19295051

  19. As Threats of Violence Escalate, Primate Researchers Stand Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Scientists doing research on primates are increasingly being subjected to threats and acts of violence from animal rights groups. The intimidation has resulted in many laboratories taking extensive security measures. Some scientists claim, however, that there is no surrogate for animal research in understanding human diseases. There are fears that…

  20. Primate follicular development and oocyte maturation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Xu, Min; Bernuci, Marcelo P; Fisher, Thomas E; Shea, Lonnie D; Woodruff, Teresa K; Zelinski, Mary B; Stouffer, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The factors and processes involved in primate follicular development are complex and not fully understood. An encapsulated three-dimensional (3D) follicle culture system could be a valuable in vitro model to study the dynamics and regulation of folliculogenesis in intact individual follicles in primates. Besides the research relevance, in vitro follicle maturation (IFM) is emerging as a promising approach to offer options for fertility preservation in female patients with cancer. This review summarizes the current published data on in vitro follicular development from the preantral to small antral stage in nonhuman primates, including follicle survival and growth, endocrine (ovarian steroid hormone) and paracrine/autocrine (local factor) function, as well as oocyte maturation and fertilization. Future directions include major challenges and strategies to further improve follicular growth and differentiation with oocytes competent for in vitro fertilization and subsequent embryonic development, as well as opportunities to investigate primate folliculogenesis by utilizing this 3D culture system. The information may be valuable in identifying optimal conditions for human follicle culture, with the ultimate goal of translating the experimental results and products to patients, thereby facilitating diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for female fertility. PMID:24097381

  1. The Gateway to the Brain: Dissecting the Primate Eye

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Mark; Zangenehpour, Shahin; Bouskila, Joseph; Boire, Denis; Ptito, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    The visual system in humans is considered the gateway to the world and plays a principal role in the plethora of sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes. It is therefore not surprising that quality of vision is tied to quality of life . Despite widespread clinical and basic research surrounding the causes of visual disorders, many forms of visual impairments, such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration, lack effective treatments. Non-human primates have the closest general features of eye development to that of humans. Not only do they have a similar vascular anatomy, but amongst other mammals, primates have the unique characteristic of having a region in the temporal retina specialized for high visual acuity, the fovea1. Here we describe a general technique for dissecting the primate retina to provide tissue for retinal histology, immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, as well as light and electron microscopy. With the extended use of the non-human primate as a translational model, our hope is that improved understanding of the retina will provide insights into effective approaches towards attenuating or reversing the negative impact of visual disorders on the quality of life of affected individuals. PMID:19488028

  2. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  3. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  4. Functional morphology of the primate head and neck.

    PubMed

    Nalley, Thierra K; Grider-Potter, Neysa

    2015-04-01

    The vertebral column plays a key role in maintaining posture, locomotion, and transmitting loads between body components. Cervical vertebrae act as a bridge between the torso and head and play a crucial role in the maintenance of head position and the visual field. Despite its importance in positional behaviors, the functional morphology of the cervical region remains poorly understood, particularly in comparison to the thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal column. This study tests whether morphological variation in the primate cervical vertebrae correlates with differences in postural behavior. Phylogenetic generalized least-squares analyses were performed on a taxonomically broad sample of 26 extant primate taxa to test the link between vertebral morphology and posture. Kinematic data on primate head and neck postures were used instead of behavioral categories in an effort to provide a more direct analysis of our functional hypothesis. Results provide evidence for a function-form link between cervical vertebral shape and postural behaviors. Specifically, taxa with more pronograde heads and necks and less kyphotic orbits exhibit cervical vertebrae with longer spinous processes, indicating increased mechanical advantage for deep nuchal musculature, and craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies and more coronally oriented zygapophyseal articular facets, suggesting an emphasis on curve formation and maintenance within the cervical lordosis, coupled with a greater resistance to translation and ventral displacement. These results not only document support for functional relationships in cervical vertebrae features across a wide range of primate taxa, but highlight the utility of quantitative behavioral data in functional investigations. PMID:25752265

