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Sample records for classifying degenerative joint

  1. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease

    SciTech Connect

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

    1986-03-07

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

  2. [Pathobiochemistry of joint destruction in inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Greiling, H; Kleesiek, K; Reinards, R

    1987-08-01

    While the biochemical mechanism which leads to the destruction of joints in the course of degenerative and inflammatory arthropathies has not been cleared up completely to this day, basic differences have been noted in the way the two types of arthropathy affect the articular cartilage. The differences are described from the viewpoint of pathobiochemistry as they are fundamental to causal therapy. PMID:3314203

  3. Anabolic factors in degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed

    Sandell, L J

    2007-02-01

    While a great deal of information is available on the cellular and molecular biology of cartilage degradation, less is known about anabolism in normal cartilage and degenerating cartilage. A consistent amount of evidence is now available on the neo-synthesis of matrix molecules and enzymes in OA: the entire cell metabolism appears to be increased leading to the hypothesis that chondrocytes in OA are actually "activated". This chapter will focus on anabolic events that are now known to occur in articular cartilage. We will begin to view articular cartilage as a complex three-dimensional tissue in which local events may be different. We will also be interested in viewing the development of degenerative arthritis as a continuum from functionally normal tissue to degeneration. PMID:17305513

  4. Cartilage tissue engineering for degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed

    Nesic, Dobrila; Whiteside, Robert; Brittberg, Mats; Wendt, David; Martin, Ivan; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre

    2006-05-20

    Pain in the joint is often due to cartilage degeneration and represents a serious medical problem affecting people of all ages. Although many, mostly surgical techniques, are currently employed to treat cartilage lesions, none has given satisfactory results in the long term. Recent advances in biology and material science have brought tissue engineering to the forefront of new cartilage repair techniques. The combination of autologous cells, specifically designed scaffolds, bioreactors, mechanical stimulations and growth factors together with the knowledge that underlies the principles of cell biology offers promising avenues for cartilage tissue regeneration. The present review explores basic biology mechanisms for cartilage reconstruction and summarizes the advances in the tissue engineering approaches. Furthermore, the limits of the new methods and their potential application in the osteoarthritic conditions are discussed. PMID:16574268

  5. Lumbar Facet Joint Motion in Patients with Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Wang, Shaobai; Shin, Jae-Hyuk; Li, Guoan; Wood, Kirkham B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objective To investigate the in vivo biomechanical effect of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) on the motion of the facet joint during various functional weight-bearing activities. Summary of Background Data Although the morphological changes of the facet joints in patients with DLS have been reported in a few studies, no data has been reported on the kinematics of these facet joints. Methods Ten patients with DLS at L4–L5 were studied. Each patient underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to obtain three-dimensional (3D) models of the lumbar vertebrae from L2–L5 as well as a dual fluoroscopic imaging scan in different postures: flexion-extension, left-right bending and left-right torsion. The positions of the vertebrae were reproduced by matching the MRI-based vertebral models to the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the facet joint and the ranges of motion (ROMs) were compared with those of healthy subjects and those of patients with degenerative disc diseases (DDD) previously published. Results In DLS patients, the range of rotation of the facet joints was significantly less at the DLS level (L4–L5) than that at the adjacent levels (L2–L3 and L3–L4), while the range of translation was similar at all levels. The range of rotation at the facet joints of the DLS level decreased compared to those of both the DDD patients and healthy subjects at the corresponding vertebral level (L4–L5), while no significant difference was found in the range of translation. The ROM of facet joints in DLS and in DDD patients was similar at the adjacent levels (L2–L3 and L3–L4). Conclusion The range of rotation decreased at the facet joints at the DLS level (L4–L5) in patients compared to those in healthy subjects and DDD patients. This decrease in range of rotation implies that the DLS disease may cause restabilization of the joint. The data may help the selection of conservative treatment or different

  6. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Wuertz, Karin; Spaas, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

  7. Sacroiliac joint motion in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Yukitaka; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sakaura, Hironobu; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Fujimori, Takahito; Matsuo, Yohei; Kashii, Masafumi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Usually additional anchors into the ilium are necessary in long fusion to the sacrum for degenerative lumbar spine disorders (DLSDs), especially for adult spine deformity. Although the use of anchors is becoming quite common, surgeons must always keep in mind that the sacroiliac (SI) joint is mobile and they should be aware of the kinematic properties of the SI joint in patients with DLSDs, including adult spinal deformity. No previous study has clarified in vivo kinematic changes in the SI joint with respect to patient age, sex, or parturition status or the presence of DLSDs. The authors conducted a study to clarify the mobility and kinematic characteristics of the SI joint in patients with DLSDs in comparison with healthy volunteers by using in vivo 3D motion analysis with voxel-based registration, a highly accurate, noninvasive method. METHODS Thirteen healthy volunteers (the control group) and 20 patients with DLSDs (the DLSD group) underwent low-dose 3D CT of the lumbar spine and pelvis in 3 positions (neutral, maximal trunk flexion, and maximal trunk extension). SI joint motion was calculated by computer processing of the CT images (voxel-based registration). 3D motion of the SI joint was expressed as both 6 df by Euler angles and translations on the coordinate system and a helical axis of rotation. The correlation between joint motion and the cross-sectional area of the trunk muscles was also investigated. RESULTS SI joint motion during trunk flexion-extension was minute in healthy volunteers. The mean rotation angles during trunk flexion were 0.07° around the x axis, -0.02° around the y axis, and 0.16° around the z axis. The mean rotation angles during trunk extension were 0.38° around the x axis, -0.08° around the y axis, and 0.08° around the z axis. During trunk flexion-extension, the largest amount of motion occurred around the x axis. In patients with DLSDs, the mean rotation angles during trunk flexion were 0.57° around the x axis, 0.01

  8. MRI features of cervical articular process degenerative joint disease in Great Dane dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Penderis, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylomyelopathy or Wobbler syndrome commonly affects the cervical vertebral column of Great Dane dogs. Degenerative changes affecting the articular process joints are a frequent finding in these patients; however, the correlation between these changes and other features of cervical spondylomyelopathy are uncertain. We described and graded the degenerative changes evident in the cervical articular process joints from 13 Great Danes dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy using MR imaging, and evaluated the relationship between individual features of cervical articular process joint degeneration and the presence of spinal cord compression, vertebral foraminal stenosis, intramedullary spinal cord changes, and intervertebral disc degenerative changes. Degenerative changes affecting the articular process joints were common, with only 13 of 94 (14%) having no degenerative changes. The most severe changes were evident between C4-C5 and C7-T1 intervertebral spaces. Reduction or loss of the hyperintense synovial fluid signal on T2-weighted MR images was the most frequent feature associated with articular process joint degenerative changes. Degenerative changes of the articular process joints affecting the synovial fluid or articular surface, or causing lateral hypertrophic tissue, were positively correlated with lateral spinal cord compression and vertebral foraminal stenosis. Dorsal hypertrophic tissue was positively correlated with dorsal spinal cord compression. Disc-associated spinal cord compression was recognized less frequently. PMID:22236021

  9. Detection of degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint by bone scintigraphy: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Bloom, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    Nine patients with facial pain were evaluated with limited bone scans. The scintigrams correlated with microscopy in all patients, although radiographs correlated with microscopy in only five patients. The degenerative disease process in the temporomandibular joint was more extensive in the patients with radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities than in those with scintigraphic abnormalities alone. The limited bone scan appears useful in detecting early degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint.

  10. [THE ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS OF MINERAL METABOLISM IN PATIENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE DYSTROPHIC AFFECTIONS OF JOINTS].

    PubMed

    Gasanova, A G; Matveeva, E L; Spirkina, E S

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of indicators of mineral metabolism in patients with degenerative dystrophic affections of joints demonstrated that under development of osteoarthrosis process the alteration of indicators of concentration of electrolytes in blood serum, urine and synovial fluid occurs. The stage II of process is characterized by maximal alterations of indicators. The indicator of relationship between concentration of phosphate-ion and index of phosphatases of blood serum turned out the significant coefficient of correlation. PMID:27032248

  11. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints.

    PubMed

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision. PMID:26170560

  12. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints

    PubMed Central

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision. PMID:26170560

  13. Picking a bone with WISP1 (CCN4): new strategies against degenerative joint disease

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    As the world’s population continues to age, it is estimated that degenerative joint disease disorders such as osteoarthritis will impact at least 130 million individuals throughout the globe by the year 2050. Advanced age, obesity, genetics, gender, bone density, trauma, and a poor level of physical activity can lead to the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. However, factors that lead to degenerative joint disease and involve gender, genetics, epigenetic mechanisms, and advanced age are not within the control of an individual. Furthermore, current therapies including pain management, improved nutrition, and regular programs for exercise do not lead to the resolution of osteoarthritis. As a result, new avenues for targeting the treatment of osteoarthritis are desperately needed. Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), a matricellular protein and a downstream target of the wingless pathway Wnt1, is one such target to consider that governs cellular protection, stem cell proliferation, and tissue regeneration in a number of disorders including bone degeneration. However, increased WISP1 expression also has been associated with the progression of osteoarthritis. WISP1 has an intricate relationship with a number of proliferative and protective pathways that include phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), interleukin -6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-β, matrix metalloproteinase, small non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), sirtuin silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Taken together, this complex association WISP1 holds with these signaling pathways necessitates a fine biological regulation of WISP1 activity that can offset the progression of degenerative joint disease, but not limit the cellular protective capabilities of the WISP1 pathway. PMID:26893943

  14. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD. PMID:22281125

  15. Autosomal dominant (Beukes) premature degenerative osteoarthropathy of the hip joint unlinked to COL2A1

    SciTech Connect

    Beighton, P.; Ramesar, R.; Cilliers, H.J.

