Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohn, Jack
1980-01-01
Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)
Quantum mechanics from classical statistics
Wetterich, C.
2010-04-15
Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.
Quantum localization of classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2016-07-01
Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.
Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad
2013-01-01
A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…
Teaching classical mechanics using smartphones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad
2013-09-01
A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf.4 Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming."5 Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics teachers could add that smartphones are "perfect for teaching science." The software iMecaProf displays in real time the measured data on a screen. The visual representation is built upon the formalism of classical mechanics. iMecaProf receives data 100 times a second from iPhone sensors through a Wi-Fi connection using the application Sensor Data.6 Data are the three components of the acceleration vector in the smartphone frame and smartphone's orientation through three angles (yaw, pitch, and roll). For circular motion (uniform or not), iMecaProf uses independent measurements of the rotation angle θ, the angular speed dθ/dt, and the angular acceleration d2θ/dt2.
Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.
Galley, Chad R
2013-04-26
Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733
Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2012-01-01
We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…
Factors Influencing the Learning of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others
1980-01-01
Describes a study investigating the combined effect of certain variables on student achievement in classical mechanics. The purpose was to (1) describe preinstructional knowledge and skills; (2) correlate these variables with the student's success in learning classical mechanics; and (3) develop hypothesis about relationships between these…
Bohmian mechanics and the emergence of classicality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matzkin, A.
2009-06-01
Bohmian mechanics is endowed with an ontological package that supposedly allows to solve the main interpretational problems of quantum mechanics. We are concerned in this work by the emergence of classicality from the quantum mechanical substrate. We will argue that although being superficially attractive, the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation does not shed new light on the quantum-to-classical transition. This is due to nature of the dynamical law of Bohmian mechanics by which the particles follow the streamlines of the probability flow. As a consequence, Bohmian trajectories can be highly non-classical even when the wavefunction propagates along classical trajectories, as happens in semiclassical systems. In order to account for classical dynamics, Bohmian mechanics needs non-spreading and non-interfering wave packets: this is achieved for practical purposes by having recourse to decoherence and dense measurements. However one then faces the usual fundamental problems associated with the meaning of reduced density matrices. Moreover the specific assets of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation - in particular the existence of point-like particles pursuing well-defined trajectories - would play no role in accounting for the emergence of classical dynamics.
Enhancing non-classicality in mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie; Gröblacher, Simon; Paternostro, Mauro
2013-03-01
We study the effects of post-selection measurements on both the non-classicality of the state of a mechanical oscillator and the entanglement between two mechanical systems that are part of a distributed optomechanical network. We address the cases of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian measurements, identifying in which cases simple photon counting and Geiger-like measurements are effective in distilling a strongly non-classical mechanical state and enhancing the purely mechanical entanglement between two elements of the network.
Classical Mechanics Experiments using Wiimotes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Alexander; Ochoa, Romulo
2010-02-01
The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine by today's standards, to a physics educator the controllers are its most important components. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains a three-axis accelerometer, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, such as GlovePie, any PC or Laptop with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We present experiments that use two or three Wiimotes simultaneously to measure the variable accelerations in two mass systems interacting via springs. Normal modes are determined from the data obtained. Masses and spring constants are varied to analyze their impact on the accelerations of the systems. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those predicted using Lagrangian mechanics. )
Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics
Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E.
2011-12-14
We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a well-established method with an analysis of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable.
Nonconservation of momentum in classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chunghyoung
Pérez Laraudogoitia (1996) presented an isolated system of infinitely many particles with infinite total mass whose total classical energy and momentum are not necessarily conserved in some particular inertial frame of reference. With a more generalized model Atkinson (2007) proved that a system of infinitely many balls with finite total mass may evolve so that its total classical energy and total relativistic energy and momentum are not conserved in any inertial frame of reference, and yet concluded that its total classical momentum is necessarily conserved. Contrary to this conclusion of Atkinson, I show that Atkinson's model has a solution in which the total momentum fails to be conserved in every inertial frame of reference. This result, combined with Atkinson's, demonstrates that both classical and relativistic mechanics allow the energy and momentum of a system of infinitely many components to fail to be conserved in every inertial frame of reference.
Chaos in classical D0-brane mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gur-Ari, Guy; Hanada, Masanori; Shenker, Stephen H.
2016-02-01
We study chaos in the classical limit of the matrix quantum mechanical system describing D0-brane dynamics. We determine a precise value of the largest Lyapunov exponent, and, with less precision, calculate the entire spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. We verify that these approach a smooth limit as N → ∞. We show that a classical analog of scrambling occurs with fast scrambling scaling, t ∗ ˜ log S. These results confirm the k-locality property of matrix mechanics discussed by Sekino and Susskind.
Comparison of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Uncertainties.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peslak, John, Jr.
1979-01-01
Comparisons are made for the particle-in-a-box, the harmonic oscillator, and the one-electron atom. A classical uncertainty principle is derived and compared with its quantum-mechanical counterpart. The results are discussed in terms of the statistical interpretation of the uncertainty principle. (Author/BB)
Time in classical and in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elçi, A.
2010-07-01
This paper presents an analysis of the time concept in classical mechanics from the perspective of the invariants of a motion. The analysis shows that there is a conceptual gap concerning time in the Dirac-Heisenberg-von Neumann formalism and that Bohr's complementarity principle does not fill the gap. In the Dirac-Heisenberg-von Neumann formalism, a particle's properties are represented by Heisenberg matrices. This axiom is the source of the time problem in quantum mechanics.
Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics
Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T.
2014-03-15
The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the Bose-Einstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.
Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denny, Mark
2009-01-01
The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…
Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
The molecular mechanisms of classic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Felberbaum, Rachael S.
2005-01-01
Classic Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the appearance of giant abnormal cells called Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. HRS cells arise from germinal center B lymphocytes and in about 50 percent of patients, are infected with Epstein-Barr Virus. In addition, HRS cells show constitutive NF-kappaB activation and are resistant to apoptosis. This paper reviews several recent studies that for the first time implicate specific molecules in the pathogenesis of classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. Targeting these molecules could lead to the development of novel therapies for this disease. PMID:16720015
Supernovae in Binary Systems: An Application of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitalas, R.
1980-01-01
Presents the supernova explosion in a binary system as an application of classical mechanics. This presentation is intended to illustrate the power of the equivalent one-body problem and provide undergraduate students with a variety of insights into elementary classical mechanics. (HM)
Complex Classical Mechanics of a QES Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhabani Prasad, Mandal; Sushant, S. Mahajan
2015-10-01
We study a combined parity (P) and time reversal (T) invariant non-Hermitian quasi-exactly solvable (QES) potential, which exhibits PT phase transition, in the complex plane classically to demonstrate different quantum effects. The particle with real energy makes closed orbits around one of the periodic wells of the complex potential depending on the initial condition. However interestingly the particle escapes to an open orbits even with real energy if it is placed beyond a certain distance from the center of the well. On the other hand when the particle energy is complex the trajectory is open and the particle tunnels back and forth between two wells which are separated by a classically forbidden path. The tunneling time is calculated for different pair of wells and is shown to vary inversely with the imaginary component of energy. Our study reveals that spontaneous PT symmetry breaking does not affect the qualitative features of the particle trajectories in the analogous complex classical model. Support from Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India under SERC Project Sanction Grant No. SR/S2/HEP-0009/2012
Teaching Classical Statistical Mechanics: A Simulation Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sauer, G.
1981-01-01
Describes a one-dimensional model for an ideal gas to study development of disordered motion in Newtonian mechanics. A Monte Carlo procedure for simulation of the statistical ensemble of an ideal gas with fixed total energy is developed. Compares both approaches for a pseudoexperimental foundation of statistical mechanics. (Author/JN)
Hamilton's Principle and Approximate Solutions to Problems in Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlitt, D. W.
1977-01-01
Shows how to use the Ritz method for obtaining approximate solutions to problems expressed in variational form directly from the variational equation. Application of this method to classical mechanics is given. (MLH)
A Computer-based Course in Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kane, D.; Sherwood, B.
1980-01-01
Describes and illustrates the tutorial and homework exercise lessons, student routing, course organization, administration, and evaluation of a PLATO computer-based course in classical mechanics. An appendix lists 41 lessons developed for the course. (CMV)
Amphetamine toxicities Classical and emerging mechanisms
Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Moszczynska, Anna; Gudelsky, Gary A.
2014-01-01
The drugs of abuse, methamphetamine and MDMA, produce long-term decreases in markers of biogenic amine neurotransmission. These decreases have been traditionally linked to nerve terminals and are evident in a variety of species, including rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. Recent studies indicate that the damage produced by these drugs may be more widespread than originally believed. Changes indicative of damage to cell bodies of biogenic and nonbiogenic amine–containing neurons in several brain areas and endothelial cells that make up the blood–brain barrier have been reported. The processes that mediate this damage involve not only oxidative stress but also include excitotoxic mechanisms, neuroinflammation, the ubiquitin proteasome system, as well as mitochondrial and neurotrophic factor dysfunction. These mechanisms also underlie the toxicity associated with chronic stress and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, both of which have been shown to augment the toxicity to methamphetamine. Overall, multiple mechanisms are involved and interact to promote neurotoxicity to methamphetamine and MDMA. Moreover, the high coincidence of substituted amphetamine abuse by humans with HIV and/or chronic stress exposure suggests a potential enhanced vulnerability of these individuals to the neurotoxic actions of the amphetamines. PMID:20201848
Classical and quantum mechanical motion in magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franklin, J.; Cole Newton, K.
2016-04-01
We study the motion of a particle in a particular magnetic field configuration both classically and quantum mechanically. For flux-free radially symmetric magnetic fields defined on circular regions, we establish that particle escape speeds depend, classically, on a gauge-fixed magnetic vector potential, and we demonstrate some trajectories associated with this special type of magnetic field. Then we show that some of the geometric features of the classical trajectory (perpendicular exit from the field region, trapped and escape behavior) are reproduced quantum mechanically, using a numerical method that extends the norm-preserving Crank-Nicolson method to problems involving magnetic fields. While there are similarities between the classical trajectory and the position expectation value of the quantum-mechanical solution, there are also differences, and we demonstrate some of these.
Classical and Quantum Mechanical Motion in Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton, K. Cole; Franklin, Joel
2016-03-01
We study the motion of a particle in a particular magnetic field configuration both classically and quantum mechanically. For flux-free radially symmetric magnetic fields defined on circular regions, we establish that particle escape speeds depend, classically, on a gauge-fixed magnetic vector potential, and demonstrate some trajectories associated with this special type of magnetic field. Then we show that some of the geometric features of the classical trajectory (perpendicular exit from the field region, trapped and escape behavior) are reproduced quantum mechanically using a numerical method that extends the norm-preserving Crank-Nicolson method to problems involving magnetic fields. While there are similarities between the classical trajectory and the position expectation value of the quantum mechanical solution, there are also differences, and we demonstrate some of these.
A wave equation interpolating between classical and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schleich, W. P.; Greenberger, D. M.; Kobe, D. H.; Scully, M. O.
2015-10-01
We derive a ‘master’ wave equation for a family of complex-valued waves {{Φ }}\\equiv R{exp}[{{{i}}S}({cl)}/{{\\hbar }}] whose phase dynamics is dictated by the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the classical action {S}({cl)}. For a special choice of the dynamics of the amplitude R which eliminates all remnants of classical mechanics associated with {S}({cl)} our wave equation reduces to the Schrödinger equation. In this case the amplitude satisfies a Schrödinger equation analogous to that of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field where the roles of the scalar and the vector potentials are played by the classical energy and the momentum, respectively. In general this amplitude is complex and thereby creates in addition to the classical phase {S}({cl)}/{{\\hbar }} a quantum phase. Classical statistical mechanics, as described by a classical matter wave, follows from our wave equation when we choose the dynamics of the amplitude such that it remains real for all times. Our analysis shows that classical and quantum matter waves are distinguished by two different choices of the dynamics of their amplitudes rather than two values of Planck’s constant. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Richard Lewis Arnowitt—a pioneer of many-body theory, a path finder at the interface of gravity and quantum mechanics, and a true leader in non-relativistic and relativistic quantum field theory.
Models on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics.
Hooft, Gerard 't
2015-08-01
Arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there cannot be physical laws that require 'conspiracy'. It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In this report, several such counterexamples are shown. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. So now the question is asked: how can such a model feature 'conspiracy', and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations? Arguments concerning Bell's theorem are further sharpened. PMID:26124246
Novel Evasion Mechanisms of the Classical Complement Pathway.
Garcia, Brandon L; Zwarthoff, Seline A; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V
2016-09-15
Complement is a network of soluble and cell surface-associated proteins that gives rise to a self-amplifying, yet tightly regulated system with fundamental roles in immune surveillance and clearance. Complement becomes activated on the surface of nonself cells by one of three initiating mechanisms known as the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. Evasion of complement function is a hallmark of invasive pathogens and hematophagous organisms. Although many complement-inhibition strategies hinge on hijacking activities of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, an increasing number of uniquely evolved evasion molecules have been discovered over the past decade. In this review, we focus on several recent investigations that revealed mechanistically distinct inhibitors of the classical pathway. Because the classical pathway is an important and specific mediator of various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, in-depth knowledge of novel evasion mechanisms could direct future development of therapeutic anti-inflammatory molecules. PMID:27591336
Relativistic wave and particle mechanics formulated without classical mass
Fry, J.L.; Musielak, Z.E.; Chang, Trei-wen
2011-08-15
Highlights: > Formal derivation of the Klein-Gordon equation with an invariant frequency. > Formal derivation of the relativistic version of Newton's equation. > The classical mass is replaced by the invariant frequency. > The invariant frequencies for selected elementary particles are deduced. > The choice of natural units resulting from the developed theories is discussed. - Abstract: The fact that the concept of classical mass plays an important role in formulating relativistic theories of waves and particles is well-known. However, recent studies show that Galilean invariant theories of waves and particles can be formulated with the so-called 'wave mass', which replaces the classical mass and allows attaining higher accuracy of performing calculations [J.L. Fry and Z.E. Musielak, Ann. Phys. 325 (2010) 1194]. The main purpose of this paper is to generalize these results and formulate fundamental (Poincare invariant) relativistic theories of waves and particles without the classical mass. In the presented approach, the classical mass is replaced by an invariant frequency that only involves units of time. The invariant frequencies for various elementary particles are deduced from experiments and their relationship to the corresponding classical and wave mass for each particle is described. It is shown that relativistic wave mechanics with the invariant frequency is independent of the Planck constant, and that such theory can attain higher accuracy of performing calculations. The choice of natural units resulting from the developed theories of waves and particles is also discussed.
Brain Mechanisms of Extinction of the Classically Conditioned Eyeblink Response
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Richard F.; Robleto, Karla; Poulos, Andrew M.
2004-01-01
It is well established that the cerebellum and its associated circuitry are essential for classical conditioning of the eyeblink response and other discrete motor responses (e.g., limb flexion, head turn, etc.) learned with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). However, brain mechanisms underlying extinction of these responses are still…
A Primer on Elliptic Functions with Applications in Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brizard, Alain J.
2009-01-01
The Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic functions used to be part of the standard mathematical arsenal of physics students. They appear as solutions of many important problems in classical mechanics: the motion of a planar pendulum (Jacobi), the motion of a force-free asymmetric top (Jacobi), the motion of a spherical pendulum (Weierstrass) and the…
Twisting all the way: From classical mechanics to quantum fields
Aschieri, Paolo
2008-01-15
We discuss the effects that a noncommutative geometry induced by a Drinfeld twist has on physical theories. We systematically deform all products and symmetries of the theory. We discuss noncommutative classical mechanics, in particular its deformed Poisson bracket and hence time evolution and symmetries. The twisting is then extended to classical fields, and then to the main interest of this work: quantum fields. This leads to a geometric formulation of quantization on noncommutative space-time, i.e., we establish a noncommutative correspondence principle from *-Poisson brackets to * commutators. In particular commutation relations among creation and annihilation operators are deduced.
Bohmian mechanics, collapse models and the emergence of classicality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toroš, Marko; Donadi, Sandro; Bassi, Angelo
2016-09-01
We discuss the emergence of classical trajectories in Bohmian mechanics, when a macroscopic object interacts with an external environment. We show that in such a case the conditional wave function of the system follows a dynamics which, under reasonable assumptions, corresponds to that of the Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber (GRW) collapse model. As a consequence, Bohmian trajectories evolve classically. Our analysis also shows how the GRW (istantaneous) collapse process can be derived by an underlying continuous interaction of a quantum system with an external agent, thus throwing a light on how collapses can emerge from a deeper level theory.
Classical and quantum mechanics of the nonrelativistic Snyder model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignemi, S.
2011-07-01
The Snyder model is an example of noncommutative spacetime admitting a fundamental length scale β and invariant under Lorentz transformations, that can be interpreted as a realization of the doubly special relativity axioms. Here, we consider its nonrelativistic counterpart, i.e. the Snyder model restricted to three-dimensional Euclidean space. We discuss the classical and the quantum mechanics of a free particle in this framework, and show that they strongly depend on the sign of a coupling constant λ, appearing in the fundamental commutators and proportional to β2. For example, if λ is negative, momenta are bounded. On the contrary, for positive λ, positions and areas are quantized. We also give the exact solution of the harmonic oscillator equations both in the classical and the quantum case, and show that its frequency is energy dependent.
Gauge transformations and conserved quantities in classical and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berche, Bertrand; Malterre, Daniel; Medina, Ernesto
2016-08-01
We are taught that gauge transformations in classical and quantum mechanics do not change the physics of the problem. Nevertheless, here we discuss three broad scenarios where under gauge transformations: (i) conservation laws are not preserved in the usual manner; (ii) non-gauge-invariant quantities can be associated with physical observables; and (iii) there are changes in the physical boundary conditions of the wave function that render it non-single-valued. We give worked examples that illustrate these points, in contrast to general opinions from classic texts. We also give a historical perspective on the development of Abelian gauge theory in relation to our particular points. Our aim is to provide a discussion of these issues at the graduate level.
Physics on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
't Hooft, Gerard
2014-04-01
Nature's laws in the domain where relativistic effects, gravitational effects and quantum effects are all comparatively strong are far from understood. This domain is called the Planck scale. Conceivably, a theory can be constructed where the quantum nature of phenomena at such scales can be attributed to something fundamentally simpler. However, arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there can't be physical laws that require "conspiracy". It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In the lecture we will show several such counterexamples. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. This theory is often portrayed as to underly the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles, including the "Standard Model". So now the question is asked: how can this model feature "conspiracy", and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations?
Kepler unbound: Some elegant curiosities of classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacKay, Niall J.; Salour, Sam
2015-01-01
We explain two exotic systems of classical mechanics: the McIntosh-Cisneros-Zwanziger ("MICZ") Kepler system, of motion of a charged particle in the presence of a modified dyon; and Gibbons and Manton's description of the slow motion of well-separated solitonic ("BPS") monopoles using Taub-NUT space. Each system is characterized by the conservation of a Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector, and we use elementary vector techniques to show that each obeys a subtly different variation on Kepler's three laws for the Newton-Coulomb two-body problem, including a new modified Kepler third law for BPS monopoles.
On the Mean Field and Classical Limits of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golse, François; Mouhot, Clément; Paul, Thierry
2016-04-01
The main result in this paper is a new inequality bearing on solutions of the N-body linear Schrödinger equation and of the mean field Hartree equation. This inequality implies that the mean field limit of the quantum mechanics of N identical particles is uniform in the classical limit and provides a quantitative estimate of the quality of the approximation. This result applies to the case of C 1,1 interaction potentials. The quantity measuring the approximation of the N-body quantum dynamics by its mean field limit is analogous to the Monge-Kantorovich (or Wasserstein) distance with exponent 2. The inequality satisfied by this quantity is reminiscent of the work of Dobrushin on the mean field limit in classical mechanics [Func. Anal. Appl. 13, 115-123, (1979)]. Our approach to this problem is based on a direct analysis of the N-particle Liouville equation, and avoids using techniques based on the BBGKY hierarchy or on second quantization.
To Quantum Mechanics Through Projection of Classical Statistical Mechanics on Prespace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2005-10-01
We show that in opposite to a common opinion quantum mechanics can be represented as projection of classical statistical model on prequantum space -- prespace. All distinguishing features of the quantum probabilistic model (interference of probabilities, Born's rule, complex probabilistic amplitudes, Hilbert state space, representation of observables by operators) are present in a latent form in the classical Kolmogorov probability model. However, classical model should be considered as a contextual model (in the sense that all probabilities are determined by contexts - complexes of physical conditions). Moreover, the prequantum→quantum map is well defined only for two fundamental physical variables (in quantum mechanics these are position and momentum). Quantum mechanics is a projection of classical statistical model through these two "reference observables". Similarly, ordinary classical statistical mechanics on physical phase space is a projection of classical statistical mechanics on prespace, We also introduce a mental prespace and consider its quantum-like representation. Mental prespace describes subconsciousness and its quantum-like representation gives a model of consciousness.
Macro parameters describing the mechanical behavior of classical guitars.
