Science.gov

Sample records for classical antiquity iconography

  1. Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    This curriculum resource is intended primarily to assist teachers of Latin and Greek to infuse material on Africa in classical antiquity into the curriculum at all levels. It gathers together background information on the role of Africa in classical antiquity that has not been treated in traditional classical language courses. The resource guide…

  2. Africa in Classical Antiquity: A Curriculum Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    1977-01-01

    A curriculum resource developed by the School District of Philadelphia deals with Africa in Classical Antiquity. Each unit contains suggestions for lower, middle and upper schools. Topics covered are: history of Africa; great Africans in the Graeco-Roman world; racial attitudes; blacks in classical art, and Africa in classical literature. (CHK)

  3. Psychologic Iconography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greguss, Pal

    1980-05-01

    Medical iconography is one of the fields of increasing importance where the physician should particularly welcome the cooperative attention of the biophysicist and his accompanying infusion of sometimes radical scientific methods. The scope of this report is to describe a new approach to medical iconography, which is based on psychophysics and, therefore, it might stirr up emotion and create controversion: but just this is our intention, since we are convinced that the debate of this idea is important enough to be laid before an audience of experts of 3-D imaging systems. Our proposal originates from the recognition that perceiving an information pattern is more than witnessing a signal pattern from which the information pattern is processed. Perception is namely an internal adaptive reaction to the demands made by the world by way of receptor organs, or as internal "updating" of the organizing system to match incoming signals. This can be done in many ways depending on what aspects of information patterns are significant. Our nonconscious a priori knowledge is introduced for grouping the tiles of the signal mosaic, to organize them to perceive what we believe is there. This, however, means that signals of nonadequate stimuli may also be processed in a form which is usually described as "optical image". We are describing techniques which use nonadequate stimuli to get information from 3-D space, and which allow to locate the percepts subjectively in space somewhat similar way as a virtual image of a reconstructed hologram is perceived in space.

  4. Russian Iconography: Russia's Contribution to the Art of Western Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Jeri Lou

    This one- to three-week high school unit on Russian iconography was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. The unit can be incorporated into a larger unit on Russian literature, art, religion, or history. Four reasons for studying iconography are: 1) it is a splendid Russian art…

  5. Interactive Iconography: Using Visual Scope to Promote Writing and Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansiquot, Reneta

    2010-01-01

    A three-month study examined how interactive iconography impacts social studies and promotes critical writing skills. Groups of three middle-school immigrant students constructed museum labels using "Scope Out", an experimental online revision tool that makes iconography interactive. This study included three comparison groups and one control…

  6. Orthodontics in antiquity: myth or reality.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2016-08-12

    Malocclusion, although a common finding in today's world, appears to have been less frequent in antiquity. There are references to overcrowding, delayed exfoliation of deciduous teeth and basic orthodontic treatment in the writings of classical authors such as Hippocrates, Celsus and Galen. However, early authentic archaeological finds of dental appliances are extremely rare. Considerable attention has focussed on gold banded devices excavated from ancient Etruscan sites in central Italy which have been dated to around the seventh to the fourth centuries BC, with a number of authors suggesting an orthodontic function for these appliances. This paper reviews the evidence for the possible treatment of malocclusions in antiquity and concludes that the use of orthodontic appliances to facilitate tooth movement is not supported by the available evidence. PMID:27514349

  7. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  8. "Hiroshima, Mon Amour": From Iconography to Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Martin J.

    1982-01-01

    This iconographic study of Resnais' classic film reconstructs the narrative structure of the film; identifies the various icons, images, sounds, and acts that constitute "marks" in time; and examines these marks to show how they function rhetorically to help interpret the central message or intrinsic meaning of the film. (PD)

  9. The Alexandrian Library of Antiquity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Afton M.; Cranney, A. Garr

    This paper celebrates UNESCO's announcement of the re-establishment of the Alexandrian Library, citing the incentive the project provides to review the history of the famed library of antiquity, of the librarians who served it, and of the scholars who used it. After a brief history of the city of Alexandria, including its founding by Alexander,…

  10. History of allergy in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases are not new. They have been described in the early medical literature in various cultures like Egypt, China, indigenous America and in the Greco-Roman tradition. The terms 'idiosyncrasy', 'asthma' and 'eczema' are still in use today. The most famous allergic individual of antiquity with the whole triad of atopic diseases and a positive family history of atopy probably was Emperor Octavianus Augustus. PMID:24925379

  11. [Saint Anthony's Fire or gangrenous ergotism and its medieval iconography].

    PubMed

    Battin, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The frequent epidemics of ergotism were called Holy Fire or st-Antony's Fire in the Middle Ages, because of the burning sensations resulting in gangrene of limbs. It was caused by eating rye bread contaminated with the fungus Claviceps purpurea. The hospitable Order of st-Antony was founded near Vienne in France with 300 establishements in Europe until 1777. In coptic and byzantine art st-Antony is the father of the monks, whereas in Occident he is the the master of fire, thaumaturgic, resulting a very important iconography in statuary and painworks in all regions, especially in Lorraine, the catholic and tridentin Lotharingia and in Corsica thanks to the franciscan pastoral. Woodcuts show not only the temptations of st-Antony, with strange and diabolic scenes, patients with gangrenous limbs. Germanic woodcuts of the 15th century show patients with different stages of ergotism and hands and feet like ex-voto. Triptycs of H. Bosch and M. Gunewald are witnesses of the frequency and seriousness of this disease still at the beginning of the 16th century. PMID:21598563

  12. Bubble signatures revealed in antique artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Stephen C.; Kenney-Wallace, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Antique Chinese porcelain can fetch thousands of dollars on the art market. Stephen C Wallace and Geraldine Kenney-Wallace explain how their physics-based technique could help collectors and connoisseurs to tell a real antique object from a fake.

  13. 25 CFR 140.25 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Land Management regarding antiquities, see 43 CFR part 3. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 140.25 Section 140.25... § 140.25 Trade in antiquities prohibited. Traders shall not deal in objects of antiquity removed...

  14. 25 CFR 140.25 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Land Management regarding antiquities, see 43 CFR part 3. ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Trade in antiquities prohibited. 140.25 Section 140.25... § 140.25 Trade in antiquities prohibited. Traders shall not deal in objects of antiquity removed...

  15. 25 CFR 140.25 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Land Management regarding antiquities, see 43 CFR part 3. ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 140.25 Section 140.25... § 140.25 Trade in antiquities prohibited. Traders shall not deal in objects of antiquity removed...

  16. 25 CFR 140.25 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Land Management regarding antiquities, see 43 CFR part 3. ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 140.25 Section 140.25... § 140.25 Trade in antiquities prohibited. Traders shall not deal in objects of antiquity removed...

  17. 25 CFR 140.25 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Land Management regarding antiquities, see 43 CFR part 3. ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 140.25 Section 140.25... § 140.25 Trade in antiquities prohibited. Traders shall not deal in objects of antiquity removed...

  18. Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…

  19. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  20. Where the Wild Things Are: The Evolving Iconography of Rural Fauna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Henry

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the changing relationship between "nature" and rurality through an examination of the shifting iconography of animals, and particularly "wild" animals, in a rural setting. Drawing upon a set of examples, the paper argues that the faunistic icons of rural areas are evolving as alternative conceptions of the countryside, of…

  1. [Chemistry of cosmetics in antiquity].

    PubMed

    Tsoucaris, G; Martinetto, P; Walter, P; Lévêque, J L

    2001-11-01

    Several texts, statues and paintings denote the importance of make up and eye medicines since the earliest periods of Egyptian history. We have investigated cosmetic powders that were preserved in original alabaster and reed containers. Quantitative crystallographic and chemical analysis of the mineral and organic components revealed surprising facts. In addition to the well known galena PbS and cerussite PbCO3, two unexpected constituents have been identified: laurionite PbOHCl and phosgenite Pb2 (CO3) Cl2, which are rare halide minerals found in lead slag only in certain places where the sea water has weathered lead debris left over from silver mining operations in Antiquity. Alteration of natural lead minerals is also unlikely, given the excellent state of conservation of the reed vessels. This evidence indicates that laurionite and phosgenite were synthesised artificially. Support for this statement comes from recipes of medicinal products to be "used in ophthalmology" reported by Greco-Roman authors such as Dioscorides and Pline (1st Century B.C.): silver foam PbO is crushed and mixed with rock salt and sometimes with natron (Na2CO3). The reaction seems to be straightforward. However, our experiments in the laboratory have shown a major difficulty, arising from the concomitant production of alkali, which raises the pH and leads to different products. It follows that the Egyptians very early mastered this kind of chemical synthesis and technology, a fact of great importance in the History of Sciences. Fire-based technology had been mastered to manufacture Egyptian Blue pigments since the third millennium B.C. The present results now suggest that wet chemistry was already known 4000 years ago. This key finding provides a new insight into the chemical technology of far greater antiquity than has previously been believed. Yet, an important question remains relative to the ultimate motivation for these technological developments. If the Egyptians initially only

  2. Beating the forger: authenticating ceramic antiquities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneham, Doreen; Stoneham, Marshall

    2010-09-01

    Today's forger may have skills to match the artists and craftsmen of the past. But can they be exposed by scientific methods? Ceramic antiquities - including pottery, porcelains, and bronzes with a casting core - have long been valued, and demonstrable antiquity is crucial. Thermoluminescence provides key evidence as to when the object was fired. We describe the basic ideas, the methods themselves, and some of the potential limitations. Examples illustrate the remarkable ingenuity of forgers, who are making determined efforts to beat the physics-based tests of authenticity.

  3. 19 CFR 10.53 - Antiques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... composed in whole or in part of any endangered or threatened species listed in 50 CFR 17.11 or 17.12, (2... § 10.53, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... the free entry of an article under subheading 9706.00.00, HTSUS on the basis of antiquity may be...

  4. Governmentality, the iconography of sexual disease and 'duties' of the STI clinic.

    PubMed

    Pryce, A

    2001-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have come to occupy a different social space over the last hundred years, where the iconography of disease has moved from purity to consumption of desire, and where the regulation of disease has moved from moral proscription to governmentality. These processes are represented through health promotion campaigns where the medico-moral discourses appropriated both the iconography of pathology and the construction of the family as the site of moral surveillance and governmentality. This paper will consider how the 'duties' of STD clinics have been defined and mark a paradigmatic statement of the panoptic role of medicine in the mapping of the social and psychological spaces between individuals. Sexual health medicine, together with health promotion ideologies, has claimed privileged status through the deployment of expert, clinical knowledge and rationalities, to penetrate the sexual praxis of populations. In so doing, it also underscored the individual's roles and responsibilities in the ideological work of the changing constructions of sexual citizenship, from moral purity to ars erotica, as well as the increasing intervention of the state in reproduction and control of sexualities. PMID:11882214

  5. Fiscal Iconography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartzentruber, Don

    2011-01-01

    The economy is often the feature story in our daily news. Synthesizing life is an essential skill for teenagers. The visual arts are a wonderful tool for students to process their situations and explore future aspirations. In this article, the author describes a lesson plan he developed to help students better understand their own situations, as…

  6. 50 CFR 14.22 - Certain antique articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....22 Certain antique articles. Any person may import at any Customs Service port designated for such purpose, any article (other than scrimshaw, defined in 16 U.S.C 1539(f)(1)(B) and 50 CFR 217.12 as any art... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certain antique articles. 14.22 Section...

  7. 50 CFR 14.22 - Certain antique articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....22 Certain antique articles. Any person may import at any Customs Service port designated for such purpose, any article (other than scrimshaw, defined in 16 U.S.C 1539(f)(1)(B) and 50 CFR 217.12 as any art... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certain antique articles. 14.22 Section...

  8. 50 CFR 14.22 - Certain antique articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....22 Certain antique articles. Any person may import at any Customs Service port designated for such purpose, any article (other than scrimshaw, defined in 16 U.S.C 1539(f)(1)(B) and 50 CFR 217.12 as any art... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certain antique articles. 14.22 Section...

  9. 50 CFR 14.22 - Certain antique articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....22 Certain antique articles. Any person may import at any Customs Service port designated for such purpose, any article (other than scrimshaw, defined in 16 U.S.C 1539(f)(1)(B) and 50 CFR 217.12 as any art... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain antique articles. 14.22 Section...

  10. 50 CFR 14.22 - Certain antique articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....22 Certain antique articles. Any person may import at any Customs Service port designated for such purpose, any article (other than scrimshaw, defined in 16 U.S.C 1539(f)(1)(B) and 50 CFR 217.12 as any art... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certain antique articles. 14.22 Section...

  11. Reconstructing Virgil in the Classroom in Late Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Frances

    2014-01-01

    This essay considers how teaching and learning may have functioned in late antique Roman classrooms by examining two texts: one is from the teacher's perspective, the other--which, until recently, was unedited--provides some access to the student's perspective. Despite much recent scholarly work on education in antiquity, there has been…

  12. "Perhaps Irrelevant". The Iconography of Tycho Brahe's Small Gilt Brass Quadrant.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Emma L; Taub, Liba

    2015-01-01

    When Tycho Brahe published a description of his astronomical instruments in 1598 as part of a strategy to procure royal patronage, it was not with one of his grander, precision measurement tools that he opened his account, but rather a small brass quadrant with limited observational utility. The defining feature of this instrument was seemingly a small emblematic image inscribed within the arc of the quadrant. Through this symbolic motif Tycho conveyed a moralising message about the relative worth of astronomy. Considering a range of visual productions that may have influenced his iconography, the present paper situates the quadrant within the broader context of Renaissance visual culture and examines the significance of the quadrant in Tycho's wider instrument collection. PMID:26495583

  13. D Recording of Underwater Antiquities in the South Euboean Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, E.; Vlachaki, F.

    2015-04-01

    An underwater archaeological survey was initiated in 2006 by the Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology in collaboration with the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities of Greece, in the South Euboean Gulf. The survey is being conducted under the direction of the archaeologist Dr G. Koutsouflakis and in the course of the project important shipwrecks of Classical, Roman, and Byzantine periods have been brought to light, adding tangible evidence on ancient seafaring and maritime trade. The South Euboean Gulf archaeological survey has presented many challenges to the documentation team of H.I.M.A, and has served as a case-study for 3D recording applied on ancient wrecks, found at medium depths (22-47m) and under the conditions that are imposed during an archaeological survey of a certain geographical region. This paper focuses on the implementation of photogrammetric and geodetic techniques used for acquisition and processing of collected data, in order to generate 3D models for six different wrecks, resulting in a fast, reliable and cost efficient method to record underwater archaeological sites.

  14. 1. Photocopy of antique postcard. (Original postcard is in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of antique postcard. (Original postcard is in the possession of the Venice Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library, publisher/photographer unknown) ABBOTT KINNEY, circa 1905 - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Free Online Resources on Rare and Antique Books in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randazzo, Donatella

    A web site, on rare and antique books, has been constructed. General resources of interest to historical librarians, such as acquisitions, cataloguing, preservation, conservation and digitalization projects are offered, as well as specific resources in the field of astronomy.

  16. How did Leonardo perceive himself? Metric iconography of da Vinci's self-portraits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2010-02-01

    Some eighteen portraits are now recognized of Leonardo in old age, consolidating the impression from his bestestablished self-portrait of an old man with long white hair and beard. However, his appearance when younger is generally regarded as unknown, although he was described as very beautiful as a youth. Application of the principles of metric iconography, the study of the quantitative analysis of the painted images, provides an avenue for the identification of other portraits that may be proposed as valid portraits of Leonardo during various stages of his life, by himself and by his contemporaries. Overall, this approach identifies portraits of Leonardo by Verrocchio, Raphael, Botticelli, and others. Beyond this physiognomic analysis, Leonardo's first known drawing provides further insight into his core motivations. Topographic considerations make clear that the drawing is of the hills behind Vinci with a view overlooking the rocky promontory of the town and the plain stretching out before it. The outcroppings in the foreground bear a striking resemblance to those of his unique composition, 'The Virgin of the Rocks', suggesting a deep childhood appreciation of this wild terrain. and an identification with that religious man of the mountains, John the Baptist, who was also the topic of Leonardo's last known painting. Following this trail leads to a line of possible selfportraits continuing the age-regression concept back to a self view at about two years of age.