    1994-12-01

    Molecular investigations have been undertaken in several separate large South African families with autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias in which premature degenerative osteoarthropathy of the hip joint was the major manifestation. There are sometimes additional minor changes in the spine and these conditions fall into the general spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) nosological category. In some kindreds, linkage between phenotype and the type II collagen gene (COL2A1) has been established, while in others there is no linkage. We have now completed molecular linkage investigations in an Afrikaner family named Beukes, in which 47 members in 6 generations have premature osteoarthropathy of the hip joint. A LOD score of minus infinity indicates that this condition is not the result of a defect of the COL2A1 gene. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

  17. Total-Body Irradiation Produces Late Degenerative Joint Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Ian D.; Olson, John; Lindburg, Carl A.; Payne, Valerie; Collins, Boyce; Smith, Thomas L.; Munley, Michael T.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Willey, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Premature musculoskeletal joint failure is a major source of morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. Radiation effects on synovial joint tissues of the skeleton are poorly understood. Our goal was to assess long-term changes in the knee joint from skeletally mature rats that received total-body irradiation while skeletal growth was ongoing. Materials and Methods 14 week-old rats were irradiated with 1, 3 or 7 Gy total-body doses of 18 MV x-rays. At 53 weeks of age, structural and compositional changes in knee joint tissues (articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and trabecular bone) were characterized using 7T MRI, nanocomputed tomography (nanoCT), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and histology. Results T2 relaxation times of the articular cartilage were lower after exposure to all doses. Likewise, calcifications were observed in the articular cartilage. Trabecular bone microarchitecture was compromised in the tibial metaphysis at 7 Gy. Mild to moderate cartilage erosion was scored in the 3 and 7 Gy rats. Conclusions Late degenerative changes in articular cartilage and bone were observed after total body irradiation in adult rats exposed prior to skeletal maturity. 7T MRI, microCT, nanoCT, and histology identified potential prognostic indicators of late radiation-induced joint damage. PMID:24885745

  18. Moderate Joint Loading Reduces Degenerative Actions of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Articular Cartilage of Mouse Ulnae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui B.; Zhao, Liming; Tanaka, Shigeo; Yokota, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Joint loading is a recently developed loading modality, which can enhance bone formation and accelerate healing of bone fracture. Since mechanical stimulation alters expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in chondrocytes, a question addressed herein was, does joint loading alter actions of MMPs in the articular cartilage? We hypothesized that expression and activity of MMPs are regulated in a load–intensity-dependent manner and that moderate load scan downregulates MMPs. To test this hypothesis, a mouse elbow-loading model was employed. In the articular cartilage of an ulna, the mRNA levels of a group of MMPs as well as their degenerative activities were determined. The result revealed that elbow loading altered the expression and activities of MMPs depending on its loading intensity. Collectively, the data in this study indicate that 0.2 and 0.5 N joint loading significantly reduced the expression of multiple MMPs, that is, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-13, and overall activities of collagenases or gelatinases in articular cartilage, while higher loads increased the expression and activity of MMP-1 and MMP-13. Furthermore, moderate loads at 1 N elevated the mRNA level of CBP/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail 2 (CITED2), but higher loads at 4 N did not induce a detectable amount of CITED2 mRNA. Since CITED2 is known to mediate the downregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-13, the result indicates that joint loading at moderate intensity reduces MMP activities through potential induction of CITED2. MMPs such as MMP-1 and MMP-13 are predominant collagenases in the pathology of osteoarthritis. Therefore, joint loading could offer an interventional regimen for maintenance of joint tissues. PMID:22148954

  19. Evaluation of risk factors for degenerative joint disease associated with hip dysplasia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, G K; Popovitch, C A; Gregor, T P; Shofer, F S

    1995-03-01

    Passive coxofemoral joint laxity of dogs, as quantitated by a distraction-stress radiographic method, may have important prognostic value in determining susceptibility to hip dysplasia. Data from 151 dogs, representing 13 breeds, were included in a logistic regression model to evaluate the contribution of factors such as age, breed, weight, sex, distraction index, and Norberg angle to the risk of developing degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the coxofemoral joint. Of the factors studied, the amount of passive hip laxity, as quantitated by the distraction index, was the most significant (P < 0.0001) determinant of the risk to develop DJD of the coxofemoral joint. In the longitudinal and cross-sectional components of the study, distraction index was a significant (P < 0.001) risk factor for DJD, irrespective of age at evaluation (4, 12, or 24 months). The strength of the hip laxity:DJD correlation increased with the age of dog. In contrast, the Norberg angle, a measure of hip laxity on the standard hip-extended radiograph, was not found to be a significant risk factor for DJD, either in the longitudinal or cross-sectional analyses. Breed-specific probability curves of DJD susceptibility indicated that German Shepherd Dogs had a significantly (P < 0.05) greater risk of developing DJD than did the pool of non-German Shepherd Dogs. The information derived from this statistical model will help to scientifically characterize the role of passive hip laxity as a component in the pathogenesis of DJD of the coxofemoral joint. PMID:7744684

  20. Solid-state temporomandibular joint imaging: accuracy in detecting osseous changes of degenerative joint disease and determining condylar spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G; Silveira, Anibal; Fairbanks, Brandon W; Kelly, Paul J

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the off-label use of an intraoral charge-coupled device (CCD) for extraoral transcranial radiography of the temporomandibular joint. Corrected linear tomograms and transcranial images made with conventional screen-film combinations and a CCD detector were compared with sectioned cadaver specimens. Radiation dosage, qualitative assessment of condylar degenerative features, and condylar position within the glenoid fossa of the 3 modalities were assessed and compared. The CCD method required special adjustments to achieve adequate quality, and it involved greater exposure than the other methods. This use of this intraoral system for extraoral imaging cannot now be recommended, but future refinements might make it more viable. PMID:14560277

  1. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Cheilectomy for Degenerative Joint Disease of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Nicole; Hehemann, Chris; Connors, James; Boike, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Cheilectomy is the surgical resection of 20% to 30% of the dorsal metatarsal head and proximal phalanx. The present retrospective study evaluated the long-term efficacy of aggressive cheilectomy to address degenerative joint disease of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. To our knowledge, this is the second longest duration study to date to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the cheilectomy procedure, with a mean follow-up period of 7.14 years (range 39 weeks to 14.87 years). The mean patient age was 55.71 ± 9.51 years, and 37 (65%) of the patients were female. Age, sex, foot type, and preoperative radiographic parameters of hallux rigidus were also evaluated and correlated. The mean percentage of success with this operation was 87.69%. Of the 58 patients, 51 (87.93%) experienced no limitations in their daily activities. Only 2 patients (3.33%) subsequently required subsequent arthrodesis. The results of the present study suggest that cheilectomy offers long-term satisfaction for patients with hallux rigidus and is an acceptable alternative to the joint destructive procedure of first metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis. PMID:25981441

  2. Analysis of magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and pain in temporomandibular joints with and without degenerative changes of the condyle.

    PubMed

    Campos, M I G; Campos, P S F; Cangussu, M C T; Guimarães, R C; Line, S R P

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in 104 TMJs with and 58 without degenerative changes of the condyle, such as osteophytes, erosion, avascular necrosis, subcondral cyst and intra-articular loose bodies. TMJ images were also assessed for flattening, retropositioning and hypomobility of condyle and disc displacement. Comparison of the TMJ side-related data showed a significant relationship between disc displacement without reduction (DDwoR) and the presence of degenerative bony changes (p=0.00). Flattening, retropositioning and hypomobility of condyle showed no significant difference in relation to the presence or absence of degenerative bony changes. Retropositioning of the condyle was significantly associated to disc displacement with reduction (DDwR) (p=0.00), while condylar hypomobility was significantly more frequent in TMJ with DDwoR (p<0.05). Independent of the presence or type of DD, TMJ pain was more frequent in the presence of degenerative bony changes. When considering only DDwR, TMJ pain was significantly associated to a degenerative condition (p=0.03). When there were no degenerative bony changes, TMJ pain was significantly more frequent in DDwoR (p=0.04). Despite the present findings, the absence of symptoms in some patients with condylar bony changes suggests that the diagnosis of osteoarthritis should be established by evaluation of magnetic resonance images in association with clinical examination. PMID:18440778

  3. HLA analysis in patients with degenerative diseases of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Learreta, Jorge A; Bono, Andrea E; Durst, Andreas C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HLA alleles, specifically HLA-DR alleles, and to correlate them with clinical and radiological features of patients with degenerative processes (DP) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The final goal was to determine which allele can be used to identify patients having more aggressive forms of the articular pathologies. Thirty-two (32) Caucasian patients with DP of the TMJ were included in the study. The SSOP (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX) method was used to determine class II HLA alleles. The presence of HLA-II DR in patients with DP of the TMJ was 98%. The presence of HLA was significantly higher in patients with DP of the TMJ than in healthy subjects (66%) (p=0.003). HLA DR52 was significantly more frequent in patients than in healthy individuals (40.62% vs. 13.79%, p = 0.041). While the percentage of DR11 positive individuals was also higher among patients than among healthy control subjects, the association with DP of the TMJ was not significant (p=0.220). Patients having the DR52 allele had higher deformation or DP. It was concluded that HLA-DR54 and DR11 alleles are associated with a higher susceptibility to DP of the TMJ, and HLA-DR54 and DR52 are associated with a higher severity of DP. PMID:21370767

  4. Evaluation of Joint Space Width and Narrowing After Isolated Partial Medial Meniscectomy for Degenerative Medial Meniscus Tears

    PubMed Central

    Shelbourne, K. Donald; Barnes, Adam F.; Urch, Scott E.; Gray, Tinker

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the effect of existing articular cartilage damage and sex on joint space measurements after isolated degenerative medial meniscus tears. Purpose: To determine what factors affected joint space width and narrowing in patients after removal of isolated degenerative medial meniscus tears. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 62 patients (15 women and 47 men) with all ligaments intact, no previous surgery to either knee, and an isolated degenerative medial meniscus tear removed in 1 knee were examined. The mean age at examination was 58.2 years at a mean follow-up of 9.4 years (range, 4-20 years). Subjective results were obtained with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) knee survey. Radiographs were taken using 45° weightbearing posteroanterior views. Midpoint and perceived minimum joint space width of the medial and lateral compartments of both knees were measured to the nearest 0.1 mm by 2 observers at different times, and they were blinded as to the previous measurements (Pearson intra- and interclass correlations, >0.93). Joint space narrowing was found by calculating the difference in joint space width between knees. Percentage of normal joint space loss was calculated by dividing joint space narrowing by the joint space width in the contralateral knee. Other factors considered were patient sex and Outerbridge grading of articular cartilage. Results: Women had a mean 1.5 mm less normal joint space width than men in the involved and noninvolved knees (P < .01). Mean joint space narrowing was 0.7 mm for both measurements. The mean ± standard deviation narrowing was 0.4 ± 1.2 mm for patients with grade 0-2 damage and 1.1 ± 1.3 for patients with grade 3-4 damage (P = .04). Five women (33%) and 3 men (6%) had narrowing of >50% of the normal joint space as measured in the noninjured knee (P = .016). The mean IKDC total score was 66.1 points for women, which was statistically