Elie, Benjamin; Gautier, François; David, Bertrand
2012-12-01
Since the 1960s and 1970s, researchers have proposed simplified models using only a few parameters to describe the vibro-acoustical behavior of string instruments in the low-frequency range. This paper presents a method for deriving and estimating a few important parameters or features describing the mechanical behavior of classical guitars over a broader frequency range. These features are selected under the constraint that the measurements may readily be made in the workshop of an instrument maker. The computations of these features use estimates of the modal parameters over a large frequency range, made with the high-resolution subspace ESPRIT algorithm (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariant Techniques) and the signal enumeration technique ESTER (ESTimation of ERror). The methods are applied to experiments on real metal and wood plates and numerical simulations of them. The results on guitars show a nearly constant mode density in the mid- and high-frequency ranges, as it is found for a flat panel. Four features are chosen as characteristic parameters of this equivalent plate: Mass, rigidity, characteristic admittance, and the mobility deviation. Application to a set of 12 guitars indicates that these features are good candidates to discriminate different classes of classical guitars. PMID:23231130
Lagrangian dynamics for classical, Brownian, and quantum mechanical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavon, Michele
1996-07-01
In the framework of Nelson's stochastic mechanics [E. Nelson, Dynamical Theories of Brownian Motion (Princeton University, Princeton, 1967); F. Guerra, Phys. Rep. 77, 263 (1981); E. Nelson, Quantum Fluctuations (Princeton University, Princeton, 1985)] we seek to develop the particle counterpart of the hydrodynamic results of M. Pavon [J. Math. Phys. 36, 6774 (1995); Phys. Lett. A 209, 143 (1995)]. In particular, a first form of Hamilton's principle is established. We show that this variational principle leads to the correct equations of motion for the classical particle, the Brownian particle in thermodynamical equilibrium, and the quantum particle. In the latter case, the critical process q satisfies a stochastic Newton law. We then introduce the momentum process p, and show that the pair (q,p) satisfies canonical-like equations.
Toughness of carbon nanotubes conforms to classic fracture mechanics
Yang, Lin; Greenfeld, Israel; Wagner, H. Daniel
2016-01-01
Defects in crystalline structure are commonly believed to degrade the ideal strength of carbon nanotubes. However, the fracture mechanisms induced by such defects, as well as the validity of solid mechanics theories at the nanoscale, are still under debate. We show that the fracture toughness of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) conforms to the classic theory of fracture mechanics, even for the smallest possible vacancy defect (~2 Å). By simulating tension of SWNTs containing common types of defects, we demonstrate how stress concentration at the defect boundary leads to brittle (unstable) fracturing at a relatively low strain, degrading the ideal strength of SWNTs by up to 60%. We find that, owing to the SWNT’s truss-like structure, defects at this scale are not sharp and stress concentrations are finite and low. Moreover, stress concentration, a geometric property at the macroscale, is interrelated with the SWNT fracture toughness, a material property. The resulting SWNT fracture toughness is 2.7 MPa m0.5, typical of moderately brittle materials and applicable also to graphene. PMID:26989774
Toughness of carbon nanotubes conforms to classic fracture mechanics.
Yang, Lin; Greenfeld, Israel; Wagner, H Daniel
2016-02-01
Defects in crystalline structure are commonly believed to degrade the ideal strength of carbon nanotubes. However, the fracture mechanisms induced by such defects, as well as the validity of solid mechanics theories at the nanoscale, are still under debate. We show that the fracture toughness of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) conforms to the classic theory of fracture mechanics, even for the smallest possible vacancy defect (~2 Å). By simulating tension of SWNTs containing common types of defects, we demonstrate how stress concentration at the defect boundary leads to brittle (unstable) fracturing at a relatively low strain, degrading the ideal strength of SWNTs by up to 60%. We find that, owing to the SWNT's truss-like structure, defects at this scale are not sharp and stress concentrations are finite and low. Moreover, stress concentration, a geometric property at the macroscale, is interrelated with the SWNT fracture toughness, a material property. The resulting SWNT fracture toughness is 2.7 MPa m(0.5), typical of moderately brittle materials and applicable also to graphene. PMID:26989774
Integrable systems and lie symmetries in classical mechanics
Sen, T.
1986-01-01
The interrelationship between integrability and symmetries in classical mechanics is studied. Two-dimensional time- and velocity-independent potentials form the domain of the study. It is shown that, contrary to folklore, existence of a single finite symmetry does not ensure integrability. A method due to Darboux is used to construct potentials that admit a time-independent invariant. All potentials admitting invariants linear or quadratic in the momentum coordinates are constructed. These are the only integrable potentials which can be expressed as arbitrary functions of certain arguments. A complete construction of potentials admitting higher-order invariants does not seem possible. However, the necessary general forms for potentials that admit a particular invariant of arbitrary order are found. These invariants must be spherically symmetric in the leading terms. Two kinds of symmetries are studied: point Lie symmetries of the Newtonian equations of motion for conservative potentials, and point Noether symmetries of the action functionals obtained from the standard Lagrangians associated with these potentials. All conservative potentials which admit these symmetries are constructed. The class of potentials admitting Noether symmetries is shown to be a subclass of those admitting Lie symmetries.
Fundamental Principles of Classical Mechanics: a Geometrical Perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Kai S.
2014-07-01
Classical mechanics is the quantitative study of the laws of motion for oscopic physical systems with mass. The fundamental laws of this subject, known as Newton's Laws of Motion, are expressed in terms of second-order differential equations governing the time evolution of vectors in a so-called configuration space of a system (see Chapter 12). In an elementary setting, these are usually vectors in 3-dimensional Euclidean space, such as position vectors of point particles; but typically they can be vectors in higher dimensional and more abstract spaces. A general knowledge of the mathematical properties of vectors, not only in their most intuitive incarnations as directed arrows in physical space but as elements of abstract linear vector spaces, and those of linear operators (transformations) on vector spaces as well, is then indispensable in laying the groundwork for both the physical and the more advanced mathematical - more precisely topological and geometrical - concepts that will prove to be vital in our subject. In this beginning chapter we will review these properties, and introduce the all-important related notions of dual spaces and tensor products of vector spaces. The notational convention for vectorial and tensorial indices used for the rest of this book (except when otherwise specified) will also be established...
Classical and semiclassical mechanics of molecular rotors in tilted fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arango, Carlos Alberto
We investigate the classical mechanics of diatomic and symmetric top molecules in tilted fields. These molecules exhibit regular, chaotic or mixed phase space depending on the tilt angle beta, the energy E, and the relative intensity of the fields o/Deltao. In the integrable collinear problem the projection of the angular momentum into the spatial z axis is a constant of motion, m, which allows us to use energy momentum diagrams to classify the motions of the rotor. For beta ≠ 0 the system is non-integrable showing mostly regular dynamics in the high-energy (free-rotor) and low-energy (pendular) limits; for energy near the tilted fields barrier the phase space is highly chaotic with degree of chaos increasing with beta between 0 and pi/2. Periodic orbits and bifurcation diagrams are obtained from symmetry lines and their iterations under the Poincare map. Some quantum eigenstates are localized near stable or unstable periodic orbits showing tori quantization or scarring respectively. For asymmetric top molecules in parallel fields m is a constant of the motion and it is possible to define an effective potential Vm(theta, psi). In an E-m diagram the equilibrium solutions of Vm(theta, psi) are curves that enclose regions of qualitatively different accessible theta-psi configuration space; these regions can be used to classify the quantum eigenstates. For plane rotors several primitive semiclassical methods are used to calculate the rotational excitation caused by laser pulses. In the case of plane rotors in electric fields we calculate energy spectra, orientation (
Classical limit of relativistic quantum mechanical equations in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silenko, A. Ya.
2013-03-01
It is shown that, under the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation conditions, using the Foldy-Wouthuysen (FW) representation allows the problem of finding a classical limit of relativistic quantum mechanical equations to be reduced to the replacement of operators in the Hamiltonian and quantum mechanical equations of motion by the respective classical quantities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çivi, Can; Atik, Enver
2012-09-01
Because of solidifying to component, sintering is the most important step of the production of powder metal parts. Generally it is made classical furnace. Alternatively sintering furnace, it is done that induction sintering studies. Induction sintering provide a grand time and energy savings since components hot up rapidly and sintering time is lower than classical sintering in furnace. Because of that induction sintering is an important alternative at sintering process. In this study, mechanical properties of induction sintered Fe based components included Cu and Graphite were compared with classical sintered components. Parameters of same mechanical properties of induction sintered and classical sintered components were identified.
A Comparison of Kinetic Energy and Momentum in Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggs, Peter J.
2016-02-01
Kinetic energy and momentum are indispensable dynamical quantities in both the special theory of relativity and in classical mechanics. Although momentum and kinetic energy are central to understanding dynamics, the differences between their relativistic and classical notions have not always received adequate treatment in undergraduate teaching. It is shown that the contrast between these relativistic and classical quantities can be presented in a straightforward manner and with a minimal level of (undergraduate) mathematics.
Random matrix theory and classical statistical mechanics: Spin models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, H.; Angles D'Auriac, J.-C.
1997-06-01
We present a statistical analysis of spectra of transfer matrices of classical lattice spin models; this continues the work on the eight-vertex model of the preceding paper [H. Meyer, J.-C. Anglès d'Auriac, and J.-M. Maillard, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5261 (1997)]. We show that the statistical properties of these spectra can serve as a criterion of integrability. It also provides an operational numerical method to locate integrable varieties. In particular, we distinguish the notions of integrability and criticality, considering the two examples of the three-dimensional Ising critical point and the two-dimensional three-state Potts critical point. For complex spectra, which appear frequently in the context of transfer matrices, we show that the notion of independence of eigenvalues for integrable models still holds.
A Comparison of Kinetic Energy and Momentum in Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riggs, Peter J.
2016-01-01
Kinetic energy and momentum are indispensable dynamical quantities in both the special theory of relativity and in classical mechanics. Although momentum and kinetic energy are central to understanding dynamics, the differences between their relativistic and classical notions have not always received adequate treatment in undergraduate teaching.…
Eighteenth century treatment of a classical mechanic problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanini, Ledo
2012-01-01
The behavior of a heavy cylinder sliding on the ground is discussed in many introductory mechanics classes. We revisit a solution that was given in the late eighteenth century and compare it with the solution that today's textbooks usually present.
Lee, Sang-Bong
1993-09-01
Quantum manifestation of classical chaos has been one of the extensively studied subjects for more than a decade. Yet clear understanding of its nature still remains to be an open question partly due to the lack of a canonical definition of quantum chaos. The classical definition seems to be unsuitable in quantum mechanics partly because of the Heisenberg quantum uncertainty. In this regard, quantum chaos is somewhat misleading and needs to be clarified at the very fundamental level of physics. Since it is well known that quantum mechanics is more fundamental than classical mechanics, the quantum description of classically chaotic nature should be attainable in the limit of large quantum numbers. The focus of my research, therefore, lies on the correspondence principle for classically chaotic systems. The chaotic damped driven pendulum is mainly studied numerically using the split operator method that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. For classically dissipative chaotic systems in which (multi)fractal strange attractors often emerge, several quantum dissipative mechanisms are also considered. For instance, Hoover`s and Kubo-Fox-Keizer`s approaches are studied with some computational analyses. But the notion of complex energy with non-Hermiticity is extensively applied. Moreover, the Wigner and Husimi distribution functions are examined with an equivalent classical distribution in phase-space, and dynamical properties of the wave packet in configuration and momentum spaces are also explored. The results indicate that quantum dynamics embraces classical dynamics although the classicalquantum correspondence fails to be observed in the classically chaotic regime. Even in the semi-classical limits, classically chaotic phenomena would eventually be suppressed by the quantum uncertainty.
Rusov, V. D.; Vlasenko, D. S.; Deliyergiyev, M. A.; Mavrodiev, S. Cht.
2010-01-01
Based on the Chetaev generalized theorem the Schroedinger equation as the stability condition of trajectories in classical dynamics in the presence of dissipative forces is derived. In the framework of this approach the alternative model for unified description of alpha decay, spontaneous fission, cluster and proton radioactivity and is developed. We show the possibility of the classical (without tunneling) description of radioactive decay of heavy nuclei, when the so called noise-induced transition or, in other words, the stochastic channel of radioactive decay conditioned by the Kramers diffusion mechanism is generated under certain conditions.Using the ENSDF nuclear data, we have found the parametrized solutions of the Kramers equation of the Langevin type by the Alexandrov dynamic auto-regularization method (REGN-Dubna program). These solutions describe with high-accuracy the dependences of half-life (the decay probability) of heavy radioactive nuclei on total kinetic energy of daughter decay products.Verification of the inverse problem solution in the framework of the universal Kramers description of alpha decay, spontaneous fission, cluster and proton radioactivity, which based on the newest experimental data for alpha-decay of even-even superheavy nuclei (Z = 114, 116, 118), shows good coincidence of the experimental and theoretical dependences of half-life on alpha-decay energy.
Rusov, V. D.; Vlasenko, D. S.; Deliyergiyev, M. A.; Mavrodiev, S. Cht.
2010-05-04
Based on the Chetaev generalized theorem the Schredinger equation as the stability condition of trajectories in classical dynamics in the presence of dissipative forces is derived. In the framework of this approach the alternative model for unified description of alpha decay, spontaneous fission, cluster radioactivity and is developed. We show the possibility of the classical (without tunneling) description of radioactive decay of heavy nuclei, when the so called noise-induced transition or, in other words, the stochastic channel of radioactive decay conditioned by the Kramers diffusion mechanism is generated under certain conditions.Using the ENSDF nuclear data, we have found the parametrized solutions of the Kramers equation of the Langevin type by the Alexandrov dynamic auto-regularization method (REGN-Dubna program). These solutions describe with high-accuracy the dependences of half-life (the decay probability) of heavy radioactive nuclei on total kinetic energy of daughter decay products.Verification of the inverse problem solution in the framework of the universal Kramers description of alpha decay, spontaneous fission, cluster radioactivity, which based on the newest experimental data for alpha-decay of even-even superheavy nuclei (Z = 114, 116, 118), shows good coincidence of the experimental and theoretical dependences of half-life on alpha-decay energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onida, Giovanni; Andreoni, Wanda
1995-09-01
A classical trajectory mapping method was developed to study chemical reactions in solution and in enzymes. In this method, the trajectories were calculated on a classical potential surface and the free energy profile was obtained by mapping the classical surface to the quantum mechanical surface obtained by the semiempirical AM1 method. There is no need to perform expensive quantum mechanical calculations at each iteration step. This method was applied to proton transfer reactions both in aqueous solution and in papain. The results are encouraging, indicating the applicability of this hybrid method to chemical reactions both in solution and in enzymes.
Stulpe, Werner
2014-01-15
The concept of an injective affine embedding of the quantum states into a set of classical states, i.e., into the set of the probability measures on some measurable space, as well as its relation to statistically complete observables is revisited, and its limitation in view of a classical reformulation of the statistical scheme of quantum mechanics is discussed. In particular, on the basis of a theorem concerning a non-denseness property of a set of coexistent effects, it is shown that an injective classical embedding of the quantum states cannot be supplemented by an at least approximate classical description of the quantum mechanical effects. As an alternative approach, the concept of quasi-probability representations of quantum mechanics is considered.
Moving Constraints as Stabilizing Controls in Classical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bressan, Alberto; Rampazzo, Franco
2010-04-01
The paper analyzes a Lagrangian system which is controlled by directly assigning some of the coordinates as functions of time, by means of frictionless constraints. In a natural system of coordinates, the equations of motion contain terms which are linear or quadratic with respect to time derivatives of the control functions. After reviewing the basic equations, we explain the significance of the quadratic terms related to geodesics orthogonal to a given foliation. We then study the problem of stabilization of the system to a given point by means of oscillating controls. This problem is first reduced to theweak stability for a related convex-valued differential inclusion, then studied by Lyapunov functions methods. In the last sections, we illustrate the results by means of various mechanical examples.
Shaping mitotic chromosomes: From classical concepts to molecular mechanisms
Kschonsak, Marc; Haering, Christian H
2015-01-01
How eukaryotic genomes are packaged into compact cylindrical chromosomes in preparation for cell divisions has remained one of the major unsolved questions of cell biology. Novel approaches to study the topology of DNA helices inside the nuclei of intact cells, paired with computational modeling and precise biomechanical measurements of isolated chromosomes, have advanced our understanding of mitotic chromosome architecture. In this Review Essay, we discuss – in light of these recent insights – the role of chromatin architecture and the functions and possible mechanisms of SMC protein complexes and other molecular machines in the formation of mitotic chromosomes. Based on the information available, we propose a stepwise model of mitotic chromosome condensation that envisions the sequential generation of intra-chromosomal linkages by condensin complexes in the context of cohesin-mediated inter-chromosomal linkages, assisted by topoisomerase II. The described scenario results in rod-shaped metaphase chromosomes ready for their segregation to the cell poles. PMID:25988527
Shaping mitotic chromosomes: From classical concepts to molecular mechanisms.
Kschonsak, Marc; Haering, Christian H
2015-07-01
How eukaryotic genomes are packaged into compact cylindrical chromosomes in preparation for cell divisions has remained one of the major unsolved questions of cell biology. Novel approaches to study the topology of DNA helices inside the nuclei of intact cells, paired with computational modeling and precise biomechanical measurements of isolated chromosomes, have advanced our understanding of mitotic chromosome architecture. In this Review Essay, we discuss - in light of these recent insights - the role of chromatin architecture and the functions and possible mechanisms of SMC protein complexes and other molecular machines in the formation of mitotic chromosomes. Based on the information available, we propose a stepwise model of mitotic chromosome condensation that envisions the sequential generation of intra-chromosomal linkages by condensin complexes in the context of cohesin-mediated inter-chromosomal linkages, assisted by topoisomerase II. The described scenario results in rod-shaped metaphase chromosomes ready for their segregation to the cell poles. PMID:25988527
The Fourth Law of Motion in Classical Mechanics and Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinheiro, Mario J.
2010-01-01
Newton's second law has limited scope of application when transient phenomena are at stake. We endeavor here to consider a modification of Newton's second law in order to take into account sudden change (surge) of angular momentum or linear momentum. It is shown that space react back according to a kind of induction law that is related to inertia, but also appears to give evidence of a "fluidic" nature of space itself. The back-reaction is quantified by the time rate of the angular momentum flux threading a surface, mass dependent, and bearing similarity to the quantum mechanics phase shift, present in the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, thus giving evidence of the property of vacuum polarization, a phenomena which is relative to local space. It is formulated a kind of (qualitative) Lenz law that gives an explanation to precession.
Regular and Irregular Correspondences ---Adiabatic Invariants in Classical and Quantum Mechanics---
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhardt, W. P.
We outline a rather extraordinary series of similarities between classical and quantal behavior in the limit of adiabatic time changes. These include the power laws for the goodness of the respective invariants for isolated eigenstates and invariant tori for integrable systems, the nature of the breakdown of the invariances--level crossing in quantum systems and the role of ever present non-linear resonances is examined in the case of generically non-integrable classical dynamics--and the perhaps surprising relationship for fully chaotic systems where sufficiently slow switching in either classical or quantal systems precisely preserves the number of energy levels up to a given energy. For suitably small values of Planck's constant these similarities yield clear examples of the Bohr correspondence principle linking classical and quantum mechanics; for larger values the details in the classical picture are quenched in the quantum.
Classical Mechanics with Computational Physics in the Undergraduate Curriculum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasbun, J. E.
2006-11-01
Efforts to incorporate computational physics in the undergraduate curriculum have made use of Matlab, IDL, Maple, Mathematica, Fortran, and C^1 as well as Java.^2 The benefits of similar undertakings in our undergraduate curriculum are that students learn ways to go beyond what they learn in the classroom and use computational techniques to explore more realistic physics applications. Students become better prepared to perform research that will be useful throughout their scientific careers.^3 Undergraduate physics in general can benefit by building on such efforts. Recently, I have developed a draft of a textbook for the junior level mechanics physics course with computer applications.^4 The text uses the traditional analytical approach, yet it incorporates computational physics to build on it. The text does not intend to teach students how to program; instead, it makes use of students' abilities to use programming to go beyond the analytical approach and complement their understanding. An in-house computational environment, however, is strongly encouraged. Selected examples of representative lecture problems will be discussed. ^1 ''Computation and Problem Solving in Undergraduate Physics,'' David M. Cook, Lawrence University (2003). ^2 ''Simulations in Physics: Applications to Physical Systems,'' H. Gould, J. Tobochnik, and W Christian. ^3 R. Landau, APS Bull. Vol 50, 1069 (2005) ^4J. E. Hasbun, APS Bull. Vol. 51, 452 (2006)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.
2006-01-01
Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shymansky, James A.; And Others
1997-01-01
Explores students' conceptual understanding and conceptual growth in classical mechanics in the natural context of a grade 10 science classroom. Findings indicate that students' knowledge structures remained stable across the 10 weeks and remained unchanged 4 weeks after instruction ceased. Contains 30 references. (Author/JRH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
And Others; Gilmartin, Harvey
1979-01-01
Presented is a form of Hamilton's principle for classical mechanics appropriate to the study of arbitrary self-sustained vibrations in one dimension. It is applied as an approximate computational tool to the study of several examples of anharmonic oscillation. (Author/GA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Suratna; Lochan, Kinjalk; Sahu, Satyabrata; Singh, T. P.