  17. Exploring Classical Art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchenal, Margaret; Foote, Allison

    This resource packet is designed to help teachers incorporate the study of ancient Greek and Roman art into junior and senior high school classrooms. The packet consists of four curriculum units based upon aspects of classical life or culture. These units are: "Daily Life; Mythology"; "Images of Power"; and "Echoes of Antiquity." The units were…

  18. The Public Debt as Seen by the Classical Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbens, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Reviews classical economists' views on the issue of public debt. Notes that from antiquity to modern times, it has always been rare for a state not to be in debt. Includes an examination of a state's repudiation of its debt and the impact such an action might have on its international relations. (JDH)

  19. [History of pneumology in antiquity (part 2)].

    PubMed

    Demaeyer, Ph

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Hippocrate, "The Father of Medicine", still influences our medicine. He was famous because of the great medical corpus texts preserved in his name. Only recently, our universities have updated the famous Hippocratic Oath to avoid contradictions with our modern ethics. Hippocrate was a great clinician but a poor anatomist. Hippocratical humourism remained accurate until the age of the enlightenment (18th century). Furthermore, it is difficult to distinguish medicine from philosophy in Greek antiquity. So we have to contextualize Greek ancient medicine in this philosophical field. In the 3rd century before Christus (BC), the centre of gravity in medicine shifted to Alexandria. Indeed, a famous academic library was created in 288 BC. At the same time, dissection of human cadavers was authorized until the first century BC. This enabled the evolution of the knowledge in anatomy and physiology. Rome was still polytheistic population until the end of ancient times. Rome integrated Greek gods in his pantheon. Asclepios became Aesculapius. Rome despises physicians in the first ancient age of Rome. The family's father provided medical cares. A lot of Greek physicians settled then in Rome. Again, roman medicine grew in parallel with philosophical trends. These trends were called "sects" but in fact, they were rather medical schools. In this review, we will especially talk about three physicians of this period: Aurelius Cornelius Celsus, Arétée of Cappadocia and Galenus of Pergamon. Thereafter, medical knowledge did not really change significantly until Renaissance period. PMID:27487699

  20. Medical practice in Graeco-roman antiquity.

    PubMed

    Cilliers, L; Retief, F P

    2006-05-01

    The roots of modern medicine can be traced back to the 5th century BC when Hippocratic rational medicine originated on the Greek islands of Cos and Cnidos. In this study we examine the way in which practitioners conducted their profession in Graeco-Roman times, as well as their training. Medical training was by way of apprenticeship with recognized doctors, but no qualifying examinations existed and the standard of practice thus varied enormously. Even in the Roman era the vast majority of medical doctors were Greek and in private practice as itinerant physicians. Civic doctors in the paid service of local communities appeared in Greek society from the 5th century BC onwards, but much later in Rome - probably as late as the 4th century AD. Rome's unique contributions to medicine lay in public health measures (e.g. their aqueducts, public baths and sewages systems) and an excellent medical service for their armies and navy. Hospitals (valetudinaria) were established for military purposes and for slaves on large Roman estates from the 1st century BC, but civic hospitals for the general public originated as late as the 4th century AD. The Greek medical schools of Cos and Cnidos were eventually superseded by the school of Alexandria in Egypt and towards the end of the Roman Empire by that of Carthage in northern Africa. Its gradual demise in the Christian era lowered the curtain on original medical endeavours during antiquity. PMID:16910132

  1. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  2. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  3. A proposal to modernize the american antiquities act.

    PubMed

    Collins, R B; Green, D F

    1978-12-01

    The Antiquities Act of 1906, which has provided the legal basis for protecting the U.S.'s prehistoric and historic heritage, is no longer adequate. Artifact hunters and collectors have descended on national forests and U.S. parks in ever-increasing numbers. The drafters of the 1906 act could not have anticipated the lucrative market in prehistoric artifacts in the 1970's. The act has come under attack in the courts as being unconstitutionally vague. In light of the recent criminal prosecutions under the Antiquities Act and the constitutional challenges, reviewed in this article, the authors propose a new Antiquities Act which expands the scope of the act to include those who would deal in artifacts taken unlawfully from federal lands and increases the criminal penalties for a violation of the act. PMID:17777944

  4. 50 CFR 27.62 - Search for and removal of objects of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 CFR part 3. ... antiquity. 27.62 Section 27.62 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.62 Search for and removal of objects of antiquity. No person...

  5. 50 CFR 27.62 - Search for and removal of objects of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 CFR part 3. ... antiquity. 27.62 Section 27.62 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.62 Search for and removal of objects of antiquity. No person...

  6. 50 CFR 27.62 - Search for and removal of objects of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 CFR part 3. ... antiquity. 27.62 Section 27.62 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.62 Search for and removal of objects of antiquity. No person...

  7. 50 CFR 27.62 - Search for and removal of objects of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 CFR part 3. ... antiquity. 27.62 Section 27.62 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.62 Search for and removal of objects of antiquity. No person...

  8. 50 CFR 27.62 - Search for and removal of objects of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 CFR part 3. ... antiquity. 27.62 Section 27.62 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...: Against Nonwildlife Property § 27.62 Search for and removal of objects of antiquity. No person...

  9. 19 CFR 159.45 - Additional duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... antiquity. 159.45 Section 159.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity. When additional duty is imposed in accordance with § 10.53 of this chapter for an unauthentic claim of antiquity, such duty shall be assessed in addition to...

  10. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. (a) Restriction. Importation of archaeological or ethnological material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act...

  11. 19 CFR 159.45 - Additional duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... antiquity. 159.45 Section 159.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity. When additional duty is imposed in accordance with § 10.53 of this chapter for an unauthentic claim of antiquity, such duty shall be assessed in addition to...

  12. 19 CFR 159.45 - Additional duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... antiquity. 159.45 Section 159.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity. When additional duty is imposed in accordance with § 10.53 of this chapter for an unauthentic claim of antiquity, such duty shall be assessed in addition to...

  13. 19 CFR 159.45 - Additional duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... antiquity. 159.45 Section 159.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity. When additional duty is imposed in accordance with § 10.53 of this chapter for an unauthentic claim of antiquity, such duty shall be assessed in addition to...

  14. 19 CFR 159.45 - Additional duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... antiquity. 159.45 Section 159.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... duty for unauthentic claims of antiquity. When additional duty is imposed in accordance with § 10.53 of this chapter for an unauthentic claim of antiquity, such duty shall be assessed in addition to...

  15. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. (a) Restriction. Importation of archaeological or ethnological material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act...

  16. Out of Weakness: The "Educational Good" in Late Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the educational good as it appears in late antiquity, arguing that the "good" variously promised by education is in a state of perpetual deferral. This extends the tradition of ancient Greek philosophy where wisdom is to be forever approached but never realised. Three exemplary cases are considered: the…

  17. 12. Photocopy of antique postcard. (Original postcard is in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of antique postcard. (Original postcard is in the possession of the Venice Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library, publisher/photographer unknown.) VIEW OF PRE-EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER CARROLL CANAL, LOOKING EAST TOWARD DELL AVENUE VEHICULAR BRIDGE - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Some Consequences of Limited Literacy in Late Antiquity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaster, Robert A.

    This examination of education in late antiquity looks at the variable definitions of literacy, the function of elite literacy as a scarce and highly valued commodity, and the nature of the relationship between the cultural elite and Christianity. A basic definition of a literate person is one who can read and write in his or her society's standard…

  19. 25 CFR 141.26 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Trade in antiquities prohibited. 141.26 Section 141.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.26 Trade in...

  20. 25 CFR 141.26 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 141.26 Section 141.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.26 Trade in...

  1. 25 CFR 141.26 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 141.26 Section 141.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.26 Trade in...

  2. 25 CFR 141.26 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 141.26 Section 141.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.26 Trade in...

  3. 25 CFR 141.26 - Trade in antiquities prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade in antiquities prohibited. 141.26 Section 141.26 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.26 Trade in...

  4. Benzotriazole a Corrosion Inhibitor for Antiques: Some Practical Surface Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Describes the structure and inhibitive properties of Benzotriazole. The chemical may be employed as an inhibitor to reduce corrosion of articles during storage or display. It may be applied to copper and copper-based antiques as well as to silver and other metals. (Author/JN)

  5. [Multiple births in the medical texts of antiquity].

    PubMed

    Dasen, V

    1998-01-01

    Ancient medical writers and biologists elaborated different theories to explain the phenomenon of multiple births. The earliest extant texts are in the Hippocratic collection and in the physiological treatises of Aristotle. They express opposed ideas: for the Hippocratics multiple births are the result of an ideal conception, for Aristotle they are regarded as anomalies associated with notions of monstrosity and excess. These views shed light on ancient collective imagery. Three themes in particular are found in non-medical literature and iconography: twin birth as a model of ideal fecundity, the ambiguous status of twins of different sexes, and the relation of multiple births to monstrosity and animality, as evidenced by the motif of twins born from one egg. PMID:11608857

  6. Classics Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayman, Dee L.

    1995-01-01

    Appraises several databases devoted to classical literature. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) contains the entire extant corpus of ancient Greek literature, including works on lexicography and historiography, extending into the 15th century. Other works awaiting completion are the Database of Classical Bibliography and a CD-ROM pictorial dictionary…

  7. Classical integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  8. Paleobiologic Studies of the Antiquity and Precambrian Evolution of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. William

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a final technical report on Paleobiologic Studies of the Antiquity and Precambrian Evolution of Life from 1 January 1990 - 30 September 1997. The topics include: 1) Major Research Accomplishments Supported By NAGW-2147 (Research Results Communicated in Edited Books, Research Results Communicated in Journal Articles and Book Chapters, and References Cited); and 2) Published Contributions Supported by NAGW-2147 (Edited Books, Journal Articles and Book Chapters, Book-Related Items, Miscellaneous Publications, Abstracts, and In Press).

  9. 650 nm Laser stimulated dating from Side Antique Theatre, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, M.; Meriç, N.

    2014-03-01

    Samples were taken from the archeological excavation site, which was at the backs of the Side Antique Theatre. Samples were taken from under the base rock in this area. Polymineral fine grains were examined to determine the ages of the sediments. Samples gathered from the Side Antique Theatre were investigated through using the SAR method. Firstly, one part of the samples were evaluated by using conventional IRSL reading head model of (ELSEC-9010) which is infrared (880±80 nm) stimulation source with Schott BG39 filter. The IRSL age dating with feldspar minerals, gives a number of overestimated or underestimated age values as a result. A new reading head was proposed with the following configuration attachments for overestimation of equivalent dose rates. Measurements were done with this newly designed red laser stimulating reading head which works with Elsec 9010 OSL age dating system. SAR measurements were performed by (650±10 nm) red laser light source with two Schott BG3 filters. With usage of the new designed reading head; closer results were obtained in comparision with the Antique Theatre's expected age range. Fading rates were taken into consideration and these corrections were also handled for true age results.

  10. Investigations of Tides from the Antiquity to Laplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deparis, Vincent; Legros, Hilaire; Souchay, Jean

    Tidal phenomena along the coasts were known since the prehistoric era, but a long journey of investigations through the centuries was necessary from the Greco-Roman Antiquity to the modern era to unravel in a quasi-definitive way many secrets of the ebb and flow. These investigations occupied the great scholars from Aristotle to Galileo, Newton, Euler, d'Alembert, Laplace, and the list could go on. We will review the historical steps which contributed to an increasing understanding of the tides.

  11. Neurology and War: From Antiquity to Modern Times.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Arnao, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Here, we chronicle the evolution of warfare from antiquity to modern times (18th century) and its impact on the later-to-be-defined field of neurology, especially with regard to brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries and neurological disorders caused by biological weapons and psychological trauma. We describe how individuals courageously and intelligently dealt with the horrors of war, from the Egyptians to the Greeks and onward to the Romans, up until the physicians of modern times. In doing so, they responded to the call of duty by inventing solutions that benefitted not only soldiers but also civilian medicine. PMID:27035675

  12. [For a socio-medical iconography of Ramazzini's De Morbis: the manuscript of Giovanni Grevembroch (1731-1807)].

    PubMed

    Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; Zampieri, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, a group of historians of medicine in Padua has been working on the creation of a iconographic database related to the professions described by Ramazzini, founder of occupational medicine, in his 1700's De morbis artificum diatriba. A specific example of iconography relevant to De morbis can be found in a 17th century manuscript written and illustrated by Giovanni Grevembroch (1731-1807), Venetian painter probably from a family of Flemish origins. This manuscript describes typical Venetian dress and costumes, accompanied by commentaries made by the artist himself. Here we can find costumes related to some of the very same professions described by Ramazzini and a comparative analysis reveals interesting elements. First of all, in his commentary Grevembroch frequently invokes concepts very similar to those of Ramazzini, related both to the dangers of the environment characteristic of a given profession and to the illnesses typical to each profession. Moreover, analysis of Grevenbroch's images and text often provides supplemental insights into to the context of and risks associated with selected occupations. Finally, the Grevembroch manuscript also supplies supplemental material pertinent to the social and cultural life of the epoch that, even if not strictly linked to questions of occupational medicine. PMID:22214103

  13. Sappho's shifting fortunes from antiquity to the early Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Penrose, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although Sappho was revered as the greatest woman poet of all time by the Greeks, in later antiquity and the Middle Ages, her love of women was considered shameful and overshadowed her excellent reputation. She was also called a prostitute, and fictional accounts of her affairs with men further "tarnished" her reputation. Dual representations of Sappho existed within two centuries of her death. On the one hand, she was a role model for other poets to follow in their quest for fame, on the other she was the quintessential representation of female vice, which, at least by the Roman period, brought her infamy. Late antique and medieval Christian authors inherited this latter view, and vilified Sappho's sexuality, while church authorities, at least according to legend, had her works publicly burned. In the initial stages of the Renaissance, then, the humanist desire to reconnect with the pagan past had to proceed in the context of late medieval Christianity. Sappho's homoeroticism was erased, ultimately, in order that her skill could be lauded to fight misogyny. Hence, the humanists "rehabilitated" Sappho's virtue in a Christian context where same-sex love was considered an "unmentionable" vice. In order to argue that women were smart and capable, the humanists needed Sappho. She was perhaps the most famous, and most skilled, woman who had ever lived, and her example was used in an attempt to improve the lot of women in the early Renaissance. PMID:25298101

  14. Ophthalmic malignancies in antiquity as depicted in two terracotta figurines.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Karamanou, M; Tsoucalas, G; Sgantzos, M; Androutsos, G

    2015-01-01

    Ocular and orbital wall cancers were recognized by the physicians of the antiquity as incurable, lethal, and non-operable malignant entities. Paul of Aegina (7(th)c AD) was the first to refer to this type of cancer and proposed only some palliative measures, while the same approach was also preserved by Theophanes Nonnus (10(th)c AD). However, two terracotta figurines of the Hellenistic period (323-30 BC) which depicted tumorous malformations in the eye area, raise a scientific debate on the matter. Hellenic art, once more contributed in a didactic way to preserve medical knowledge of the past, and served as an auxiliary tool in order to facilitate medical study. PMID:26011362

  15. Oxygen isotopes and emerald trade routes since antiquity

    PubMed

    Giuliani; Chaussidon; Schubnel; Piat; Rollion-Bard; France-Lanord; Giard; de Narvaez D; Rondeau

    2000-01-28

    Oxygen isotopic compositions of historical emerald artifacts from the Gallo-Roman period to the 18th century indicate that during historical times, artisans worked emeralds originating from deposits supposedly discovered in the 20th century. In antiquity, Pakistani and Egyptian emeralds were traded by way of the Silk Route. Together with Austrian stones, they were the only source of gem-quality emeralds. Immediately after the discovery of the Colombian mines by Spaniards in the 16th century, a new trade route was established, first via Spain to Europe and India and then directly via the Philippines to India. Since then, Colombian emeralds have dominated the emerald trade, and most of the high-quality emeralds cut in the 18th century in India originated from Colombia. PMID:10649992

  16. Oxygen Isotopes and Emerald Trade Routes Since Antiquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Chaussidon, Marc; Schubnel, Henri-Jean; Piat, Daniel H.; Rollion-Bard, Claire; France-Lanord, Christian; Giard, Didier; de Narvaez, Daniel; Rondeau, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions of historical emerald artifacts from the Gallo-Roman period to the 18th century indicate that during historical times, artisans worked emeralds originating from deposits supposedly discovered in the 20th century. In antiquity, Pakistani and Egyptian emeralds were traded by way of the Silk Route. Together with Austrian stones, they were the only source of gem-quality emeralds. Immediately after the discovery of the Colombian mines by Spaniards in the 16th century, a new trade route was established, first via Spain to Europe and India and then directly via the Philippines to India. Since then, Colombian emeralds have dominated the emerald trade, and most of the high-quality emeralds cut in the 18th century in India originated from Colombia.