  5. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101

  6. Analysis of postmarket complaints database for the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System®: a minimally invasive treatment for degenerative sacroiliitis and sacroiliac joint disruption

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Reckling, W Carlton; Block, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Background The sacroiliac joint is a common but under-recognized source of low back and gluteal pain. Patients with degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruption resistant to nonsurgical treatments may undergo open surgery with sacroiliac joint arthrodesis, although outcomes are mixed and risks are significant. Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis was developed to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury and to improve patient outcomes compared with open surgery. Methods Between April 2009 and January 2013, 5319 patients were treated with the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System® for conditions including sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis. A database was prospectively developed to record all complaints reported to the manufacturer in patients treated with the iFuse device. Complaints were collected through spontaneous reporting mechanisms in support of ongoing mandatory postmarket surveillance efforts. Results Complaints were reported in 204 (3.8%) patients treated with the iFuse system. Pain was the most commonly reported clinical complaint (n = 119, 2.2%), with nerve impingement (n = 48, 0.9%) and recurrent sacroiliac joint pain (n = 43, 0.8%) most frequently cited. All other clinical complaints were rare (≤0.2%). Ninety-six revision surgeries were performed in 94 (1.8%) patients at a median follow-up of four (range 0–30) months. Revisions were typically performed in the early postoperative period for treatment of a symptomatic malpositioned implant (n = 46, 0.9%) or to correct an improperly sized implant in an asymptomatic patient (n = 10, 0.2%). Revisions in the late postoperative period were performed to treat symptom recurrence (n = 34, 0.6%) or for continued pain of undetermined etiology (n = 6, 0.1%). Conclusion Analysis of a postmarket product complaints database demonstrates an overall low risk of complaints with the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System in patients with degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint

  7. Activation of α2A-adrenergic signal transduction in chondrocytes promotes degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Kai; Zeng, Guang; Niu, Li-Na; Yang, Hong-Xu; Ren, Gao-Tong; Xu, Xin-Yue; Li, Fei-Fei; Tay, Franklin R; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, α2- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased α2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an α2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of α2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of α2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of α2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities. PMID:27452863

  8. Activation of α2A-adrenergic signal transduction in chondrocytes promotes degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Kai; Zeng, Guang; Niu, Li-Na; Yang, Hong-xu; Ren, Gao-tong; Xu, Xin-yue; Li, Fei-fei; Tay, Franklin R.; Wang, Mei-qing

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, α2- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased α2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an α2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of α2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of α2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of α2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities. PMID:27452863

  9. Expression of immune response genes in the stifle joint of dogs with oligoarthritis and degenerative cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Muir, P; Schaefer, S L; Manley, P A; Svaren, J P; Oldenhoff, W E; Hao, Z

    2007-10-15

    Dysregulation of immune responses within joints plays an important role in development of inflammatory arthritis. We determined expression of a panel of immune response and matrix turnover genes in synovial fluid collected from a group of dogs with stifle oligoarthritis and associated degenerative cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture (n=27). We also studied synovial fluid gene expression in dogs affected with other forms of degenerative arthritis (n=9) and in the stifle joint of healthy dogs with intact CCL (n=14). After collection, synovial cells were pelleted and RNA was isolated. Relative expression of cathepsin K, cathepsin S, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), invariant chain (li), toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), and TLR-9 was determined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Data were normalized to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as an internal control. Relative expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9, TRAP, and li was increased in the stifle synovial fluid of dogs with oligoarthritis, when compared with the stifles of healthy dogs (P<0.05). In contrast, relative expression of all of the genes-of-interest in synovial fluid from joints affected with other forms of arthritis was not significantly different from the stifles of healthy dogs. TRAP expression was also significantly increased in the stifle joints of dogs with oligoarthritis, when compared to joint expression of TRAP in dogs with other forms of degenerative arthritis (P<0.05). In the dogs with stifle oligoarthritis, expression of both matrix turnover and immune response genes was increased in stifle synovial fluid, when compared with the internal PBMC control, whereas in healthy dogs and dogs with other forms of arthritis, only expression of matrix turnover genes was increased in synovial fluid, when compared with the internal PBMC control (P<0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that antigen-specific immune responses within the stifle joint may

  10. The effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients’ pain, function, and joint range of motion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwansub; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients’ pain, function, and joint range of motion. [Subjects] To conduct the experiment in the present study, 30 patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a control group (the conservative treatment group) of 15 patients, who received conservative physical therapy, and an experimental group (the kinesiology taping group) of 15 patients, who received kinesiology taping therapy. [Methods] All patients received treatment three times per week for four weeks. The kinesiology taping group had elastic tapes applied to the hamstring muscles, anterior tibialis, quadriceps femoris, and gastrocnemius. The range of motion was measured using joint goniometers, pain was measured using visual analog scales, and functional evaluation was conducted using the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. [Results] In intragroup comparisons of the kinesiology taping group and the conservative treatment group, the visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores significantly decreased, and the range of motion increased more than significantly. In intergroup comparisons, the kinesiology taping group showed significantly lower visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores and significantly larger ranges of motion than the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] Kinesiology taping therapy is considered to be an effective nonsurgical intervention method for pain relief, daily living activities, and range of motion of degenerative knee arthritis patients. PMID:26957729

  11. A Study of the Association Between Sleep Bruxism, Low Quality of Sleep, and Degenerative Changes of the Temporomandibular Joint.

    PubMed

    Dias, Glaucia Marques; Bonato, Letícia Ladeira; Guimarães, Josemar Parreira; Silva, Jesca Neftali Nogueira; Ferreira, Luciano Ambrosio; Grossmann, Eduardo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of degenerative bone changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in individuals suffering from sleep bruxism (SB), associating these characteristics with the quality of sleep. For this, we followed the International Classification of Sleep Disorders for the diagnosis of SB, in addition to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) for the classification of TMD and cone beam computed tomography. It was found that 97.7% of the individuals with bruxism had at least 1 RDC/TMD group III diagnosis, 75.6% of the subjects considered their sleep quality as poor, and the largest group (23%) had centric bruxism. There was no significant association between the pattern of sleep quality (P = 0.36), the type of SB (P = 0.277), and the presence of degenerative changes of the TMJ. Regardless of the quality of sleep and the type of bruxism presented, the prevalence of degenerative bone disorders was high (67%) among women with a mean age of 46 years and a clinical diagnosis of SB. PMID:26501968

  12. Biomechanical analysis of press-extension technique on degenerative lumbar with disc herniation and staggered facet joint.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong-Gen; Liao, Sheng-Hui; Jiang, Zhong; Huang, Huan-Ming; Ning, Xi-Tao; Jiang, Neng-Yi; Pei, Jian-Wei; Huang, Qin; Wei, Hui

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new Chinese massage technique named "press-extension" on degenerative lumbar with disc herniation and facet joint dislocation, and provides a biomechanical explanation of this massage technique. Self-developed biomechanical software was used to establish a normal L1-S1 lumbar 3D FE model, which integrated the spine CT and MRI data-based anatomical structure. Then graphic technique is utilized to build a degenerative lumbar FE model with disc herniation and facet joint dislocation. According to the actual press-extension experiments, mechanic parameters are collected to set boundary condition for FE analysis. The result demonstrated that press-extension techniques bring the annuli fibrosi obvious induction effect, making the central nucleus pulposus forward close, increasing the pressure in front part. Study concludes that finite element modelling for lumbar spine is suitable for the analysis of press-extension technique impact on lumbar intervertebral disc biomechanics, to provide the basis for the disease mechanism of intervertebral disc herniation using press-extension technique. PMID:27275119

  13. TU-C-12A-12: Differentiating Bone Lesions and Degenerative Joint Disease in NaF PET/CT Scans Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Perk, T; Bradshaw, T; Muzahir, S; Jeraj, R; Meyer, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: [F-18]NaF PET can be used to image bone metastases; however, tracer uptake in degenerative joint disease (DJD) often appears similar to metastases. This study aims to develop and compare different machine learning algorithms to automatically identify regions of [F-18]NaF scans that correspond to DJD. Methods: 10 metastatic prostate cancer patients received whole body [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans prior to treatment. Image segmentation resulted in 852 ROIs, 69 of which were identified by a nuclear medicine physician as DJD. For all ROIs, various PET and CT textural features were computed. ROIs were divided into training and testing sets used to train eight different machine learning classifiers. Classifiers were evaluated based on receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV). We also assessed the added value of including CT features in addition to PET features for training classifiers. Results: The training set consisted of 37 DJD ROIs with 475 non-DJD ROIs, and the testing set consisted of 32 DJD ROIs with 308 non-DJD ROIs. Of all classifiers, generalized linear models (GLM), decision forests (DF), and support vector machines (SVM) had the best performance. AUCs of GLM (0.929), DF (0.921), and SVM (0.889) were significantly higher than the other models (p<0.001). GLM and DF, overall, had the best sensitivity, specificity, and PPV, and gave a significantly better performance (p<0.01) than all other models. PET/CT GLM classifiers had higher AUC than just PET or just CT. GLMs built using PET/CT information had superior or comparable sensitivities, specificities and PPVs to just PET or just CT. Conclusion: Machine learning algorithms trained with PET/CT features were able to identify some cases of DJD. GLM outperformed the other classification algorithms. Using PET and CT information together was shown to be superior to using PET or CT features alone. Research supported by the Prostate

  14. Thoracolumbar spinal cord compression due to vertebral process degenerative joint disease in a family of Shiloh Shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, John J; Knowles, Kim E; deLahunta, Alexander; Bell, Jerold S; Lowrie, Charles T; Todhunter, Rory J

    2003-01-01

    Five young Shiloh Shepherd Dogs (4 males and 1 female) related by a common sire were studied because of progressive pelvic limb weakness and incoordination. All dogs had a spastic paraparesis and pelvic limb ataxia consistent with an upper motor neuron and general proprioceptive lesion between spinal cord segments T3 and L3. Proliferative lesions involving one or more of the articular processes from the 11th thoracic vertebrae to the 2nd lumbar vertebra were observed on radiographs of the thoracolumbar vertebrae. Dorsal compression of the spinal cord was identified during imaging studies at these sites. Abnormalities of the synovial joints and bony proliferation of the involved articular processes were identified at postmortem examination in 2 dogs. The articular processes and associated vertebral arches protruded into the vertebral canal, indenting the dorsal surface of the spinalcord. Degenerative joint disease (DJD) was identified histologically. A compressive myelopathy was diagnosed in the spinal cord. These dogs were affected by a compressive myelopathy as a consequence of vertebral process DJD that likely has a geneticcomponent. The DJD could have been caused by a primary vertebral malformation or an injury to the processes at a young age causing malarticulation. PMID:12892304