2013-10-01
The inflationary paradigm provides a mechanism to generate the primordial perturbations needed to explain the observed large-scale structures in the Universe. Inflation traces back all the inhomogeneities to quantum fluctuations although the structures look classical today. The squeezing of primordial quantum fluctuations along with the mechanism of decoherence accounts for many aspects of this quantum-to-classical transition, although it remains a matter of debate as to whether this is sufficient to explain the issue of the realization of a single outcome (i.e. the issue of macro-objectification) from a quantum ensemble given that the Universe is a closed system. A similar question of the emergence of classical behavior of macroscopic objects exists also for laboratory systems and apart from decoherence there have been attempts to resolve this issue through continuous spontaneous localization (CSL), which is a stochastic nonlinear modification of the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation. Recently, Martin et al. have investigated whether a CSL-like mechanism with a constant strength parameter—when the Mukhanov-Sasaki variable is taken as the “collapse operator”—can explain how the primordial quantum perturbations generated during inflation become classical. Within the scope of their assumptions they essentially come to a negative conclusion. In the present work, we generalize their analysis by allowing the CSL strength parameter to depend on physical scales so as to capture the CSL amplification mechanism. We show that such a generalization provides a mechanism for the macro-objectification (i.e. classicalization) of the inflationary quantum perturbations, while also preserving the scale invariance of the power spectrum and the phase coherence of superhorizon perturbation modes in a particular class of these models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohrlich, Daniel
Y. Aharonov and A. Shimony both conjectured that two axioms - relativistic causality (``no superluminal signalling'') and nonlocality - so nearly contradict each other that only quantum mechanics reconciles them. Can we indeed derive quantum mechanics, at least in part, from these two axioms? No: ``PR-box'' correlations show that quantum correlations are not the most nonlocal correlations consistent with relativistic causality. Here we replace ``nonlocality'' with ``retrocausality'' and supplement the axioms of relativistic causality and retrocausality with a natural and minimal third axiom: the existence of a classical limit, in which macroscopic observables commute. That is, just as quantum mechanics has a classical limit, so must any generalization of quantum mechanics. In this limit, PR-box correlations violaterelativistic causality. Generalized to all stronger-than-quantum bipartite correlations, this result is a derivation of Tsirelson's bound (a theorem of quantum mechanics) from the three axioms of relativistic causality, retrocausality and the existence of a classical limit. Although the derivation does not assume quantum mechanics, it points to the Hilbert space structure that underlies quantum correlations. I thank the John Templeton Foundation (Project ID 43297) and the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 1190/13) for support.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holloway, Stephen
1997-03-01
When performing molecular dynamical simulations on light systems at low energies, there is always the risk of producing data that bear no similarity to experiment. Indeed, John Barker himself was particularly anxious about treating Ar scattering from surfaces using classical mechanics where it had been shown experimentally in his own lab that diffraction occurs. In such cases, the correct procedure is probably to play the trump card "... well of course, quantum effects will modify this so that....." and retire gracefully. For our particular interests, the tables are turned in that we are interested in gas-surface dynamical studies for highly quantized systems, but would be interested to know when it is possible to use classical mechanics in order that a greater dimensionality might be treated. For molecular dissociation and scattering, it has been oft quoted that the greater the number of degrees of freedom, the more appropriate is classical mechanics, primarily because of the mass averaging over the quantized dimensions. Is this true? We have been investigating the dissociation of hydrogen molecules at surfaces and in this talk I will present quantum results for dissociation and scattering, along with a novel method for their interpretation based upon adiabatic potential energy surfaces. Comparison with classical calculations will be made and conclusions drawn. a novel method for their interpretation based upon adiabatic potential energy surfaces
Evading Quantum Mechanics: Engineering a Classical Subsystem within a Quantum Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsang, Mankei; Caves, Carlton M.
2012-07-01
Quantum mechanics is potentially advantageous for certain information-processing tasks, but its probabilistic nature and requirement of measurement backaction often limit the precision of conventional classical information-processing devices, such as sensors and atomic clocks. Here we show that, by engineering the dynamics of coupled quantum systems, it is possible to construct a subsystem that evades the measurement backaction of quantum mechanics, at all times of interest, and obeys any classical dynamics, linear or nonlinear, that we choose. We call such a system a quantum-mechanics-free subsystem (QMFS). All of the observables of a QMFS are quantum-nondemolition (QND) observables; moreover, they are dynamical QND observables, thus demolishing the widely held belief that QND observables are constants of motion. QMFSs point to a new strategy for designing classical information-processing devices in regimes where quantum noise is detrimental, unifying previous approaches that employ QND observables, backaction evasion, and quantum noise cancellation. Potential applications include gravitational-wave detection, optomechanical-force sensing, atomic magnetometry, and classical computing. Demonstrations of dynamical QMFSs include the generation of broadband squeezed light for use in interferometric gravitational-wave detection, experiments using entangled atomic-spin ensembles, and implementations of the quantum Toffoli gate.
Testing Spontaneous Wave-Function Collapse Models on Classical Mechanical Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diósi, Lajos
2015-02-01
We show that the heating effect of spontaneous wave-function collapse models implies an experimentally significant increment Δ Tsp of equilibrium temperature in a mechanical oscillator. The obtained new form Δ Tsp is linear in the oscillator's relaxation time τ and independent of the mass. The oscillator can be in a classical thermal state, also the effect Δ Tsp is classical for a wide range of frequencies and quality factors. We note that the test of Δ Tsp does not necessitate quantum state monitoring just tomography. In both the gravity-related and the continuous spontaneous localization models the strong-effect edge of their parameter range can be challenged in existing experiments on classical oscillators. For the continuous spontaneous localization theory, the conjectured highest collapse rate parameter values become immediately constrained by evidences from current experiments on extreme slow-ring-down oscillators.
Testing spontaneous wave-function collapse models on classical mechanical oscillators.
Diósi, Lajos
2015-02-01
We show that the heating effect of spontaneous wave-function collapse models implies an experimentally significant increment ΔT(sp) of equilibrium temperature in a mechanical oscillator. The obtained new form ΔT(sp) is linear in the oscillator's relaxation time τ and independent of the mass. The oscillator can be in a classical thermal state, also the effect ΔT(sp) is classical for a wide range of frequencies and quality factors. We note that the test of ΔT(sp) does not necessitate quantum state monitoring just tomography. In both the gravity-related and the continuous spontaneous localization models the strong-effect edge of their parameter range can be challenged in existing experiments on classical oscillators. For the continuous spontaneous localization theory, the conjectured highest collapse rate parameter values become immediately constrained by evidences from current experiments on extreme slow-ring-down oscillators. PMID:25699424
Hannay Angle: Yet Another Symmetry-Protected Topological Order Parameter in Classical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro
2016-04-01
The topological way of thinking now goes beyond quantum solids, and topological characters of classical mechanical systems obeying Newton's law are attracting current interest. To provide a physical insight into the topological numbers in mechanics, we demonstrate the use of the Hannay angle, a "classical" Berry phase, as a symmetry-protected topological order parameter. The Hannay angle is derived using a canonical transformation that maps Newton's equation to a Schrödinger-type equation, and the condition for the quantization is discussed in connection with the symmetry in mechanics. Also, we demonstrate the use of the Hannay angle for a topological characterization of a spring-mass model focusing on the bulk-edge correspondence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huggett, Nick
1995-01-01
This work first explicates the philosophy of classical and quantum fields and particles. I am interested in determining how science can have a metaphysical dimension, and then with the claim that the quantum revolution has an important metaphysical component. I argue that the metaphysical implications of a theory are properties of its models, as classical mechanics determines properties of atomic diversity and temporal continuity with its representations of distinct, continuous trajectories. It is often suggested that classical statistical physics requires that many particle states be represented so that permuting properties leads to distinct states; this implies that individuals can be reidentified across possible worlds in a non-qualitative way. I show there is no evidence for this conclusion, an important result, for it is claimed that quantum particles are not individuals. This claim is based on the misconception about classical statistics, but also on a conflation of notions of identity; I show that, while transworld identity is incompatible with quantum mechanics, other classical notions may be consistently ascribed. I also give a field-particle distinction that applies usefully in both quantum and classical domains. In the former the distinction helps defeat claims of underdetermined by data, in the latter it helps provide a minimal field metaphysics. Next I tackle renormalisation: I show how divergences occur in approximate, perturbative calculations, and demonstrate how finite, empirically verified, answers are obtained. These techniques seem to show that the predictions are not logical consequences of the exact theory. I use the techniques of the renormalisation group to establish that perturbative renormalised quantum field theory does indeed approximate the consequences of field theory. Finally, I discuss the idea (Cao and Schweber, 1994) that renormalisation proves that there can be no quantum theory of everything, only a patchwork of effective
Classical limits of quantum mechanics on a non-commutative configuration space
Benatti, Fabio; Gouba, Laure
2013-06-15
We consider a model of non-commutative quantum mechanics given by two harmonic oscillators over a non-commutative two dimensional configuration space. We study possible ways of removing the non-commutativity based on the classical limit context known as anti-Wick quantization. We show that removal of non-commutativity from the configuration space and from the canonical operators is not commuting operation.
Structure and Binding Mechanism of Vascular Endothelial Cadherin: A Divergent Classical Cadherin
J Brasch; O Harrison; G Ahlsen; S Carnally; R Henderson; B Honig; L Shapiro
2011-12-31
Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), a divergent member of the type II classical cadherin family of cell adhesion proteins, mediates homophilic adhesion in the vascular endothelium. Previous investigations with a bacterially produced protein suggested that VE-cadherin forms cell surface trimers that bind between apposed cells to form hexamers. Here we report studies of mammalian-produced VE-cadherin ectodomains suggesting that, like other classical cadherins, VE-cadherin forms adhesive trans dimers between monomers located on opposing cell surfaces. Trimerization of the bacterially produced protein appears to be an artifact that arises from a lack of glycosylation. We also present the 2.1-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of the VE-cadherin EC1-2 adhesive region, which reveals homodimerization via the strand-swap mechanism common to classical cadherins. In common with type II cadherins, strand-swap binding involves two tryptophan anchor residues, but the adhesive interface resembles type I cadherins in that VE-cadherin does not form a large nonswapped hydrophobic surface. Thus, VE-cadherin is an outlier among classical cadherins, with characteristics of both type I and type II subfamilies.
Magnetic monopoles and dyons revisited: a useful contribution to the study of classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
dos Santos, Renato P.
2015-05-01
Graduate-level physics curricula in many countries around the world, as well as senior-level undergraduate ones in some major institutions, include classical mechanics courses, mostly based on Goldstein’s textbook masterpiece. During the discussion of central force motion, however, the Kepler problem is virtually the only serious application presented. In this paper, we present another problem that is also soluble, namely the interaction of Schwinger’s dual-charged (dyon) particles. While the electromagnetic interaction of magnetic monopoles and electric charges was studied in detail some 40 years ago, we consider that a pedagogical discussion of it from an essentially classical mechanics point of view is a useful contribution for students. Following a path that generalizes Kepler’s problem and Rutherford scattering, we show that they exhibit remarkable properties such as stable non-planar orbits, as well as rainbow and glory scattering, which are not present in the ordinary scattering of two singly charged particles. Moreover, it can be extended further to the relativistic case and to a semi-classical quantization, which can also be included in the class discussion.
Bosonic seesaw mechanism in a classically conformal extension of the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Yamaguchi, Yuya
2016-03-01
We suggest the so-called bosonic seesaw mechanism in the context of a classically conformal U(1) B - L extension of the Standard Model with two Higgs doublet fields. The U(1) B - L symmetry is radiatively broken via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, which also generates the mass terms for the two Higgs doublets through quartic Higgs couplings. Their masses are all positive but, nevertheless, the electroweak symmetry breaking is realized by the bosonic seesaw mechanism. Analyzing the renormalization group evolutions for all model couplings, we find that a large hierarchy among the quartic Higgs couplings, which is crucial for the bosonic seesaw mechanism to work, is dramatically reduced toward high energies. Therefore, the bosonic seesaw is naturally realized with only a mild hierarchy, if some fundamental theory, which provides the origin of the classically conformal invariance, completes our model at some high energy, for example, the Planck scale. We identify the regions of model parameters which satisfy the perturbativity of the running couplings and the electroweak vacuum stability as well as the naturalness of the electroweak scale.
Błaszak, Maciej Domański, Ziemowit
2013-12-15
In the paper is presented an invariant quantization procedure of classical mechanics on the phase space over flat configuration space. Then, the passage to an operator representation of quantum mechanics in a Hilbert space over configuration space is derived. An explicit form of position and momentum operators as well as their appropriate ordering in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates is demonstrated. Finally, the extension of presented formalism onto non-flat case and related ambiguities of the process of quantization are discussed. -- Highlights: •An invariant quantization procedure of classical mechanics on the phase space over flat configuration space is presented. •The passage to an operator representation of quantum mechanics in a Hilbert space over configuration space is derived. •Explicit form of position and momentum operators and their appropriate ordering in curvilinear coordinates is shown. •The invariant form of Hamiltonian operators quadratic and cubic in momenta is derived. •The extension of presented formalism onto non-flat case and related ambiguities of the quantization process are discussed.
Non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons from a mechanical oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riedinger, Ralf; Hong, Sungkun; Norte, Richard A.; Slater, Joshua A.; Shang, Juying; Krause, Alexander G.; Anant, Vikas; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Gröblacher, Simon
2016-02-01
Interfacing a single photon with another quantum system is a key capability in modern quantum information science. It allows quantum states of matter, such as spin states of atoms, atomic ensembles or solids, to be prepared and manipulated by photon counting and, in particular, to be distributed over long distances. Such light-matter interfaces have become crucial to fundamental tests of quantum physics and realizations of quantum networks. Here we report non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons—the quanta of mechanical motion—from a nanomechanical resonator. We implement a full quantum protocol involving initialization of the resonator in its quantum ground state of motion and subsequent generation and read-out of correlated photon-phonon pairs. The observed violation of a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is clear evidence for the non-classical nature of the mechanical state generated. Our results demonstrate the availability of on-chip solid-state mechanical resonators as light-matter quantum interfaces. The performance we achieved will enable studies of macroscopic quantum phenomena as well as applications in quantum communication, as quantum memories and as quantum transducers.
Non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons from a mechanical oscillator.
Riedinger, Ralf; Hong, Sungkun; Norte, Richard A; Slater, Joshua A; Shang, Juying; Krause, Alexander G; Anant, Vikas; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Gröblacher, Simon
2016-02-18
Interfacing a single photon with another quantum system is a key capability in modern quantum information science. It allows quantum states of matter, such as spin states of atoms, atomic ensembles or solids, to be prepared and manipulated by photon counting and, in particular, to be distributed over long distances. Such light-matter interfaces have become crucial to fundamental tests of quantum physics and realizations of quantum networks. Here we report non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons--the quanta of mechanical motion--from a nanomechanical resonator. We implement a full quantum protocol involving initialization of the resonator in its quantum ground state of motion and subsequent generation and read-out of correlated photon-phonon pairs. The observed violation of a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is clear evidence for the non-classical nature of the mechanical state generated. Our results demonstrate the availability of on-chip solid-state mechanical resonators as light-matter quantum interfaces. The performance we achieved will enable studies of macroscopic quantum phenomena as well as applications in quantum communication, as quantum memories and as quantum transducers. PMID:26779950
Use of the poincare sphere in polarization optics and classical and quantum mechanics. Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malykin, G. B.
1997-03-01
The method of the Poincaré sphere, which was proposed by Henri Poincaré in 1891-1892, is a convenient approach to represent polarized light. This method is graphical: each point on the sphere corresponds to a certain polarization state. Apart from the obvious representation of polarized light, the method of the Poincaré sphere permits efficient solution of problems that result from the use of a set of phase plates or a combination of phase plates and ideally homogeneous polarizers. Recently, to calculate the geometric phase (which is often called the Berry phase) in polarization optics and quantum and classical mechanics, the method of the Poincaré sphere has drawn much attention, since it allows us to carry out these calculations very efficiently and intuitively using the solid angle resting, on a closed curve on the Poincaré sphere that corresponds to the change in the state of light polarization or in the state of spin of an elementary particle or its orientation in space from the viewpoint of systems in classical mechanics. The review considers papers on the above problems.
2009-01-01
A breakthrough for studying the neuronal basis of learning emerged when invertebrates with simple nervous systems, such as the sea slug Hermissenda crassicornis, were shown to exhibit classical conditioning. Hermissenda learns to associate light with turbulence: prior to learning, naive animals move toward light (phototaxis) and contract their foot in response to turbulence; after learning, conditioned animals delay phototaxis in response to light. The photoreceptors of the eye, which receive monosynaptic inputs from statocyst hair cells, are both sensory neurons and the first site of sensory convergence. The memory of light associated with turbulence is stored as changes in intrinsic and synaptic currents in these photoreceptors. The subcellular mechanisms producing these changes include activation of protein kinase C and MAP kinase, which act as coincidence detectors because they are activated by convergent signaling pathways. Pathways of interneurons and motorneurons, where additional changes in excitability and synaptic connections are found, contribute to delayed phototaxis. Bursting activity recorded at several points suggest the existence of small networks that produce complex spatio-temporal firing patterns. Thus, the change in behavior may be produced by a non-linear transformation of spatio-temporal firing patterns caused by plasticity of synaptic and intrinsic channels. The change in currents and the activation of PKC and MAPK produced by associative learning are similar to that observed in hippocampal and cerebellar neurons after rabbit classical conditioning, suggesting that these represent general mechanisms of memory storage. Thus, the knowledge gained from further study of Hermissenda will continue to illuminate mechanisms of mammalian learning. PMID:16437555
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guasch, Oriol; García, Carlos; Jové, Jordi; Artís, Pere
2013-05-01
Transmissibility functions have received renewed interest given the important role they play in operational modal analysis and operational transfer path analysis. However, transmissibilities can also be used in the framework of classical transmission path analysis. This avoids some of the problems associated to the latter, such as the measurement of operational loads, or the need to remove the active parts of the system to measure frequency response functions. The key of the transmissibility approach to classical transfer path analysis relies on the notion of direct or blocked transmissibilities, which can be computed from standard measurable transmissibilities. The response at any degree of freedom to a system external load can then be decomposed in terms of the remaining degrees of freedom responses and the system direct transmissibilities. Although the theory supporting this approach has been known for long, no experimental validation test has been reported to date. It is the purpose of this paper to provide such a test by applying the method to a simple mechanical system for which an analytical solution can be derived. For different configurations, it will be shown that direct transmissibilities computed from measured transmissibilities compare fairly well with analytical results. This opens the door to apply the method to more complex situations of practical interest with confidence.
Photonic Rutherford scattering: A classical and quantum mechanical analogy in ray and wave optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selmke, Markus; Cichos, Frank
2013-06-01
Using Fermat's least-optical-path principle, the family of ray trajectories through a special (but common) type of a gradient refractive index lens n(r)=n0+ΔnR /r is solved analytically. The solution gives a ray equation r(ϕ) that is closely related to Rutherford scattering trajectories; we therefore refer to this refraction process as "photonic Rutherford scattering." It is shown that not only do the classical limits correspond but also the wave-mechanical pictures coincide—the time-independent Schrödingier equation and the Helmholtz equation permit the same mapping between the scattering of massive particles and optical scalar waves. Scattering of narrow beams of light finally recovers the classical trajectories. The analysis suggests that photothermal single-particle microscopy measures photonic Rutherford scattering in specific limits and allows for an individual single-scatterer probing. A macroscopic experiment is demonstrated to directly measure the scattering angle to impact parameter relation, which is otherwise accessible only indirectly in Rutherford-scattering experiments.
Coupled discrete element and finite volume solution of two classical soil mechanics problems
Chen, Feng; Drumm, Eric; Guiochon, Georges A
2011-01-01
One dimensional solutions for the classic critical upward seepage gradient/quick condition and the time rate of consolidation problems are obtained using coupled routines for the finite volume method (FVM) and discrete element method (DEM), and the results compared with the analytical solutions. The two phase flow in a system composed of fluid and solid is simulated with the fluid phase modeled by solving the averaged Navier-Stokes equation using the FVM and the solid phase is modeled using the DEM. A framework is described for the coupling of two open source computer codes: YADE-OpenDEM for the discrete element method and OpenFOAM for the computational fluid dynamics. The particle-fluid interaction is quantified using a semi-empirical relationship proposed by Ergun [12]. The two classical verification problems are used to explore issues encountered when using coupled flow DEM codes, namely, the appropriate time step size for both the fluid and mechanical solution processes, the choice of the viscous damping coefficient, and the number of solid particles per finite fluid volume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Sullivan, Colm
2016-03-01
The role of "semi-classical" (Bohr-Sommerfeld) and "semi-quantum-mechanical" (atomic orbital) models in the context of the teaching of atomic theory is considered. It is suggested that an appropriate treatment of such models can serve as a useful adjunct to quantum mechanical study of atomic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, Mukesh
In this thesis, we investigate some topics of transport in classical and quantum systems. The classical system under study is related to friction at the nanoscale. The first model we consider is that of a dimer moving on a 1-dimensional periodic substrate; we study the role of an internal channel of dissipation on the effective damping experienced by the dimer during its motion. With the view that understanding of the processes at the microscopic scale can shed some light on the origin of frictional forces, we undertake a systematic study of the scattering of a free particle by a harmonic oscillator. This study starts from a Hamiltonian description of the system, without any phenomenological damping. The dissipation in this system results from an exchange of energy between the particle and the oscillator when they are in close proximity. This classical scattering problem becomes chaotic as a result of exchange of energy. We present, in detail, a study of the chaotic scattering process for an initially static oscillator. In the case of an initially excited oscillator, extraction of information about the chaotic set requires the construction of Smale horseshoe on an appropriate Poincare surface of section. A discussion on the construction of this chaotic invariant set is also provided in this thesis. Interacting quasiparticle-boson systems form an important part of condensed matter physics. Various approximation schemes are often employed in the study of these systems. In order to understand the response of a quasi-particle to externally applied electric fields, we study in the second part of this thesis, the 2-site quantum dimer under the semiclassical approximation. The role of initial phases and effects of resonance between phonon frequency and the frequency due to the Stark splitting of states is investigated. This thesis also contains discussions regarding the frequency response of both degenerate and nondegenerate adiabatic semiclassical models and self
The physical vulnerability of elements at risk: a methodology based on fluid and classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzorana, B.; Fuchs, S.; Levaggi, L.