  17. Headaches in antiquity and during the early scientific era.

    PubMed

    Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Diamantis, Aristidis; Mitsikostas, Dimos-Dimitrios; Androutsos, George

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the evolution of ideas on headache symptoms from antiquity through the 19th century. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports along with a review of the available literature in PubMed was undertaken: observations on headaches date back nearly 4,000 years to the ritual texts of Mesopotamia. Nicolaes Tulp, Thomas Willis and Gerhard van Swieten also made important contributions on various forms of headaches in the 17th and 18th centuries. Edward Liveing and William Gowers made the major contributions to the field in the late 19th century. Overall, observations on headaches span a timeline of nearly 9,000 years. The work of the physicians during the 18th and 19th century, however, set the basis for scientific research. PMID:19288044

  18. Bone traumas in late antique populations from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of the analyses of traumatic bone injuries in two Late Antique (3r to 5th century AD) skeletal samples from Croatia: Zadar--located on the eastern Adriatic coast, and a composite skeletal series from continental Croatia consisting of skeletons from Osijek, Vinkovci, Strbinci, and Zmajevac. The osteological series from continental Croatia are related to settlements located on, or near the Danubian military border, while Zadar--350 km to the west, is located deep in the territory of the Roman Empire. Numerous historical sources describe barbaric incursions, as well as large battles related to civil wars during the Late Antique period in continental Croatia. Conversely, there is no mention of similar events in the Zadar region. In accordance with these data our analysis tests the hypothesis that the inhabitants of continental Croatia were exposed to greater levels of violence than those living in Zadar. Analysis of bone traumas in the two series shows a similar, relatively high prevalence of long bone fractures in both samples, with a slightly higher frequency recorded in Zadar. Both series exhibit a high frequency of cranial injuries with, once again, higher frequencies recorded in the Zadar series. Additionally, two perimortem cranial fractures (one caused by a sword, the other by a blunt object) were observed in Zadar. Some of the recorded traumas in both samples resulted from accidents, but a number of injuries clearly resulted from intentional violence of lesser intensity. Further multidisciplinary research incorporating osteological, archaeological, and historical analyses is necessary to confirm the results obtained from these samples. PMID:21874705

  19. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroia, L.; Georgescu, S. C.; Georgescu, A. M.

    2010-08-01

    Water supply and water management in Antiquity represent more than Modern World can imagine about how people in that period used to think about, and exploit the resources they had, aiming at developing and improving their society and own lives. This paper points out examples of how they handled different situations, and how they managed to cope with the growing number of population in the urban areas, by adapting or by improving their water supply systems. The paper tries to emphasize the engineering contribution of Rome and the Roman Empire, mainly in the capital but also in the provinces, as for instance the today territory of France, by analysing some aqueducts from the point of view of modern Hydraulic Engineering. A third order polynomial regression is proposed to compute the water flow rate, based on the flow cross-sectional area measured in quinaria. This paper also emphasizes on contradictory things between what we thought we knew about Ancient Roman civilization, and what could really be proven, either by a modern engineering approach, a documentary approach, or by commonsense, where none of the above could be used. It is certain that the world we live in is the heritage of the Greco-Roman culture and therefore, we are due to acknowledge their contribution, especially taking into account the lack of knowledge of that time, and the poor resources they had.

  20. The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Sophie; Danforth, Bryan N.

    2011-01-01

    A long-standing controversy in bee social evolution concerns whether highly eusocial behavior has evolved once or twice within the corbiculate Apidae. Corbiculate bees include the highly eusocial honey bees and stingless bees, the primitively eusocial bumble bees, and the predominantly solitary or communal orchid bees. Here we use a model-based approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of eusociality and date the antiquity of eusocial behavior in apid bees, using a recent molecular phylogeny of the Apidae. We conclude that eusociality evolved once in the common ancestor of the corbiculate Apidae, advanced eusociality evolved independently in the honey and stingless bees, and that eusociality was lost in the orchid bees. Fossil-calibrated divergence time estimates reveal that eusociality first evolved at least 87 Mya (78 to 95 Mya) in the corbiculates, much earlier than in other groups of bees with less complex social behavior. These results provide a robust new evolutionary framework for studies of the organization and genetic basis of social behavior in honey bees and their relatives. PMID:21695157

  1. What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosshauer, Maximilian; Camilleri, Kristian

    2011-03-01

    Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum—for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shed some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum—classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classicality and Bohr's classical concepts.

  2. [The classical parasite: from appreciative partners of the gods to serving as jesters].

    PubMed

    Hassl, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    A [pialpharhoalphasigmaiotatauomicronzeta] = parasitos = parasite of the classical Greek antiquity was a tolerated, but not invited co-eater during a guest meal. Usually a parasite was an illegitimate, incapable to inherit or anyway pauperised, free, young man who had to pay for his meal with exhilaration of the guests, adulation, maintenance art, and humiliation. However, during the more than two millennia lasting development of the classical antique society, even this little prestigious profession was preceded by a stupendous development, reflecting an unprecedented devaluation of this socially enforced activity. At the outset of the development there stood the archaic, neolithic social order of Greece, within which a parasitos was the selected partner of the divinity and at the same time a civil servant of a municipality and an outstanding citizen of a community. In the classical antiquity the term parasitos had a socio-political contents above all; the term incorporated itself into the ancient sacral, social, and constitutional spheres. The transformation to a medical word meaning took originally place in the course of an erroneous reception during the 17th century. PMID:16416378

  3. The Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Antiquity to 1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.; Dowd, Matthew F.

    This chapter provides an overview of the Western historical debate regarding extraterrestrial life from antiquity to the beginning of the twentieth century. Though schools of thought in antiquity differed on whether extraterrestrial life existed, by the Middle Ages, the Aristotelian worldview of a unified, finite cosmos without extraterrestrials was most influential, though there were such dissenters as Nicholas of Cusa. That would change as the Copernican revolution progressed. Scholars such as Bruno, Kepler, Galileo, and Descartes would argue for a Copernican system of a moving Earth. Cartesian and Newtonian physics would eventually lead to a view of the universe in which the Earth was one of many planets in one of many solar systems extended in space. As this cosmological model was developing, so too were notions of extraterrestrial life. Popular and scientific writings, such as those by Fontenelle and Huygens, led to a reversal of fortunes for extraterrestrials, who by the end of the century were gaining recognition. From 1700 to 1800, many leading thinkers discussed extraterrestrial intelligent beings. In doing so, they relied heavily on arguments from analogy and such broad principles and ideas as the Copernican Principle, the Principle of Plenitude, and the Great Chain of Being. Physical evidence for the existence of extraterrestrials was minimal, and was always indirect, such as the sighting of polar caps on Mars, suggesting similarities between Earth and other places in the universe. Nonetheless, the eighteenth century saw writers from a wide variety of genres—science, philosophy, theology, literature—speculate widely on extraterrestrials. In the latter half of the century, increasing research in stellar astronomy would be carried out, heavily overlapping with an interest in extraterrestrial life. By the end of the eighteenth century, belief in intelligent beings on solar system planets was nearly universal and certainly more common than it would be by

  4. Chapter 6: after Galen Late Antiquity and the Islamic world.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gül A

    2010-01-01

    It is usually assumed that after Galen there was nothing new until the Renaissance. Contrary to this view, there were significant modifications of the inherited legacy in Late Antiquity, followed by fundamental changes within the Arabic/Islamic world. Their formative influence extends from the medieval period of transmission to the Renaissance and the 17th century. The increasing emphasis on the primacy of the brain initiated the beginnings of ventricular localization of function in Late Antiquity, which was subsequently developed into a theory and transmitted to the West via Arabic. Following the unprecedented translation movement in 9th-century Baghdad, the cumulative Greek and Hellenistic knowledge of the brain, nerves, and the senses from diverse sources were brought together in the systematic, logically unified Arabic medical compendia of encyclopedic proportions, which embody divergence from accepted views and new diagnostic observations. Their Latin versions became standard texts in medical schools. The oldest extant schematic diagrams relevant to neurology (the eye, the ventricles, the visual system, and the nerves) date from this period, and served as models for the medieval Latin West. The development of coherent descriptions of the motor and sensory systems, and related clinical disorders, by analogy with the mechanisms of hydraulic automata, foreshadows some of the explanatory methods associated with the 17th century. Furthermore, an entirely new approach resulted in a paradigm shift in theory and methodology through the experimental studies on the physics of light and vision of Ibn al-Haytham (d. 1040), who showed that what is sensed is not the object itself, but a punctate optical "image" due to light reflected from its surface to the eye. This revolutionary approach to vision destroyed the viability of the Greek tradition of holistic forms and tactile sensory impressions. Ibn al-Haytham's theory of point-to-point correspondence formed the basis of

  5. Geology and the conservation of antique monuments in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Robert

    1987-06-01

    This article deals with a geological investigation carried out as a fundamental part of the conservation and static restoration of several antique churches excavated in andesitic tuff in the Göreme valley and adjacent areas of Cappadocia in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Two stages have been completed already, in 1982 and 1985, respectively, and the work is still in progress. Seismicity is not regarded as a structural hazard, but the geological history includes a series of volcanic episodes since the Oligocene (about 38 million years ago), which persisted into fairly recent times and laid down a great thickness of tuff rock. Erosion sculptured this tuff preferentially because of irregular harder, basaltic layers, which later capped rock pinnacles, the so-called peribacalars, in which churches were hewn over a thousand years ago. Because the host rock is heavily fissured, precipitation has entered and has damaged many mural paintings. These are also subject to vandalism, and efforts have been made to restore them by the usual conservation intervention. However, grouting is necessary and must take into account the porosity of the tuff, which also permits capillary rise from crypts. Sometimes, during wet episodes, water flushes into these and scours the interior walls as well. The basic problem remains geological, and the contribution of the earth sciences is very important. Thus, an engineering geology study has determined that the tuff rock is suitable both for building retaining walls and acting as a constituent in cement grout. It is expected that the UNESCO/ICCROM program to save the churches will be completed successfully within the next five years or so.

  6. History of venereal diseases from antiquity to the renaissance.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franjo; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Kehler, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), previously known as venereal diseases (VD), were present among the populations of antiquity as well as during the Middle Ages. Clay tablets from Mesopotamia, Egyptian papyri, along with mythology, paintings of erotic scenes, and presence of prostitutes give sufficient information to assume that some form of urethral and vaginal discharge, and also herpes genitalis were present among people at that time, and that these diseases were considered a divine punishment. Some passages of the Bible say much about the sexual behavior of the ancient Hebrews. The writings of the Greek and Roman physicians and of their satiric poets (Martial, Juvenal, Ovid) described diverse genital diseases. Celsus described various diseases of the genitals, that he called the "obscene parts". Galen made a strange description of the female genitals and coined the term gonorrhea - flow of semen. The ancient Chinese and Indian physicians also gave some account on the presence of venereal diseases in their books, and the temple sculptures depict their sexual life. During the Middle Ages, numerous physicians and surgeons from Europe as well as from Arabic countries wrote on local diseases of the genitals, describing chancres, condylomata, erosions, pustules, urethral and vaginal discharge, and their treatment. Some were aware that the alterations were connected with sexual activity. In spite the fact the Christian church propagated abstinence, the spread of venereal diseases was possible because the diffusion of prostitution, communal baths, and wars. During the 19th century, some of the physicians and historians, especially J. Rosenbaum, F. Buret, and E. Lancereaux believed syphilis was as old as mankind, whereas later authors had the opinion the disease appeared at the end of the 15th century. PMID:25969906

  7. Dental health in antique population of Vinkovci - Cibalae in Croatia (3rd-5th century).

    PubMed

    Peko, Dunja; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Roman city Cibalae (Vinkovci) - the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens was a very well developed urban ares in the late antique what was evidenced by numerous archaeological findings. The aim of this paper is to get insight in dental health of antique population of Cibalae. One hundred individuals with 2041 teeth dated to 3rd - 5th century AD have been analyzed for caries, antemortem tooth loss, periapical diseases and tooth wear. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss was 4.3% in males, 5.2% in females. Prevalence of caries per tooth was 8.4% in males, 7.0% in females. Compared to other Croatian antique sites, ancient inhabitants of Roman Cibalae had rather good dental health with low caries prevalence and no gender differences. Statistically significant difference was found between males in females in the prevalence of periapical lesions and degree of tooth wear. Periapical lesions were found only in males. PMID:27598951

  8. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom, Part II: Teaching Vibrations and Waves, Electricity and Magnetism, and Optics with Antiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewett, John W.

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of two articles on using antique devices to teach introductory physics. As mentioned in the first article, students can more clearly see the physics required for the operation of antique devices than for modern-day technological devices. This article will discuss antiques used to teach vibrations and waves, electricity and magnetism, and optics. In addition, a description of possible sources for obtaining antiques will help those interested in pursuing these ideas.

  9. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom, Part II: Teaching Vibrations and Waves, Electricity and Magnetism, and Optics with Antiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of two articles on using antique devices to teach introductory physics. As mentioned in the first article, students can more clearly see the physics required for the operation of antique devices than for modern-day technological devices. This article further discusses antiques used to teach vibrations and waves,…

  10. 14 CFR 45.22 - Exhibition, antique, and other aircraft: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhibition, antique, and other aircraft: Special rules. 45.22 Section 45.22 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... States: (i) It is operated with the prior approval of the Flight Standards District Office, in the...

  11. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  12. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  13. Joseph Ames's "Typographical Antiquities" and the Antiquarian Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiner, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    One of the most famous historical documents of English printing is Joseph Ames's "Typographical Antiquities," published in London in 1749. Although Ames referred to his work as a history of printing, the bulk of it is a list of the first printers in England and their works through 1600, with very full bibliographical descriptions…

  14. 77 FR 49730 - Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY in the Federal Register (77 FR 13516). We... Mercurio, Chief of Waterway Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing or submitting material to...

  15. An Antique Microscope Slide Brings the Thrill of Discovery into a Contemporary Biology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a Victorian-era microscope slide titled "Grouped Flower Seeds" began an investigation into the scientific and historical background of the antique slide to develop its usefulness as a multidisciplinary tool for PowerPoint presentations usable in contemporary biology classrooms, particularly large-enrollment sections. The resultant…

  16. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104j...

  17. Muses of the Greco-Roman Cultures. A Curriculum Resource on Music in Classical Antiquity. Tentative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This publication is designed to help teachers introduce pupils to the role of music, dance, and poetry in the civilization and culture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. It may be used as an interdisciplinary course for secondary school pupils or to expand curricular offerings in Latin and Greek. Focusing on the pervasive influence of music within…

  18. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  19. [A journey to the foundations of classical medicine].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo

    2007-08-01

    The author narrates his trips, between 1951 and 2006, to the main historical sites of antique medicine, where physicians of pre-Columbian cultures of Mexico and Peru, Egypt, Greco Latin culture and Islamic civilizations, lived. The trip ends with a visit to medieval European medicine before Renaissance. A description of the main historical sites and the features of these medical and sanitary cultures is made. In antique civilizations, diseases were considered a punishment of pagan deities. Supernatural and magical influences were decisive in medical practice. The Greco Latin culture of Galen and Hippocrates freed manhood from these causes of diseases and gave a rational basis to the practice of medicine. The Islamic civilization allowed the transmission of Greco Latin culture to medieval Europe. This permitted the renaissance of European creativity and the foundation of modern scientific medicine in the sixteenth century. The author highlights the main virtues of classical Greco Latin medicine, that are the foundations of humanistic thoughts that will restrin the technological revolution of modern medicine. PMID:17989868

  20. Elemental mercury releases attributed to antiques--New York, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-06-15

    Metallic (i.e., elemental) mercury, a heavy, silvery odorless liquid, is in common household products such as thermostats and thermometers. Lesser-known household sources of elemental mercury include certain antique or vintage items such as clocks, barometers, mirrors, and lamps. Over time, the mercury in these items can leak, particularly as seals age or when the items are damaged, dropped, or moved improperly. Vacuuming a mercury spill or vaporization from spill-contaminated surfaces such as carpets, floors, furniture, mops, or brooms can increase levels of mercury in the air, especially in enclosed spaces. Environmental sampling conducted after releases of elemental mercury have indicated substantial air concentrations that were associated with increases in blood and urine mercury levels among exposed persons. In 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) created the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, a multistate health department surveillance system designed to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hazardous substance events. This report describes antique-related mercury releases reported to HSEES, all of which occurred in New York state during 2000-2006. Although none of these spills resulted in symptoms or acute health effects, they required remediation to prevent future mercury exposure. The findings underscore the need for caution when handling antiques containing elemental mercury and the need for proper remediation of spills. PMID:17568369

  1. The Classics, Con Brio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James

    1978-01-01

    Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…

  2. Fermions from classical statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-12-15

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states {tau} of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p{sub {tau}} amounts to a rotation of the wave function q{sub {tau}}(t)={+-}{radical}(p{sub {tau}}(t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  3. Injuries in classical ballet.