  5. Human Quadrupeds, Primate Quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Liza J.; Cole, Whitney G.; Young, Jesse W.; Raichlen, David A.; Robinson, Scott R.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, an extensive literature documents individuals from several families afflicted with “Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS),” a condition that in its most extreme form is characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, loss of balance and coordination, impaired cognitive abilities, and habitual quadrupedal gait on hands and feet. Some researchers have interpreted habitual use of quadrupedalism by these individuals from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that it represents an atavistic expression of our quadrupedal primate ancestry or “devolution.” In support of this idea, individuals with “UTS” are said to use diagonal sequence quadrupedalism, a type of quadrupedal gait that distinguishes primates from most other mammals. Although the use of primate-like quadrupedal gait in humans would not be sufficient to support the conclusion of evolutionary “reversal,” no quantitative gait analyses were presented to support this claim. Using standard gait analysis of 518 quadrupedal strides from video sequences of individuals with “UTS”, we found that these humans almost exclusively used lateral sequence–not diagonal sequence–quadrupedal gaits. The quadrupedal gait of these individuals has therefore been erroneously described as primate-like, further weakening the “devolution” hypothesis. In fact, the quadrupedalism exhibited by individuals with UTS resembles that of healthy adult humans asked to walk quadrupedally in an experimental setting. We conclude that quadrupedalism in healthy adults or those with a physical disability can be explained using biomechanical principles rather than evolutionary assumptions. PMID:25029457

  6. Consideration of other primate species as flight animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    The different types of primates which might be used as flight animals are surveyed, and the pros and cons of using them are discussed. Various factors suggest that the most desirable animals for space studies are the rhesus, pig-tailed, Java, and squirrel monkeys. The capuchin monkey has assets for certain types of space experimentation.

  7. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Klink, P Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2011-06-24

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly reported in humans. This functional asymmetry is especially evident in the context of the unilateral neglect, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space, that more frequently occurs after right-side rather than left-side brain damage. Since most of the research efforts are concentrated on vocalization in primates, much less is known about the presence or absence of spatial functions lateralization. Obtaining this knowledge can provide insight into the evolutionary aspect of the functionally lateralized brain of Homo sapiens and deliver refinement and validation of the nonhuman primate unilateral neglect model. This paper reviews the literature on functional brain asymmetries in processing spatial information, limiting the search to nonhuman primates, and concludes there is no clear evidence that monkeys process spatial information with different efficiency in the two hemispheres. We suggest that lateralization of spatial cognition in humans represents a relatively new feature on the evolutionary time scale, possibly developed as a by-product of the left hemisphere intrusion of language competence. Further, we argue that the monkey model of hemispatial neglect requires reconsideration. PMID:21059373

  8. Led by the nose: Olfaction in primate feeding ecology

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, was a latecomer to the systematic investigation of primate sensory ecology after long years in which it was considered to be of minor importance.1 This view shifted with the growing understanding of its role in social behavior2 and the accumulation of physiological studies demonstrating that the olfactory abilities of some primates are on a par with those of olfactory-dependent mammals such as dogs and rodents.3,4 Recent years have seen a proliferation of physiological, behavioral, anatomical, and genetic investigations of primate olfaction. These investigations have begun to shed light on the importance of olfaction in the process of food acquisition. However, integration of these works has been limited. It is therefore still difficult to pinpoint large-scale evolutionary scenarios, namely the functions that the sense of smell fulfills in primates’ feeding ecology and the ecological niches that favor heavier reliance on olfaction. Here, we review available behavioral and physiological studies of primates in the field or captivity and try to elucidate how and when the sense of smell can help them acquire food. PMID:26267435

  9. Long-Term Lung Transplantation in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, A.; Tonsho, M.; Ng, C. Y.; Lee, S.; Millington, T.; Nadazdin, O.; Wain, J. C.; Cosimi, A. B.; Sachs, D. H.; Smith, R. N.; Colvin, R. B.; Kawai, T.; Madsen, J. C.; Benichou, G.; Allan, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical technique and clinical care, lung transplantation still remains a short-term solution for the treatment of end-stage lung disease. To date, there has been limited experience in experimental lung transplantation using nonhuman primate models. Therefore, we have endeavored to develop a long-term, nonhuman primate model of orthotopic lung transplantation for the ultimate purpose of designing protocols to induce tolerance of lung grafts. Here, we report our initial results in developing this model and our observation that the nonhuman primate lung is particularly prone to rejection. This propensity toward rejection may be a consequence of 1) upregulated nonspecific inflammation, and 2) a larger number of pre-existing alloreactive memory T cells, leading to augmented deleterious immune responses. Our data show that triple-drug immunosuppression mimicking clinical practice is not sufficient to prevent acute rejection in nonhuman primate lung transplantation. The addition of horse-derived anti-thymocyte globulin and a monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor allowed six out of six lung recipients to be free of rejection for over 120 days. PMID:25772308

  10. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage. PMID:22237906