2012-04-01
The impacts of the flood events occurred in autumn 2011 in the Italian regions Liguria and Tuscany revived the engagement of the public decision makers to enhance in synergy flood control and land use planning. In this context, the design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation critically relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of both, the immobile and mobile elements at risk potentially exposed to flood hazards. Based on fluid and classical mechanics notions we developed computation schemes enabling for a dynamic vulnerability and risk analysis facing a broad typological variety of elements at risk. The methodological skeleton consists of (1) hydrodynamic computation of the time-varying flood intensities resulting for each element at risk in a succession of loading configurations; (2) modelling the mechanical response of the impacted elements through static, elasto-static and dynamic analyses; (3) characterising the mechanical response through proper structural damage variables and (4) economic valuation of the expected losses as a function of the quantified damage variables. From a computational perspective we coupled the description of the hydrodynamic flow behaviour and the induced structural modifications of the elements at risk exposed. Valuation methods, suitable to support a correct mapping from the value domains of the physical damage variables to the economic loss values are discussed. In such a way we target to complement from a methodological perspective the existing, mainly empirical, vulnerability and risk assessment approaches to refine the conceptual framework of the cost-benefit analysis. Moreover, we aim to support the design of effective flood risk mitigation strategies by diminishing the main criticalities within the systems prone to flood risk.
Models of dark matter halos based on statistical mechanics: The classical King model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Lemou, Mohammed; Méhats, Florian
2015-03-01
We consider the possibility that dark matter halos are described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution at finite temperature. This is the case if dark matter is a self-gravitating quantum gas made of massive neutrinos at statistical equilibrium. This is also the case if dark matter can be treated as a self-gravitating collisionless gas experiencing Lynden-Bell's type of violent relaxation. In order to avoid the infinite mass problem and carry out a rigorous stability analysis, we consider the fermionic King model. In this paper, we study the nondegenerate limit leading to the classical King model. This model was initially introduced to describe globular clusters. We propose to apply it also to large dark matter halos where quantum effects are negligible. We determine the caloric curve and study the thermodynamical stability of the different configurations. Equilibrium states exist only above a critical energy Ec in the microcanonical ensemble and only above a critical temperature Tc in the canonical ensemble. For E
Novel mechanisms of action of classical chemotherapeutic agents on sphingolipid pathways.
Hajj, Carla; Becker-Flegler, Katrin Anne; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana
2015-06-01
The prevailing mechanisms of action of traditional chemotherapeutic agents have been challenged by sphingolipid cancer research. Many studies have shown that ceramide generation in response to cytotoxic agents is central to tumor cell death. Ceramide can be generated either via hydrolysis of cell-membrane sphingomyelin by sphingomyelinases, hydrolysis of cerebrosides, or via de novo synthesis by ceramide synthases. Ceramide can act as a second messenger for apoptosis, senescence or autophagy. Inherent or acquired alterations in the sphingolipid pathway can account for resistance to the classic chemotherapeutic agents. In particular, it has been shown that activation of the acid ceramidase can lead to the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate, which then antagonizes ceramide signaling by initiating a pro-survival signaling pathway. Furthermore, ceramide glycosylation catalyzed by glucosylceramide synthase converts ceramide to glucosylceramide, thus eliminating ceramide and consequently protecting cancer cells from apoptosis. In this review, we describe the effects of some of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents on ceramide generation, with a particular emphasis on strategies used to enhance the efficacy of these agents. PMID:25719313
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Dijk, W.; Kiers, K. A.; Nogami, Y.; Platt, A.; Spyksma, K.
2003-05-01
We examine the validity of the approximation in which an alpha particle interacting with an atom is treated classically. In order to analyse such interactions, we perform a model simulation in which the alpha particle is considered as a particle in one dimension, and the atom as a quantum two-level system. The particle impinges on and excites the two-level system. We treat the particle in two ways: as a quantum mechanical wave packet, and as a classical particle. The classical particle may be a point or may have an extended structure. In each case we calculate the excitation probability P21(t) as a function of time t. We focus on the situation in which the kinetic energy of the incident particle well exceeds the excitation energy of the two-level system. Although the finite-time behaviour of P21(t) varies, P21(infty) is remarkably insensitive to the size and shape of the incident wave packet in the quantum mechanical treatment. In the classical treatment, in contrast, we find that P21(infty) is sensitive to the size of the particle. The classical point particle, however, yields nearly the same values of P21(infty) as the quantum wave packet. Implications of the results on the interaction between an alpha particle and an atom are discussed.
Vincent, R.; Juaristi, J.I.
2005-06-15
Standard classical and quantum-mechanical methods are used to characterize the momentum-transfer cross section needed in energy-loss calculations and simulations for heavy, swift charges moving in an electron gas. By applying a well-known, finite-range screened Coulombic potential energy to model the two-body collision, the quantitative applicability range of the classical cross section is investigated as a function of charge (Z), screening length (R), and scattering relative velocity (v). The a posteriori condition (Z/R)/v{sup 2}<1, as an upper bound for heavy charges, is deduced for this applicability range from the comparative study performed.
Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S.; Lee, Jinhyoung
2016-01-01
In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, “Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?” The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call ‘reasoning’) to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player’s brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences. PMID:26875685
Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game.
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S; Lee, Jinhyoung
2016-01-01
In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, "Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?" The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call 'reasoning') to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player's brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences. PMID:26875685
Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S.; Lee, Jinhyoung
2016-02-01
In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, “Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?” The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call ‘reasoning’) to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player’s brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences.
Bogenschutz, Michael P; Pommy, Jessica M
2012-01-01
Alcohol and drug addiction are major public health problems, and existing treatments are only moderately effective. Although there has been interest for over half a century in the therapeutic use of classic hallucinogens to treat addictions, clinical research with these drugs was halted at an early stage in the early 1970s, leaving many fundamental questions unanswered. In the past two decades, clinical research on classic hallucinogens has resumed, although addiction treatment trials are only now beginning. The purpose of this paper is to provide a targeted review of the research most relevant to the therapeutic potential of hallucinogens, and to integrate this information with current thinking about addiction and recovery. On the basis of this information, we present a heuristic model which organizes a number of hypotheses that may be tested in future research. We conclude that existing evidence provides a convincing rationale for further research on the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction. PMID:22761106
How is an optimized path of classical mechanics affected by random noise?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koide, Tomoi
2013-02-01
The variational principle is one of important guiding principles in physics. Classical equations of motion of particle can be formulated so as to give the optimized path of an action. However, when there exist uncontrollable degrees of freedom such as noise, the optimized path is affected and the original classical equations of motion may not correspond to the optimized path. The stochastic variational method (SVM) is a framework to calculate the modified optimized path by the effect of noise. This method has been developed to show that the Schrödinger equation can be derived from the classical action which leads to Newton's equation of motion by taking into account the modification of the optimized path due to noise. In this work, we will extend this idea to the case of the continuum media and show that the Euler equation of the ideal fluid is converted to the Navier-Stokes equation or the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in SVM.
Thermodynamics and equilibrium structure of Ne38 cluster: quantum mechanics versus classical.
Predescu, Cristian; Frantsuzov, Pavel A; Mandelshtam, Vladimir A
2005-04-15
The equilibrium properties of classical Lennard-Jones (LJ38) versus quantum Ne38 Lennard-Jones clusters are investigated. The quantum simulations use both the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and the recently developed variational-Gaussian wave packet Monte Carlo (VGW-MC) methods. The PIMC and the classical MC simulations are implemented in the parallel tempering framework. The classical heat capacity Cv(T) curve agrees well with that of Neirotti et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10340 (2000)], although a much larger confining sphere is used in the present work. The classical Cv(T) shows a peak at about 6 K, interpreted as a solid-liquid transition, and a shoulder at approximately 4 K, attributed to a solid-solid transition involving structures from the global octahedral (Oh) minimum and the main icosahedral (C5v) minimum. The VGW method is used to locate and characterize the low energy states of Ne38, which are then further refined by PIMC calculations. Unlike the classical case, the ground state of Ne38 is a liquidlike structure. Among the several liquidlike states with energies below the two symmetric states (Oh and C5v), the lowest two exhibit strong delocalization over basins associated with at least two classical local minima. Because the symmetric structures do not play an essential role in the thermodynamics of Ne38, the quantum heat capacity is a featureless curve indicative of the absence of any structural transformations. Good agreement between the two methods, VGW and PIMC, is obtained. The present results are also consistent with the predictions by Calvo et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 7312 (2001)] based on the quantum superposition method within the harmonic approximation. However, because of its approximate nature, the latter method leads to an incorrect assignment of the Ne38 ground state as well as to a significant underestimation of the heat capacity. PMID:15945633
Non-Noetherian symmetries for oscillators in classical mechanics and in field theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hojman, Sergio A.; Delajara, Jamie; Pena, Leda
1995-01-01
Infinitely many new conservation laws both for free fields as well as for test fields evolving on a given gravitational background are presented. The conserved currents are constructed using the field theoretical counterpart of a recently discovered non-Noetherian symmetry which gives rise to a new way of solving the classical small oscillations problem. Several examples are discussed.
Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, Esam E; Jakubík, Jan
2015-07-01
We mutated key amino acids of the human variant of the M1 muscarinic receptor that target ligand binding, receptor activation, and receptor-G protein interaction. We compared the effects of these mutations on the action of two atypical M1 functionally preferring agonists (N-desmethylclozapine and xanomeline) and two classical non-selective orthosteric agonists (carbachol and oxotremorine). Mutations of D105 in the orthosteric binding site and mutation of D99 located out of the orthosteric binding site decreased affinity of all tested agonists that was translated as a decrease in potency in accumulation of inositol phosphates and intracellular calcium mobilization. Mutation of D105 decreased the potency of the atypical agonist xanomeline more than that of the classical agonists carbachol and oxotremorine. Mutation of the residues involved in receptor activation (D71) and coupling to G-proteins (R123) completely abolished the functional responses to both classical and atypical agonists. Our data show that both classical and atypical agonists activate hM1 receptors by the same molecular switch that involves D71 in the second transmembrane helix. The principal difference among the studied agonists is rather in the way they interact with D105 in the orthosteric binding site. Furthermore, our data demonstrate a key role of D105 in xanomeline wash-resistant binding and persistent activation of hM1 by wash-resistant xanomeline. PMID:25882246
Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Marcus, R. A.
1964-01-01
In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.
Positive-type functions on groups and new inequalities in classical and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.; Ventriglia, F.
2010-09-01
Out of any unitary representation of a group, positive-type functions on the group can be obtained. These functions allow one to construct positive semi-definite matrices that may be used to define new inequalities for higher moments of observables associated with classical probability distribution functions and density states of quantum systems. The inequalities stemming from the Heisenberg-Weyl group representations are considered in connection with Gaussian distributions. We obtain new inequalities for multi-variable Hermite polynomials.
COL5A1 haploinsufficiency is a common molecular mechanism underlying the classical form of EDS.
Wenstrup, R J; Florer, J B; Willing, M C; Giunta, C; Steinmann, B; Young, F; Susic, M; Cole, W G
2000-01-01
We have identified haploinsufficiency of the COL5A1 gene that encodes the proalpha1(V) chain of type V collagen in the classical form of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), a heritable connective-tissue disorder that severely alters the collagen-fibrillar structure of the dermis, joints, eyes, and blood vessels. Eight of 28 probands with classical EDS who were heterozygous for expressed polymorphisms in COL5A1 showed complete or nearly complete loss of expression of one COL5A1 allele. Reduced levels of proalpha1(V) mRNA relative to the levels of another type V collagen mRNA, proalpha2(V), were also observed in the cultured fibroblasts from EDS probands. Products of the two COL5A1 alleles were approximately equal after the addition of cycloheximide to the fibroblast cultures. After harvesting of mRNAs from cycloheximide-treated cultured fibroblasts, heteroduplex analysis of overlapping reverse transcriptase-PCR segments spanning the complete proalpha1(V) cDNA showed anomalies in four of the eight probands that led to identification of causative mutations, and, in the remaining four probands, targeting of CGA-->TGA mutations in genomic DNA revealed a premature stop at codon in one of them. We estimate that approximately one-third of individuals with classical EDS have mutations of COL5A1 that result in haploinsufficiency. These findings indicate that the normal formation of the heterotypic collagen fibrils that contain types I, III, and V collagen requires the expression of both COL5A1 alleles. PMID:10777716
The classical and quantum mechanics of a particle on a knot
Sreedhar, V.V.
2015-08-15
A free particle is constrained to move on a knot obtained by winding around a putative torus. The classical equations of motion for this system are solved in a closed form. The exact energy eigenspectrum, in the thin torus limit, is obtained by mapping the time-independent Schrödinger equation to the Mathieu equation. In the general case, the eigenvalue problem is described by the Hill equation. Finite-thickness corrections are incorporated perturbatively by truncating the Hill equation. Comparisons and contrasts between this problem and the well-studied problem of a particle on a circle (planar rigid rotor) are performed throughout.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwahara, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamanaka, Y.
2013-12-01
The 2×2-matrix structure of Green's functions is a common feature for the real-time formalisms of quantum field theory under thermal situations, such as the closed time path formalism and Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It has been believed to originate from quantum nature. Recently, Galley has proposed the Hamilton's principle with initial data for nonconservative classical systems, doubling each degree of freedom [1]. We show that the Galley's Hamilton formalism can be extended to quantum field and that the resulting theory is naturally identical with nonequilibrium TFD.
Heat control in opto-mechanical system using quantum non-classicality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Sushamana; Senwar, Subash
2016-05-01
Cooling of matter to the quantum ground state is a primary directive of quantum control. In other words, to extract entropy from a quantum system, efficient indirect quantum measurements may be implemented. The main objective is the cooling of the oscillator either to its motional ground state or to non-classical states, such as low-number Fock states, squeezed states or entangled states. It is shown that the use of quantum control procedure is better choice for even experimental realizations because it leads to a squeezed steady state with less than one phonon on average. The steady state of system corresponds to cooling of the system.
The classical and quantum mechanics of a particle on a knot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreedhar, V. V.
2015-08-01
A free particle is constrained to move on a knot obtained by winding around a putative torus. The classical equations of motion for this system are solved in a closed form. The exact energy eigenspectrum, in the thin torus limit, is obtained by mapping the time-independent Schrödinger equation to the Mathieu equation. In the general case, the eigenvalue problem is described by the Hill equation. Finite-thickness corrections are incorporated perturbatively by truncating the Hill equation. Comparisons and contrasts between this problem and the well-studied problem of a particle on a circle (planar rigid rotor) are performed throughout.
Dynamics of classical particles in oval or elliptic billiards with a dispersing mechanism.
da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Dettmann, Carl P; de Oliveira, Juliano A; Leonel, Edson D
2015-03-01
Some dynamical properties for an oval billiard with a scatterer in its interior are studied. The dynamics consists of a classical particle colliding between an inner circle and an external boundary given by an oval, elliptical, or circle shapes, exploring for the first time some natural generalizations. The billiard is indeed a generalization of the annular billiard, which is of strong interest for understanding marginally unstable periodic orbits and their role in the boundary between regular and chaotic regions in both classical and quantum (including experimental) systems. For the oval billiard, which has a mixed phase space, the presence of an obstacle is an interesting addition. We demonstrate, with details, how to obtain the equations of the mapping, and the changes in the phase space are discussed. We study the linear stability of some fixed points and show both analytically and numerically the occurrence of direct and inverse parabolic bifurcations. Lyapunov exponents and generalized bifurcation diagrams are obtained. Moreover, histograms of the number of successive iterations for orbits that stay in a cusp are studied. These histograms are shown to be scaling invariant when changing the radius of the scatterer, and they have a power law slope around -3. The results here can be generalized to other kinds of external boundaries. PMID:25833431
Controlling the transport of an ion: classical and quantum mechanical solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fürst, H. A.; Goerz, M. H.; Poschinger, U. G.; Murphy, M.; Montangero, S.; Calarco, T.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Singer, K.; Koch, C. P.
2014-07-01
The accurate transport of an ion over macroscopic distances represents a challenging control problem due to the different length and time scales that enter and the experimental limitations on the controls that need to be accounted for. Here, we investigate the performance of different control techniques for ion transport in state-of-the-art segmented miniaturized ion traps. We employ numerical optimization of classical trajectories and quantum wavepacket propagation as well as analytical solutions derived from invariant based inverse engineering and geometric optimal control. The applicability of each of the control methods depends on the length and time scales of the transport. Our comprehensive set of tools allows us make a number of observations. We find that accurate shuttling can be performed with operation times below the trap oscillation period. The maximum speed is limited by the maximum acceleration that can be exerted on the ion. When using controls obtained from classical dynamics for wavepacket propagation, wavepacket squeezing is the only quantum effect that comes into play for a large range of trapping parameters. We show that this can be corrected by a compensating force derived from invariant based inverse engineering, without a significant increase in the operation time.
Dynamics of classical particles in oval or elliptic billiards with a dispersing mechanism
Costa, Diogo Ricardo da; Dettmann, Carl P.; Oliveira, Juliano A. de; Leonel, Edson D.
2015-03-15
Some dynamical properties for an oval billiard with a scatterer in its interior are studied. The dynamics consists of a classical particle colliding between an inner circle and an external boundary given by an oval, elliptical, or circle shapes, exploring for the first time some natural generalizations. The billiard is indeed a generalization of the annular billiard, which is of strong interest for understanding marginally unstable periodic orbits and their role in the boundary between regular and chaotic regions in both classical and quantum (including experimental) systems. For the oval billiard, which has a mixed phase space, the presence of an obstacle is an interesting addition. We demonstrate, with details, how to obtain the equations of the mapping, and the changes in the phase space are discussed. We study the linear stability of some fixed points and show both analytically and numerically the occurrence of direct and inverse parabolic bifurcations. Lyapunov exponents and generalized bifurcation diagrams are obtained. Moreover, histograms of the number of successive iterations for orbits that stay in a cusp are studied. These histograms are shown to be scaling invariant when changing the radius of the scatterer, and they have a power law slope around −3. The results here can be generalized to other kinds of external boundaries.
Systemic gene dysregulation in classical Galactosaemia: Is there a central mechanism?
Coss, K P; Treacy, E P; Cotter, E J; Knerr, I; Murray, D W; Shin, Y S; Doran, P P
2014-11-01
Classical Galactosaemia is a rare disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT). The disease is life-threatening in the neonate, and the only treatment option is life-long dietary restriction of galactose. However, long-term complications persist in treated patients including cognitive impairments, speech and language abnormalities and premature ovarian insufficiency in females. Microarray analysis of T-lymphocytes from treated adult patients identified systemic dysregulation of numerous gene pathways, including the glycosylation, inflammatory and inositol pathways. Analysis of gene expression in patient-derived dermal fibroblasts of patients exposed to toxic levels of galactose, with immunostaining, has further identified the susceptibility of the glycosylation gene alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase (ALG9) and the inflammatory gene annexin A1 (ANXA1) to increased galactose concentrations. These data suggest that Galactosaemia is a multi-system disorder affecting numerous signalling pathways. PMID:25174965
Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson
2003-05-15
Stripping cross sections in nitrogen have been calculated using the classical trajectory approximation and the Born approximation of quantum mechanics for the outer shell electrons of 3.2GeV I{sup -} and Cs{sup +} ions. A large difference in cross section, up to a factor of six, calculated in quantum mechanics and classical mechanics, has been obtained. Because at such high velocities the Born approximation is well validated, the classical trajectory approach fails to correctly predict the stripping cross sections at high energies for electron orbitals with low ionization potential.
Historical and critical review of the development of nonholonomic mechanics: the classical period
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisov, Alexey V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.; Bizyaev, Ivan A.
2016-07-01
In this historical review we describe in detail the main stages of the development of nonholonomic mechanics starting from the work of Earnshaw and Ferrers to the monograph of Yu. I.Neimark and N.A. Fufaev. In the appendix to this review we discuss the d'Alembert-Lagrange principle in nonholonomic mechanics and permutation relations.
Probing wave function collapse models with a classically driven mechanical oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Melvyn; Lafont, Ambroise; Sangouard, Nicolas; Sekatski, Pavel
2016-03-01
We show that the interaction of a pulsed laser light with a mechanical oscillator through the radiation pressure results in an opto-mechanical entangled state in which the photon number is correlated with the oscillator position. Interestingly, the mechanical oscillator can be delocalized over a large range of positions when driven by an intense laser light. This provides a simple yet sensitive method to probe hypothetical post-quantum theories including an explicit wave function collapse model, like the Diosi & Penrose model. We propose an entanglement witness to reveal the quantum nature of this opto-mechanical state as well as an optical technique to record the decoherence of the mechanical oscillator. We also report on a detailed feasibility study giving the experimental challenges that need to be overcome in order to confirm or rule out predictions from explicit wave function collapse models.