    PubMed

    Quirk, R

    1984-11-01

    The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832

  4. A Classical Science Transformed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

  5. Entanglement with Classical Spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylis, William E.; Johnson, Crystal

    2004-05-01

    The spinor formulation of classical dynamics, which arises naturally in Clifford algebra approaches, describes particle dynamics in terms of spinor amplitudes and gives quantum mechanical, spin-1/2 form to many classical expressions for particles whose dynamics can be represented by single spinor fields. Here we use tensor products of the algebra of physical space (APS)[1] to explore the quantum/classical interface and provide insight into quantum properties and, in particular, entanglement in multiparticle spin-1/2 systems. Entanglement in mixed-state systems is seen as spinor (Â"quantumÂ") correlation beyond the maximum possible with classical frequencies or probabilities. The relevance to systems of qubits in a quantum computer is elaborated. [1] W. E. Baylis, Â"Applications of Clifford Algebras in PhysicsÂ", in Lectures on Clifford (Geometric) Algebras and Applications, R. Ablamowicz and G. Sobczyk, eds., Birkhäuser Boston, 2004.

  6. Classical confined particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward

    1993-01-01

    An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.

  7. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era. PMID:26507317

  8. [Medical applications of the magnet from antiquity to the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Boutaric, J J

    1994-01-01

    Although the magnet was a marginal therapeutic mean, it was employed from antiquity to the XIXth century, either to treat various ailments by application on the skin or by absorption, or to take out alien metallic bodies. It was used in its natural magnet or magnetic stone form till the XVIIth century, and under the form termed synthetic magnet or tempered steel made magnet starting with the XVIIth century. These applications are listed in chronological order here, pointing out how remarkably continuous has been the use of the magnet by medicine for many centuries. PMID:11640336

  9. Subnuclear realm: classical in quantum and quantum in classical

    SciTech Connect

    Kosyakov, B. P.

    1999-03-11

    Exact solutions in the classical Yang-Mills-Wong theory enable explaining a number of enigmatic classical features of subnuclear realm. Moreover, they reveal some unexpected quantum features of this classical treatment.

  10. 41 CFR 102-42.65 - What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? 102-42.65 Section 102-42.65... AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Special Disposals § 102-42.65 What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? If the Commission on Art and...

  11. 41 CFR 102-42.65 - What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? 102-42.65 Section 102-42.65... AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Special Disposals § 102-42.65 What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? If the Commission on Art and...

  12. 41 CFR 102-42.65 - What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? 102-42.65 Section 102-42.65... AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Special Disposals § 102-42.65 What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? If the Commission on Art and...

  13. 41 CFR 102-42.65 - What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? 102-42.65 Section 102-42.65... AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Special Disposals § 102-42.65 What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? If the Commission on Art and...

  14. 41 CFR 102-42.65 - What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? 102-42.65 Section 102-42.65... AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Special Disposals § 102-42.65 What happens if the Commission on Art and Antiquities does not dispose of a gift or decoration? If the Commission on Art and...

  15. [The admirable effects of panaceas: ideas between antiquity and early modern times].

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Panaceas, i. e. medicines that can cure many or almost all diseases, were used throughout the history from antiquity until modern times. The paper focuses on ideas developed to explain the admirable actions of these medicines. In antiquity such actions seem to be related to the large number of ingredients as well as to the presence of materials connected to potent poisons (e. g. viper flesh). Later, with the advent of alchemy, the alchemical preparation is regarded to produce medicines with such properties, the most pregnant example being lapis philosophorum. Such explanations are underpinned by the correspondences with higher astral influences as espoused by Paracelsus, as well as by van Helmont's idea that both disease and cure depend exclusively on the state of the 'spirit of life'. At the same time Galenic-like ideas survive, in the sense that panaceas are something like universal purifiers. Besides curing diseases panaceas were used to ensure long living, permanent health as well as for achieving rejuvenation. In this respect, they show an affinity to the so-called 'healing power of nature'. PMID:22400194

  16. Classical dynamical localization.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, Italo; Casati, Giulio; Karle, Volker

    2014-10-24

    We consider classical models of the kicked rotor type, with piecewise linear kicking potentials designed so that momentum changes only by multiples of a given constant. Their dynamics display quasilocalization of momentum, or quadratic growth of energy, depending on the arithmetic nature of the constant. Such purely classical features mimic paradigmatic features of the quantum kicked rotor, notably dynamical localization in momentum, or quantum resonances. We present a heuristic explanation, based on a classical phase space generalization of a well-known argument, that maps the quantum kicked rotor on a tight-binding model with disorder. Such results suggest reconsideration of generally accepted views that dynamical localization and quantum resonances are a pure result of quantum coherence. PMID:25379918

  17. Careers in the Classics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    America's few Black classics professors have overcome contempt and criticism to contribute a unique perspective to the study of the ancient world. Dr. Patrice Rankine, an associate professor from Purdue University, has grown used to the irony. As one of the few Black classicists teaching at an American university, he has drawn plenty of skepticism…

  18. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  19. Classics in What Sense?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camic, Charles

    2008-01-01

    They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008--each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…

  20. Observations of classical cepheids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pel, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The observations of classical Cepheids are reviewed. The main progress that has been made is summarized and some of the problems yet to be solved are discussed. The problems include color excesses, calibration of color, duplicity, ultraviolet colors, temperature-color relations, mass discrepancies, and radius determination.

  1. Renewing Literary Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue suggest techniques for classroom use of literature that has "withstood the test of time." The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "The Storytelling Connection for the Classics" (Mary Ellen Martin); (2) "Elizabeth Bennet: A Liberated Woman" (Geneva Marking); (3) "Hawthorne: A Study in…

  2. Classical Demonstration of Polarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Moore, Dennis R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a classical demonstration of polarization for high school students. The initial state of this model, which demonstrates the important concepts of the optical and quantum problems, was developed during the 1973 summer program on lecture demonstration at the U.S. Naval Academy. (HM)

  3. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  4. The Classical Cake Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)

  5. Teaching Tomorrow's Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)

  6. Classicism and Romanticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  7. "They're Just Not Mature Right Now": Teachers' Complicated Perceptions of Gender and Anti-Queer Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Marilyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality education teachers in the USA are often the only officially sanctioned voice in schools charged with teaching students about sexuality and gender. This paper considers the ways in which sexuality education teachers conceptualise gender and anti-queer bullying in order to explore the ways in which teachers understand their own role in the…

  8. Pigments with or without organic binder? A survey of wall painting techniques during Antiquity

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.

    1996-01-01

    The identification of ancient artistic techniques is based on laboratory studies and, for historical cases, also on literary sources. An analytical approach using the techniques of physical chemistry reveals the technical expertise of the artists, right at the dawn of art. In the case of prehistoric parietal art, we show that the artists prepared their pigments with different ground and mixed minerals. They applied their material onto the wall and the particles remained embedded in the superficial calcite layer. Later, the prehistoric people prepared a real paint with the proper pigment, an extender and an organic binder to fix the paint on the wall. During Antiquity, new techniques appear. The paint is applied to the natural or artificial wall and is executed, either directly or on a previously applied plaster. The aim of this paper is to describe the evolution of the techniques. The underlying chemistry provides some interesting clues on the technical choices. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. From Antiquity to the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor: A History of Delirium Tremens.

    PubMed

    Porcel, F J Rodriguez; Schutta, H S

    2015-01-01

    Delirium associated with excessive alcohol consumption has been known since antiquity. This condition became more common as the supply of distilled fermented liquors increased. Delirium, including delirium associated with excessive alcohol consumption, was for many centuries regarded as a form of brain inflammation - "phrenitis" - and was treated with depletion. At the end of the eighteenth century treatment by depletion of alcohol-related delirium began to be replaced by sedation and led to significantly better outcomes. Thomas Sutton established that alcohol-related delirium was a disease sui generis, distinct from phrenitis, and he named it delirium tremens. Because historical accounts of this disease are rare, brief, and not easily accessible, we offer this account of events that culminated in the discovery of the molecular basis of delirium tremens. PMID:26444921

  10. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline. PMID:20734558

  11. [That was already known in old Rome--care of brood animals in antiquity].

    PubMed

    Schäffer, J

    1993-09-01

    The paper gives an impression of the care for mother animals in antiquity, particularly in the course of Roman livestock farming (Varro, Columella). Especially noninfectious factors were held responsible for the redemption of the interruption of pregnancy and a complicated parturition. Therefore special attention was paid for the right and optimal livestock, grooming and nutrition of the farm animals. In the case of dystocia, the herdsmen and veterinarians reached for correction of presentation, traction and embryotomy during parturition. However, the placental retention was only treated with drugs. In the case of an uterine prolapse, Apsyrtos recommended for the first time the reposition at the casted animal and the triple closure of the vulva. PMID:8216200

  12. Classical higgs fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardanashvily, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    We consider a classical gauge theory on a principal fiber bundle P → X in the case where its structure group G is reduced to a subgroup H in the presence of classical Higgs fields described by global sections of the quotient fiber bundle P/H → X. We show that matter fields with the exact symmetry group H in such a theory are described by sections of the composition fiber bundle Y → P/H → X, where Y → P/H is the fiber bundle with the structure group H, and the Lagrangian of these sections is factored by virtue of the vertical covariant differential determined by a connection on the fiber bundle Y → P/H.

  13. Revisiting a Classic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…

  14. What was classical genetics?

    PubMed

    Waters, C Kenneth

    2004-12-01

    I present an account of classical genetics to challenge theory-biased approaches in the philosophy of science. Philosophers typically assume that scientific knowledge is ultimately structured by explanatory reasoning and that research programs in well-established sciences are organized around efforts to fill out a central theory and extend its explanatory range. In the case of classical genetics, philosophers assume that the knowledge was structured by T. H. Morgan's theory of transmission and that research throughout the later 1920s, 30s, and 40s was organized around efforts to further validate, develop, and extend this theory, I show that classical genetics was structured by an integration of explanatory reasoning (associated with the transmission theory) and investigative strategies (such as the 'genetic approach'). The investigative strategies, which have been overlooked in historical and philosophical accounts, were as important as the so-called laws of Mendelian genetics. By the later 1920s, geneticists of the Morgan school were no longer organizing research around the goal of explaining inheritance patterns; rather, they were using genetics to investigate a range of biological phenomena that extended well beyond the explanatory domain of transmission theories. Theory-biased approaches in history and philosophy of science fail to reveal the overall structure of scientific knowledge and obscure the way it functions. PMID:15682554

  15. Semi-classical Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestone, John

    2016-03-01

    Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. We describe semi-classical approaches that can be used to obtain a more intuitive physical feel for several QED processes including electro-statics, Compton scattering, pair annihilation, the anomalous magnetic moment, and the Lamb shift, that could be taught easily to undergraduate students. Any physicist who brings their laptop to the talk will be able to build spread sheets in less than 10 minutes to calculate g/2 =1.001160 and a Lamb shift of 1057 MHz.

  16. Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the…

  17. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  18. The influence of theory on the formation of the infirmary during antiquity and the Middle Ages in the West.

    PubMed

    Drampalos, Efstathios; Stogiannos, Vasileios; Psyllakis, Panagiotis; Sadiq, Mohammad; Michos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The modern infirmary is the evolutional product of the dialectic interface between medical theories at each time and the outcome of their application in clinical practice. The infirmary as we know it today did not exist during antiquity, but the different precursors of the modern hospital emerged as a result of the interaction between medical theory and practice. During antiquity the Hippocratic work decisively contributed to the creation of the Asklipieion, an institution with predetermined structure created to heal diseases. Later in antiquity new types of infirmaries appeared along with the evolution of private practice for physicians. Establishment of the first modern hospitals was an outstanding contribution of Islamic medicine during reign of the Islamic Empire. Although there was little progress in the development of medical theory in medieval West, evolution of the infirmary continued and was mostly influenced by Christian religion and charity. In Constantinople large medieval infirmaries were built, but patient care was frequently offered in monasteries by clergymen. Later on medicine and treatment of diseases were taken over by physicians and taught in universities, and medical theory continued on its course of evolution. It is obvious that the modern infirmary is not only a place for treating diseases, but rather the upshot of a series of advancements in science, the relations between people or even countries, and the way humanity perceives its nature and the future. Our research is focused on the interactive relationship between the evolution of medical theory and the infirmary as an institution during antiquity and the Middle Ages with particular emphasis on the Western World. PMID:26587201

  19. The influence of theory on the formation of the infirmary during antiquity and the Middle Ages in the West

    PubMed Central

    Drampalos, Efstathios; Stogiannos, Vasileios; Psyllakis, Panagiotis; Sadiq, Mohammad; Michos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The modern infirmary is the evolutional product of the dialectic interface between medical theories at each time and the outcome of their application in clinical practice. The infirmary as we know it today did not exist during antiquity, but the different precursors of the modern hospital emerged as a result of the interaction between medical theory and practice. During antiquity the Hippocratic work decisively contributed to the creation of the Asklipieion, an institution with predetermined structure created to heal diseases. Later in antiquity new types of infirmaries appeared along with the evolution of private practice for physicians. Establishment of the first modern hospitals was an outstanding contribution of Islamic medicine during reign of the Islamic Empire. Although there was little progress in the development of medical theory in medieval West, evolution of the infirmary continued and was mostly influenced by Christian religion and charity. In Constantinople large medieval infirmaries were built, but patient care was frequently offered in monasteries by clergymen. Later on medicine and treatment of diseases were taken over by physicians and taught in universities, and medical theory continued on its course of evolution. It is obvious that the modern infirmary is not only a place for treating diseases, but rather the upshot of a series of advancements in science, the relations between people or even countries, and the way humanity perceives its nature and the future. Our research is focused on the interactive relationship between the evolution of medical theory and the infirmary as an institution during antiquity and the Middle Ages with particular emphasis on the Western World. PMID:26587201

  20. Classical and quantum ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously.

  1. Quantum transitions between classical histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James; Hertog, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In a quantum theory of gravity spacetime behaves classically when quantum probabilities are high for histories of geometry and field that are correlated in time by the Einstein equation. Probabilities follow from the quantum state. This quantum perspective on classicality has important implications. (a) Classical histories are generally available only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the state lives. (b) In a given patch, states generally predict relative probabilities for an ensemble of possible classical histories. (c) In between patches classical predictability breaks down and is replaced by quantum evolution connecting classical histories in different patches. (d) Classical predictability can break down on scales well below the Planck scale, and with no breakdown in the classical equations of motion. We support and illustrate (a)-(d) by calculating the quantum transition across the de Sitter-like throat connecting asymptotically classical, inflating histories in the no-boundary quantum state. This supplies probabilities for how a classical history on one side transitions and branches into a range of classical histories on the opposite side. We also comment on the implications of (a)-(d) for the dynamics of black holes and eternal inflation.

  2. Assessment Of The Production Of Antiquity Pigments Through Experimental Treatment Of Ochres And Other Iron Based Precursors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrotheodoros, G.; Beltsios, K. G.; Zacharias., N.

    In this work we explore the effects of various grinding and thermal-oxidative treatments applied to natural and artificial iron-based materials available (or related to those available) during GraecoRoman antiquity. The raw materials examined are: (a) commercial natural iron pigments (ochres, natrojarosite, caput mortum), (b) artificial melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O), (c) mineral pyrite (FeS2) and mineral metallic hematite. Additionally explored are: (a) the non-attested in surviving sources, yet highly probable during antiquity, route of pigment preparation from iron (or steel) plates exposed to vinegar vapors, (b) a Vitruvius recipe for purplish pigment via vinegar quenching of hot ochre. We obtain oxide pigments with colors ranging from yellowish and red to brownish and purplish. The puzzling variation of colors obtained by subjecting iron-oxide containing materials to identical oxidative heat treatments is found to be explainable on the basis of starting grain size and possible size modifications. We also show, by using highly purity starting materials, that purplish colors obtainable in certain cases by heat treatment do not necessitate, as often claimed, the presence of impurities such as manganese etc. A framework of antiquity color possibilities for iron-oxide based pigments obtainable under the conditions explored is included. All samples prepared are examined via scanning electron microscopy for micromorphology coupled with EDAX for composition, and X-Rays Diffraction for mineralogy.