  15. Regenerative Injection Therapy with Whole Bone Marrow Aspirate for Degenerative Joint Disease: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Orlofsky, Amos

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapeutic strategies for joint diseases usually employ either enriched concentrates of bone marrow-derived stem cells, chondrogenic preparations such as platelet-rich plasma, or irritant solutions such as hyperosmotic dextrose. In this case series, we describe our experience with a simple, cost-effective regenerative treatment using direct injection of unfractionated whole bone marrow (WBM) into osteoarthritic joints in combination with hyperosmotic dextrose. Seven patients with hip, knee or ankle osteoarthritis (OA) received two to seven treatments over a period of two to twelve months. Patient-reported assessments were collected in interviews and by questionnaire. All patients reported improvements with respect to pain, as well as gains in functionality and quality of life. Three patients, including two whose progress under other therapy had plateaued or reversed, achieved complete or near-complete symptomatic relief, and two additional patients achieved resumption of vigorous exercise. These preliminary findings suggest that OA treatment with WBM injection merits further investigation. PMID:24046512

  16. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, canine hip dysplasia, and sacroiliac joint degenerative changes on ventrodorsal radiographs of the pelvis in police working German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Komsta, Renata; Łojszczyk-Szczepaniak, Anna; Dębiak, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LTV) frequently occur in German shepherd dogs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and interdependence between LTV and canine hip dysplasia (CHD) as well as sacroiliac joint degenerative changes visualized on ventrodorsal radiographs of the pelvis in both working and companion German shepherd dogs. The presence of LTV was found in 12% of working dogs and in 33% of companion dogs. Similar incidence of hip dysplasia in both the groups was found. It has been shown that dogs with LTV have a higher frequency of severe CHD. A higher percentage of sacroiliac joint degenerative changes was observed in dogs with no signs of LTV and in working dogs. PMID:26041591

  17. Knee joint vibration signal analysis with matching pursuit decomposition and dynamic weighted classifier fusion.

    PubMed

    Cai, Suxian; Yang, Shanshan; Zheng, Fang; Lu, Meng; Wu, Yunfeng; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of knee joint vibration (VAG) signals can provide quantitative indices for detection of knee joint pathology at an early stage. In addition to the statistical features developed in the related previous studies, we extracted two separable features, that is, the number of atoms derived from the wavelet matching pursuit decomposition and the number of significant signal turns detected with the fixed threshold in the time domain. To perform a better classification over the data set of 89 VAG signals, we applied a novel classifier fusion system based on the dynamic weighted fusion (DWF) method to ameliorate the classification performance. For comparison, a single leastsquares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and the Bagging ensemble were used for the classification task as well. The results in terms of overall accuracy in percentage and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve obtained with the DWF-based classifier fusion method reached 88.76% and 0.9515, respectively, which demonstrated the effectiveness and superiority of the DWF method with two distinct features for the VAG signal analysis. PMID:23573175

  18. Using the joint transform correlator as the feature extractor for the nearest neighbor classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Boon Y.; Karim, Mohammad A.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    1999-01-01

    Financial transactions using credit cards have gained popularity but the growing number of counterfeits and frauds may defeat the purpose of the cards. The search for a superior method to curb the criminal acts has become urgent especially in the brilliant information age. Currently, neural-network-based pattern recognition techniques are employed for security verification. However, it has been a time consuming experience, as some techniques require a long period of training time. Here, a faster and more efficient method is proposed to perform security verification that verifies the fingerprint images using the joint transform correlator as a feature extractor for nearest neighbor classifier. The uniqueness comparison scheme is proposed to improve the accuracy of the system verification. The performance of the system under noise corruption, variable contrast, and rotation of the input image is verified with a computer simulation.

  19. Can combined use of low-level lasers and hyaluronic acid injections prolong the longevity of degenerative knee joints?

    PubMed Central

    Ip, David; Fu, Nga Yue

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated whether half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection together with low-level laser therapy in addition to standard conventional physical therapy can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery in elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic tricompartmental knee arthritis. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral tricompartmental knee arthritis were assigned at random to either one of two conservative treatment protocols to either one of the painful knees. Protocol A consisted of conventional physical therapy plus a sham light source plus saline injection, and protocol B consisted of protocol A with addition of half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection as well as low-level laser treatment instead of using saline and a sham light source. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain necessitating joint replacement. Results Among the 140 painful knees treated with either protocol A or protocol B, only one of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol B required joint replacement, whereas 15 of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol A needed joint replacement surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion We conclude that half-yearly hyaluronic acid injections together with low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into the standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis, because it may prolong the longevity of the knee joint without the need for joint replacement. PMID:26346122

  20. Evidence from Raman Spectroscopy of a Putative Link Between Inherent Bone Matrix Chemistry and Degenerative Joint Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Jemma G; Gikas, Panagiotis D; Buckley, Kevin; Shepperd, Adam; Birch, Helen L; McCarthy, Ian; Miles, Jonathan; Briggs, Timothy W R; Keen, Richard; Parker, Anthony W; Matousek, Pavel; Goodship, Allen E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease that results in degeneration of cartilage and bone in the synovial joints. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of the subchondral bone matrix occur and may be associated with cartilage changes. The aim of this study was to explore whether the abnormal molecular changes observed in the matrix of OA subchondral bone can be identified with Raman spectroscopy. Methods Tibial plateaus from patients undergoing total knee replacement for OA (n = 10) were compared with healthy joints from patients undergoing leg amputation (n = 5; sex- and laterality-matched) and with non-OA cadaveric knee specimens (n = 5; age-matched). The samples were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and chemical analysis to compare changes in defined load-bearing sites in both the medial and lateral compartments. Results OA subchondral bone matrix changes were detected by Raman spectroscopy. Within each cohort, there was no spectral difference in bone matrix chemistry between the medial and lateral compartments, whereas a significant spectral difference (P < 0.001) was observed between the non-OA and OA specimens. Type I collagen chain ratios were normal in the non-OA specimens but were significantly elevated in the OA specimens. Conclusion In comparing the results of Raman spectroscopy with those obtained by other standard techniques, these findings show, for the first time, that subchondral bone changes, or inherent differences, exist in both the medial and lateral (beneath intact cartilage) compartments of OA knees. The development of Raman spectroscopy as a screening tool, based on molecular-specific modifications in bone, would facilitate the identification of clinical disease, including early molecular changes. PMID:24470432

  1. The Degenerative Spine.

    PubMed

    Clarençon, Frédéric; Law-Ye, Bruno; Bienvenot, Peggy; Cormier, Évelyne; Chiras, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Degenerative disease of the spine is a leading cause of back pain and radiculopathy, and is a frequent indication for spine MR imaging. Disc degeneration, disc protrusion/herniation, discarhtrosis, spinal canal stenosis, and facet joint arthrosis, as well as interspinous processes arthrosis, may require an MR imaging workup. This review presents the MR imaging patterns of these diseases and describes the benefit of the MR imaging in these indications compared with the other imaging modalities like plain radiographs or computed tomography scan. PMID:27417397

  2. Degenerative Spinal Deformity.

    PubMed

    Ailon, Tamir; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Lenke, Lawrence G; Brodke, Darrel; Harrop, James S; Fehlings, Michael; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Degenerative spinal deformity afflicts a significant portion of the elderly and is increasing in prevalence. Recent evidence has revealed sagittal plane malalignment to be a key driver of pain and disability in this population and has led to a significant shift toward a more evidence-based management paradigm. In this narrative review, we review the recent literature on the epidemiology, evaluation, management, and outcomes of degenerative adult spinal deformity (ASD). ASD is increasing in prevalence in North America due to an aging population and demographic shifts. It results from cumulative degenerative changes focused in the intervertebral discs and facet joints that occur asymmetrically to produce deformity. Deformity correction focuses on restoration of global alignment, especially in the sagittal plane, and decompression of the neural elements. General realignment goals have been established, including sagittal vertical axis <50 mm, pelvic tilt <22°, and lumbopelvic mismatch <±9°; however, these should be tailored to the patient. Operative management, in carefully selected patients, yields satisfactory outcomes that appear to be superior to nonoperative strategies. ASD is characterized by malalignment in the sagittal and/or coronal plane and, in adults, presents with pain and disability. Nonoperative management is recommended for patients with mild, nonprogressive symptoms; however, evidence of its efficacy is limited. Surgery aims to restore global spinal alignment, decompress neural elements, and achieve fusion with minimal complications. The surgical approach should balance the desired correction with the increased risk of more aggressive maneuvers. In well-selected patients, surgery yields excellent outcomes. PMID:26378361

  3. Diagnostic dilemma of degenerative joint disease, chronic avascular necrosis or metastasis in planar Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate planar skeletal scintigraphy excluded by single positron emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Phulsunga, Rohit Kumar; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    We present a 71-year-old male patient subjected to skeletal scintigraphy for metastasis work up of prostate cancer. Whole body planar images revealed a solitary focal tracer uptake in left femoral head mimicking as solitary metastatic focus. Single positron emission computed tomography/computed tomography images localized this increased tracer uptake to the subchondral cysts with minimal sclerosis in left femur head with no decrease in size of femur head and was reported as (degenerative joint disease). PMID:26170582

  4. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    PubMed

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database. PMID:25680220

  5. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  6. Coxofemoral joint laxity from distraction radiography and its contemporaneous and prospective correlation with laxity, subjective score, and evidence of degenerative joint disease from conventional hip-extended radiography in dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, G K; Gregor, T P; Rhodes, W H; Biery, D N

    1993-07-01

    A 3-year prospective study of large-breed dogs (4 months to 3 years of age) was conducted to evaluate the influence of radiographic positioning and age on coxofemoral joint (hip) laxity, subjective hip score, and development of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The dogs (n = 142) were breeder- or client-owned and represented 14 breeds. With dogs under heavy sedation, hips were radiographed in the standard hip-extended position and in the new compression/distraction position at 4, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age. The standard hip-extended radiographic view was evaluated by 3 methods: subjective evaluation by a board-certified veterinary radiologist (WHR), according to the standard 7-point Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) scoring scheme (OFA/WHR); joint laxity quantitation, using the Norberg angle (NA) method; and subjective scoring by a veterinary orthopedic surgeon for radiographic evidence of DJD. The hips in the distraction radiographic view were evaluated for passive hip laxity, as measured by use of a unitless distraction index (DI). Results of the study indicated that at a specific age (4, 6, 12, 24, or 36 months), all methods of hip evaluation correlated with each other at a moderate level (P < 0.05). The strength of contemporaneous correlation tended to increase with age of evaluation. Longitudinally, the between-method correlations were usually significant (P < 0.05), but not at a sufficiently high level to permit reliable between-method prediction. Prospective intraclass (within-method) statistical analysis of the various hip-scoring methods indicated that DI was superior to NA and OFA/WHR in comparability of score over time. The intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 for DI in contrast to 0.40 to 0.78 for NA, and 0.06 to 0.39 for OFA/WHR over the age intervals of the study. For reference, the highest Kappa of 0.39 for the subjective OFA/WHR scoring reflected a maximal level of agreement between time intervals, only slightly