Classical and Targeted Anticancer Drugs: An Appraisal of Mechanisms of Multidrug Resistance.
Baguley, Bruce C
2016-01-01
The mechanisms by which tumor cells resist the action of multiple anticancer drugs, often with widely different chemical structures, have been pursued for more than 30 years. The identification of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux transporter protein with affinity for multiple therapeutic drugs, provided an important potential mechanism and further work, which identified other members of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family that act as drug transporters. Several observations, including results of clinical trials with pharmacological inhibitors of P-gp, have suggested that mechanisms other than efflux transporters should be considered as contributors to resistance, and in this review mechanisms of anticancer drug resistance are considered more broadly. Cells in human tumors exist is a state of continuous turnover, allowing ongoing selection and "survival of the fittest." Tumor cells die not only as a consequence of drug therapy but also by apoptosis induced by their microenvironment. Cell death can be mediated by host immune mechanisms and by nonimmune cells acting on so-called death receptors. The tumor cell proliferation rate is also important because it controls tumor regeneration. Resistance to therapy might therefore be considered to arise from a reduction of several distinct cell death mechanisms, as well as from an increased ability to regenerate. This review provides a perspective on these mechanisms, together with brief descriptions of some of the methods that can be used to investigate them in a clinical situation. PMID:26910066
Kushekhar, Kushi; van den Berg, Anke; Nolte, Ilja; Hepkema, Bouke; Visser, Lydia; Diepstra, Arjan
2014-12-01
Both targeted and genome-wide studies have revealed genetic associations for susceptibility, prognosis, and treatment-induced secondary malignancies and toxicities in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). This review gives a systematic and comprehensive overview of significant associations and places them into a biologic context. The strongest susceptibility polymorphisms have been found for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. These associations are specific for cHL overall or for subgroups based on tumor cell Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. These findings strongly suggest that EBV-specific immune responses influence cHL susceptibility in EBV(+) cHL and that immune responses targeting other tumor-associated antigens are important in EBV(-) cHL. Accordingly, most of the numerous other susceptibility loci map to genes that affect functionality of the immune system, underscoring the crucial role of the immune system in cHL development. The number of association studies on cHL prognosis is limited with one consistent association for the drug-metabolizing UGT1A1 gene. PRDM1 is associated with radiation-induced secondary malignancies and a small number of genes are associated with treatment-related toxicities. In conclusion, most loci showing genetic associations in cHL harbor genes with a potential functional relevance for cHL susceptibility. PMID:25205514
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Gaosong; Derrick, Alexander T.; Zhu, Yakun; Free, Michael L.
2015-11-01
The sensitization behavior of Al 5xxx alloys is mainly caused by the formation of Mg-rich precipitates at grain boundaries. In this study, a classical nucleation-growth-coarsening theory for the description of intergranular precipitation is formulated, which adopts a collector plate mechanism, an equivalent average Mg concentration at the grain boundary, and new coarsening mechanisms. Three coarsening mechanisms, the modified Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner, the Kirchner mechanism, and a combination of these two mechanisms, are compared. Modeling results reveal that the Kirchner mechanism will breakdown when continuity ( √ {Nπ R2 } ) is close to 1. According to the new model, the coarsening still accounts for a small fraction (only 10 pct) in the final growth rate after aging at 343 K (70 °C) for 40 months, which is confirmed by the precipitate size distribution data. Thickness and continuity results predicted by the new model agree well with the experimental results obtained from scanning transmission electron microscopy images of Al 5083 H131 alloys aged at 343 K (70 °C) for different times. In addition, the new model is also applied to a high-temperature [453 K (180 °C)] situation, where coarsening of precipitates is observed.
Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamalov, Timur
2013-06-01
A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.
Classical conditioning mechanisms can differentiate between seeing and doing in rats.
Kutlu, Munir G; Schmajuk, Nestor A
2012-01-01
We show that the attentional-associative SLG model of classical conditioning, based on the 1996 research of Schmajuk, Lam, and Gray, correctly describes experimental results regarded as evidence of causal learning in rats: (a) interventions attenuate responding following common-cause training but do not interfere on subsequent responding during observation, and (b) interventions do not affect responding after direct-cause training or (c) causal-chain training. According to the model, responding to the weakly attended test stimulus is strongly inhibited by the intervention in the common-cause case. Instead, in the direct-cause and causal-chain cases, the strongly attended test stimulus becomes inhibitory, thereby overshadowing the inhibitory effect of interventions. Most importantly, the model predicted that with relatively few test trials (a) the 2008 results of Experiment 3 by Leising, Wong, Waldmann, and Blaisdell should be similar to those of Dwyer, Starns, and Honey's 2009 Experiment 1, showing that interventions equally affect responding after common-cause and direct-cause training; and (b) the 2006 results of Experiment 2a by Blaisdell, Sawa, Leising, and Waldmann should be similar to those of Dwyer, Starns, and Honey's 2009 Experiment 2, showing that interventions equally affect responding after common-cause and causal-chain training. When those data were made available to us, we confirmed those predictions. In agreement with the SLG associative model, but not with causal model theory, this evidence supports the notion that the attenuation of responding by interventions only following common-cause training is the consequence of well-known learning processes-latent inhibition, sensory preconditioning, conditioned inhibition, protection from extinction, and overshadowing. PMID:22229589
Evans, Deborah J; Owlarn, Suthira; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Aboobaker, A Aziz
2011-01-01
The current model of planarian anterior regeneration evokes the establishment of low levels of Wnt signalling at anterior wounds, promoting anterior polarity and subsequent elaboration of anterior fate through the action of the TALE class homeodomain PREP. The classical observation that decapitations positioned anteriorly will regenerate heads more rapidly than posteriorly positioned decapitations was among the first to lead to the proposal of gradients along an anteroposterior (AP) axis in a developmental context. An explicit understanding of this phenomenon is not included in the current model of anterior regeneration. This raises the question what the underlying molecular and cellular basis of this temporal gradient is, whether it can be explained by current models and whether understanding the gradient will shed light on regenerative events. Differences in anterior regeneration rate are established very early after amputation and this gradient is dependent on the activity of Hedgehog (Hh) signalling. Animals induced to produce two tails by either Smed-APC-1(RNAi) or Smed-ptc(RNAi) lose anterior fate but form previously described ectopic anterior brain structures. Later these animals form peri-pharyngeal brain structures, which in Smed-ptc(RNAi) grow out of the body establishing a new A/P axis. Combining double amputation and hydroxyurea treatment with RNAi experiments indicates that early ectopic brain structures are formed by uncommitted stem cells that have progressed through S-phase of the cell cycle at the time of amputation. Our results elaborate on the current simplistic model of both AP axis and brain regeneration. We find evidence of a gradient of hedgehog signalling that promotes posterior fate and temporarily inhibits anterior regeneration. Our data supports a model for anterior brain regeneration with distinct early and later phases of regeneration. Together these insights start to delineate the interplay between discrete existing, new, and then
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santillan, M.; Zeron, E. S.; Del Rio-Correa, J. L.
2008-01-01
In the traditional statistical mechanics textbooks, the entropy concept is first introduced for the microcanonical ensemble and then extended to the canonical and grand-canonical cases. However, in the authors' experience, this procedure makes it difficult for the student to see the bigger picture and, although quite ingenuous, the subtleness of…
Racemization of Isobornyl Chloride via Carbocations: A Nonclassical Look at a Classic Mechanism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rzepa, Henry S.; Allan, Charlotte S. M.
2010-01-01
Our understanding of carbonium ions as intermediates in chemical reaction mechanisms derives from the early work of Julius Stieglitz and the more famous Hans Meerwein, the latter studying the racemization of isobornyl chloride when treated with Lewis acids. This review analyzes how key mechanistic concepts for this reaction evolved and gives the…
The road to matrix mechanics: I. Classical interpretation of the anomalous optical dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivellari, Lucio
2016-09-01
This paper is the first one of a series of two on the role of the optical dispersion in the historical development of early quantum mechanics. As preparation for the successive paper on Ladenburg’s development of the phenomenological theory of radiative transitions between the stationary states of an atom by Einstein, we present here the current theories on optical dispersion between the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, Steven; Golubovic, Leonardo
Prospects to build Space Elevator (SE) systems have become realistic with ultra-strong materials such as carbon nano-tubes and diamond nano-threads. At cosmic length-scales, space elevators can be modeled as polymer like floppy strings of tethered mass beads. A new venue in SE science has emerged with the introduction of the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE) concept supported by novel algorithms discussed in this presentation. An RSE is a loopy string reaching into outer space. Unlike the classical geostationary SE concepts of Tsiolkovsky, Artsutanov, and Pearson, our RSE exhibits an internal rotation. Thanks to this, objects sliding along the RSE loop spontaneously oscillate between two turning points, one of which is close to the Earth whereas the other one is in outer space. The RSE concept thus solves a major problem in SE technology which is how to supply energy to the climbers moving along space elevator strings. The investigation of the classical and statistical mechanics of a floppy string interacting with objects sliding along it required development of subtle computational algorithms described in this presentation
Dzierlenga, Michael W; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D
2015-04-01
The mechanisms involved in enzymatic hydride transfer have been studied for years, but questions remain due, in part, to the difficulty of probing the effects of protein motion and hydrogen tunneling. In this study, we use transition path sampling (TPS) with normal mode centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) to calculate the barrier to hydride transfer in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Calculation of the work applied to the hydride allowed for observation of the change in barrier height upon inclusion of quantum dynamics. Similar calculations were performed using deuterium as the transferring particle in order to approximate kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). The change in barrier height in YADH is indicative of a zero-point energy (ZPE) contribution and is evidence that catalysis occurs via a protein compression that mediates a near-barrierless hydride transfer. Calculation of the KIE using the difference in barrier height between the hydride and deuteride agreed well with experimental results. PMID:26262969
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darrall, Bradley T.
For the first time true variational principles are formulated for the analysis of the continuum problems of heat diffusion, dynamic thermoelasticity, poroelasticity, and time-dependent quantum mechanics. This is accomplished by considering the stationarity of a mixed convolved action, which can be seen as a modern counterpart to the original actions posed in Hamilton's principle and its many extensions. By including fractional derivatives, convolution integrals, and mixed variables into the definition of the action these new variational principles overcome the shortcomings of the many other variational methods based on Hamilton's principle, namely the inability to include dissipation in a consistent manner and the unjustified need to constrain variations on the primary unknowns of a system at the end of the time interval. These new variational principles then provide ideal weak forms from which novel time-space finite element methods having certain attractive properties are formulated.
Mechanisms of classical crystal growth theory explain quartz and silicate dissolution behavior
Dove, Patricia M.; Han, Nizhou; De Yoreo, James J.
2005-01-01
The central control of mineral weathering rates on biogeochemical systems has motivated studies of dissolution for more than 50 years. A complete physical picture that explains widely observed variations in dissolution behavior is lacking, and some data show apparent serious inconsistencies that cannot be explained by the largely empirical kinetic “laws.” Here, we show that mineral dissolution can, in fact, be understood through the same mechanistic theory of nucleation developed for mineral growth. In principle, this theory should describe dissolution but has never been tested. By generalizing nucleation rate equations to include dissolution, we arrive at a model that predicts how quartz dissolution processes change with undersaturation from step retreat, to defect-driven and homogeneous etch pit formation. This finding reveals that the “salt effect,” recognized almost 100 years ago, arises from a crossover in dominant nucleation mechanism to greatly increase step density. The theory also explains the dissolution kinetics of major weathering aluminosilicates, kaolinite and K-feldspar. In doing so, it provides a sensible origin of discrepancies reported for the dependence of kaolinite dissolution and growth rates on saturation state by invoking a temperature-activated transition in the nucleation process. Although dissolution by nucleation processes was previously unknown for oxides or silicates, our mechanism-based findings are consistent with recent observations of dissolution (i.e., demineralization) in biological minerals. Nucleation theory may be the missing link to unifying mineral growth and dissolution into a mechanistic and quantitative framework across the continuum of driving force. PMID:16230632
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohrab, Siavash
2016-03-01
A scale-invariant model of statistical mechanics is applied to described modified forms of four laws of classical thermodynamics. Following de Broglie formula λrk = h /mkvrk , frequency of matter waves is defined as νrk = k /mkvrk leading to stochastic definitions of (Planck, Boltzmann) universal constants (h =mk <λrk > c , k =mk <νrk > c), λrkνrk = c , relating to spatiotemporal Casimir vacuum fluctuations. Invariant Mach number Maβ = v /vrβ is introduced leading to hierarchy of ``supersonic'' flow separated by shock front, viewed as ``event-horizon'' EHβ, from subsonic flow that terminates at surface of stagnant condensate of ``atoms'' defined as ``black-hole'' BHβ at scale β thus resulting in hierarchy of embedded ``black holes'' at molecular- atomic-, electron-, photon-, tachyon-. . . scales, ad infinitum. Classical black hole will correspond to solid phase photon or solid-light. It is argued that Bardeen-Carter-Hawking (1973) first law of black hole mechanics δM = (κ / 8 π) δA +ΩH δJ +ΦH δQ , instead of dE = TdS - PdV suggested by Bekenstein (1973), is analogous to first law of thermodynamics expressed as TdS = PdV + dE such that entropy of black hole, rather than to its horizon surface area, will be related to its total energy hence enthalpy H = TS leading to SBH = 4 kN in exact agreement with prediction of Major and Setter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzierlenga, Michael; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven
2015-03-01
The mechanisms involved in enzymatic hydride transfer have been studies for years but questions remain, due to the difficulty in determining the participation of protein dynamics and quantum effects, especially hydrogen tunneling. In this study, we use transition path sampling (TPS) with normal mode centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) to calculate the barrier to hydride transfer in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Calculation of the work applied to the hydride during the reaction allows for observation of the change in barrier height due to inclusion of quantum effects. Additionally, the same calculations were performed using deuterium as the transferring particle to validate our methods with experimentally measured kinetic isotope effects. The change in barrier height in YADH upon inclusion of quantum effects is indicative of a zero-point energy contribution, and is evidence that the protein mediates a near-barrierless transfer of the rate-limiting hydride. Calculation of kinetic isotope effects using the average difference in barrier between hydride and deuteride agreed well with experimental results. The authors acknowledge the support of the National Institutes of Health Grants GM068036 and GM102226.
Peón, Alberto N; Terrazas, Luis I
2016-01-01
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Its pathophysiology is centered on neuron myelin sheath destruction in a manner largely dependent upon CD4+/CD8+ T-cell autoreactivity against myelin antigens, inducing Th1/Th17 pathogenic responses with the resulting production of free radicals and soluble mediators that exhibit the effector mechanisms of neurodegeneration. The immune response responsible for this disease is complex and challenges modern medicine. Consequently, many experimental therapies have been proposed in addition to the classical array of immunoregulatory/ immunosuppressive drugs that are normally used to treat MS. In this review, we will describe the effects and mechanisms of action of widely used disease-modifying MS drugs as well as those of select treatments that are currently in the experimental phase. Special emphasis is placed on helminth-derived immunoregulators, as some of them have shown promising results. Additionally, we will compare the mechanisms of action of both the MS drugs and the helminth-derived treatments to discuss the potential importance of some signaling pathways in the control of MS. PMID:26947777
Nitoker, Neta; Major, Dan Thomas
2015-01-20
Serine racemase (SerR) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme catalyzing the racemization of l-Ser to d-Ser. In mammals, d-Ser is an endogenous coagonist required for the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), thus making SerR a promising pharmaceutical target. However, mechanistic studies of SerR are scarce, and the details of the enzymatic racemization reaction are not fully understood. In the current study we elucidate the catalytic mechanism in SerR by employing combined multiscale classical/quantum simulations. The free energy profile of a model SerR racemization reaction is first calculated in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. To obtain the free energy profile for the enzymatic reaction, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with umbrella sampling are performed. The results suggest that in SerR, similarly to the related enzyme alanine racemase, the unprotonated PLP-substrate intermediate is stabilized mostly due to solvation effects contributed by water molecules and active-site residues, as well as long-range electrostatic interactions with the enzyme environment. In addition to a deeper understanding of the racemization mechanism in SerR, based on our simulations we propose specific mutations, which might shift the SerR equilibrium in favor of either l-Ser or d-Ser. Finally, the current studies have produced catalytically competent forms of the rat and human enzymes, which may serve as targets for future docking studies and drug design. PMID:25493718
Mullin, Jonathan; Valley, Nicholas; Blaber, Martin G; Schatz, George C
2012-09-27
Multiscale models that combine quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamics are presented, which allow for the evaluation of surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) and hyper-Raman scattering spectra (SEHRS) for both chemical (CHEM) and electrodynamic (EM) enhancement mechanisms. In these models, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for a system consisting of the adsorbed molecule and a metal cluster fragment of the metal particle is coupled to Mie theory for the metal particle, with the surface of the cluster being overlaid with the surface of the metal particle. In model A, the electromagnetic enhancement from plasmon-excitation of the metal particle is combined with the chemical enhancement associated with a static treatment of the molecule-metal structure to determine overall spectra. In model B, the frequency dependence of the Raman spectrum of the isolated molecule is combined with the enhancements determined in model A to refine the enhancement estimate. An equivalent theory at the level of model A is developed for hyper-Raman spectra calculations. Application to pyridine interacting with a 20 nm diameter silver sphere is presented, including comparisons with an earlier model (denoted G), which combines plasmon enhanced fields with gas-phase Raman (or hyper-Raman) spectra. The EM enhancement factor for spherical particles at 357 nm is found to be 10(4) and 10(6) for SERS and SEHRS, respectively. Including both chemical and electromagnetic mechanisms at the level of model A leads to enhancements on the order of 10(4) and 10(9) for SERS and SEHRS. PMID:22946645
Vieira, A. S.; de Matos, A. H.; do Canto, A. M.; Rocha, C. S.; Carvalho, B. S.; Pascoal, V. D. B.; Norwood, B.; Bauer, S.; Rosenow, F.; Gilioli, R.; Cendes, F.; Lopes-Cendes, I.
2016-01-01
We report here the first complete transcriptome analysis of the dorsal (dDG) and ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) of a rat epilepsy model presenting a hippocampal lesion with a strict resemblance to classical hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We collected the dDG and vDG by laser microdissection 15 days after electrical stimulation and performed high-throughput RNA-sequencing. There were many differentially regulated genes, some of which were specific to either of the two sub-regions in stimulated animals. Gene ontology analysis indicated an enrichment of inflammation-related processes in both sub-regions and of axonal guidance and calcium signaling processes exclusively in the vDG. There was also a differential regulation of genes encoding molecules involved in synaptic function, neural electrical activity and neuropeptides in stimulated rats. The data presented here suggests, in the time point analyzed, a remarkable interaction among several molecular components which takes place in the damaged hippocampi. Furthermore, even though similar mechanisms may function in different regions of the DG, the molecular components involved seem to be region specific. PMID:26935982
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, Steven; Golubovic, Leonardo
2015-04-01
With the advent of ultra-strong materials, the Space Elevator has changed from science fiction to real science. We discuss computational and theoretical methods we developed to explore classical and statistical mechanics of rotating Space Elevators (RSE). An RSE is a loopy string reaching deep into outer space. The floppy RSE loop executes a motion which is nearly a superposition of two rotations: geosynchronous rotation around the Earth, and yet another faster rotational motion of the string which goes on around a line perpendicular to the Earth at its equator. Strikingly, objects sliding along the RSE loop spontaneously oscillate between two turning points, one of which is close to the Earth (starting point) whereas the other one is deeply in the outer space. The RSE concept thus solves a major problem in space elevator science which is how to supply energy to the climbers moving along space elevator strings. The exploration of the dynamics of a floppy string interacting with objects sliding along it has required development of novel finite element algorithms described in this presentation. We thank Prof. Duncan Lorimer of WVU for kindly providing us access to his computational facility.
Chen, Hanning; McMahon, J. M.; Ratner, Mark A.; Schatz, George C.
2010-09-02
A new multiscale computational methodology was developed to effectively incorporate the scattered electric field of a plasmonic nanoparticle into a quantum mechanical (QM) optical property calculation for a nearby dye molecule. For a given location of the dye molecule with respect to the nanoparticle, a frequency-dependent scattering response function was first determined by the classical electrodynamics (ED) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach. Subsequently, the time-dependent scattered electric field at the dye molecule was calculated using the FDTD scattering response function through a multidimensional Fourier transform to reflect the effect of polarization of the nanoparticle on the local field at the molecule. Finally, a real-time time-dependent density function theory (RT-TDDFT) approach was employed to obtain a desired optical property (such as absorption cross section) of the dye molecule in the presence of the nanoparticle’s scattered electric field. Our hybrid QM/ED methodology was demonstrated by investigating the absorption spectrum of the N3 dye molecule and the Raman spectrum of pyridine, both of which were shown to be significantly enhanced by a 20 nm diameter silver sphere. In contrast to traditional quantum mechanical optical calculations in which the field at the molecule is entirely determined by intensity and polarization direction of the incident light, in this work we show that the light propagation direction as well as polarization and intensity are important to nanoparticle-bound dye molecule response. At no additional computation cost compared to conventional ED and QM calculations, this method provides a reliable way to couple the response of the dye molecule’s individual electrons to the collective dielectric response of the nanoparticle.