  3. Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, Rodney

    2014-08-01

    Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classical computers can already do. At the same time, those classical computers continue to advance, but those advances are now constrained by thermodynamics, and will soon be limited by the discrete nature of atomic matter and ultimately quantum effects. Technological advances benefit both quantum and classical machinery, altering the competitive landscape. Can we build quantum computing systems that out-compute classical systems capable of some logic gates per month? This article will discuss the interplay in these competing and cooperating technological trends.

  4. Geomechanical Evaluation of Derinkuyu Antique Underground City and its Implications in Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydan, Ömer; Ulusay, Reşat

    2013-07-01

    Derinkuyu Underground City, located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey, is an important structure not only for its antique and archaeological characteristics, but also as a structure in terms of the long-term stability of underground rock structures excavated by mankind. The authors carried out some observational, experimental and theoretical rock mechanics studies in the region from 1996 in the context of a research project supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for the assessment of the long-term behaviour of Derinkuyu Underground City, and these studies are still continuing. In addition to the monitoring of the environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture and air pressure, they also installed acoustic emission (AE) and electrical potential (EP) measurement systems to monitor the behaviour and response of the surrounding rock at the fifth and seventh floors of the underground city. In this article, the geology, seismicity and state of stress of the Cappadocia Region, climatic conditions in the underground city and its vicinity, short- and long-term behaviours of the surrounding rock, its index and mechanical properties, and effects of water content and freezing-thawing processes were investigated. The stability of Derinkuyu Underground City was also evaluated using theoretical and numerical methods, and the results were presented. Furthermore, its implications in modern geoengineering are also discussed.

  5. The history of time and frequency from antiquity to the present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Judah

    2016-04-01

    I will discuss the evolution of the definitions of time, time interval, and frequency from antiquity to the present day. The earliest definitions of these parameters were based on a time interval defined by widely observed apparent astronomical phenomena, so that techniques of time distribution were not necessary. With this definition, both time, as measured by clocks, and frequency, as realized by some device, were derived quantities. On the other hand, the fundamental parameter today is a frequency based on the properties of atoms, so that the situation is reversed and time and time interval are now derived quantities. I will discuss the evolution of this transition and its consequences. In addition, the international standards of both time and frequency are currently realized by combining the data from a large number of devices located at many different laboratories, and this combination depends on (and is often limited by) measurements of the times of clocks located at widely-separated laboratories. I will discuss how these measurements are performed and how the techniques have evolved over time.

  6. The Cucurbits of Mediterranean Antiquity: Identification of Taxa from Ancient Images and Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Janick, Jules; Paris, Harry S.; Parrish, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background A critical analysis was made of cucurbit descriptions in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica, Columella's De Re Rustica and Pliny's Historia Naturalis, works on medicine, agriculture and natural science of the 1st century ce, as well as the Mishna and Tosefta, compilations of rabbinic law derived from the same time period together with cucurbit images dating from antiquity including paintings, mosaics and sculpture. The goal was to identify taxonomically the Mediterranean cucurbits at the time of the Roman Empire. Findings By ancient times, long-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melon) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) were selected, cultivated and used as vegetables around the Mediterranean and, in addition, bottle-shaped fruits of L. siceraria were employed as vessels. Citrullus lanatus (watermelons) and round-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melons) were also consumed, but less commonly. A number of cucurbit species, including Bryonia alba, B. dioica, Citrullus colocynthis and Ecballium elaterium, were employed for medicinal purposes. No unequivocal evidence was found to suggest the presence of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in the Mediterranean area during this era. The cucumis of Columella and Pliny was not cucumber, as commonly translated, but Cucumis melo subsp. melo Flexuosus Group (snake melon or vegetable melon). PMID:17932073

  7. Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail “preparations” were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII), a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising. PMID:15841274

  8. On the antiquity of language: the reinterpretation of Neandertal linguistic capacities and its consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dediu, Dan; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    It is usually assumed that modern language is a recent phenomenon, coinciding with the emergence of modern humans themselves. Many assume as well that this is the result of a single, sudden mutation giving rise to the full “modern package.” However, we argue here that recognizably modern language is likely an ancient feature of our genus pre-dating at least the common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals about half a million years ago. To this end, we adduce a broad range of evidence from linguistics, genetics, paleontology, and archaeology clearly suggesting that Neandertals shared with us something like modern speech and language. This reassessment of the antiquity of modern language, from the usually quoted 50,000–100,000 years to half a million years, has profound consequences for our understanding of our own evolution in general and especially for the sciences of speech and language. As such, it argues against a saltationist scenario for the evolution of language, and toward a gradual process of culture-gene co-evolution extending to the present day. Another consequence is that the present-day linguistic diversity might better reflect the properties of the design space for language and not just the vagaries of history, and could also contain traces of the languages spoken by other human forms such as the Neandertals. PMID:23847571

  9. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    PubMed

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989

  10. A Classic Beauty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue).

    The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  11. Return to the Classics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. R.

    1990-10-01

    The two seminal papers that set the theoretical foundation of nonlinear optics were written by Bloembergen and coworkers in 1962. The first one on "Interaction between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric" by Armstrong, Bloembergen, Ducuing and Pershan1 describes mainly the wave mixing process, aside from discussions on microscopic expressions for nonlinear susceptibilities, local-field corrections, energy relations, and others. The second one on "Light Waves at the Boundary of Nonlinear Media" by Bloembergen and Pershan2 considers the boundary effects on wave mixing. Both papers are clear in concepts, but the mathematical derivations are rather difficult to digest. While most people in nonlinear optics have studied the papers, few have attempted to reproduce the equations in them. Recently, through teaching, I have found that even the derivation of an expression for the transmitted second harmonic field, ET, in a nonlinear uniaxial medium is not so simple. The ABDP paper used the slowly varying amplitude approximation to obtain ET, whereas the BP paper found ET more rigorously by taking the boundary conditions explicitly into account. It is, however, not trivial to see whether the two expressions of ET from the two papers are consistent with each other. This is actually an important issue considering that the result is the basis of all wave mixing problems. As a tribute to Prof. Bloembergen on the occasion of his 70th birday, I take the liberty to review the derivations in these masterpieces, fill in the intermediate steps in the derivations, and discuss the consistency. Hopefully, this could serve, in a small way, as a supplement to the Bloembergen classics in nonlinear optics.

  12. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  13. A Carboniferous Mite on an Insect Reveals the Antiquity of an Inconspicuous Interaction.

    PubMed

    Robin, Ninon; Béthoux, Olivier; Sidorchuk, Ekaterina; Cui, Yingying; Li, Yingnan; Germain, Damien; King, Andrew; Berenguer, Felisa; Ren, Dong

    2016-05-23

    Symbiosis [1], understood as prolonged interspecific association, is as ancient as the eukaryotic cell [2, 3]. A variety of such associations have been reported in the continental fossil record, albeit sporadically. As for mites, which as a group have been present since the Devonian (ca. 390 mya) [4, 5] and are involved in a tremendous variety of modern-day symbioses, reported associations are limited to a few amber-preserved cases [6-11], with the earliest instance in the Cretaceous (ca. 85 mya) [11]. As a consequence, the antiquity and origin of associations involving small-sized mites and larger animals are poorly understood. Here we report, recovered from the Carboniferous Xiaheyan locality (ca. 320 mya), an oribatid mite located on the thorax of an extinct relative of grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids [12]. The mite was investigated using several methods, including phase-contrast tomography. The detailed morphological data allowed the placement of the mite in a new family within Mixonomata, whose fossil record is thus extended by ca. 250 Ma. Specimen and abundance distribution data derived from the fossil insect sample indicate that specimens from the corresponding excavation site were buried rapidly and were sub-autochthonous, indicating a syn vivo association. Moreover, the mite is located in a sequestered position on the insect. The observed interaction best fits the definition for phoresy, in which the benefit is transport and protection for the mite. This discovery demonstrates that this association, a trait shared by representatives of the most speciose mite taxa, arose very early during mite evolution. PMID:27161503

  14. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  15. [Criminal responsibility and confinement of the insane from antiquity to early modern Japan].

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Genshiro

    2003-01-01

    ANTIQUITY: The third Japanese legal code, Youro Ritsuryo, was compiled in 718. The code classified the insane people as severely handicapped, exempted them from taxes and reduced their punishments when they committed a crime. MEDIEVAL: We cannot find any description on criminal responsibility of the insane in the legal documents of this age. EARLY MODERN: In 1742, the Tokugawa government enacted a criminal code named Osadamegaki-hyakkajyo, which contained a clause on the criminal responsibility of the people suffering from insanity or alcoholism. In principle, even if the criminal who committed homicide had been insane, he or she was sentenced to death. However, when the criminal had been obviously insane and the master or relatives of the victim appealed for mercy the judge could spare his/her life. The case of killing under the influence of simple alcohol intoxication was considered to be fully responsible. However, the case of pathological intoxication was treated in the same way as the case of insanity. There was a strict rule for confinement of the insane. When people thought that confinement was inevitable, a petition for confinement was submitted to the court under the joint signature of the family, the members of goningumi (a mutual responsibility unit), and the head of the town or village. In big cities like Edo (now Tokyo), a medical certificate of a doctor was attached to the petition. After receiving the petition, the court dispatched officials to inspect the case. When the court could confirm the necessity of confinement, they gave the permission and sealed the lock of a private cell where the insane was confined. People had to appeal to the court again when they wanted to free the insane from the cell. PMID:12708014

  16. Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)

  17. Quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-04-15

    Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.

  18. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  19. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  20. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  1. A Comparison of Wood Density between Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins

    PubMed Central

    Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.

    2008-01-01

    Classical violins created by Cremonese masters, such as Antonio Stradivari and Giuseppe Guarneri Del Gesu, have become the benchmark to which the sound of all violins are compared in terms of their abilities of expressiveness and projection. By general consensus, no luthier since that time has been able to replicate the sound quality of these classical instruments. The vibration and sound radiation characteristics of a violin are determined by an instrument's geometry and the material properties of the wood. New test methods allow the non-destructive examination of one of the key material properties, the wood density, at the growth ring level of detail. The densities of five classical and eight modern violins were compared, using computed tomography and specially developed image-processing software. No significant differences were found between the median densities of the modern and the antique violins, however the density difference between wood grains of early and late growth was significantly smaller in the classical Cremonese violins compared with modern violins, in both the top (Spruce) and back (Maple) plates (p = 0.028 and 0.008, respectively). The mean density differential (SE) of the top plates of the modern and classical violins was 274 (26.6) and 183 (11.7) gram/liter. For the back plates, the values were 128 (2.6) and 115 (2.0) gram/liter. These differences in density differentials may reflect similar changes in stiffness distributions, which could directly impact vibrational efficacy or indirectly modify sound radiation via altered damping characteristics. Either of these mechanisms may help explain the acoustical differences between the classical and modern violins. PMID:18596937

  2. Quantum localization of classical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  3. Classical dynamics of quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Reslen, Jose

    2012-03-01

    We analyze numerically the dynamical generation of quantum entanglement in a system of two interacting particles, started in a coherent separable state, for decreasing values of ℏ. As ℏ→0 the entanglement entropy, computed at any finite time, converges to a finite nonzero value. The limit law that rules the time dependence of entropy is well reproduced by purely classical computations. Its general features can be explained by simple classical arguments, which expose the different ways entanglement is generated in systems that are classically chaotic or regular. PMID:22587162

  4. Anderson localization from classical trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    We show that Anderson localization in quasi-one-dimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively describe this mechanism in two different ways: the explicit description of transition probabilities in terms of interfering trajectories, and an hierarchical integration over fluctuations in the classical phase space of the array cavities.

  5. The classical microwave frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busca, Giovanni; Thomann, Pierre; Laurent-Guy, Bernier; Willemin, Philippe; Schweda, Hartmut S.

    1990-01-01

    Some key problems are presented encountered in the classical microwave frequency standards which are still not solved today. The point of view expressed benefits from the experience gained both in the industry and in the research lab, on the following classical microwave frequency standards: active and passive H, conventional and laser pumped Cs beam tube, small conventional and laser pumped Rubidium. The accent is put on the Rubidium standard.

  6. Electrostatics interactions in classical simulations.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, G Andrés; Babin, Volodymyr; Sagui, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions are crucial for both the accuracy and performance of atomistic biomolecular simulations. In this chapter we review well-established methods and current developments aiming at efficiency and accuracy. Specifically, we review the classical Ewald summations, particle-particle particle-method particle-method Ewald algorithms, multigrid, fast multipole, and local methods. We also highlight some recent developments targeting more accurate, yet classical, representation of the molecular charge distribution. PMID:23034752

  7. Quantum money with classical verification

    SciTech Connect

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  8. Quantum money with classical verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-12-01

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  9. Classical theory of radiating strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  10. Classicality of a quantum oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadzadegan, Aida; Mann, Robert B.; Terno, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    Gaussian quantum systems exhibit many explicitly quantum effects but can be simulated classically. By using both the Hilbert space (Koopman) and the phase-space (Moyal) formalisms we investigate how robust this classicality is. We find failures of consistency of the dynamics of hybrid classical-quantum systems from both perspectives. By demanding that no unobservable operators couple to the quantum sector in the Koopmanian formalism, we show that the classical equations of motion act on their quantum counterparts without experiencing any back reaction, resulting in nonconservation of energy in the quantum system. By using the phase-space formalism we study the short-time evolution of the moment equations of a hybrid classical-Gaussian quantum system and observe violations of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation in the quantum sector for a broad range of initial conditions. We estimate the timescale for these violations, which is generically rather short. This inconsistency indicates that while many explicitly quantum effects can be represented classically, quantum aspects of the system cannot be fully masked. We comment on the implications of our results for quantum gravity.

  11. Quantum remnants in the classical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, A. M.; Plastino, A.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt-Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit.

  12. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  13. Classical picture of postexponential decay

    SciTech Connect

    Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Martorell, J.; Sprung, D. W. L.

    2010-04-15

    Postexponential decay of the probability density of a quantum particle leaving a trap can be reproduced accurately, except for interference oscillations at the transition to the postexponential regime, by means of an ensemble of classical particles emitted with constant probability per unit time and the same half-life as the quantum system. The energy distribution of the ensemble is chosen to be identical to the quantum distribution, and the classical point source is located at the scattering length of the corresponding quantum system. A one-dimensional example is provided to illustrate the general argument.

  14. Compilation of classical and contemporary terminology used to describe morphological aspects of ovarian dynamics in cattle.

    PubMed

    Peter, A T; Levine, H; Drost, M; Bergfelt, D R

    2009-06-01

    Veterinarians and scientists involved in applied and basic research in cattle require a lexicon of terms that is used uniformly so that diagnoses and inference of results between and among studies can be correctly interpreted and substantiated or negated and therapy and hypotheses can be formulated without unnecessary confusion and redundancy in treatments and experiments. This review provides a compilation of many of the classical and contemporary terms used in association with ovarian dynamics primarily during the estrous cycle in cattle, which can also apply to other reproductive states. While many classical terms used to describe healthy and diseased conditions associated with follicles and corpora lutea are still applicable today, there are some that have become antiquated (e.g., cystic corpus luteum, cystic ovarian degeneration, luteolysis, and granulosa cell tumor), due, in part, to advanced technology (e.g., ultrasonography) and a more thorough understanding of ovarian function. In this regard, older terms have been revised (e.g., corpus luteum with a cavity, follicular and luteinized-follicular cysts, structural and functional luteal regression, and granulosa-theca cell tumor) and newer terms have been coined (e.g., follicle deviation) and advocated herein. Defining and adopting terminology used in bovine reproduction that is clear, precise and understandable and available in a single source, is expected to make the exchange of clinical and research information and outcomes more effective, safe, and economical. PMID:19339040

  15. Holographic entanglement beyond classical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrella, Taylor; Dong, Xi; Hartnoll, Sean A.; Martin, Victoria L.