  7. [Etiology, pathophysiology and conservative therapy of degenerative rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Jandrić, Slavica

    2002-01-01

    ETIOLOGY OF DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASES: Etiology of degenerative joint diseases is still not clearly understood and there is no specific management for this group of diseases. Various pathological conditions cause damage of the articular cartilage and lead to clinically and radiographically recognized impairment. Biomechanical, metabolic, genetic factors, inflammation and other risk factors contribute to development of osteoarthrosis. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASES: Osteoarthrosis is characterized by progressive erosion of articular cartilage and bone overgrowth at the joint margins. Cartilage integrity requires balance between synthesis and degradation of matrix components. Chondrocytes react to various mechanical and chemical stresses in order to stabilize and restore the tissue. Failures in stabilizing and restoring the tissue lead to cartilage degeneration that may be irreversibile. For better understanding of conservative management of degenerative joint diseases it is important to know the impact of pathophysiology mechanisms on development of degenerative joint diseases. There is great variability in the rate of progression of erosive processes in articular cartilage in clinical, radiographic signs and course of the disease. This is in relation with many factors, as well as with management and response to therapy. TREATMENT OF DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASES: Treatment should vary depending on the severity of disease and patient's expectations and level of activity. Besides analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, conventional and not conventional treatment and techniques can be used for management of osteoarthrosis. Physical therapy and exercises are very important for maintaining muscle strength, joint stability and mobility, but should be closely monitored for optimal efficacy. PMID:12037935

  8. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3–S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m2. The level of DS was most prevalent at L4–L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3–L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5–S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in

  9. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  10. Critical Values of Facet Joint Angulation and Tropism in the Development of Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: An International, Large-Scale Multicenter Study by the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Goss, Ben; Sham, Phoebe; Williams, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  An international, multicenter cross-sectional image-based study performed in 33 institutions in the Asia Pacific region. Objective  The study addressed the role of facet joint angulation and tropism in relation to L4–L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Methods  The study included 349 patients (63% females; mean age: 61.8 years) with single-level DS; 82 had no L4–L5 DS (group A) and 267 had L4–L5 DS (group B). Axial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized to assess facet joint angulations and tropism (i.e., asymmetry between facet joint angulations) between groups. Results  There was a statistically significant difference between group A (left mean: 46.1 degrees; right mean: 48.2 degrees) and group B (left mean: 55.4 degrees; right mean: 57.5 degrees) in relation to bilateral L4–L5 facet joint angulations (p < 0.001). The mean bilateral angulation difference was 7.4 and 9.6 degrees in groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.025). A critical value of 58 degrees or greater significantly increased the likelihood of DS if unilateral (adjusted OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5; p = 0.021) or bilateral facets (adjusted OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 2.7 to 13.2; p < 0.001) were involved. Facet joint tropism was found to be relevant between 16 and 24 degrees angulation difference (adjusted OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 26.1; p = 0.027). Conclusions  In one of the largest studies assessing facet joint orientation in patients with DS, greater sagittal facet joint angulation was associated with L4-L5 DS, with a critical value of 58 degrees or greater increasing the likelihood of the condition for unilateral and bilateral facet joint involvement. Specific facet joint tropism categories were noted to be associated with DS. PMID:27433424

  11. [Ultrasonographic examination of the stifle joint in the dog. Part 2: Impaired wound healing and neoplastic, congenital, developmental, degenerative and traumatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Nayseh, K; Kramer, M; Ondreka, N

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a cost-effective, non-invasive technique, which can be performed in conscious dogs. It frequently contributes valuable and even crucial diagnostic information in patients with lameness attributed to the stifle joint. Within the first part of this article, technical requirements and limitations as well as the standardized scanning protocol and ultrasonographic anatomy of the stifle joint are described. Additionally, ultrasonographic features of common pathologies of the stifle joint, including cranial cruciate ligament rupture and meniscal pathologies, are discussed. The second part of the article focuses on the ultrasonographic approach to other, less common pathologies of the canine stifle joint, including impaired wound healing and congenital, neoplastic, developmental and traumatic disorders. PMID:25966794

  12. Degenerative diseases of the vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Resnick, D

    1985-07-01

    Several distinct degenerative processes affect the articulations of the vertebral column; each is associated with characteristic radiographic and pathologic abnormalities, and many are accompanied by significant clinical manifestations. A discussion of these processes is best accomplished according to the type of joint that is involved. With regard to cartilaginous articulations, of which the intervertebral disk is most important, intervertebral (osteo)chondrosis, spondylosis deformans, and, in the cervical spine, uncovertebral arthrosis are the major degenerative disorders. Osteoarthritis (osteoarthrosis) affects any of the synovium-lined joints of the vertebral column, including the apophyseal, costovertebral, transitional lumbosacral, median atlantoaxial, and sacroiliac articulations. Fibrous articulations, ligaments, or entheses (sites of tendon or ligament attachment to bone) are involved in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, ossification of the posterior spinal ligaments, and Baastrup disease. Of the many complications of these degenerative processes, alignment abnormalities (including segmental instability, degenerative spondylolisthesis, senile kyphosis, and degenerative scoliosis), intervertebral disk displacement, calcification or ossification, and spinal stenosis are the most important. PMID:3923556

  13. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  14. Biomechanics of Degenerative Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Justin A.; Jakoi, Andre M.

    2016-01-01

    The spine has several important functions including load transmission, permission of limited motion, and protection of the spinal cord. The vertebrae form functional spinal units, which represent the smallest segment that has characteristics of the entire spinal column. Discs and paired facet joints within each functional unit form a three-joint complex between which loads are transmitted. Surrounding the spinal motion segment are ligaments, composed of elastin and collagen, and joint capsules which restrict motion to within normal limits. Ligaments have variable strengths and act via different lever arm lengths to contribute to spinal stability. As a consequence of the longer moment arm from the spinous process to the instantaneous axis of rotation, inherently weaker ligaments (interspinous and supraspinous) are able to provide resistance to excessive flexion. Degenerative processes of the spine are a normal result of aging and occur on a spectrum. During the second decade of life, the intervertebral disc demonstrates histologic evidence of nucleus pulposus degradation caused by reduced end plate blood supply. As disc height decreases, the functional unit is capable of an increased range of axial rotation which subjects the posterior facet capsules to greater mechanical loads. A concurrent change in load transmission across the end plates and translation of the instantaneous axis of rotation further increase the degenerative processes at adjacent structures. The behavior of the functional unit is impacted by these processes and is reflected by changes in the stress-strain relationship. Back pain and other clinical symptoms may occur as a result of the biomechanical alterations of degeneration. PMID:27114783

  15. Biomechanics of Degenerative Spinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Justin A; Jakoi, Andre M; Singla, Anuj

    2016-04-01

    The spine has several important functions including load transmission, permission of limited motion, and protection of the spinal cord. The vertebrae form functional spinal units, which represent the smallest segment that has characteristics of the entire spinal column. Discs and paired facet joints within each functional unit form a three-joint complex between which loads are transmitted. Surrounding the spinal motion segment are ligaments, composed of elastin and collagen, and joint capsules which restrict motion to within normal limits. Ligaments have variable strengths and act via different lever arm lengths to contribute to spinal stability. As a consequence of the longer moment arm from the spinous process to the instantaneous axis of rotation, inherently weaker ligaments (interspinous and supraspinous) are able to provide resistance to excessive flexion. Degenerative processes of the spine are a normal result of aging and occur on a spectrum. During the second decade of life, the intervertebral disc demonstrates histologic evidence of nucleus pulposus degradation caused by reduced end plate blood supply. As disc height decreases, the functional unit is capable of an increased range of axial rotation which subjects the posterior facet capsules to greater mechanical loads. A concurrent change in load transmission across the end plates and translation of the instantaneous axis of rotation further increase the degenerative processes at adjacent structures. The behavior of the functional unit is impacted by these processes and is reflected by changes in the stress-strain relationship. Back pain and other clinical symptoms may occur as a result of the biomechanical alterations of degeneration. PMID:27114783

  16. The degenerative cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Llopis, E; Belloch, E; León, J P; Higueras, V; Piquer, J

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques provide excellent anatomical images of the cervical spine. The choice to use one technique or another will depend on the clinical scenario and on the treatment options. Plain-film X-rays continue to be fundamental, because they make it possible to evaluate the alignment and bone changes; they are also useful for follow-up after treatment. The better contrast resolution provided by magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to evaluate the soft tissues, including the intervertebral discs, ligaments, bone marrow, and spinal cord. The role of computed tomography in the study of degenerative disease has changed in recent years owing to its great spatial resolution and its capacity to depict osseous components. In this article, we will review the anatomy and biomechanical characteristics of the cervical spine, and then we provide a more detailed discussion of the degenerative diseases that can affect the cervical spine and their clinical management. PMID:26878769

  17. Degenerative cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Fehlings, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Cervical myelopathy is the most common cause of acquired spinal cord compromise. The concept of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), defined as symptomatic myelopathy associated with degenerative arthropathic changes in the spine axis, is being introduced. Given its progressive nature, treatment options have to be chosen in a timely manner. Surgical options include anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF), anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), arthroplasty (in highly select cases), posterior laminectomy with/without fusion, and laminoplasty. Indications for each should be carefully considered in individual patients. Riluzole, a sodium-glutamate antagonist, is a promising option to optimize neurologic outcomes post-surgery and is being examined in the CSM-Protect Randomized Controlled Trial. Preoperative risk assessment is mandatory for prognostication. Sagittal alignment is known to play an important role to optimize surgical outcome. Guidelines for optimal management of DCM are in process. In principle, all but the mildest cases of DCM should be offered surgery for optimal outcome. PMID:27250040