Draeger, E W; Bennion, B; Gygi, F; Lightstone, F
2006-02-10
The reaction mechanism of the human P450 CYP1A2 enzyme plays a fundamental role in understanding the effects of environmental carcinogens and mutagens on humans. Despite extensive experimental research on this enzyme system, key questions regarding its catalytic cycle and oxygen activation mechanism remain unanswered. In order to elucidate the reaction mechanism in human P450, new computational methods are needed to accurately represent this system. To enable us to perform computational simulations of unprecedented accuracy on these systems, we developed a dynamic quantum-classical (QM/MM) hybrid method, in which ab initio molecular dynamics are coupled with classical molecular mechanics. This will provide the accuracy needed to address such a complex, large biological system in a fully dynamic environment. We also present detailed calculations of the P450 active site, including the relative charge transfer between iron porphine and tetraphenyl porphyrin.
Zhang, Yuetao; Miyake, Garret M; John, Mallory G; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y-X
2012-08-14
Classical and frustrated Lewis pairs (LPs) of the strong Lewis acid (LA) Al(C(6)F(5))(3) with several Lewis base (LB) classes have been found to exhibit exceptional activity in the Lewis pair polymerization (LPP) of conjugated polar alkenes such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) as well as renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) and γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γ-MMBL), leading to high molecular weight polymers, often with narrow molecular weight distributions. This study has investigated a large number of LPs, consisting of 11 LAs as well as 10 achiral and 4 chiral LBs, for LPP of 12 monomers of several different types. Although some more common LAs can also be utilized for LPP, Al(C(6)F(5))(3)-based LPs are far more active and effective than other LA-based LPs. On the other hand, several classes of LBs, when paired with Al(C(6)F(5))(3), can render highly active and effective LPP of MMA and γ-MMBL; such LBs include phosphines (e.g., P(t)Bu(3)), chiral chelating diphosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), and phosphazene superbases (e.g., P(4)-(t)Bu). The P(4)-(t)Bu/Al(C(6)F(5))(3) pair exhibits the highest activity of the LP series, with a remarkably high turn-over frequency of 9.6 × 10(4) h(-1) (0.125 mol% catalyst, 100% MMA conversion in 30 s, M(n) = 2.12 × 10(5) g mol(-1), PDI = 1.34). The polymers produced by LPs at RT are typically atactic (P(γ)MMBL with ∼47% mr) or syndio-rich (PMMA with ∼70-75% rr), but highly syndiotactic PMMA with rr ∼91% can be produced by chiral or achiral LPs at -78 °C. Mechanistic studies have identified and structurally characterized zwitterionic phosphonium and imidazolium enolaluminates as the active species of the current LPP system, which are formed by the reaction of the monomer·Al(C(6)F(5))(3) adduct with P(t)Bu(3) and NHC bases, respectively. Kinetic studies have revealed that the MMA polymerization by the (t)Bu(3)P/Al(C(6)F(5))(3) pair is zero-order in monomer concentration after an initial
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clayman, Dee L.
1995-01-01
Appraises several databases devoted to classical literature. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) contains the entire extant corpus of ancient Greek literature, including works on lexicography and historiography, extending into the 15th century. Other works awaiting completion are the Database of Classical Bibliography and a CD-ROM pictorial dictionary…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrielli, Alessandro
2016-08-01
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward
1993-01-01
An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLenaghan, Raymond G.; Smirnov, Roman G.; The, Dennis
2004-03-01
We develop a new approach to the study of Killing tensors defined in pseudo-Riemannian spaces of constant curvature that is ideologically close to the classical theory of invariants. The main idea, which provides the foundation of the new approach, is to treat a Killing tensor as an algebraic object determined by a set of parameters of the corresponding vector space of Killing tensors under the action of the isometry group. The spaces of group invariants and conformal group invariants of valence two Killing tensors defined in the Minkowski plane are described. The group invariants, which are the generators of the space of invariants, are applied to the problem of classification of orthogonally separable Hamiltonian systems defined in the Minkowski plane. Transformation formulas to separable coordinates expressed in terms of the parameters of the corresponding space of Killing tensors are presented. The results are applied to the problem of orthogonal separability of the Drach superintegrable potentials.
Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory: Fundamentals
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-03-28
We present fundamentals of a prequantum model with hidden variables of the classical field type. In some sense this is the comeback of classical wave mechanics. Our approach also can be considered as incorporation of quantum mechanics into classical signal theory. All quantum averages (including correlations of entangled systems) can be represented as classical signal averages and correlations.
Entanglement with Classical Spinors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baylis, William E.; Johnson, Crystal
2004-05-01
The spinor formulation of classical dynamics, which arises naturally in Clifford algebra approaches, describes particle dynamics in terms of spinor amplitudes and gives quantum mechanical, spin-1/2 form to many classical expressions for particles whose dynamics can be represented by single spinor fields. Here we use tensor products of the algebra of physical space (APS)[1] to explore the quantum/classical interface and provide insight into quantum properties and, in particular, entanglement in multiparticle spin-1/2 systems. Entanglement in mixed-state systems is seen as spinor (Â"quantumÂ") correlation beyond the maximum possible with classical frequencies or probabilities. The relevance to systems of qubits in a quantum computer is elaborated. [1] W. E. Baylis, Â"Applications of Clifford Algebras in PhysicsÂ", in Lectures on Clifford (Geometric) Algebras and Applications, R. Ablamowicz and G. Sobczyk, eds., Birkhäuser Boston, 2004.
Smets, Quentin; Verreck, Devin; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Groeseneken, Guido; Heyns, Marc M.; Verhulst, Anne S.; Rooyackers, Rita; Merckling, Clément; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Voon Y.; Van De Put, Maarten; Sorée, Bart
2014-05-14
Promising predictions are made for III-V tunnel-field-effect transistor (FET), but there is still uncertainty on the parameters used in the band-to-band tunneling models. Therefore, two simulators are calibrated in this paper; the first one uses a semi-classical tunneling model based on Kane's formalism, and the second one is a quantum mechanical simulator implemented with an envelope function formalism. The calibration is done for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As using several p+/intrinsic/n+ diodes with different intrinsic region thicknesses. The dopant profile is determined by SIMS and capacitance-voltage measurements. Error bars are used based on statistical and systematic uncertainties in the measurement techniques. The obtained parameters are in close agreement with theoretically predicted values and validate the semi-classical and quantum mechanical models. Finally, the models are applied to predict the input characteristics of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As n- and p-lineTFET, with the n-lineTFET showing competitive performance compared to MOSFET.
Baxter, Becki; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Parson, Simon H
2008-01-01
Motor nerve terminals are known to be vulnerable to a wide range of pathological stimuli. To further characterize this vulnerability, we have developed a novel model system to examine the response of mouse motor nerve terminals in ex vivo nerve/muscle preparations to 2 h hypoxia followed by 2 h reperfusion. This insult induced a rapid loss of neurofilament and synaptic vesicle protein immunoreactivity at pre-synaptic motor nerve terminals but did not appear to affect post-synaptic endplates or muscle fibres. The severity of nerve terminal loss was dependent on the age of the mouse and muscle type: in 8–12-week-old mice the predominantly fast-twitch lumbrical muscles showed an 82.5% loss, whereas the predominantly slow-twitch muscles transversus abdominis and triangularis sterni showed a 57.8% and 27.2% loss, respectively. This was contrasted with a > 97% loss in the predominantly slow-twitch muscles from 5–6-week-old mice. We have also demonstrated that nerve terminal loss occurs by a mechanism distinct from Wallerian degeneration, as the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) gene did not modify the extent of nerve terminal pathology. Together, these data show that our new model of hypoxia–reperfusion injury is robust and repeatable, that it induces rapid, quantitative changes in motor nerve terminals and that it can be used to further examine the mechanisms regulating nerve terminal vulnerability in response to hypoxia–reperfusion injury. PMID:18510509
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Shuji; Kouno, Takahisa; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Tsuruta, Kanji; Saini, Subhash; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A multidisciplinary, collaborative simulation has been performed on a Grid of geographically distributed PC clusters. The multiscale simulation approach seamlessly combines i) atomistic simulation backed on the molecular dynamics (MD) method and ii) quantum mechanical (QM) calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT), so that accurate but less scalable computations are performed only where they are needed. The multiscale MD/QM simulation code has been Grid-enabled using i) a modular, additive hybridization scheme, ii) multiple QM clustering, and iii) computation/communication overlapping. The Gridified MD/QM simulation code has been used to study environmental effects of water molecules on fracture in silicon. A preliminary run of the code has achieved a parallel efficiency of 94% on 25 PCs distributed over 3 PC clusters in the US and Japan, and a larger test involving 154 processors on 5 distributed PC clusters is in progress.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Saini, Subhash
2003-01-01
Scalability of a low-cost, Intel Xeon-based, multi-Teraflop Linux cluster is tested for two high-end scientific applications: Classical atomistic simulation based on the molecular dynamics method and quantum mechanical calculation based on the density functional theory. These scalable parallel applications use space-time multiresolution algorithms and feature computational-space decomposition, wavelet-based adaptive load balancing, and spacefilling-curve-based data compression for scalable I/O. Comparative performance tests are performed on a 1,024-processor Linux cluster and a conventional higher-end parallel supercomputer, 1,184-processor IBM SP4. The results show that the performance of the Linux cluster is comparable to that of the SP4. We also study various effects, such as the sharing of memory and L2 cache among processors, on the performance.
Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Autrey, Thomas; Parab, Kshitij K.; Bowden, Mark E.; Potter, Robert G.; Camaioni, Donald M.
2015-09-10
We report on a combined computational and experimental study of the activation of hydrogen using for 2,6-lutidine (Lut)/BCl3 Lewis pairs. Herein we describe the synthetic approach used to obtain a new FLP, Lut-BCl3 that activates molecular H2 at ~10 bar, 100 °C in toluene or lutidine as the solvent. The resulting compound is an unexpected neutral hydride, LutBHCl2, rather than the ion pair, which we attribute to ligand redistribution. The mechanism for activation was modeled with density functional theory and accurate G3(MP2)B3 theory. The dative bond in Lut-BCl3 is calculated to have a bond enthalpy of 15 kcal/mol. The separated pair is calculated to react with H2 and form the [LutH+][HBCl3–] ion pair with a barrier of 13 kcal/mol. Metathesis with LutBCl3 produces LutBHCl2 and [LutH][BCl4]. The overall reaction is exothermic by 8.5 kcal/mol. An alternative pathway was explored involving lutidine–borenium cation pair activating H2. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences, and Geosciences, and was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.
What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlosshauer, Maximilian; Camilleri, Kristian
2011-03-01
Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum—for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shed some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum—classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classicality and Bohr's classical concepts.
Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Qu, Xiaohuui; Sa, Niya; Burrell, Anthony K.; Persson, Kristin A.
2015-03-11
In this work we uncover a novel effect between concentration dependent ion pair formation and anion stability at reducing potentials, e.g., at the metal anode. Through comprehensive calculations using both first-principles as well as well-benchmarked classical molecular dynamics over a matrix of electrolytes, covering solvents and salt anions with a broad range in chemistry, we elucidate systematic correlations between molecular level interactions and composite electrolyte properties, such as electrochemical stability, solvation structure, and dynamics. We find that Mg electrolytes are highly prone to ion pair formation, even at modest concentrations, for a wide range of solvents with different dielectric constants, which have implications for dynamics as well as charge transfer. Specifically, we observe that, at Mg metal potentials, the ion pair undergoes partial reduction at the Mg cation center (Mg2+ -> Mg+), which competes with the charge transfer mechanism and can activate the anion to render it susceptible to decomposition. Specifically, TFSI exhibits a significant bond weakening while paired with the transient, partially reduced Mg+. In contrast, BH4 and BF4 are shown to be chemically stable in a reduced ion pair configuration. Furthermore, we observe that higher order glymes as well as DMSO improve the solubility of Mg salts, but only the longer glyme chains reduce the dynamics of the ions in solution. This information provides critical design metrics for future electrolytes as it elucidates a close connection between bulk solvation and cathodic stability as well as the dynamics of the salt.
Anderson localization from classical trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander
2008-08-01
We show that Anderson localization in quasi-one-dimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively describe this mechanism in two different ways: the explicit description of transition probabilities in terms of interfering trajectories, and an hierarchical integration over fluctuations in the classical phase space of the array cavities.
Vikár, Anna; Nagy, Tibor; Lendvay, György
2016-07-14
Application of exact quantum scattering methods in theoretical reaction dynamics of bimolecular reactions is limited by the complexity of the equations of nuclear motion to be solved. Simplification is often achieved by reducing the number of degrees of freedom to be explicitly handled by freezing the less important spectator modes. The reaction cross sections obtained in reduced-dimensionality (RD) quantum scattering methods can be used in the calculation of rate coefficients, but their physical meaning is limited. The accurate test of the performance of a reduced-dimensionality method would be a comparison of the RD cross sections with those obtained in accurate full-dimensional (FD) calculations, which is not feasible because of the lack of complete full-dimensional results. However, classical mechanics allows one to perform reaction dynamics calculations using both the RD and the FD model. In this paper, an RD versus FD comparison is made for the 8-dimensional Palma-Clary model on the example of four isotopologs of the CH4 + H → CH3 + H2 reaction, which has 12 internal dimensions. In the Palma-Clary model, the only restriction is that the methyl group is confined to maintain C3v symmetry. Both RD and FD opacity and excitation functions as well as differential cross sections were calculated using the quasiclassical trajectory method. The initial reactant separation has been handled according to our one-period averaging method [ Nagy et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 014104 ]. The RD and FD excitation functions were found to be close to each other for some isotopologs, but in general, the RD reactivity parameters are lower than the FD reactivity parameters beyond statistical error, and for one of the isotopologs, the deviation is significant. This indicates that the goodness of RD cross sections cannot be taken for granted. PMID:26918703
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boyer, Timothy H.
1985-01-01
The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Si-Liu; Liang, Jian-Chu; Yi, Lin
2010-01-01
The (1+1)-dimensional F-expansion technique and the homogeneous nonlinear balance principle have been generalized and applied for solving exact solutions to a general (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with varying coefficients and a harmonica potential. We found that there exist two kinds of soliton solutions. The evolution features of exact solutions have been numerically studied. The (3+1)D soliton solutions may help us to understand the nonlinear wave propagation in the nonlinear media such as classical optical waves and the matter waves of the Bose-Einstein condensates.
Classical underpinnings of gravitationally induced quantum interference
Mannheim, P.D.
1998-02-01
We show that the gravitational modification of the phase of a neutron beam [the Colella-Overhauser-Werner (COW) experiment] has a classical origin, being due to the time delay that classical particles experience in traversing a background gravitational field. Similarly, we show that classical light waves also undergo a phase shift in traversing a gravitational field. We show that the COW experiment respects the equivalence principle even in the presence of quantum mechanics. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Quantum phase uncertainties in the classical limit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franson, James D.
1994-01-01
Several sources of phase noise, including spontaneous emission noise and the loss of coherence due to which-path information, are examined in the classical limit of high field intensities. Although the origin of these effects may appear to be quantum-mechanical in nature, it is found that classical analogies for these effects exist in the form of chaos.
Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.
2016-07-01
Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almost-ideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.
Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges
2006-07-01
The effect of temperature on the adsorption and retention behaviors of a low molecular weight compound (phenol) on a C18-bonded silica column (C18-Sunfire, Waters) from aqueous solutions of methanol (20%) or acetonitrile (15%) was investigated. The results of the measurements were interpreted successively on the basis of the linear (i.e., overall retention factors) and the nonlinear (i.e., adsorption isotherms, surface heterogeneity, saturation capacities, and equilibrium constants) chromatographic methods. The confrontation of these two approaches confirmed the impossibility of a sound physical interpretation of the conventional Van't Hoff plot. The classical linear chromatography theory assumes that retention is determined by the equilibrium thermodynamics of analytes between a homogeneous stationary phase and a homogeneous mobile phase (although there may be two or several types of interactions). From values of the experimental retention factors in a temperature interval and estimates of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution in the same temperature interval provided by the UNIFAC group contribution method, evidence is provided that such a retention model cannot hold. The classical Van't Hoff plot appears meaningless and its linear behavior a mere accident. Results from nonlinear chromatography confirm these conclusions and provide explanations. The retention factors seem to fulfill the Van't Hoff equation, not the Henry constants corresponding to the different types of adsorption sites. The saturation capacities and the adsorption energies are clearly temperature dependent. The temperature dependence of these characteristics of the different assorption sites are different in aqueous methanol and acetonitrile solutions. PMID:16808477
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, James
1978-01-01
Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…
Fermions from classical statistics
Wetterich, C.
2010-12-15
We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states {tau} of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p{sub {tau}} amounts to a rotation of the wave function q{sub {tau}}(t)={+-}{radical}(p{sub {tau}}(t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.
Measurement-Based Classical Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Anwar, Hussain; Usher, Naïri; Raussendorf, Robert; Browne, Dan E.
2014-04-01
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a model of quantum computation, in which computation proceeds via adaptive single qubit measurements on a multiqubit quantum state. It is computationally equivalent to the circuit model. Unlike the circuit model, however, its classical analog is little studied. Here we present a classical analog of MBQC whose computational complexity presents a rich structure. To do so, we identify uniform families of quantum computations [refining the circuits introduced by Bremner et al. Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 459 (2010)] whose output is likely hard to exactly simulate (sample) classically. We demonstrate that these circuit families can be efficiently implemented in the MBQC model without adaptive measurement and, thus, can be achieved in a classical analog of MBQC whose resource state is a probability distribution which has been created quantum mechanically. Such states (by definition) violate no Bell inequality, but, if widely held beliefs about computational complexity are true, they, nevertheless, exhibit nonclassicality when used as a computational resource—an imprint of their quantum origin.
Vinck, Martin; Bosman, Conrado A
2016-01-01
During visual stimulation, neurons in visual cortex often exhibit rhythmic and synchronous firing in the gamma-frequency (30-90 Hz) band. Whether this phenomenon plays a functional role during visual processing is not fully clear and remains heavily debated. In this article, we explore the function of gamma-synchronization in the context of predictive and efficient coding theories. These theories hold that sensory neurons utilize the statistical regularities in the natural world in order to improve the efficiency of the neural code, and to optimize the inference of the stimulus causes of the sensory data. In visual cortex, this relies on the integration of classical receptive field (CRF) data with predictions from the surround. Here we outline two main hypotheses about gamma-synchronization in visual cortex. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization reflects the extent to which CRF data can be accurately predicted by the surround. Second, we hypothesize that different cortical columns synchronize to the extent that they accurately predict each other's CRF visual input. We argue that these two hypotheses can account for a large number of empirical observations made on the stimulus dependencies of gamma-synchronization. Furthermore, we show that they are consistent with the known laminar dependencies of gamma-synchronization and the spatial profile of intercolumnar gamma-synchronization, as well as the dependence of gamma-synchronization on experience and development. Based on our two main hypotheses, we outline two additional hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization shows, in general, a negative dependence on RF size. In support, we review evidence showing that gamma-synchronization decreases in strength along the visual hierarchy, and tends to be more prominent in species with small V1 RFs. Second, we hypothesize that gamma-synchronized network dynamics facilitate the emergence of spiking output that is
Shenoy, Rajesh T; Thangamani, Saravanan; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling; Sivaraman, J
2011-01-01
Serine proteases play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions. In the innate immune system of invertebrates, multi-domain protease inhibitors are important for the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and antimicrobial activities. Serine protease inhibitors, 9.3-kDa CrSPI isoforms 1 and 2, have been identified from the hepatopancreas of the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. The CrSPIs were biochemically active, especially CrSPI-1, which potently inhibited subtilisin (Ki = 1.43 nM). CrSPI has been grouped with the non-classical Kazal-type inhibitors due to its unusual cysteine distribution. Here we report the crystal structure of CrSPI-1 in complex with subtilisin at 2.6 Å resolution and the results of biophysical interaction studies. The CrSPI-1 molecule has two domains arranged in an extended conformation. These two domains act as heads that independently interact with two separate subtilisin molecules, resulting in the inhibition of subtilisin activity at a ratio of 1:2 (inhibitor to protease). Each subtilisin molecule interacts with the reactive site loop from each domain of CrSPI-1 through a standard canonical binding mode and forms a single ternary complex. In addition, we propose the substrate preferences of each domain of CrSPI-1. Domain 2 is specific towards the bacterial protease subtilisin, while domain 1 is likely to interact with the host protease, Furin. Elucidation of the structure of the CrSPI-1: subtilisin (1∶2) ternary complex increases our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in the innate immune system at the molecular level and provides new strategies for immunomodulation. PMID:21541315
Shenoy, Rajesh T.; Thangamani, Saravanan; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling; Sivaraman, J.