    2013-09-01

    The Rényi entropies and entanglement entropy of 1+1 CFTs with gravity duals can be computed by explicit construction of the bulk spacetimes dual to branched covers of the boundary geometry. At the classical level in the bulk this has recently been shown to reproduce the conjectured Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy. We study the one-loop bulk corrections to this formula. The functional determinants in the bulk geometries are given by a sum over certain words of generators of the Schottky group of the branched cover. For the case of two disjoint intervals on a line we obtain analytic answers for the one-loop entanglement entropy in an expansion in small cross-ratio. These reproduce and go beyond anticipated universal terms that are not visible classically in the bulk. We also consider the case of a single interval on a circle at finite temperature. At high temperatures we show that the one-loop contributions introduce expected finite size corrections to the entanglement entropy that are not present classically. At low temperatures, the one-loop corrections capture the mixed nature of the density matrix, also not visible classically below the Hawking-Page temperature.

  16. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  17. Classical Music as Enforced Utopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…

  18. CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control of weeds is an important tool for managing invasive alien plants that have become too widespread to control by conventional methods. It involves the discovery and release of naturally occurring species of natural enemies (insects, mites or pathogens) to control a pest (...

  19. Measurement-Based Classical Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Anwar, Hussain; Usher, Naïri; Raussendorf, Robert; Browne, Dan E.

    2014-04-01

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a model of quantum computation, in which computation proceeds via adaptive single qubit measurements on a multiqubit quantum state. It is computationally equivalent to the circuit model. Unlike the circuit model, however, its classical analog is little studied. Here we present a classical analog of MBQC whose computational complexity presents a rich structure. To do so, we identify uniform families of quantum computations [refining the circuits introduced by Bremner et al. Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 459 (2010)] whose output is likely hard to exactly simulate (sample) classically. We demonstrate that these circuit families can be efficiently implemented in the MBQC model without adaptive measurement and, thus, can be achieved in a classical analog of MBQC whose resource state is a probability distribution which has been created quantum mechanically. Such states (by definition) violate no Bell inequality, but, if widely held beliefs about computational complexity are true, they, nevertheless, exhibit nonclassicality when used as a computational resource—an imprint of their quantum origin.

  20. Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…

  1. Augmenting a Classical Electrochemical Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an augmentation of a classical electrochemical demonstration that addresses the learning styles of the students and teaches electrochemistry in a concrete manner. Enables each student to see each event clearly, repeatedly, or in stop-action mode and enables students to improve their own mental models by providing them with a visually…

  2. No return to classical reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, David; Leifer, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurement-uncertainty, measurement-disturbance, complementarity, non-commutativity, interference, the no-cloning theorem and the collapse of the wave-packet) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understanding - the intrinsically quantum mechanical aspects of nature. The most famous of these is Bell's theorem, but we also review two more recent results in this area. Firstly, Hardy's theorem shows that even a finite-dimensional quantum system must contain an infinite amount of information, and secondly, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem shows that the wave function must be an objective property of an individual quantum system. Besides being of foundational interest, results of this sort now find surprising practical applications in areas such as quantum information science and the simulation of quantum systems.

  3. Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory: Fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-03-28

    We present fundamentals of a prequantum model with hidden variables of the classical field type. In some sense this is the comeback of classical wave mechanics. Our approach also can be considered as incorporation of quantum mechanics into classical signal theory. All quantum averages (including correlations of entangled systems) can be represented as classical signal averages and correlations.

  4. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    PubMed Central

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been unearthed. This discovery at least proves that bitumen was used by Neanderthal populations as hafting material to fix handles to their flint tools. Numerous testimonies, proving the importance of this petroleum-based material in Ancient civilizations, were brought to light by the excavations conducted in the Near East as of the beginning of the century. Bitumen remains show a wide range of uses that can be classified under several headings. First of all, bitumen was largely used in Mesopotamia and Elam as mortar in the construction of palaces (e.g. the Darius Palace in Susa), temples, ziggurats (e.g. the so-called 'Tower of Babel' in Babylon), terraces (e.g. the famous 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon') and exceptionally for roadway coating (e.g. the processional way of Babylon). Since the Neolithic, bitumen served to waterproof containers (baskets, earthenware jars, storage pits), wooden posts, palace grounds (e.g. in Mari and Haradum), reserves of lustral waters, bathrooms, palm roofs, etc. Mats, sarcophagi, coffins and jars, used for funeral practices, were often covered and sealed with bitumen. Reed and wood boats were also caulked with bitumen. Abundant lumps of bituminous mixtures used for that particular purpose have been found in storage rooms of houses at Ra's al-Junayz in Oman. Bitumen was also a widespread adhesive in antiquity and served to repair broken ceramics, fix eyes and horns on statues (e.g. at Tell al-Ubaid around 2500 BC). Beautiful decorations with stones

  5. Classical Analog to Entanglement Reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Ben; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2015-08-01

    In this Letter we study the problem of secrecy reversibility. This asks when two honest parties can distill secret bits from some tripartite distribution pX Y Z and transform secret bits back into pX Y Z at equal rates using local operation and public communication. This is the classical analog to the well-studied problem of reversibly concentrating and diluting entanglement in a quantum state. We identify the structure of distributions possessing reversible secrecy when one of the honest parties holds a binary distribution, and it is possible that all reversible distributions have this form. These distributions are more general than what is obtained by simply constructing a classical analog to the family of quantum states known to have reversible entanglement. An indispensable tool used in our analysis is a conditional form of the Gács-Körner common information.

  6. Classicality in discrete Wigner functions

    SciTech Connect

    Cormick, Cecilia; Galvao, Ernesto F.; Gottesman, Daniel; Paz, Juan Pablo; Pittenger, Arthur O.

    2006-01-15

    Gibbons et al., [Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004)] have recently defined discrete Wigner functions W to represent quantum states in a Hilbert space with finite dimension. We show that such a class of Wigner functions W can be defined so that the only pure states having non-negative W for all such functions are stabilizer states, as conjectured by Galvao, [Phys. Rev. A 71, 042302 (2005)]. We also show that the unitaries preserving non-negativity of W for all definitions of W in the class form a subgroup of the Clifford group. This means pure states with non-negative W and their associated unitary dynamics are classical in the sense of admitting an efficient classical simulation scheme using the stabilizer formalism.

  7. Classical music and the teeth.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth. PMID:23691776

  8. Classical and Recurrent Nova Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; Casanova, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Shore, Steven N.; Calder, Alan C.

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in the understanding of nova outbursts has been achieved through combined efforts in photometry, spectroscopy and numerical simulations. According to the thermonuclear runaway model, novae are powered by thermonuclear explosions in the hydrogen-rich envelopes transferred from a low-mass stellar companion onto a close white dwarf star. Extensive numerical simulations in 1-D have shown that the accreted envelopes attain peak temperatures ranging between 108 and 4 × 108 K, for about several hundred seconds, hence allowing extensive nuclear processing which eventually shows up in the form of nucleosynthetic fingerprints in the ejecta. Indeed, it has been claimed that novae can play a certain role in the enrichment of the interstellar medium through a number of intermediate-mass elements. This includes 17O, 15N, and 13C, systematically overproduced with respect to solar abundances, plus a lower contribution in a number of other species (A < 40), such as 7Li, 19F, or 26Al. At the turn of the XXI Century, classical novae have entered the era of multidimensional models, which provide a new insight into the physical mechanisms that drive mixing at the core-envelope interface. In this review, we will present hydrodynamic models of classical novae, from the onset of accretion up to the explosion and ejection stages, both for classical and recurrent novae, with special emphasis on their gross observational properties and their associated nucleosynthesis. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the final yields will be discussed. Recent results from 2-D models of mixing during classical nova outbursts will also be presented.

  9. Invariants from classical field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Rafael; Leal, Lorenzo

    2008-06-15

    We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from perturbative classical field theories depending on external parameters. By applying our methods to several field theories such as Abelian BF, Chern-Simons, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, we obtain, respectively, the linking number for embedded submanifolds in compact varieties, the Gauss' and the second Milnor's invariant for links in S{sup 3}, and invariants under area-preserving diffeomorphisms for configurations of immersed planar curves.

  10. Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294

  11. Instantaneous fields in classical electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heras, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we express the retarded fields of Maxwell's theory in terms of the instantaneous fields of a Galilei-invariant electromagnetic and we find the vector function χL whose spatial and temporal derivatives transform the Euclidean fields into the retarded ones. We conclude that the instantaneous fields can formally be introduced as unphysical objects into classical electrodynamics which can be used to find the physical retarded fields.

  12. Classical Histories in Hamiltonian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouletsis, Ioannis

    2001-08-01

    The incompatibility between the treatment of time in the classical and in the quantum theory results in the so-called problem of time in canonical quantum gravity. For this reason, attempts have been made to devise algorithms of quantization which accomodate the covariance of the classical theory from the outset. One of the most prominent of these attempts is based on the notion of continuous histories (Isham and Linden) in the context of the consistent histories approach to quantum theory (Griffiths, Omnes, Gell-Mann and Hartle). By the term continuous histories it is implied that the canonical fields and the symplectic structure of the theory depend on time as well as space. The aim of this thesis (in the form it was submitted to the University of London, February 2000) is to show that, even at the purely classical level, a history approach has several advantages (compared to its equal-time counterpart) when it comes to discussing spacetime issues. This is illustrated here by reframing and generalizing the derivation of geometrodynamics from first principles (Hojman, Kuchar, Teitelboim) in the language of the history phase space.

  13. A critical review of antiquity, authorship and contents of Haramekhala: A medieval work on humanities

    PubMed Central

    Archana, I.; Bhat, Jeddu Ganapathi

    2011-01-01

    Ayurvedic science of life is one of the great contributions of India to the systems of health science. Apart from classical medical works, much information related to this Indian system is found elsewhere in other branches of science, such as Philosophy, Joutishya, Natya, Kavya, etc. Still much Ayurvedic information is clubbed in other compilations meant for general purpose. However, it is unfortunate that not all such works came into lime light; and still remain in the dark for many reasons. Haramekhala written by Mahuka is one such work, which contains Ayurvedic information along with various other themes, such as cosmetics. The author Mahuka lived in Dharanivaraha rajya of central India during Chapa Dynasty in 9th–10th century A.D. Haramekhala also known as Prayogamala comprises of five Paricchedas written in Prakrita language, later added by translations in Sanskrit called Chaya and foot notes in Sanskrit called Tika. The detail about this book is described in this article. PMID:22661837

  14. Entanglement in the classical limit: Quantum correlations from classical probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Matzkin, A.

    2011-08-15

    We investigate entanglement for a composite closed system endowed with a scaling property which allows the dynamics to be kept invariant while the effective Planck constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} of the system is varied. Entanglement increases as ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff}{yields}0. Moreover, for sufficiently low ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} the evolution of the quantum correlations, encapsulated, for example, in the quantum discord, can be obtained from the mutual information of the corresponding classical system. We show this behavior is due to the local suppression of path interferences in the interaction that generates the entanglement.

  15. Classical Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2009-02-01

    Preface; Introduction; 1. Abbe's sine condition; 2. Fourier optics; 3. Effect of polarization on diffraction in systems of high numerical aperture; 4. Gaussian beam optics; 5. Coherent and incoherent imaging; 6. First-order temporal coherence in classical optics; 7. The Van Cittert-Zernike theorem; 8. Partial polarization, Stokes parameters, and the Poincarè Sphere; 9. Second-order coherence and the Hanbury Brown - Twiss experiment; 10. What in the world are surface plasmons?; 11. Surface plasmon polaritons on metallic surfaces; 12. The Faraday effecy; 13. The magneto-optical Kerr effect; 14. The Sagnac interferometer; 15. Fabry-Perot etalons in polarized light; 16. The Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem; 17. Reciprocity in classical Linear optics; 18. Optical pulse compression; 19. The uncertainty principle in classical optics; 20. Omni-directional dielectric mirrors; 21. Optical vortices; 22. Geometric-optical rays, Poynting's vector, and field momenta; 23. Doppler shift, stellar aberration, and convection of light by moving Media; 24. Diffraction gratings; 25. Diffractive optical elements; 26. The talbot effect; 27. Some quirks of total internal reflection; 28. Evanescent coupling; 29. Internal and external conical refraction; 30. Transmission of light through small elliptical apertures; 31. The method of Fox and Li; 32. The beam propagation method; 33. Launching light into a Fiber; 34. The optics of demiconductor fiode Laser; 35. Michelson's dtellar interferometer; 36. Bracewell's interferometric telescope; 37. Scanning optical microscopy; 38. Zernike's method of phase contrast; 39. Polarization microscopy; 40. Nomarski's differential interference contrast microscope; 41. The Van Leeuwenhoek microscope; 42. Projection photolithography; 43. Interaction of light with subwavelength structures; 44 The Ronchi test; 45. The Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor; 46. Ellipsometry; 47. Holography and holographic interferometry; 48. Self-focusing in non-linear optical media; 49

  16. Classical analog of quantum phase

    SciTech Connect

    Ord, G.N.

    1992-07-01

    A modified version of the Feynman relativistic chessboard model (FCM) is investigated in which the paths involved are spirals in the space-time. Portions of the paths in which the particle`s proper time is reversed are interpreted in terms of antiparticles. With this intepretation the particle-antiparticle field produced by such trajectories provides a classical analog of the phase associated with particle paths in the unmodified FCM. It is shwon that in the nonrelativistic limit the resulting kernel is the correct Dirac propagator and that particle-antiparticle symmetry is in this case responsible for quantum interference. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Classical dynamics on Snyder spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignemi, S.

    2015-04-01

    We study the classical dynamics of a particle in Snyder spacetime, adopting the formalism of constrained Hamiltonian systems introduced by Dirac. We show that the motion of a particle in a scalar potential is deformed with respect to special relativity by terms of order βE2. A remarkable result is that in the relativistic Snyder model a consistent choice of the time variable must necessarily depend on the dynamics. This is a consequence of the nontrivial mixing between position and momentum coordinates intrinsic to the Snyder model.

  18. Recent developments in classical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. G.

    2001-10-01

    In the period spanned by the Texas meetings,-the term ``classical relativity'' was not yet coined 40 years ago-the notions of gravitational collapse, gravitational radiation singularities and black hole where in the center of almost all investigations and developments. 40 years ago black holes were exotic theoretical concepts far from reality. Now they seem to exist all over the univers. In the last 40 years a scenarium describing the collaps or collision of stellar objects or BHs has formed. In my talk I want to outline this picture, tell you which parts are firmly established and where the big open questions are. .

  19. Classical Lagrange Functions for the SME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, N.

    2011-12-01

    A technique is presented for finding the classical Lagrange function corresponding to a given dispersion relation. This allows us to study the classical analogue of the Standard-Model Extension. Developments are discussed.

  20. Classical and eclipse optical choppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents some of our advances in the study and development of optical choppers. The modulation functions we have studied for classical choppers are pointed out - for top-hat (constant intensity) light beam distributions. The eclipse choppers that, to the best of our knowledge we have introduced are also presented. We thus point out the differences between the profiles of light (laser) impulses produced by the classical devices (with rotating wheels with windows with linear edges) and the novel eclipse choppers - under patent (with windows with circular edges that produce for the circular-shaped section of the laser beam in the plane of the wheel a planetary eclipse-like effect - from which the name we have proposed for this type of device). The most convenient (from the technological and from the cost point of view) solution, with wheels with circular holes is also obtained. The advantages and the drawbacks of the various devices are discussed. Both a theoretical and an experimental approach are considered. The latter is done on a chopper module we have constructed, with prototype chopper wheels we have designed and manufactured. Throughout the study, top-hat laser beams are considered, as they are most used in laser manufacturing applications. The perspective of conducting the study on other light beams distributions (e.g., Gaussian) is also pointed out.

  1. Classically spinning and isospinning solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2012-09-26

    We investigate classically spinning topological solitons in (2+1)- and (3+1)-dimensional models; more explicitely spinning sigma model solitons in 2+1 dimensions and Skyrme solitons in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. For example, such types of solitons can be used to describe quasiparticle excitations in ferromagnetic quantum Hall systems or to model spin and isospin states of nuclei. The standard way to obtain solitons with quantised spin and isospin is the semiclassical quantization procedure: One parametrizes the zero-mode space - the space of energy-degenerate soliton configurations generated from a single soliton by spatial translations and rotations in space and isospace - by collective coordinates which are then taken to be time-dependent. This gives rise to additional dynamical terms in the Hamiltonian which can then be quantized following semiclassical quantization rules. A simplification which is often made in the literature is to apply a simple adiabatic approximation to the (iso)rotational zero modes of the soliton by assuming that the soliton's shape is rotational frequency independent. Our numerical results on classically spinning arbitrarily deforming soliton solutions clearly show that soliton deformation cannot be ignored.