  18. Canine degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Coates, Joan R; Wininger, Fred A

    2010-09-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease that occurs in many breeds. The initial upper motor neuron spastic paraparesis and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs progress to a flaccid lower motor neuron tetraparesis. Recently, a missense mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene was found to be a risk factor for DM, suggesting that DM is similar to some forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This article reviews the current knowledge of canine DM with regard to its signalment, clinical spectrum, diagnostic approach, and treatment. The implications of the SOD1 mutation on both diseases are discussed, comparing pathogenic mechanisms while conveying perspectives to translational medicine. PMID:20732599

  19. Degenerative meniscus: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Richard; Kumar, Neil S; Patel, Nimit; Tom, James

    2014-01-01

    The symptomatic degenerative meniscus continues to be a source of discomfort for a significant number of patients. With vascular penetration of less than one-third of the adult meniscus, healing potential in the setting of chronic degeneration remains low. Continued hoop and shear stresses upon the degenerative meniscus results in gross failure, often in the form of complex tears in the posterior horn and midbody. Patient history and physical examination are critical to determine the true source of pain, particularly with the significant incidence of simultaneous articular pathology. Joint line tenderness, a positive McMurray test, and mechanical catching or locking can be highly suggestive of a meniscal source of knee pain and dysfunction. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are frequently utilized to examine for osteoarthritis and to verify the presence of meniscal tears, in addition to ruling out other sources of pain. Non-operative therapy focused on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy may be able to provide pain relief as well as improve mechanical function of the knee joint. For patients refractory to conservative therapy, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy can provide short-term gains regarding pain relief, especially when combined with an effective, regular physiotherapy program. Patients with clear mechanical symptoms and meniscal pathology may benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, but surgery is not a guaranteed success, especially with concomitant articular pathology. Ultimately, the long-term outcomes of either treatment arm provide similar results for most patients. Further study is needed regarding the short and long-term outcomes regarding conservative and surgical therapy, with a particular focus on the economic impact of treatment as well. PMID:25405088

  20. Osteoarthritis Basics: The Joint and Its Parts

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Basics: The Joint and Its Parts Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents ... type of arthritis. More common in older people, it is sometimes called degenerative joint disease. Osteoarthritis most ...

  1. Classifying Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Lang, Michael; Goodmanis, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on an activity in which students sample air at school and generate ideas about how to classify the microorganisms they observe. The results are used to compare air quality among schools via the Internet. Supports the development of scientific inquiry and technology skills. (DDR)

  2. Neuropeptides in experimental and degenerative arthritis.

    PubMed

    Niissalo, S; Hukkanen, M; Imai, S; Törnwall, J; Konttinen, Y T

    2002-06-01

    Classical symptoms of both inflammatory and degenerative arthritides may contribute to neurogenic responses like wheal, flare, edema, and pain. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with an immunogenetic background. Neurogenic inflammation has been considered to play an essential role in RA, in part because of the symmetrical involvement (cross-spinal reflexes) and the predominant involvement of the most heavily innervated small joints of the hands and the feet (highly represented in the hominiculus). In contrast, osteoarthritis (OA) is considered to arise as a result of degeneration of the hyaline articular cartilage, which secondarily results in local inflammation and pain. However, it is possible that the age-related and predominant (compared to nociceptive nerves) degeneration of the proprioceptive, kinesthetic and vasoregulatory nerves can represent the primary pathogenic events. This leads to progressive damage of tissue with extremely poor capacity for self-regeneration. Inflammation, be it primary/autoimmune or secondary/degenerative, leads to peripheral sensitization and stimulation, which may further lead to central sensitization, neurogenic amplification of the inflammatory responses and activation of the neuro-endocrine axis. Neuropeptides serve as messengers, which modulate and mediate the actions in these cascades. Accordingly, many neuropeptides have been used successfully as experimental treatments, most recently VIP, which effectively controlled collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Therefore, it can safely be concluded that better treatment/control of disease activity and pain can be achieved by blocking the cascade leading to initiation and/or amplification of inflammatory process combined with effects on central nociceptive and neuroendocrine responses. PMID:12114296

  3. Detection of degenerative change in lateral projection cervical spine x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebri, Beyrem; Phillips, Michael; Knapp, Karen; Appelboam, Andy; Reuben, Adam; Slabaugh, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Degenerative changes to the cervical spine can be accompanied by neck pain, which can result from narrowing of the intervertebral disc space and growth of osteophytes. In a lateral x-ray image of the cervical spine, degenerative changes are characterized by vertebral bodies that have indistinct boundaries and limited spacing between vertebrae. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach to detect and localize degenerative changes in lateral x-ray images of the cervical spine. Starting from a user-supplied set of points in the center of each vertebral body, we fit a central spline, from which a region of interest is extracted and image features are computed. A Random Forest classifier labels regions as degenerative change or normal. Leave-one-out cross-validation studies performed on a dataset of 103 patients demonstrates performance of above 95% accuracy.

  4. Surgical treatment of degenerative osteoarthritis of the fingers.

    PubMed

    Rongières, M

    2013-09-01

    Degenerative osteoarthritis of the long fingers is rare and surgical management is often necessary if there is joint pain, however this indication should not only be based on radiographic imaging. The specific anatomical problems of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints are described. The surgical approach for each joint is described as well as functional management, in particular that of the extensor apparatus. Mobility should always be preserved for the MCP, arthroplasties are recommended for the PIP except for the index, and arthrodesis for the DIP. The different and most frequently used implants are described as well as the indications and expected results. The indications are discussed in relation to the limited results in the literature as well as the preferences of a panel of French hand surgeons. PMID:23684245

  5. Degenerative lesions in the articular cartilage after meniscectomy: preliminary experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Berjon, J J; Munuera, L; Calvo, M

    1991-03-01

    Articular cartilage degeneration was studied in an experimental model including 68 knees of adult dogs on which five different types of medial meniscectomy had been performed with a followup period of 10 to 450 days. The results were assessed by macroscopic, radiologic, and histologic methods. The degenerative lesions increased proportionally to the amount of meniscal tissue resected and the duration of observation. These lesions proved to be more intense at the tibial plateau compared to the femoral condyle. For both joint surfaces the predominant location was the central zone. Considering the degenerative process by the articular cartilage after total meniscectomy, maximum preservation of meniscal tissue is recommended. PMID:2002520

  6. [Neuropathologic markers in degenerative dementias].

    PubMed

    Hauw, J J; Seilhean, D; Colle, M A; Hogenhuys, J; Duyckaerts, C

    1998-01-01

    The number of neuropathological markers used for the diagnosis of degenerative dementias is rapidly increasing, and this is somewhat confusing: some lesions described a long time ago, such as ballooned cells, proved to be less specific than they were supposed to be; this is also the case for Lewy bodies, that have been recognised in a larger spectrum of disorders than thought a few years ago. On the contrary, for an increasing number of neuropathologists, Pick bodies are now mandatory for the diagnosis of Pick disease, and this contrasts with the prevalent opinions of the late sixties or seventies. There are a number of reasons for the changing significance of neuropathological markers. Three of them can be easily identified: 1) the burst of immunohistochemistry into neuropathology allowed an easier recognition, a better delineation and new pathophysiological approaches to old lesions, and a dramatic increase in the description of new markers, especially in glial cells; 2) in some conditions characterized by the number and distribution of some lesions rather than by their mere presence, such as aging and Alzheimer disease, a better neuroanatomical point of view permitted new insights into the concept of disease versus age-related changes; 3) more accurate clinicopathologic correlations showed clearly the need of grouping or lumping together some entities: for example, obvious relationship aroused between progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration; in contrast, distinguishing different disorders in the frontal lobe dementias grouped together into "Pick disease" was felt necessary. This review summarizes the main criteria for identification, and the presumed meaning of the chief markers indicating the presence of abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins, A beta peptides, and PrP proteins. Abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins can be stored in the neurons, and participate in the constitution of many lesions (neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads

  7. D-penicillamine Induced Degenerative Dermopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Sujay; Jain, Naresh; Singla, Shweta; Chatterjee, Priti; Behari, Madhuri

    2015-01-01

    D-penicillamine interferes with elastin and collagen metabolism and produces several cutaneous and multi-systemic side-effects. We present two cases of Wilson's disease who on long-term penicillamine therapy developed drug-induced degenerative dermopathy manifesting as skin fragility over pressure sites and cutis laxa-like changes. PMID:26288416

  8. Physiochemical basis of human degenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, Boguslaw

    2015-01-01

    The onset of human degenerative diseases in humans, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, neurodevelopmental disease and neurodegenerative disease has been shown to be related to exposures to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and others, as well as to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, bisphenol-A and other aromatic lipophilic species. The onset of these diseases has also been related to exposures to transition metal ions. A physiochemical mechanism for the onset of degenerative environmental disease dependent upon exposure to a combination of lipophilic aromatic hydrocarbons and transition metal ions is proposed here. The findings reported here also, for the first time, explain why aromatic hydrocarbons exhibit greater toxicity than aliphatic hydrocarbons of equal carbon numbers. PMID:27486355

  9. Degenerative myelopathy in two Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Barber, R; Porter, B F; Peters, R M; Kent, M; Platt, S R; Schatzberg, S J

    2009-07-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a common, slowly progressive, debilitating disease reported in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog and Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Boxer dogs present occasionally for a thoracolumbar myelopathy for which no cause is identified on MRI or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Despite a lack of a histologic description of DM in the Boxer in the veterinary literature, such dogs are presumed to have DM. Here we report 2 histologically confirmed cases of DM in the Boxer breed in which histologic studies disclosed marked degenerative changes in the spinal cord that were most prominent in the thoracic and cranial lumbar segments. Lesions consisted of myelin vacuolation and degeneration, myelophagocytosis, reactive astrocytosis, and ellipsoid formation most prominent in the lateral and ventral funiculi. We present a detailed histologic description of DM in the Boxer dog and compare it to DM in other purebred dogs. PMID:19276068

  10. Disorders of the distal radioulnar joint.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Moran, Steven L; Berger, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    The distal radioulnar joint is responsible for stable forearm rotation. Injury to this joint can occur following a variety of mechanisms, including wrist fractures, ligamentous damage, or degenerative wear. Accurate diagnosis requires a clear understanding of the anatomy and mechanics of the ulnar aspect of the wrist. Injuries can be divided into three major categories for diagnostic purposes, and these include pain without joint instability, pain with joint instability, and joint arthritis. New advancements in imaging and surgical technique can allow for earlier detection of injuries, potentially preserving joint function. In this article, the authors review the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, and major abnormality involving the distal radioulnar joint. PMID:25285686