2011-01-01
Serine proteases play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions. In the innate immune system of invertebrates, multi-domain protease inhibitors are important for the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and antimicrobial activities. Serine protease inhibitors, 9.3-kDa CrSPI isoforms 1 and 2, have been identified from the hepatopancreas of the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. The CrSPIs were biochemically active, especially CrSPI-1, which potently inhibited subtilisin (Ki = 1.43 nM). CrSPI has been grouped with the non-classical Kazal-type inhibitors due to its unusual cysteine distribution. Here we report the crystal structure of CrSPI-1 in complex with subtilisin at 2.6 Å resolution and the results of biophysical interaction studies. The CrSPI-1 molecule has two domains arranged in an extended conformation. These two domains act as heads that independently interact with two separate subtilisin molecules, resulting in the inhibition of subtilisin activity at a ratio of 1:2 (inhibitor to protease). Each subtilisin molecule interacts with the reactive site loop from each domain of CrSPI-1 through a standard canonical binding mode and forms a single ternary complex. In addition, we propose the substrate preferences of each domain of CrSPI-1. Domain 2 is specific towards the bacterial protease subtilisin, while domain 1 is likely to interact with the host protease, Furin. Elucidation of the structure of the CrSPI-1: subtilisin (1∶2) ternary complex increases our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in the innate immune system at the molecular level and provides new strategies for immunomodulation. PMID:21541315
Vinck, Martin; Bosman, Conrado A.
2016-01-01
During visual stimulation, neurons in visual cortex often exhibit rhythmic and synchronous firing in the gamma-frequency (30–90 Hz) band. Whether this phenomenon plays a functional role during visual processing is not fully clear and remains heavily debated. In this article, we explore the function of gamma-synchronization in the context of predictive and efficient coding theories. These theories hold that sensory neurons utilize the statistical regularities in the natural world in order to improve the efficiency of the neural code, and to optimize the inference of the stimulus causes of the sensory data. In visual cortex, this relies on the integration of classical receptive field (CRF) data with predictions from the surround. Here we outline two main hypotheses about gamma-synchronization in visual cortex. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization reflects the extent to which CRF data can be accurately predicted by the surround. Second, we hypothesize that different cortical columns synchronize to the extent that they accurately predict each other’s CRF visual input. We argue that these two hypotheses can account for a large number of empirical observations made on the stimulus dependencies of gamma-synchronization. Furthermore, we show that they are consistent with the known laminar dependencies of gamma-synchronization and the spatial profile of intercolumnar gamma-synchronization, as well as the dependence of gamma-synchronization on experience and development. Based on our two main hypotheses, we outline two additional hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization shows, in general, a negative dependence on RF size. In support, we review evidence showing that gamma-synchronization decreases in strength along the visual hierarchy, and tends to be more prominent in species with small V1 RFs. Second, we hypothesize that gamma-synchronized network dynamics facilitate the emergence of spiking output that
Shenoy, Rajesh T.; Thangamani, Saravanan; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling; Sivaraman, J.; Kursula, Petri
2011-04-26
Serine proteases play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions. In the innate immune system of invertebrates, multi-domain protease inhibitors are important for the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and antimicrobial activities. Serine protease inhibitors, 9.3-kDa CrSPI isoforms 1 and 2, have been identified from the hepatopancreas of the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. The CrSPIs were biochemically active, especially CrSPI-1, which potently inhibited subtilisin (Ki=1.43 nM). CrSPI has been grouped with the non-classical Kazal-type inhibitors due to its unusual cysteine distribution. Here we report the crystal structure of CrSPI-1 in complex with subtilisin at 2.6 Å resolution and the results of biophysical interaction studies. The CrSPI-1 molecule has two domains arranged in an extended conformation. These two domains act as heads that independently interact with two separate subtilisin molecules, resulting in the inhibition of subtilisin activity at a ratio of 1:2 (inhibitor to protease). Each subtilisin molecule interacts with the reactive site loop from each domain of CrSPI-1 through a standard canonical binding mode and forms a single ternary complex. In addition, we propose the substrate preferences of each domain of CrSPI-1. Domain 2 is specific towards the bacterial protease subtilisin, while domain 1 is likely to interact with the host protease, Furin. Elucidation of the structure of the CrSPI-1: subtilisin (1:2) ternary complex increases our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in the innate immune system at the molecular level and provides new strategies for immunomodulation.
Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics
Gray, S.K.
1982-08-01
Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H/sub 2/C/sub 2/ ..-->.. HC/sub 2/H, HNC ..-->.. HCN, and H/sub 2/CO ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I ..-->.. Na /sup +/ + I/sup -/ is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features. (WHM)
No return to classical reality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennings, David; Leifer, Matthew
2016-01-01
At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurement-uncertainty, measurement-disturbance, complementarity, non-commutativity, interference, the no-cloning theorem and the collapse of the wave-packet) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understanding - the intrinsically quantum mechanical aspects of nature. The most famous of these is Bell's theorem, but we also review two more recent results in this area. Firstly, Hardy's theorem shows that even a finite-dimensional quantum system must contain an infinite amount of information, and secondly, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem shows that the wave function must be an objective property of an individual quantum system. Besides being of foundational interest, results of this sort now find surprising practical applications in areas such as quantum information science and the simulation of quantum systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lan-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Xian
2009-12-01
In this paper, a new completely integrable system related to the complex spectral problem -varphixx + (i/4)uvarphix + (i/4)(uvarphi)x + (1/4)vvarphi = iλvarphix and the constrained flows of the Boussinesq equations are generated. According to the viewpoint of Hamiltonian mechanics, the Euler-Lagrange equations and the Legendre transformations, a reasonable Jacobi-Ostrogradsky coordinate system is obtained. Moreover, by means of the constrained conditions between the potential u, v and the eigenfunction varphi, the involutive representations of the solutions for the Boussinesq equation hierarchy are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Kai; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Wei, Dong-Qing; Gou, Qing-Quan
2010-12-01
A quantum dynamic calculation on a five-dimensional O2/LiF (001) model system is performed using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. The obtained results show that the mechanism of rotational and diffractive excitation in details: Comparison with the rotational excited state, the initially non-rotational state is seen to favor the inelastic scattering in the rotational excitation process. The surface corrugation can damp the quantum interferences and produce a greater amount of rotational inelastic scattering at the expense of the elastic process in the rotational excitation process. The diffraction process and the average energy transferred into the rotational and diffractive mode are also discussed.
Quirk, R
1984-11-01
The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832
A Classical Science Transformed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kovalevsky, Jean
1979-01-01
Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)
Sgrignani, Jacopo; Cavalli, Andrea; Colombo, Giorgio; Magistrato, Alessandra
2016-01-01
The enzyme human aromatase (HA), a member of the cytochrome P450 family, catalyses in a highly specific and peculiar manner the conversion of estrogens to androgens. Thus, this enzyme is a relevant target for inhibitor design for the treatment of breast cancer and currently there are several HA inhibitors employed in clinical practice. The HA crystal structure was solved only in 2009 and, since then, several studies have been done to characterize a variety of its structural, dynamical and mechanistic properties. In the last decade, the predictive power and the accuracy of computer simulations techniques, either relying on force field or on "ab initio" description of the system, has enormously increased. This was mainly due to the development of more accurate algorithms, which allow accelerating the time-scale accessible by simulations techniques, and to the increase of computer power. Hence, computer simulations can now accurately paint an atomistic picture to the molecular mechanism of biomolecules providing also an estimate of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the enzyme at increasingly quantitative level. In this review, on the basis of selected examples taken from our work, we summarize current active research topics concerning HA enzyme, with a focus on computational studies. In particular, we will illustrate current results and novel hypothesis concerning the final (rate-determining) aromatization step promoted by this enzyme, on how the structural/dynamics/functional properties of HA are modulated in a membrane lipophilic environment, and finally on novel possible (allosteric) inhibition mechanisms which may modulate estrogen production in HA. PMID:27337972
Subnuclear realm: classical in quantum and quantum in classical
Kosyakov, B. P.
1999-03-11
Exact solutions in the classical Yang-Mills-Wong theory enable explaining a number of enigmatic classical features of subnuclear realm. Moreover, they reveal some unexpected quantum features of this classical treatment.
Ning, Pengbo; Zhou, Yulu; Liang, Wulong; Zhang, Yanming
2016-01-01
Molecular mechanisms underlying RNA splicing regulation in response to viral infection are poorly understood. Classical swine fever (CSF), one of the most economically important and highly contagious swine diseases worldwide, is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to obtain the digital gene expression (DGE) profile in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVEC) to identify different response genes for CSFV by using both Shimen and C strains. The numbers of clean tags obtained from the libraries of the control and both CSFV-infected libraries were 3,473,370, 3,498,355, and 3,327,493 respectively. In the comparison among the control, CSFV-C, and CSFV-Shimen groups, 644, 158, and 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were confirmed in the three groups. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that many of these DEGs were enriched in spliceosome, ribosome, proteasome, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell cycle, focal adhesion, Wnt signalling pathway, etc., where the processes differ between CSFV strains of differing virulence. To further elucidate important mechanisms related to the differential infection by the CSFV Shimen and C strains, we identified four possible profiles to assess the significantly expressed genes only by CSFV Shimen or CSFV C strain. GO analysis showed that infection with CSFV Shimen and C strains disturbed 'RNA splicing' of SUVEC, resulting in differential 'gene expression' in SUVEC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was identified as a significant response regulator contributed to impact on SUVEC function for CSFV Shimen. This computational study suggests that CSFV of differing virulence could induce alterations in RNA splicing regulation in the host cell to change cell metabolism, resulting in acute haemorrhage and pathological damage or infectious tolerance. PMID:27330868
Ning, Pengbo; Zhou, Yulu; Liang, Wulong
2016-01-01
Molecular mechanisms underlying RNA splicing regulation in response to viral infection are poorly understood. Classical swine fever (CSF), one of the most economically important and highly contagious swine diseases worldwide, is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to obtain the digital gene expression (DGE) profile in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVEC) to identify different response genes for CSFV by using both Shimen and C strains. The numbers of clean tags obtained from the libraries of the control and both CSFV-infected libraries were 3,473,370, 3,498,355, and 3,327,493 respectively. In the comparison among the control, CSFV-C, and CSFV-Shimen groups, 644, 158, and 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were confirmed in the three groups. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that many of these DEGs were enriched in spliceosome, ribosome, proteasome, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell cycle, focal adhesion, Wnt signalling pathway, etc., where the processes differ between CSFV strains of differing virulence. To further elucidate important mechanisms related to the differential infection by the CSFV Shimen and C strains, we identified four possible profiles to assess the significantly expressed genes only by CSFV Shimen or CSFV C strain. GO analysis showed that infection with CSFV Shimen and C strains disturbed ‘RNA splicing’ of SUVEC, resulting in differential ‘gene expression’ in SUVEC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was identified as a significant response regulator contributed to impact on SUVEC function for CSFV Shimen. This computational study suggests that CSFV of differing virulence could induce alterations in RNA splicing regulation in the host cell to change cell metabolism, resulting in acute haemorrhage and pathological damage or infectious tolerance. PMID:27330868
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madsen, J. R.; Akabani, G.
2014-05-01
The present state of modeling radio-induced effects at the cellular level does not account for the microscopic inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the non-aqueous contents (i.e. proteins, DNA) by approximating the entire cellular nucleus as a homogenous medium of water. Charged particle track-structure calculations utilizing this approximation are therefore neglecting to account for approximately 30% of the molecular variation within the nucleus. To truly understand what happens when biological matter is irradiated, charged particle track-structure calculations need detailed knowledge of the secondary electron cascade, resulting from interactions with not only the primary biological component—water--but also the non-aqueous contents, down to very low energies. This paper presents our work on a generic approach for calculating low-energy interaction cross-sections between incident charged particles and individual molecules. The purpose of our work is to develop a self-consistent computational method for predicting molecule-specific interaction cross-sections, such as the component molecules of DNA and proteins (i.e. nucleotides and amino acids), in the very low-energy regime. These results would then be applied in a track-structure code and thereby reduce the homogenous water approximation. The present methodology—inspired by seeking a combination of the accuracy of quantum mechanics and the scalability, robustness, and flexibility of Monte Carlo methods—begins with the calculation of a solution to the many-body Schrödinger equation and proceeds to use Monte Carlo methods to calculate the perturbations in the internal electron field to determine the interaction processes, such as ionization and excitation. As a test of our model, the approach is applied to a water molecule in the same method as it would be applied to a nucleotide or amino acid and compared with the low-energy cross-sections from the GEANT4-DNA physics package of the Geant4 simulation toolkit
Classical dynamical localization.
Guarneri, Italo; Casati, Giulio; Karle, Volker
2014-10-24
We consider classical models of the kicked rotor type, with piecewise linear kicking potentials designed so that momentum changes only by multiples of a given constant. Their dynamics display quasilocalization of momentum, or quadratic growth of energy, depending on the arithmetic nature of the constant. Such purely classical features mimic paradigmatic features of the quantum kicked rotor, notably dynamical localization in momentum, or quantum resonances. We present a heuristic explanation, based on a classical phase space generalization of a well-known argument, that maps the quantum kicked rotor on a tight-binding model with disorder. Such results suggest reconsideration of generally accepted views that dynamical localization and quantum resonances are a pure result of quantum coherence. PMID:25379918
Classical and Recurrent Nova Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jordi; Casanova, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Shore, Steven N.; Calder, Alan C.
2013-01-01
Remarkable progress in the understanding of nova outbursts has been achieved through combined efforts in photometry, spectroscopy and numerical simulations. According to the thermonuclear runaway model, novae are powered by thermonuclear explosions in the hydrogen-rich envelopes transferred from a low-mass stellar companion onto a close white dwarf star. Extensive numerical simulations in 1-D have shown that the accreted envelopes attain peak temperatures ranging between 108 and 4 × 108 K, for about several hundred seconds, hence allowing extensive nuclear processing which eventually shows up in the form of nucleosynthetic fingerprints in the ejecta. Indeed, it has been claimed that novae can play a certain role in the enrichment of the interstellar medium through a number of intermediate-mass elements. This includes 17O, 15N, and 13C, systematically overproduced with respect to solar abundances, plus a lower contribution in a number of other species (A < 40), such as 7Li, 19F, or 26Al. At the turn of the XXI Century, classical novae have entered the era of multidimensional models, which provide a new insight into the physical mechanisms that drive mixing at the core-envelope interface. In this review, we will present hydrodynamic models of classical novae, from the onset of accretion up to the explosion and ejection stages, both for classical and recurrent novae, with special emphasis on their gross observational properties and their associated nucleosynthesis. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the final yields will be discussed. Recent results from 2-D models of mixing during classical nova outbursts will also be presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lum, Lydia
2005-01-01
America's few Black classics professors have overcome contempt and criticism to contribute a unique perspective to the study of the ancient world. Dr. Patrice Rankine, an associate professor from Purdue University, has grown used to the irony. As one of the few Black classicists teaching at an American university, he has drawn plenty of skepticism…
Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jordan, Alice M.
"Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camic, Charles
2008-01-01
They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008--each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…
Observations of classical cepheids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pel, J. W.
1980-01-01
The observations of classical Cepheids are reviewed. The main progress that has been made is summarized and some of the problems yet to be solved are discussed. The problems include color excesses, calibration of color, duplicity, ultraviolet colors, temperature-color relations, mass discrepancies, and radius determination.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.
1983-01-01
The articles in this journal issue suggest techniques for classroom use of literature that has "withstood the test of time." The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "The Storytelling Connection for the Classics" (Mary Ellen Martin); (2) "Elizabeth Bennet: A Liberated Woman" (Geneva Marking); (3) "Hawthorne: A Study in…
Classical Demonstration of Polarization.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bauman, Robert P.; Moore, Dennis R.
1980-01-01
Presents a classical demonstration of polarization for high school students. The initial state of this model, which demonstrates the important concepts of the optical and quantum problems, was developed during the 1973 summer program on lecture demonstration at the U.S. Naval Academy. (HM)
Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.
Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.
1973-01-01
Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles
1994-01-01
Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huddleston, Gregory H.
1993-01-01
Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)
Un-renormalized classical electromagnetism
Ibison, Michael . E-mail: ibison@earthtech.org
2006-02-15
This paper follows in the tradition of direct-action versions of electromagnetism having the aim of avoiding a balance of infinities wherein a mechanical mass offsets an infinite electromagnetic mass so as to arrive at a finite observed value. However, the direct-action approach ultimately failed in that respect because its initial exclusion of self-action was later found to be untenable in the relativistic domain. Pursing the same end, this paper examines instead a version of electromagnetism wherein mechanical action is excluded and self-action is retained. It is shown that the resulting theory is effectively interacting due to the presence of infinite forces. A vehicle for the investigation is a pair of classical point charges in a positronium-like arrangement for which the orbits are found to be self-sustaining and naturally quantized.
Rotating Space Elevators: Classical and Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, Steven
We investigate a novel and unique dynamical system, the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE). The RSE is a multiply rotating system of strings reaching beyond the Earth geo-synchronous satellite orbit. Objects sliding along the RSE string ("climbers") do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported far away from the Earth's surface. The RSE thus solves a major problem in the space elevator technology which is how to supply the energy to the climbers moving along the string. The RSE is a double rotating floppy string. The RSE can be made in various shapes that are stabilized by an approximate equilibrium between the gravitational and inertial forces acting in the double rotating frame. The RSE exhibits a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena studied in this thesis.
Factors Influencing Learning of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others
Beginning college physics students' misconceptions about moving objects, their mathematics skills, and formal reasoning ability, are all believed to be related to their achievement in physics. It is hypothesized that students whose knowledge structures include misconceptions that are in conflict with concepts in the lectures and text will have…
The Statistical Interpretation of Classical Thermodynamic Heating and Expansion Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cartier, Stephen F.
2011-01-01
A statistical model has been developed and applied to interpret thermodynamic processes typically presented from the macroscopic, classical perspective. Through this model, students learn and apply the concepts of statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and classical thermodynamics in the analysis of the (i) constant volume heating, (ii)…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sardanashvily, G. A.
2014-12-01
We consider a classical gauge theory on a principal fiber bundle P → X in the case where its structure group G is reduced to a subgroup H in the presence of classical Higgs fields described by global sections of the quotient fiber bundle P/H → X. We show that matter fields with the exact symmetry group H in such a theory are described by sections of the composition fiber bundle Y → P/H → X, where Y → P/H is the fiber bundle with the structure group H, and the Lagrangian of these sections is factored by virtue of the vertical covariant differential determined by a connection on the fiber bundle Y → P/H.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Ibram
2008-01-01
As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…
Waters, C Kenneth
2004-12-01
I present an account of classical genetics to challenge theory-biased approaches in the philosophy of science. Philosophers typically assume that scientific knowledge is ultimately structured by explanatory reasoning and that research programs in well-established sciences are organized around efforts to fill out a central theory and extend its explanatory range. In the case of classical genetics, philosophers assume that the knowledge was structured by T. H. Morgan's theory of transmission and that research throughout the later 1920s, 30s, and 40s was organized around efforts to further validate, develop, and extend this theory, I show that classical genetics was structured by an integration of explanatory reasoning (associated with the transmission theory) and investigative strategies (such as the 'genetic approach'). The investigative strategies, which have been overlooked in historical and philosophical accounts, were as important as the so-called laws of Mendelian genetics. By the later 1920s, geneticists of the Morgan school were no longer organizing research around the goal of explaining inheritance patterns; rather, they were using genetics to investigate a range of biological phenomena that extended well beyond the explanatory domain of transmission theories. Theory-biased approaches in history and philosophy of science fail to reveal the overall structure of scientific knowledge and obscure the way it functions. PMID:15682554
Quantum Mechanics From the Cradle?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, John L.
1974-01-01
States that the major problem in learning quantum mechanics is often the student's ignorance of classical mechanics and that one conceptual hurdle in quantum mechanics is its statistical nature, in contrast to the determinism of classical mechanics. (MLH)
Arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih
2014-01-01
This paper points out design confusion existing in all the arbitrated quantum signatures (AQS) that require public discussions over authenticated classical channels. Instead, an AQS scheme of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels is proposed here. A cryptographic hash function is used in combine with quantum mechanics to check the existence of an eavesdropping or to verify a signature. In addition, by using only single photons, this scheme provides higher efficiency both in quantum transmissions and generations. The proposed AQS scheme is shown to be immune to several well-known attacks, i.e., the Trojan-horse attacks and the existential forgery attack.
Semi-classical Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lestone, John
2016-03-01
Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. We describe semi-classical approaches that can be used to obtain a more intuitive physical feel for several QED processes including electro-statics, Compton scattering, pair annihilation, the anomalous magnetic moment, and the Lamb shift, that could be taught easily to undergraduate students. Any physicist who brings their laptop to the talk will be able to build spread sheets in less than 10 minutes to calculate g/2 =1.001160 and a Lamb shift of 1057 MHz.
Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.
2012-01-01
We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the…
Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.
1996-01-01
A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.
Decoherence, chaos, the quantum and the classical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurek, W. H.; Paz, J. P.
The key ideas of the environment-induced decoherence approach are reviewed. Application of decoherence to the transition from quantum to classical in open quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs is described. The arrow of time is, in this context, a result of the information loss to the correlations with the environment. The asymptotic rate of entropy production (which is reached quickly, on the dynamical timescale) is independent of the details of the coupling of the quantum system to the environment, and is set by the Lyapunov exponents. We also briefly outline the existential interpretation of quantum mechanics, justifying the slogan, no information without representation.
Decoherence, chaos, the quantum and the classical
Zurek, W.H.; Paz, J.P.