  2. Friedreich Ataxia in Classical Galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Neville, Siobhán; O'Sullivan, Siobhan; Sweeney, Bronagh; Lynch, Bryan; Hanrahan, Donncha; Knerr, Ina; Lynch, Sally Ann; Crushell, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders such as ataxia are a recognized complication of classical galactosaemia, even in diet-compliant patients. Here, we report the coexistence of classical galactosaemia and Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) in nine children from seven Irish Traveller families. These two autosomal recessive disorders, the loci for which are located on either side of the centromere of chromosome 9, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium in this subgroup. Both conditions are known to occur with increased frequency amongst the Irish Traveller population.Each member of our cohort had been diagnosed with galactosaemia in the neonatal period, and all are homozygous for the common Q188R mutation in the GALT gene. Eight of the nine patients later presented with progressive ataxia, between the ages of 5-13 years. Another child presented in cardiac failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy at 7 years of age. He was not ataxic at presentation and, one year from diagnosis, his neurological examination remains normal. The diagnosis of FRDA was confirmed by detecting the common pathogenic GAA expansion in both alleles of the frataxin gene (FXN) in each patient.Neurological symptoms are easily attributed to an underlying diagnosis of galactosaemia. It is important to consider a diagnosis of Friedreich ataxia in a child from the Irish Traveller population with galactosaemia who presents with ataxia or cardiomyopathy. PMID:26219880

  3. Teaching classical mechanics using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf.4 Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming."5 Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics teachers could add that smartphones are "perfect for teaching science." The software iMecaProf displays in real time the measured data on a screen. The visual representation is built upon the formalism of classical mechanics. iMecaProf receives data 100 times a second from iPhone sensors through a Wi-Fi connection using the application Sensor Data.6 Data are the three components of the acceleration vector in the smartphone frame and smartphone's orientation through three angles (yaw, pitch, and roll). For circular motion (uniform or not), iMecaProf uses independent measurements of the rotation angle θ, the angular speed dθ/dt, and the angular acceleration d2θ/dt2.

  4. Physiological characteristics of classical ballet.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P G; Astrand, P O

    1984-10-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during professional training sessions ("classes") of classical ballet as well as during rehearsed and performed ballets has been studied by means of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration determinations on professional ballet dancers from the Royal Swedish Ballet in Stockholm. The measured oxygen uptake during six different normal classes at the theatre averaged about 35-45% of the maximal oxygen uptake, and the blood lactate concentration averaged 3 mM (N = 6). During 10 different solo parts of choreographed dance (median length = 1.8 min) representative for moderately to very strenuous dance, an average oxygen uptake (measured during the last minute) of 80% of maximum and blood lactate concentration of 10 mM was measured (N = 10). In addition, heart rate registrations from soloists in different ballets during performance and final rehearsals frequently indicated a high oxygen uptake relative to maximum and an average blood lactate concentration of 11 mM (N = 5). Maximal oxygen uptake, determined in 1971 (N = 11) and 1983 (N = 13) in two different groups of dancers, amounted to on the average 51 and 56 ml X min-1 X kg-1 for the females and males, respectively. In conclusion, classical ballet is a predominantly intermittent type of exercise. In choreographed dance each exercise period usually lasts only a few minutes, but can be very demanding energetically, while during the dancers' basic training sessions, the energy yield is low. PMID:6513765

  5. Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…

  6. Introducing the Classics to Reluctant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Lissa J.

    Using the pocket classics can be a painless way to introduce the classics to eighth-grade students. Condensed versions of the classics can take the sting out of the reading, stimulate students' interest, and help prepare them for high school. To offer students in one eighth-grade class some control over their own learning, a contract system was…

  7. The Iconography of Universities as Institutional Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drori, Gili S.; Delmestri, Giuseppe; Oberg, Achim

    2016-01-01

    The coming of "brand society" and the onset of mediatization spur universities to strategize their visual identity and pay particular attention to their icon. Resulting from branding initiatives, university icons are visual self-representations and material-cum-symbolic forms of organizational identity. In this work we ask: What identity…

  8. Feruidus Ille Canis: the Lore and Poetry of the Dog Star in Antiquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceragioli, Roger Charles

    1992-01-01

    The Dog Star, Sirius, appears in many important works of classical poetry. It also appears in numerous myths and several religious rituals. A complex body of folklore surrounds it and it had a paramount importance in agriculture. Yet no one has attempted a systematic analysis of Sirius' place in Greco-Roman art and thought. This thesis begins that analysis. The introductory chapter discusses the methodology and approach that the thesis takes to the evidence, and supplies essential background information on Sirius' place among the constellations and its relation to the physical environment of the Mediterranean. Chapter one explores Sirius' role in ancient warrior traditions. Sirius embodied the principle of cosmic heat, and through heat it was thought to cause rabies in dogs. The Greek word for rabies is lussa. But lussa also named the madness of warriors such as Achilles in the Iliad. Etymologically, lussa meant "wolfishness." Rabid dogs, wolves, and raging warriors all exhibit fiery heat as an integral part of their natures. It is argued that raging warriors, wolves, and rabid dogs were largely interchangeable entities for the Greeks. Thus when Hector and Achilles in their raging are compared to Sirius, the comparison reflects more than the likeness of their surface brilliance. Chapter two explores Sirius' connection to erotic themes in ancient poetry. Because erotic experience could be represented as a conflagration that might burn the lover into a frenzy, the fiery raging Dog Star was an appropriate symbolic accompaniment. Sirius itself experienced erotic frenzy when it became passionate for Opora (the ripe fruits of summer). Chapter three turns to Sirius' involvement in viticulture. Sirius was said to ripen the grapes, but was also conceived to have once been the faithful dog of Icarius, who first introduced wine-drinking among humans. The chapter explores Sirius' role in the myth of Icarius, and the relation of that myth to the erotic and martial sides of

  9. The origin and antiquity of syphilis revisited: an appraisal of Old World pre-Columbian evidence for treponemal infection.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kristin N; Zuckerman, Molly K; Harper, Megan L; Kingston, John D; Armelagos, George J

    2011-01-01

    For nearly 500 years, scholars have argued about the origin and antiquity of syphilis. Did Columbus bring the disease from the New World to the Old World? Or did syphilis exist in the Old World before 1493? Here, we evaluate all 54 published reports of pre-Columbian, Old World treponemal disease using a standardized, systematic approach. The certainty of diagnosis and dating of each case is considered, and novel information pertinent to the dating of these cases, including radiocarbon dates, is presented. Among the reports, we did not find a single case of Old World treponemal disease that has both a certain diagnosis and a secure pre-Columbian date. We also demonstrate that many of the reports use nonspecific indicators to diagnose treponemal disease, do not provide adequate information about the methods used to date specimens, and do not include high-quality photographs of the lesions of interest. Thus, despite an increasing number of published reports of pre-Columbian treponemal infection, it appears that solid evidence supporting an Old World origin for the disease remains absent. PMID:22101689

  10. On the Antiquity of Cancer: Evidence for Metastatic Carcinoma in a Young Man from Ancient Nubia (c. 1200BC)

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Michaela; Roberts, Charlotte; Spencer, Neal; Antoine, Daniel; Cartwright, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Cancer, one of the world’s leading causes of death today, remains almost absent relative to other pathological conditions, in the archaeological record, giving rise to the conclusion that the disease is mainly a product of modern living and increased longevity. This paper presents a male, young-adult individual from the archaeological site of Amara West in northern Sudan (c. 1200BC) displaying multiple, mainly osteolytic, lesions on the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicles, scapulae, pelvis, and humeral and femoral heads. Following radiographic, microscopic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging of the lesions, and a consideration of differential diagnoses, a diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma secondary to an unknown soft tissue cancer is suggested. This represents the earliest complete example in the world of a human who suffered metastatic cancer to date. The study further draws its strength from modern analytical techniques applied to differential diagnoses and the fact that it is firmly rooted within a well-documented archaeological and historical context, thus providing new insights into the history and antiquity of the disease as well as its underlying causes and progression. PMID:24637948

  11. Cooling and societal change during the Late Antique Little Ice Age from 536 to around 660 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Myglan, Vladimir S.; Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier; McCormick, Michael; di Cosmo, Nicola; Sigl, Michael; Jungclaus, Johann; Wagner, Sebastian; Krusic, Paul J.; Esper, Jan; Kaplan, Jed O.; de Vaan, Michiel A. C.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Wacker, Lukas; Tegel, Willy; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes during the first half of the Common Era have been suggested to play a role in societal reorganizations in Europe and Asia. In particular, the sixth century coincides with rising and falling civilizations, pandemics, human migration and political turmoil. Our understanding of the magnitude and spatial extent as well as the possible causes and concurrences of climate change during this period is, however, still limited. Here we use tree-ring chronologies from the Russian Altai and European Alps to reconstruct summer temperatures over the past two millennia. We find an unprecedented, long-lasting and spatially synchronized cooling following a cluster of large volcanic eruptions in 536, 540 and 547 AD (ref. ), which was probably sustained by ocean and sea-ice feedbacks, as well as a solar minimum. We thus identify the interval from 536 to about 660 AD as the Late Antique Little Ice Age. Spanning most of the Northern Hemisphere, we suggest that this cold phase be considered as an additional environmental factor contributing to the establishment of the Justinian plague, transformation of the eastern Roman Empire and collapse of the Sasanian Empire, movements out of the Asian steppe and Arabian Peninsula, spread of Slavic-speaking peoples and political upheavals in China.

  12. Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Dias, L A S; Missio, R F; Dias, D C F S

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas. PMID:22782638

  13. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…

  14. Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.

    PubMed

    Galley, Chad R

    2013-04-26

    Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733

  15. Gamma Rays from Classical Novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA at the University of Chicago, provided support for a program of theoretical research into the nature of the thermonuclear outbursts of the classical novae and their implications for gamma ray astronomy. In particular, problems which have been addressed include the role of convection in the earliest stages of nova runaway, the influence of opacity on the characteristics of novae, and the nucleosynthesis expected to accompany nova outbursts on massive Oxygen-Neon-Magnesium (ONeMg) white dwarfs. In the following report, I will identify several critical projects on which considerable progress has been achieved and provide brief summaries of the results obtained:(1) two dimensional simulation of nova runaway; (2) nucleosynthesis of nova modeling; and (3) a quasi-analytic study of nucleosynthesis in ONeMg novae.

  16. Diffusion of monochromatic classical waves.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Sijmen; Bauer, Gerrit E W

    2006-01-01

    We study the diffusion of monochromatic classical waves in a disordered acoustic medium by scattering theory. In order to avoid artifacts associated with mathematical point scatterers, we model the randomness by small but finite insertions. We derive expressions for the configuration-averaged energy flux, energy density, and intensity for one-, two-, and three-dimensional (3D) systems with an embedded monochromatic source using the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We study the transition from ballistic to diffusive wave propagation and obtain results for the frequency dependence of the medium properties such as mean free path and diffusion coefficient as a function of the scattering parameters. We discover characteristic differences of the diffusion in 2D as compared to the conventional 3D case, such as an explicit dependence of the energy flux on the mean free path and quite different expressions for the effective transport velocity. PMID:16486306

  17. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  18. Un-renormalized classical electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Ibison, Michael . E-mail: ibison@earthtech.org

    2006-02-15

    This paper follows in the tradition of direct-action versions of electromagnetism having the aim of avoiding a balance of infinities wherein a mechanical mass offsets an infinite electromagnetic mass so as to arrive at a finite observed value. However, the direct-action approach ultimately failed in that respect because its initial exclusion of self-action was later found to be untenable in the relativistic domain. Pursing the same end, this paper examines instead a version of electromagnetism wherein mechanical action is excluded and self-action is retained. It is shown that the resulting theory is effectively interacting due to the presence of infinite forces. A vehicle for the investigation is a pair of classical point charges in a positronium-like arrangement for which the orbits are found to be self-sustaining and naturally quantized.

  19. Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

    2010-05-01

    Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in pre-college science classes, or in public science education setting.

  20. Classical Concepts in Quantum Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ömer, Bernhard

    2005-07-01

    The rapid progress of computer technology has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of software development, from hardwired components and binary machine code to high level programming languages, which allowed to master the increasing hardware complexity and fully exploit its potential. This paper investigates, how classical concepts like hardware abstraction, hierarchical programs, data types, memory management, flow of control, and structured programming can be used in quantum computing. The experimental language QCL will be introduced as an example, how elements like irreversible functions, local variables, and conditional branching, which have no direct quantum counterparts, can be implemented, and how nonclassical features like the reversibility of unitary transformation or the nonobservability of quantum states can be accounted for within the framework of a procedural programming language.

  1. Methods for tracing the origin of white marbles used in antiquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Walter; Grillo, Silvana Maria

    2013-04-01

    The topic of this paper is to given an overview of the methods to pinpoint the origin of white marbles and to discuss the progress made in this field during the last years. To pinpoint the place of origin of the marble to an area or even to a special quarry may be of appreciable importance in investigating ancient trading routes and trade relations. A material-specific classification can be conducive to understand if the workshops of an area used marbles of acceptable quality from a local quarry or quarrying areas or if they used imported marbles in or without combination with local ones. Furthermore during restoration activities the knowledge of the origin of the marbles used in architecture may be of importance for supplying more or less original types of marbles. It may also be of interest for evaluating the authenticity of artifact information on the provenance of the used material. The first attempt to discriminate between different marbles used petrographic methods followed by instrumental chemical analyses, especially the analysis of trace elements. In the last decades multi-element neutron activation analysis (NAA) of various trace elements was attempted to pinpoint the origins of marbles. A few decades ago stable isotope analysis seemed to be the solution of this problem and became the standard methods for investigation the origin of white marbles. However, with the rapidly increasing number of historical marble quarrying sites and with the increasing number of analyzed samples in general, the compositional fields in the isotope diagram became larger and many classical marbles show large ranges of overlap. Therefore special attention is drawn to a new method to characterize the chemical properties of microinclusiones of the marbles additional to the conventionally used methods to ascribe their origin to a special quarry or at least to a defined geological formation of a given area. Several case studies will be presented: Different types of marbles were

  2. Classical vs. non-classical pathways of mineral formation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Yoreo, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent chemical analyses, microscopy studies and computer simulations suggest many minerals nucleate through aggregation of pre-nucleation clusters and grow by particle-mediated processes that involve amorphous or disordered precursors. Still other analyses, both experimental and computational, conclude that even simple mineral systems like calcium carbonate form via a barrier-free process of liquid-liquid separation, which is followed by dehydration of the ion-rich phase to form the solid products. However, careful measurements of calcite nucleation rates on a variety of ionized surfaces give results that are in complete agreement with the expectations of classical nucleation theory, in which clusters growing through ion-by-ion addition overcome a free energy barrier through the natural microscopic density fluctuations of the system. Here the challenge of integrating these seemingly disparate observations and analyses into a coherent picture of mineral formation is addressed by considering the energy barriers to calcite formation predicted by the classical theory and the changes in those barriers brought about by the introduction of interfaces and clusters, both stable and metastable. Results from a suite of in situ TEM, AFM, and optical experiments combined with simulations are used to illustrate the conclusions. The analyses show that the expected barrier to homogeneous calcite nucleation is prohibitive even at concentrations exceeding the solubility limit of amorphous calcium carbonate. However, as demonstrated by experiments on self-assembled monolayers, the introduction of surfaces that moderately decrease the interfacial energy associated with the forming nucleus can reduce the magnitude of the barrier to a level that is easily surmounted under typical laboratory conditions. In the absence of such surfaces, experiments that proceed by continually increasing supersaturation with time can easily by-pass direct nucleation of calcite and open up pathways through

  3. Pembrolizumab in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Maly, Joseph; Alinari, Lapo

    2016-09-01

    Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a key immune-inhibitory molecule expressed on T cells and implicated in CD4+ T-cell exhaustion and tumor immune-escape mechanisms. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a unique B-cell malignancy in the sense that malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells represent a small percentage of cells within an extensive immune cell infiltrate. PD-1 ligands are upregulated on RS cells as a consequence of both chromosome 9p24.1 amplification and Epstein-Barr virus infection and by interacting with PD-1 promote an immune-suppressive effect. By augmenting antitumor immune response, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, another monoclonal antibody against PD-1, have shown significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory cHL as well as an acceptable toxicity profile with immune-related adverse events that are generally manageable. In this review, we explore the rationale for targeting PD-1 in cHL, review the clinical trial results supporting the use of checkpoint inhibitors in this disease, and present future directions for investigation in which this approach may be used. PMID:27147112