  11. Degenerative disease affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    1974-03-01

    The term "degenerative disease" is one which is rather widely used in relation to the nervous system and yet one which is rarely formally and carefully defined. The term appears to be applied to disorders of the nervous system which often occur in later life and which are of uncertain cause. In the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word degeneration is defined as "a change of structure by which an organism, or an organ, assumes the form of a lower type". However this is not quite the sense in which the word is applied in human neuropathology, where it is conventional to restrict the use of the word to those organic disorders which are of uncertain or poorly understood cause and in which there is a deterioration or regression in the level of functioning of the nervous system. The concept of degenerative disorder is applied to other organs as well as to the brain, and as disease elsewhere in the body may affect the nervous system, it seems reasonable to include within the topic of degenerative disorder affecting the nervous system those conditions in which the nervous system is involved as a result of primary degenerations in other parts of the body. PMID:25026144

  12. Consensus Paper: Management of Degenerative Cerebellar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ilg, W.; Bastian, A. J.; Boesch, S.; Burciu, R. G.; Celnik, P.; Claaßen, J.; Feil, K.; Kalla, R.; Miyai, I.; Nachbauer, W.; Schöls, L.; Strupp, M.; Synofzik, M.; Teufel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of motor symptoms of degenerative cerebellar ataxia remains difficult. Yet there are recent developments that are likely to lead to significant improvements in the future. Most desirable would be a causative treatment of the underlying cerebellar disease. This is currently available only for a very small subset of cerebellar ataxias with known metabolic dysfunction. However, increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of hereditary ataxia should lead to an increasing number of medically sensible drug trials. In this paper, data from recent drug trials in patients with recessive and dominant cerebellar ataxias will be summarized. There is consensus that up to date, no medication has been proven effective. Aminopyridines and acetazolamide are the only exception, which are beneficial in patients with episodic ataxia type 2. Aminopyridines are also effective in a subset of patients presenting with downbeat nystagmus. As such, all authors agreed that the mainstays of treatment of degenerative cerebellar ataxia are currently physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. For many years, well-controlled rehabilitation studies in patients with cerebellar ataxia were lacking. Data of recently published studies show that coordinative training improves motor function in both adult and juvenile patients with cerebellar degeneration. Given the well-known contribution of the cerebellum to motor learning, possible mechanisms underlying improvement will be outlined. There is consensus that evidence-based guidelines for the physiotherapy of degenerative cerebellar ataxia need to be developed. Future developments in physiotherapeutical interventions will be discussed including application of non-invasive brain stimulation. PMID:24222635

  13. Developing Cellular Therapies for Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Kapil; Rao, Mahendra; Hull, Sara Chandros; Stroncek, David; Brooks, Brian P.; Feigal, Ellen; van Meurs, Jan C.; Huang, Christene A.; Miller, Sheldon S.

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical advances in vision research have been greatly facilitated by the clinical accessibility of the visual system, its ease of experimental manipulation, and its ability to be functionally monitored in real time with noninvasive imaging techniques at the level of single cells and with quantitative end-point measures. A recent example is the development of stem cell–based therapies for degenerative eye diseases including AMD. Two phase I clinical trials using embryonic stem cell–derived RPE are already underway and several others using both pluripotent and multipotent adult stem cells are in earlier stages of development. These clinical trials will use a variety of cell types, including embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cell–derived RPE, bone marrow– or umbilical cord–derived mesenchymal stem cells, fetal neural or retinal progenitor cells, and adult RPE stem cells–derived RPE. Although quite distinct, these approaches, share common principles, concerns and issues across the clinical development pipeline. These considerations were a central part of the discussions at a recent National Eye Institute meeting on the development of cellular therapies for retinal degenerative disease. At this meeting, emphasis was placed on the general value of identifying and sharing information in the so-called “precompetitive space.” The utility of this behavior was described in terms of how it could allow us to remove road blocks in the clinical development pipeline, and more efficiently and economically move stem cell–based therapies for retinal degenerative diseases toward the clinic. Many of the ocular stem cell approaches we discuss are also being used more broadly, for nonocular conditions and therefore the model we develop here, using the precompetitive space, should benefit the entire scientific community. PMID:24573369

  14. MR imaging of degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Farshad, Mazda; Winklehner, Anna; Andreisek, Gustav

    2015-09-01

    Magnet resonance imaging (MRI) is the most commonly used imaging modality for diagnosis of degenerative disc disease (DDD). Lack of precise observations and documentation of aspects within the complex entity of DDD might partially be the cause of poor correlation of radiographic findings to clinical symptoms. This literature review summarizes the current knowledge on MRI in DDD and outlines the diagnostic limitations. The review further sensitizes the reader toward awareness of potentially untended aspects of DDD and the interaction of DDD and endplate changes. A summary of the available classifications for DDD is provided. PMID:26094867

  15. DEGENERATIVE STENOSIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Zylbersztejn, Sérgio; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Rodrigues, Nilson Rodinei; Werlang, Pablo Mariotti; Kisaki, Yorito; Rios, Aldemar Roberto Mieres; Bello, Cesar Dall

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update on degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spine, which is a common pathological condition among patients over the age of 65 years. The anamnesis and physical examination need to be precise, since radiography often only provides indirect signs. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary if the symptoms persist. The treatment for lumbar stenosis is a matter of controversy. However, there seems to be some benefit from surgical treatment rather than conservative treatment, such that surgery brings improvements in symptoms and functions for a period of up to two years. PMID:27042635

  16. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Ben; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Scott, Robert A.H.; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs), MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC), adipose tissues (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC), together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment. PMID:25752437

  17. MRI Evaluation of Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupal; Mehta, Chetan; Patel, Narrotam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lower back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease is a condition that affects young to middle-aged persons with peak incidence at approximately 40 y. MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the characterization, extent, and changes associated with the degenerative lumbar disc disease by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Study Design: Cross-sectional and observational study. Materials and Methods: A total 109 patients of the lumbar disc degeneration with age group between 17 to 80 y were diagnosed & studied on 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine. MRI findings like lumbar lordosis, Schmorl’s nodes, decreased disc height, disc annular tear, disc herniation, disc bulge, disc protrusion and disc extrusion were observed. Narrowing of the spinal canal, lateral recess and neural foramen with compression of nerve roots observed. Ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was observed. Result: Males were more commonly affected in Degenerative Spinal Disease & most of the patients show loss of lumbar lordosis. Decreased disc height was common at L5-S1 level. More than one disc involvement was seen per person. L4 – L5 disc was the most commonly involved. Annular disc tear, disc herniation, disc extrusion, narrowing of spinal canal, narrowing of lateral recess, compression of neural foramen, ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was common at the L4 –L5 disc level. Disc buldge was common at L3 – L4 & L4 – L5 disc level. Posterior osteophytes are common at L3 - L4 & L5 –S1 disc level. L1- L2 disc involvement and spondylolisthesis are less common. Conclusion: Lumbar disc degeneration is the most common cause of low back pain. Plain radiograph can be helpful in visualizing gross anatomic changes in

  18. Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, F M; Arana, E

    2016-04-01

    In the last 25 years, scientific research has brought about drastic changes in the concept of low back pain and its management. Most imaging findings, including degenerative changes, reflect anatomic peculiarities or the normal aging process and turn out to be clinically irrelevant; imaging tests have proven useful only when systemic disease is suspected or when surgery is indicated for persistent spinal cord or nerve root compression. The radiologic report should indicate the key points of nerve compression, bypassing inconsequential findings. Many treatments have proven inefficacious, and some have proven counterproductive, but they continue to be prescribed because patients want them and there are financial incentives for doing them. Following the guidelines that have proven effective for clinical management improves clinical outcomes, reduces iatrogenic complications, and decreases unjustified and wasteful healthcare expenditures. PMID:26872873

  19. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis for Spine Support: Study for Pain Evaluation and Mobility Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Filippiadis, Dimitrios K.; Papagelopoulos, Panagiotis; Kitsou, Maria; Oikonomopoulos, Nikolaos; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the efficacy-safety of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) as primary treatment in adult degenerative scoliosis. During the last 4 years, PV was performed in 18 adult patients (68 vertebral bodies) with back pain due to degenerative scoliotic spine. Under anaesthesia and fluoroscopy, direct access to most deformed vertebral bodies was obtained by 13G needles, and PMMA for vertebroplasty was injected. Scoliosis' inner arch was supported. Clinical evaluation included immediate and delayed studies of patient's general condition and neurological status. An NVS scale helped assessing pain relief, life quality, and mobility improvement. Comparing patients' scores prior to (mean value 8.06 ± 1.3 NVS units), the morning after (mean value 3.11 ± 1.2 NVS units), at 12 (mean value 1.67 ± 1.5 NVS units), and 24 months after vertebroplasty (mean value 1.67 ± 1.5 NVS units) treatment, patients presented a mean decrease of 6.39 ± 1.6 NVS units on terms of life quality improvement and pain relief (P = 0.000). Overall mobility improved in 18/18 (100%) patients. No complications were observed. During follow-up period (mean value 17.66 months), all patients underwent a mean of 1.3 sessions for facet joint and nerve root infiltrations. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the inner arch seems to be an effective technique for supporting adult degenerative scoliotic spine. PMID:24260742

  20. Quantile-based classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, C.; Viroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    Classification with small samples of high-dimensional data is important in many application areas. Quantile classifiers are distance-based classifiers that require a single parameter, regardless of the dimension, and classify observations according to a sum of weighted componentwise distances of the components of an observation to the within-class quantiles. An optimal percentage for the quantiles can be chosen by minimizing the misclassification error in the training sample. It is shown that this choice is consistent for the classification rule with the asymptotically optimal quantile and that under some assumptions, as the number of variables goes to infinity, the probability of correct classification converges to unity. The effect of skewness of the distributions of the predictor variables is discussed. The optimal quantile classifier gives low misclassification rates in a comprehensive simulation study and in a real-data application. PMID:27279668

  1. Dynamic system classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpe, Daniel; Greiner, Maksim; Müller, Ewald; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic differential equations describe well many physical, biological, and sociological systems, despite the simplification often made in their derivation. Here the usage of simple stochastic differential equations to characterize and classify complex dynamical systems is proposed within a Bayesian framework. To this end, we develop a dynamic system classifier (DSC). The DSC first abstracts training data of a system in terms of time-dependent coefficients of the descriptive stochastic differential equation. Thereby the DSC identifies unique correlation structures within the training data. For definiteness we restrict the presentation of the DSC to oscillation processes with a time-dependent frequency ω (t ) and damping factor γ (t ) . Although real systems might be more complex, this simple oscillator captures many characteristic features. The ω and γ time lines represent the abstract system characterization and permit the construction of efficient signal classifiers. Numerical experiments show that such classifiers perform well even in the low signal-to-noise regime.