1994-04-01
The key ideas of the environment-induced decoherence approach are reviewed. Application of decoherence to the transition from quantum to classical in open quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs is described. The arrow of time is, in this context, a result of the information loss to the correlations with the environment. The asymptotic rate of entropy production (which is reached quickly, on the dynamical timescale) is independent of the details of the coupling of the quantum system to the environment, and is set by the Lyapunov exponents. We also briefly outline the existential interpretation of quantum mechanics, justifying the slogan ``No information without representation.``
Classical dynamics on curved Snyder space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivetić, B.; Meljanac, S.; Mignemi, S.
2014-05-01
We study the classical dynamics of a particle in nonrelativistic Snyder-de Sitter space. We show that for spherically symmetric systems, parameterizing the solutions in terms of an auxiliary time variable, which is a function only of the physical time and of the energy and angular momentum of the particles, one can reduce the problem to the equivalent one in classical mechanics. We also discuss a relativistic extension of these results, and a generalization to the case in which the algebra is realized in flat space.
Galilei relativity principle in classical electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotelnikov, G. A.
A theorem is formulated that Galilei group is that of Maxwell equation exact symmetry group, providing the fields are transformed by nonlinear representation of this group. Galilei symmetry differs from the relativistic one in the fact that relativistic symmetry is manifested while postulating the light velocity invariance, whereas Galilei symmetry is manifested during postulating time invariance. In relativistic case the field transformations are linear and global, in Galilei case they are nonlinear and evidently depend on time and coordinates. Existence of Galilei symmetry for Maxwell equations means that in a certain sense, Galilei relativity principle holds not only in classical mechanics but in classical electrodynamics too.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sbisà, Fulvio
2015-01-01
The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously.
Quantum transitions between classical histories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartle, James; Hertog, Thomas
2015-09-01
In a quantum theory of gravity spacetime behaves classically when quantum probabilities are high for histories of geometry and field that are correlated in time by the Einstein equation. Probabilities follow from the quantum state. This quantum perspective on classicality has important implications. (a) Classical histories are generally available only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the state lives. (b) In a given patch, states generally predict relative probabilities for an ensemble of possible classical histories. (c) In between patches classical predictability breaks down and is replaced by quantum evolution connecting classical histories in different patches. (d) Classical predictability can break down on scales well below the Planck scale, and with no breakdown in the classical equations of motion. We support and illustrate (a)-(d) by calculating the quantum transition across the de Sitter-like throat connecting asymptotically classical, inflating histories in the no-boundary quantum state. This supplies probabilities for how a classical history on one side transitions and branches into a range of classical histories on the opposite side. We also comment on the implications of (a)-(d) for the dynamics of black holes and eternal inflation.
Quantum and classical phases in optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armata, Federico; Latmiral, Ludovico; Pikovski, Igor; Vanner, Michael R.; Brukner, Časlav; Kim, M. S.
2016-06-01
The control of quantum systems requires the ability to change and read-out the phase of a system. The noncommutativity of canonical conjugate operators can induce phases on quantum systems, which can be employed for implementing phase gates and for precision measurements. Here we study the phase acquired by a radiation field after its radiation pressure interaction with a mechanical oscillator, and compare the classical and quantum contributions. The classical description can reproduce the nonlinearity induced by the mechanical oscillator and the loss of correlations between mechanics and optical field at certain interaction times. Such features alone are therefore insufficient for probing the quantum nature of the interaction. Our results thus isolate genuine quantum contributions of the optomechanical interaction that could be probed in current experiments.
Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness.
Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
2015-01-01
Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as 'D-Wave' chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional 'classical' computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spin-glass theory that recognize 'temperature chaos' as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the D-Wave Two chip on different temperature-chaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257
Nonlinear atom interferometer surpasses classical precision limit.
Gross, C; Zibold, T; Nicklas, E; Estève, J; Oberthaler, M K
2010-04-22
Interference is fundamental to wave dynamics and quantum mechanics. The quantum wave properties of particles are exploited in metrology using atom interferometers, allowing for high-precision inertia measurements. Furthermore, the state-of-the-art time standard is based on an interferometric technique known as Ramsey spectroscopy. However, the precision of an interferometer is limited by classical statistics owing to the finite number of atoms used to deduce the quantity of interest. Here we show experimentally that the classical precision limit can be surpassed using nonlinear atom interferometry with a Bose-Einstein condensate. Controlled interactions between the atoms lead to non-classical entangled states within the interferometer; this represents an alternative approach to the use of non-classical input states. Extending quantum interferometry to the regime of large atom number, we find that phase sensitivity is enhanced by 15 per cent relative to that in an ideal classical measurement. Our nonlinear atomic beam splitter follows the 'one-axis-twisting' scheme and implements interaction control using a narrow Feshbach resonance. We perform noise tomography of the quantum state within the interferometer and detect coherent spin squeezing with a squeezing factor of -8.2 dB (refs 11-15). The results provide information on the many-particle quantum state, and imply the entanglement of 170 atoms. PMID:20357767
Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Meter, Rodney
2014-08-01
Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classical computers can already do. At the same time, those classical computers continue to advance, but those advances are now constrained by thermodynamics, and will soon be limited by the discrete nature of atomic matter and ultimately quantum effects. Technological advances benefit both quantum and classical machinery, altering the competitive landscape. Can we build quantum computing systems that out-compute classical systems capable of some logic gates per month? This article will discuss the interplay in these competing and cooperating technological trends.
Classical catalase: ancient and modern.
Nicholls, Peter
2012-09-15
This review describes the historical difficulties in devising a kinetically satisfactory mechanism for the classical catalase after its identification as a unique catalytic entity in 1902 and prior to the breakthrough 1947 analysis by Chance and co-workers which led to the identification of peroxide compounds I and II. The role of protons in the formation of these two ferryl complexes is discussed and current problems of inhibitory ligand and hydrogen donor binding at the active site are outlined, especially the multiple roles involving formate or formic acid. A previous mechanism of NADPH-dependent catalase protection against substrate inhibition is defended. A revised model linking the catalytic ('catalatic') action and the one-electron side reactions involving compound II is suggested. And it is concluded that, contrary to an idea proposed in 1963 that eukaryotic catalase might be a 'fossil enzyme', current thinking gives it a central role in the redox protective processes of long term importance for human and other eukaryotic and prokaryotic life. PMID:22326823
Exploring Classically Chaotic Potentials with a Matter Wave Quantum Probe
Gattobigio, G. L.; Couvert, A.; Georgeot, B.; Guery-Odelin, D.
2011-12-16
We study an experimental setup in which a quantum probe, provided by a quasimonomode guided atom laser, interacts with a static localized attractive potential whose characteristic parameters are tunable. In this system, classical mechanics predicts a transition from regular to chaotic behavior as a result of the coupling between the different degrees of freedom. Our experimental results display a clear signature of this transition. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations, we discuss the quantum versus classical physics predictions in this context. This system opens new possibilities for investigating quantum scattering, provides a new testing ground for classical and quantum chaos, and enables us to revisit the quantum-classical correspondence.
The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.
Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S
2009-12-01
This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue).
The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Y. R.
1990-10-01
The two seminal papers that set the theoretical foundation of nonlinear optics were written by Bloembergen and coworkers in 1962. The first one on "Interaction between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric" by Armstrong, Bloembergen, Ducuing and Pershan1 describes mainly the wave mixing process, aside from discussions on microscopic expressions for nonlinear susceptibilities, local-field corrections, energy relations, and others. The second one on "Light Waves at the Boundary of Nonlinear Media" by Bloembergen and Pershan2 considers the boundary effects on wave mixing. Both papers are clear in concepts, but the mathematical derivations are rather difficult to digest. While most people in nonlinear optics have studied the papers, few have attempted to reproduce the equations in them. Recently, through teaching, I have found that even the derivation of an expression for the transmitted second harmonic field, ET, in a nonlinear uniaxial medium is not so simple. The ABDP paper used the slowly varying amplitude approximation to obtain ET, whereas the BP paper found ET more rigorously by taking the boundary conditions explicitly into account. It is, however, not trivial to see whether the two expressions of ET from the two papers are consistent with each other. This is actually an important issue considering that the result is the basis of all wave mixing problems. As a tribute to Prof. Bloembergen on the occasion of his 70th birday, I take the liberty to review the derivations in these masterpieces, fill in the intermediate steps in the derivations, and discuss the consistency. Hopefully, this could serve, in a small way, as a supplement to the Bloembergen classics in nonlinear optics.
Crossover from quantum to classical transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morr, Dirk K.
2016-01-01
Understanding the crossover from quantum to classical transport has become of fundamental importance not only for technological applications due to the creation of sub-10-nm transistors - an important building block of our modern life - but also for elucidating the role played by quantum mechanics in the evolutionary fitness of biological complexes. This article provides a basic introduction into the nature of charge and energy transport in the quantum and classical regimes. It discusses the characteristic transport properties in both limits and demonstrates how they can be connected through the loss of quantum mechanical coherence. The salient features of the crossover physics are identified, and their importance in opening new transport regimes and in understanding efficient and robust energy transport in biological complexes are demonstrated.
Classical versus quantum completeness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Stefan; Schneider, Marc
2015-06-01
The notion of quantum-mechanical completeness is adapted to situations where the only adequate description is in terms of quantum field theory in curved space-times. It is then shown that Schwarzschild black holes, although geodesically incomplete, are quantum complete.
Pembrolizumab in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Maly, Joseph; Alinari, Lapo
2016-09-01
Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a key immune-inhibitory molecule expressed on T cells and implicated in CD4+ T-cell exhaustion and tumor immune-escape mechanisms. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a unique B-cell malignancy in the sense that malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells represent a small percentage of cells within an extensive immune cell infiltrate. PD-1 ligands are upregulated on RS cells as a consequence of both chromosome 9p24.1 amplification and Epstein-Barr virus infection and by interacting with PD-1 promote an immune-suppressive effect. By augmenting antitumor immune response, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, another monoclonal antibody against PD-1, have shown significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory cHL as well as an acceptable toxicity profile with immune-related adverse events that are generally manageable. In this review, we explore the rationale for targeting PD-1 in cHL, review the clinical trial results supporting the use of checkpoint inhibitors in this disease, and present future directions for investigation in which this approach may be used. PMID:27147112
Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.
2011-06-01
It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.
Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter
1989-01-01
Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…
Classic African American Children's Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNair, Jonda C.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…
Classical models of the spin 1/2 system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.
We proposed a Quaternionic mechanical system motivated by the Foucault pendulum as a classical model for the dynamics of the spin ½ system. We showed that this mechanical system contains the dynamics of the spin state of the electron under a uniform magnetic field as it is given by the Schrodinger-Pauli-Equation (SPE). We closed with a characterization of the dynamics of this generalized classical system by showing that it is equivalent with the dynamics of the Schrodinger Pauli Equation as long as the solutions to the generalized classical system are roots of the Lagrangian, that is the condition
The structure of classical extensions of quantum probability theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stulpe, Werner; Busch, Paul
2008-03-01
On the basis of a suggestive definition of a classical extension of quantum mechanics in terms of statistical models, we prove that every such classical extension is essentially given by the so-called Misra-Bugajski reduction map. We consider how this map enables one to understand quantum mechanics as a reduced classical statistical theory on the projective Hilbert space as phase space and discuss features of the induced hidden-variable model. Moreover, some relevant technical results on the topology and Borel structure of the projective Hilbert space are reviewed.
Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness
Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
2015-01-01
Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as ‘D-Wave’ chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional ‘classical’ computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spin-glass theory that recognize ‘temperature chaos’ as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the D-Wave Two chip on different temperature-chaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257
Classical probabilities for Majorana and Weyl spinors
Wetterich, C.
2011-08-15
Highlights: > Map of classical statistical Ising model to fermionic quantum field theory. > Lattice-regularized real Grassmann functional integral for single Weyl spinor. > Emerging complex structure characteristic for quantum physics. > A classical statistical ensemble describes a quantum theory. - Abstract: We construct a map between the quantum field theory of free Weyl or Majorana fermions and the probability distribution of a classical statistical ensemble for Ising spins or discrete bits. More precisely, a Grassmann functional integral based on a real Grassmann algebra specifies the time evolution of the real wave function q{sub {tau}}(t) for the Ising states {tau}. The time dependent probability distribution of a generalized Ising model obtains as p{sub {tau}}(t)=q{sub {tau}}{sup 2}(t). The functional integral employs a lattice regularization for single Weyl or Majorana spinors. We further introduce the complex structure characteristic for quantum mechanics. Probability distributions of the Ising model which correspond to one or many propagating fermions are discussed explicitly. Expectation values of observables can be computed equivalently in the classical statistical Ising model or in the quantum field theory for fermions.
Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.
Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W
2016-01-01
Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction. PMID:25784600
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-01-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Beyond quantum-classical analogies: high time for agreement?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marrocco, Michele
Lately, many quantum-classical analogies have been investigated and published in many acknowledged journals. Such a surge of research on conceptual connections between quantum and classical physics forces us to ask whether the correspondence between the quantum and classical interpretation of the reality is deeper than the correspondence principle stated by Bohr. Here, after a short introduction to quantum-classical analogies from the recent literature, we try to examine the question from the perspective of a possible agreement between quantum and classical laws. A paradigmatic example is given in the striking equivalence between the classical Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering from spherical scatterers and the corresponding quantum-mechanical wave scattering analyzed in terms of partial waves. The key features that make the correspondence possible are examined and finally employed to deal with the fundamental blackbody problem that marks the initial separation between classical and quantum physics. The procedure allows us to recover the blackbody spectrum in classical terms and the proof is rich in consequences. Among them, the strong analogy between the quantum vacuum and its classical counterpart.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-05-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-01-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Classical dynamics of quantum entanglement.
Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Reslen, Jose
2012-03-01
We analyze numerically the dynamical generation of quantum entanglement in a system of two interacting particles, started in a coherent separable state, for decreasing values of ℏ. As ℏ→0 the entanglement entropy, computed at any finite time, converges to a finite nonzero value. The limit law that rules the time dependence of entropy is well reproduced by purely classical computations. Its general features can be explained by simple classical arguments, which expose the different ways entanglement is generated in systems that are classically chaotic or regular. PMID:22587162
Local Refinements in Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fackeldey, Konstantin; Weber, Marcus
2014-03-01
Quantum mechanics provide a detailed description of the physical and chemical behavior of molecules. However, with increasing size of the system the complexity rises exponentially, which is prohibitive for efficient dynamical simulation. In contrast, classical molecular dynamics procure a coarser description by using less degrees of freedom. Thus, it seems natural to seek for an adequate trade-off between accurateness and computational feasibility in the simulation of molecules. Here, we propose a novel method, which combines classical molecular simulations with quantum mechanics for molecular systems. For this we decompose the state space of the respective molecule into subsets, by employing a meshfree partition of unity. We show, that this partition allows us to localize an empirical force field and to run locally constrained classical trajectories. Within each subset, we compute the energy on the quantum level for a fixed number of spatial states (ab initio points). With these energy values from the ab initio points we have a local scattered data problem, which can be solved by the moving least squares method.
Dissipative Forces and Quantum Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eck, John S.; Thompson, W. J.
1977-01-01
Shows how to include the dissipative forces of classical mechanics in quantum mechanics by the use of non-Hermetian Hamiltonians. The Ehrenfest theorem for such Hamiltonians is derived, and simple examples which show the classical correspondences are given. (MLH)
Hidden invariance of the free classical particle
Garcia, S. )
1994-06-01
A formalism describing the dynamics of classical and quantum systems from a group theoretical point of view is presented. We apply it to the simple example of the classical free particle. The Galileo group [ital G] is the symmetry group of the free equations of motion. Consideration of the free particle Lagrangian semi-invariance under [ital G] leads to a larger symmetry group, which is a central extension of the Galileo group by the real numbers. We study the dynamics associated with this group, and characterize quantities like Noether invariants and evolution equations in terms of group geometric objects. An extension of the Galileo group by [ital U](1) leads to quantum mechanics.
Axions: Bose Einstein condensate or classical field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Sacha
2015-05-01
The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligible.
Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles
Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; Roa-Neri, J.A.E.
2013-08-15
A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.
Fundamental theories of waves and particles formulated without classical mass
Fry, J.L.; Musielak, Z.E.
2010-12-15
Quantum and classical mechanics are two conceptually and mathematically different theories of physics, and yet they do use the same concept of classical mass that was originally introduced by Newton in his formulation of the laws of dynamics. In this paper, physical consequences of using the classical mass by both theories are explored, and a novel approach that allows formulating fundamental (Galilean invariant) theories of waves and particles without formally introducing the classical mass is presented. In this new formulation, the theories depend only on one common parameter called 'wave mass', which is deduced from experiments for selected elementary particles and for the classical mass of one kilogram. It is shown that quantum theory with the wave mass is independent of the Planck constant and that higher accuracy of performing calculations can be attained by such theory. Natural units in connection with the presented approach are also discussed and justification beyond dimensional analysis is given for the particular choice of such units.
Nonclassical polarization dynamics in classical-like states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luis, Alfredo; Sanz, Ángel S.
2015-08-01
Quantum polarization is investigated by means of a trajectory picture based on the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. Relevant examples of classical-like two-mode field states are thus examined, namely, Glauber and SU(2) coherent states. Although these states are often regarded as classical, the analysis here shows that the corresponding electric-field polarization trajectories display topologies very different from those expected from classical electrodynamics. Rather than incompatibility with the usual classical model, this result demonstrates the dynamical richness of quantum motions, determined by local variations of the system quantum phase in the corresponding (polarization) configuration space, absent in classical-like models. These variations can be related to the evolution in time of the phase, but also to its dependence on configurational coordinates, which is the crucial factor to generate motion in the case of stationary states like those considered here. In this regard, for completeness these results are compared with those obtained from nonclassical NOON states.
The classical microwave frequency standards
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Busca, Giovanni; Thomann, Pierre; Laurent-Guy, Bernier; Willemin, Philippe; Schweda, Hartmut S.
1990-01-01
Some key problems are presented encountered in the classical microwave frequency standards which are still not solved today. The point of view expressed benefits from the experience gained both in the industry and in the research lab, on the following classical microwave frequency standards: active and passive H, conventional and laser pumped Cs beam tube, small conventional and laser pumped Rubidium. The accent is put on the Rubidium standard.
Electrostatics interactions in classical simulations.
Cisneros, G Andrés; Babin, Volodymyr; Sagui, Celeste
2013-01-01
Electrostatic interactions are crucial for both the accuracy and performance of atomistic biomolecular simulations. In this chapter we review well-established methods and current developments aiming at efficiency and accuracy. Specifically, we review the classical Ewald summations, particle-particle particle-method particle-method Ewald algorithms, multigrid, fast multipole, and local methods. We also highlight some recent developments targeting more accurate, yet classical, representation of the molecular charge distribution. PMID:23034752
Quantum money with classical verification
Gavinsky, Dmitry
2014-12-04
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
Quantum money with classical verification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavinsky, Dmitry
2014-12-01
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
Classical theory of radiating strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
1990-01-01
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
Classicality of a quantum oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadzadegan, Aida; Mann, Robert B.; Terno, Daniel R.
2016-03-01
Gaussian quantum systems exhibit many explicitly quantum effects but can be simulated classically. By using both the Hilbert space (Koopman) and the phase-space (Moyal) formalisms we investigate how robust this classicality is. We find failures of consistency of the dynamics of hybrid classical-quantum systems from both perspectives. By demanding that no unobservable operators couple to the quantum sector in the Koopmanian formalism, we show that the classical equations of motion act on their quantum counterparts without experiencing any back reaction, resulting in nonconservation of energy in the quantum system. By using the phase-space formalism we study the short-time evolution of the moment equations of a hybrid classical-Gaussian quantum system and observe violations of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation in the quantum sector for a broad range of initial conditions. We estimate the timescale for these violations, which is generically rather short. This inconsistency indicates that while many explicitly quantum effects can be represented classically, quantum aspects of the system cannot be fully masked. We comment on the implications of our results for quantum gravity.
Classical vs. non-classical pathways of mineral formation (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Yoreo, J. J.
2013-12-01
Recent chemical analyses, microscopy studies and computer simulations suggest many minerals nucleate through aggregation of pre-nucleation clusters and grow by particle-mediated processes that involve amorphous or disordered precursors. Still other analyses, both experimental and computational, conclude that even simple mineral systems like calcium carbonate form via a barrier-free process of liquid-liquid separation, which is followed by dehydration of the ion-rich phase to form the solid products. However, careful measurements of calcite nucleation rates on a variety of ionized surfaces give results that are in complete agreement with the expectations of classical nucleation theory, in which clusters growing through ion-by-ion addition overcome a free energy barrier through the natural microscopic density fluctuations of the system. Here the challenge of integrating these seemingly disparate observations and analyses into a coherent picture of mineral formation is addressed by considering the energy barriers to calcite formation predicted by the classical theory and the changes in those barriers brought about by the introduction of interfaces and clusters, both stable and metastable. Results from a suite of in situ TEM, AFM, and optical experiments combined with simulations are used to illustrate the conclusions. The analyses show that the expected barrier to homogeneous calcite nucleation is prohibitive even at concentrations exceeding the solubility limit of amorphous calcium carbonate. However, as demonstrated by experiments on self-assembled monolayers, the introduction of surfaces that moderately decrease the interfacial energy associated with the forming nucleus can reduce the magnitude of the barrier to a level that is easily surmounted under typical laboratory conditions. In the absence of such surfaces, experiments that proceed by continually increasing supersaturation with time can easily by-pass direct nucleation of calcite and open up pathways through