  4. Olfactory Classical Conditioning in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Regina M.; Taborsky-Barba, Suzanne; Mendoza, Raffael; Itano, Alison; Leon, Michael; Cotman, Carl W.; Payne, Terrence F.; Lott, Ira

    2007-01-01

    One-day-old, awake infants underwent an olfactory classical conditioning procedure to assess associative learning within the olfactory system of newborns. Experimental infants received ten 30-second pairings of a novel olfactory conditioned stimulus (a citrus odor of neutral value) and tactile stimulation provided by stroking as the reinforcing unconditioned stimulus (a stimulus with positive properties). Control babies received only the odor, only the stroking, or the stroking followed by the odor presentation. The next day, all infants, in either the awake or sleep state, were given five 30-second presentations of the odor. Results were analyzed from video tapes scored by an observer unaware of the infants’ training condition. The results indicate that only those infants who received the forward pairings of the odor and stroking exhibited conditioned responding (head turning toward the odor) to the citrus odor. The performance of the conditioned response was not affected by the state of the baby during testing, because both awake and sleeping infants exhibited conditioned responses. Furthermore, the expression of the conditioned response was odor specific; a novel floral odor presented during testing did not elicit conditioned responses in the experimental babies. These results suggest that complex associative olfactory learning is seen in newborns within the first 48 hours of life. These baseline findings may serve as normative data against which observation from neonates at risk for neurological sequelae may be compared. PMID:2011429

  5. Classical universes are perfectly predictable!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jan Hendrik

    I argue that in a classical universe, all the events that ever happen are encoded in each of the universe's parts. This conflicts with a statement which is widely believed to lie at the basis of relativity theory: that the events in a space-time region R determine only the events in R's domain of dependence but not those in other space-time regions. I show how, from this understanding, a new prediction method (which I call the 'Smoothness Method') can be obtained which allows us to predict future events on the basis of local observational data. Like traditional prediction methods, this method makes use of so-called ' ceteris paribus clauses', i.e. assumptions about the unobserved parts of the universe. However, these assumptions are used in a way which enables us to predict the behaviour of open systems with arbitrary accuracy, regardless of the influence of their environment-which has not been achieved by traditional methods. In a sequel to this paper (Schmidt, 1998), I will prove the Uniqueness and Predictability Theorems on which the Smoothness Method is based, and comment in more detail on its mathematical properties.

  6. Crystallization of classical multicomponent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We develop a method for calculating the equilibrium properties of the liquid-solid phase transition in a classical, ideal, multicomponent plasma. Our method is a semianalytic calculation that relies on extending the accurate fitting formulas available for the one-, two-, and three-component plasmas to the case of a plasma with an arbitrary number of components. We compare our results to those of C. J. Horowitz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 75, 066101 (2007)], who used a molecular-dynamics simulation to study the chemical properties of a 17-species mixture relevant to the ocean-crust boundary of an accreting neutron star at the point where half the mixture has solidified. Given the same initial composition as Horowitz et al., we are able to reproduce to good accuracy both the liquid and solid compositions at the half-freezing point; we find abundances for most species within 10% of the simulation values. Our method allows the phase diagram of complex mixtures to be explored more thoroughly than possible with numerical simulations. We briefly discuss the implications for the nature of the liquid-solid boundary in accreting neutron stars.

  7. Fragmentation of hot classical drops

    SciTech Connect

    Vicentini, A.; Jacucci, G.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1985-05-01

    Time evolution of hot drops of matter containing approx.230 or approx.130 particles is studied by classical molecular dynamics. Initially, the drops have uniform density and a sharp surface. The chosen initial conditions include three values of density and a range of temperatures wide enough to study the phenomena of evaporation, fragmentation, and total vaporization in a unified fashion. The average density and temperature of central matter is measured periodically to obtain trajectories of the evolution in the rho,T plane. These trajectories indicate that the matter expands almost adiabatically until it reaches the region of adiabatic instabilities. Density inhomogeneities develop in this region, but the matter fragments only if the expansion continues to average densities of less than one-fourth the liquid density, otherwise it recondenses into a single blob. The recondensed matter and fragments have very crooked surfaces. If the temperature is high enough, the expanding matter does not enter the region of adiabatic instabilities and totally vaporizes. For initial densities of the order of equilibrium density, matter does not fragment or develop large inhomogeneities in the region enclosed by the isothermal and adiabatic spinodals. Thus it appears unlikely that fragmentation of small drops (nuclei) can be used to study the isothermal critical region of gas-liquid phase transition. A detailed tabulation of the energies and number of monomers, dimers, light, and heavy fragments emitted in each event is presented.

  8. Classical catalase: ancient and modern.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Peter

    2012-09-15

    This review describes the historical difficulties in devising a kinetically satisfactory mechanism for the classical catalase after its identification as a unique catalytic entity in 1902 and prior to the breakthrough 1947 analysis by Chance and co-workers which led to the identification of peroxide compounds I and II. The role of protons in the formation of these two ferryl complexes is discussed and current problems of inhibitory ligand and hydrogen donor binding at the active site are outlined, especially the multiple roles involving formate or formic acid. A previous mechanism of NADPH-dependent catalase protection against substrate inhibition is defended. A revised model linking the catalytic ('catalatic') action and the one-electron side reactions involving compound II is suggested. And it is concluded that, contrary to an idea proposed in 1963 that eukaryotic catalase might be a 'fossil enzyme', current thinking gives it a central role in the redox protective processes of long term importance for human and other eukaryotic and prokaryotic life. PMID:22326823

  9. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  10. Potential wells for classical acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Lin, ShuYu; Mo, RunYang; Fu, ZhiQiang

    2014-01-01

    The acceleration theorem of Bloch waves is utilized to construct random potential wells for classical acoustic waves in systems composed of alternating `cavities' and `couplers'. One prominent advantage of this method is these `cavities' and `couplers' are all monolayer structures. It allows forming more compact classical potential wells, which leads to the miniaturization of acoustic devices. We systematically investigate properties of harmonic, tangent, hyperbolic function, and square classical potential wells in quasi-periodic superlattices. Results show these classical potential wells are analogues of quantum potential wells. Thus some technologies and concepts in quantum potential well fields may be generalized to classical acoustic wave fields. In addition, some abnormal cases regarding forming classical potential wells are also found.

  11. Thermal-stable proteins of fruit of long-living Sacred Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn var. China Antique

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Petra; Xie, Yongming; Villa, Sarah; Wooding, Kerry; Clarke, Steven G.; Loo, Rachel R. O.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-seeded fruit of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn var. China Antique from NE China have viability as long as ~1300 years determined by direct radiocarbon-dating, having a germination rate of 84%. The pericarp, a fruit tissue that encloses the single seeds of Nelumbo, is considered one of the major factors that contribute to fruit longevity. Proteins that are heat stable and have protective function may be equally important to seed viability. We show proteins of Nelumbo fruit that are able to withstand heating, 31% of which remained soluble in the 110°C-treated embryo-axis of a 549-yr-old fruit and 76% retained fluidity in its cotyledons. Genome of Nelumbo is published. The amino-acid sequences of 11 “thermal proteins” (soluble at 100°C) of modern Nelumbo embryo-axes and cotyledons, identified by mass spectrometry, Western blot and bioassay, are assembled and aligned with those of an archaeal-hyperthermophile Methancaldococcus jannaschii (Mj; an anaerobic methanogen having a growth optimum of 85°C) and with five mesophile angiosperms. These thermal proteins have roles in protection and repair under stress. More than half of the Nelumbo thermal proteins (55%) are present in the archaean Mj, indicating their long-term durability and history. One Nelumbo protein-repair enzyme exhibits activity at 100°C, having a higher heat-tolerance than that of Arabidopsis. A list of 30 sequenced but unassembled thermal proteins of Nelumbo is supplemented. PMID:24363819

  12. Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional W-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Uhi Rinn

    2015-01-15

    We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine W-algebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine W-algebras can be considered as quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-algebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional W-algebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional W-algebra has two compatible λ-brackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional W-algebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λ-brackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional W-algebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.

  13. Classical underpinnings of gravitationally induced quantum interference

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D.

    1998-02-01

    We show that the gravitational modification of the phase of a neutron beam [the Colella-Overhauser-Werner (COW) experiment] has a classical origin, being due to the time delay that classical particles experience in traversing a background gravitational field. Similarly, we show that classical light waves also undergo a phase shift in traversing a gravitational field. We show that the COW experiment respects the equivalence principle even in the presence of quantum mechanics. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibort, A.; López-Yela, A.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.; Ventriglia, F.

    2012-03-01

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss-Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  15. Classical Solution Thermodynamics: A Retrospective View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ness, H. C.; Abbott, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Examines topics related to classical solution thermodynamics, considering energy, enthalpy, and the Gibbs function. Applicable mathematical equations are introduced and discussed when appropriate. (JN)

  16. Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-09-01

    Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. B-symptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease. Histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. Primary mediastinal NS-CHL consists of nodules of polymorphous inflammatory cells surrounded by broad fibrous bands extending from a thickened lymph node capsule. The cellular nodules contain variable numbers of large Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, required for diagnosis. Primary thymic CHL may exhibit prominent cystic changes. The histopathologic recognition of NS-CHL can be challenging in cases with prominent fibrosis, scant cellularity, artifactual cell distortion, or an exuberant granulomatous reaction. The differential diagnosis includes primary mediastinal non-HLs, mediastinal germ cell tumors, thymoma, and metastatic carcinoma or melanoma to the mediastinum. Distinction from primary mediastinal non-HLs is crucial for adequate therapeutic decisions. Approximately 95% of patients with primary mediastinal CHL will be alive and free of disease at 10 years after treatment with short courses of combined chemoradiotherapy. In this review, we discuss the history, classification, epidemiology, clinicoradiologic features, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and treatment of primary mediastinal CHL. PMID:27441757

  17. Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.K.

    1982-08-01

    Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H/sub 2/C/sub 2/ ..-->.. HC/sub 2/H, HNC ..-->.. HCN, and H/sub 2/CO ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I ..-->.. Na /sup +/ + I/sup -/ is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features. (WHM)

  18. Classical transport in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  19. NUCLEAR THERMOMETERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Downen, Lori N.; Iliadis, Christian; Jose, Jordi; Starrfield, Sumner

    2013-01-10

    Classical novae are stellar explosions occurring in binary systems, consisting of a white dwarf and a main-sequence companion. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of massive white dwarfs, consisting of oxygen and neon, are believed to reach peak temperatures of several hundred million kelvin. These temperatures are strongly correlated with the underlying white dwarf mass. The observational counterparts of such models are likely associated with outbursts that show strong spectral lines of neon in their shells (neon novae). The goals of this work are to investigate how useful elemental abundances are for constraining the peak temperatures achieved during these outbursts and determine how robust 'nova thermometers' are with respect to uncertain nuclear physics input. We present updated observed abundances in neon novae and perform a series of hydrodynamic simulations for several white dwarf masses. We find that the most useful thermometers, N/O, N/Al, O/S, S/Al, O/Na, Na/Al, O/P, and P/Al, are those with the steepest monotonic dependence on peak temperature. The sensitivity of these thermometers to thermonuclear reaction rate variations is explored using post-processing nucleosynthesis simulations. The ratios N/O, N/Al, O/Na, and Na/Al are robust, meaning they are minimally affected by uncertain rates. However, their dependence on peak temperature is relatively weak. The ratios O/S, S/Al, O/P, and P/Al reveal strong dependences on temperature and the poorly known {sup 30}P(p, {gamma}){sup 31}S rate. We compare our model predictions to neon nova observations and obtain the following estimates for the underlying white dwarf masses: 1.34-1.35 M {sub Sun} (V838 Her), 1.18-1.21 M {sub Sun} (V382 Vel), {<=}1.3 M {sub Sun} (V693 CrA), {<=}1.2 M {sub Sun} (LMC 1990 no. 1), and {<=}1.2 M {sub Sun} (QU Vul).

  20. Element abundances of classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, J.; Drechsel, H.; Starrfield, S.

    1994-11-01

    Physical conditions and element abundances in the optically thin shells of 11 classical novae with outbursts between 1978 and 1989 were determined from an analysis of UV and optical spectra obtained during the nebular stage. Eight novae were studied on the basis of new optical and UV spectra. The accuracy of the element abundances depends on whether or not simultaneous UV spectra were available to determine individual ionization stage dependent gas temperatures. Generally, slightly higher than solar abundances of helium and pronounced overabundances of the heavier elements were found. QU Vul turned out to be an ONeMg nova, while the other objects belong to the class of CO novae. The nature of V2214 Oph could not be completely clarified. The novae V1668 Cyg (1978), V693 CrA (1981), and V1370 Aql (1982), for which published element abundances exist, were reanalyzed to check the consistency of our spectral analysis approach. Satisfactory agreement of the results was found. Photoionization calculations were carried out for PW Vul using the code of Aldrovandi, Pequignot, and Stasinska. A synthetic spectrum was generated for the parameters derived from the analysis of the UV and optical spectra, which is in very good agreement with the observations. The spectral analysis technique was then applied to the model spectrum and reproduced the model parameters well. Electron temperatures for the C(2+) and C(3+) ions between 7 500 and 12,000 K and for N(4+) betwen 12,000 and 16,000 K were derived. For PW Vul these temperatures remained relatively constant over several months. The decline in density of the ejected shells with time could be investigated for V842 Cen, QV Vul, V977 Sco, and V443 Sct, and was found to deviate from the relation Ne proportional to t-2 for free expansion of a shell in a different way for each object. A possible explanation may be the complex density structure of the shells. This suspicion is supported by high resolution spectra (ESO 3.6m telescope

  1. Classics and Moral Education: A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Pat

    1975-01-01

    Criticizes John Wilson's "Classics and Moral Education," in this issue, as being ambiguous and vague. The view here is that moral education would not derive automatically from classical studies but must be taught and developed, and based on a value system already present. (CHK)

  2. Velopharyngeal Port Status during Classical Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Power, David

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was undertaken to examine the status of the velopharyngeal (VP) port during classical singing. Method: Using aeromechanical instrumentation, nasal airflow (mL/s), oral pressure (cm H[subscript 2]O), and VP orifice area estimates (cm[squared]) were studied in 10 classically trained sopranos during singing and speaking.…

  3. Classic and Hard-Boiled Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John M.

    Through an analysis of several stories, this paper defines the similarities and differences between classic and hard-boiled detective fiction. The characters and plots of three stories are discussed: "The Red House" by A. A. Milne; "I, The Jury" by Mickey Spillane; and "League of Frightened Men" by Rex Stout. The classic detective story is defined…

  4. Quantum phase uncertainties in the classical limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    Several sources of phase noise, including spontaneous emission noise and the loss of coherence due to which-path information, are examined in the classical limit of high field intensities. Although the origin of these effects may appear to be quantum-mechanical in nature, it is found that classical analogies for these effects exist in the form of chaos.

  5. Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…

  6. Why/How Does Classics Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartledge, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Classics is in the news--or on the screen: "Gladiator" a few years ago, "Troy" very recently, "Alexander" as I write. How significant is this current Hollywood fascination with the ancient Greeks and Romans? Or should we take far more seriously the decline of the teaching of the Classical languages in schools, a decline so grave as to prompt a…

  7. Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.

    2016-07-01

    Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almost-ideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.

  8. The Classical Performing Arts of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtiss, Marie Joy

    A monograph of the numerous activities that have contributed to the current renaissance of India's classical performing arts covers the theoretical aspects, musical instruments, the main schools of classical dance, and drama. Besides the basic research described, the total project produced a set of 300 slides with annotated listing, picturing the…

  9. Rediscovering the Classics: The Project Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Ruth; Lubell, Marcia

    Focusing on seven classics of literature that are most challenging for teachers and students, but which are also a part of the high school literary canon, this book shares ways to create a learner-centered classroom for the study of literature. For each of the seven classics, the book "walks teachers through" the teaching-learning process,…

  10. Factors Influencing the Learning of Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the combined effect of certain variables on student achievement in classical mechanics. The purpose was to (1) describe preinstructional knowledge and skills; (2) correlate these variables with the student's success in learning classical mechanics; and (3) develop hypothesis about relationships between these…