  2. Operative Management of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Chao; Zotti, Mario Giuseppe Tedesco; Osti, Orso Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease is extremely common. Current evidence supports surgery in carefully selected patients who have failed non-operative treatment and do not exhibit any substantial psychosocial overlay. Fusion surgery employing the correct grafting and stabilization techniques has long-term results demonstrating successful clinical outcomes. However, the best approach for fusion remains debatable. There is some evidence supporting the more complex, technically demanding and higher risk interbody fusion techniques for the younger, active patients or patients with a higher risk of non-union. Lumbar disc arthroplasty and hybrid techniques are still relatively novel procedures despite promising short-term and mid-term outcomes. Long-term studies demonstrating superiority over fusion are required before these techniques may be recommended to replace fusion as the gold standard. Novel stem cell approaches combined with tissue engineering therapies continue to be developed in expectation of improving clinical outcomes. Results with appropriate follow-up are not yet available to indicate if such techniques are safe, cost-effective and reliable in the long-term. PMID:27559465

  3. Operative Management of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Chao; Osti, Orso Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease is extremely common. Current evidence supports surgery in carefully selected patients who have failed non-operative treatment and do not exhibit any substantial psychosocial overlay. Fusion surgery employing the correct grafting and stabilization techniques has long-term results demonstrating successful clinical outcomes. However, the best approach for fusion remains debatable. There is some evidence supporting the more complex, technically demanding and higher risk interbody fusion techniques for the younger, active patients or patients with a higher risk of non-union. Lumbar disc arthroplasty and hybrid techniques are still relatively novel procedures despite promising short-term and mid-term outcomes. Long-term studies demonstrating superiority over fusion are required before these techniques may be recommended to replace fusion as the gold standard. Novel stem cell approaches combined with tissue engineering therapies continue to be developed in expectation of improving clinical outcomes. Results with appropriate follow-up are not yet available to indicate if such techniques are safe, cost-effective and reliable in the long-term. PMID:27559465

  4. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply. PMID:26959677

  5. Current Trends in the Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments in Degenerative Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruki; Cutler, Holt S; Guzman, Javier Z; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Bibliometric analysis. Objective To determine trends, frequency, and distribution of patient-reported outcome instruments (PROIs) in degenerative cervical spine surgery literature over the past decade. Methods A search was conducted via PubMed from 2004 to 2013 on five journals (The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, The Bone and Joint Journal, The Spine Journal, European Spine Journal, and Spine), which were chosen based on their impact factors and authors' consensus. All abstracts were screened and articles addressing degenerative cervical spine surgery using PROIs were included. Articles were then analyzed for publication date, study design, journal, level of evidence, and PROI trends. Prevalence of PROIs and level of evidence of included articles were analyzed. Results From 19,736 articles published, 241 articles fulfilled our study criteria. Overall, 53 distinct PROIs appeared. The top seven most frequently used PROIs were: Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (104 studies), visual analog scale for pain (100), Neck Disability Index (72), Short Form-36 (38), Nurick score (25), Odom criteria (21), and Oswestry Disability Index (15). Only 11 PROIs were used in 5 or more articles. Thirty-three of the PROIs were appeared in only 1 article. Among the included articles, 16% were of level 1 evidence and 32% were of level 4 evidence. Conclusion Numerous PROIs are currently used in degenerative cervical spine surgery. A consensus on which instruments to use for a given diagnosis or procedure is lacking and may be necessary for better communication and comparison, as well as for the accumulation and analysis of vast clinical data across multiple studies. PMID:27099815

  6. Current Trends in the Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments in Degenerative Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Haruki; Cutler, Holt S.; Guzman, Javier Z.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Bibliometric analysis. Objective To determine trends, frequency, and distribution of patient-reported outcome instruments (PROIs) in degenerative cervical spine surgery literature over the past decade. Methods A search was conducted via PubMed from 2004 to 2013 on five journals (The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, The Bone and Joint Journal, The Spine Journal, European Spine Journal, and Spine), which were chosen based on their impact factors and authors' consensus. All abstracts were screened and articles addressing degenerative cervical spine surgery using PROIs were included. Articles were then analyzed for publication date, study design, journal, level of evidence, and PROI trends. Prevalence of PROIs and level of evidence of included articles were analyzed. Results From 19,736 articles published, 241 articles fulfilled our study criteria. Overall, 53 distinct PROIs appeared. The top seven most frequently used PROIs were: Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (104 studies), visual analog scale for pain (100), Neck Disability Index (72), Short Form-36 (38), Nurick score (25), Odom criteria (21), and Oswestry Disability Index (15). Only 11 PROIs were used in 5 or more articles. Thirty-three of the PROIs were appeared in only 1 article. Among the included articles, 16% were of level 1 evidence and 32% were of level 4 evidence. Conclusion Numerous PROIs are currently used in degenerative cervical spine surgery. A consensus on which instruments to use for a given diagnosis or procedure is lacking and may be necessary for better communication and comparison, as well as for the accumulation and analysis of vast clinical data across multiple studies. PMID:27099815

  7. Arthritis at the shoulder joint.

    PubMed

    Sankaye, Prashant; Ostlere, Simon

    2015-07-01

    The shoulder is a complex joint with numerous structures contributing to mobility and stability. Shoulder pain is a common clinical complaint that may be due to a wide spectrum of disorders including rotator cuff disease, instability, and arthropathy. Primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is uncommon because it is a non-weight-bearing joint. Significant osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint is unusual in the absence of trauma, and the detection of advanced degenerative changes in patients without a known history of trauma should alert the clinician to search for other disorders. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and key imaging findings of the common categories of the arthritis affecting the glenohumeral joint. PMID:26021591

  8. Classifying Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…

  9. Number in Classifier Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Classifier languages are often described as lacking genuine number morphology and treating all common nouns, including those conceptually count, as an unindividuated mass. This study argues that neither of these popular assumptions is true, and presents new generalizations and analyses gained by abandoning them. I claim that no difference exists…

  10. Classifying Cereal Data

    Cancer.gov

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  11. Contribution of Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation to Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Maria H.; Boia, Raquel; Santos, Paulo F.; Ambrósio, António F.; Santiago, Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide and are characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation. There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process. A better understanding of the events elicited and mediated by retinal microglia will contribute to the clarification of disease etiology and might open new avenues for potential therapeutic interventions. This review aims at giving an overview of the roles of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in major retinal degenerative diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25873768

  12. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and its imposters: three case studies

    PubMed Central

    Ammendolia, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis causing neurogenic claudicaton is a common condition impacting walking ability in older adults. There are other highly prevalent conditions in this patient population that have similar signs and symptoms and cause limited walking ability. The purpose of this study is to highlight the diagnostic challenges using three case studies of older adults who present with limited walking ability who have imaging evidence of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:25202160

  13. Orthopedic Health: Healthy Joints for a Lifetime / Keep Your Moving Parts Moving

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes. The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis. It is seen especially among older people and is sometimes called degenerative joint disease. In osteoarthritis, the surface layer of cartilage (the hard but ...

  14. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  15. Who should have surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam M.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Abdu, William A.; Weinstein, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Combined prospective randomized controlled trial and observational cohort study of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) with an as-treated analysis. Objective To determine modifiers of the treatment effect (TE) of surgery (the difference between surgical and nonoperative outcomes) for DS using subgroup analysis. Summary of Background Data SPORT demonstrated a positive surgical TE for DS at the group level. However, individual characteristics may affect TE. Methods DS patients were treated with either surgery (n=395) or nonoperative care (n=206) and were analyzed according to treatment received. Fifty-five baseline variables were used to define subgroups for calculating the time-weighted average TE for the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) over 4 years (TE=ΔODIsurgery-ΔODInonoperative). Variables with significant subgroup-by-treatment interactions (p<0.05) were simultaneously entered into a multivariate model to select independent TE predictors. Results All analyzed subgroups that included at least 50 patients improved significantly more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment (p<0.05). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that age ≤ 67 (TE −15.7 vs. −11.8 for age>67, p=0.014); female gender (TE −15.6 vs. −11.2 for males, p=0.01); the absence of stomach problems (TE −15.2 vs. −11.3 for those with stomach problems, p=0.035); neurogenic claudication (TE −15.3 vs. −9.0 for those without claudication, p=0.004); reflex asymmetry (TE −17.3 vs. −13.0 for those without asymmetry, p=0.016); opioid use (TE −18.4 vs. −11.7 for those not using opioids, p<0.001); not taking antidepressants (TE −14.5 vs. −5.4 for those on antidepressants, p=0.014); dissatisfaction with symptoms (TE −14.5 vs. −8.3 for those satisfied or neutral, p=0.039); and anticipating a high likelihood of improvement with surgery (TE −14.8 vs. −5.1 for anticipating a low likelihood of improvement with surgery, p=0.019) were independently associated with

  16. Radiologically defined osteoarthrosis in the finger joints of adult residents of Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Cvijetić, S; Dekanić, D; Kurtagić, N; Roić, G

    1994-09-01

    Degenerative changes in the finger joints were studied in 550 Zagreb inhabitants, above the age of 45. The sample was selected by the method of unproportional stratified choice according to age and sex. Radiographs of both hands were taken and osteoarthrosis on the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints was graded according to the five-point Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Body weight, height and arterial blood pressure were measured and occupational work load was evaluated. The prevalence of osteoarthrosis in the finger joints was significantly higher in women (40.9%) than in men (24.8%). It increased with age so that 18.7% of men and 15.0% of women aged 45-54 had finger osteoarthrosis compared to 36.3% of men and 68.2% of women aged 75 and older. Distal interphalangeal joints were more often involved (22.8% of men and 37.9% of women) than the proximal ones (9.7% of men and 19.6% of women). The factors most closely associated with osteoarthrosis were age and body weight. Occupational work load, as classified in this study, was not significantly related to the development of osteoarthrosis, except in the group of housewives, in whom the prevalence of finger arthrosis was greater than in the other groups of women. PMID:7763184

  17. Spinal Deformity in Aged Zebrafish Is Accompanied by Degenerative Changes to Their Vertebrae that Resemble Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Anthony J.; Reynolds, Scott; Nowell, Mari A.; Meakin, Lee B.; Habicher, Judith; Ledin, Johan; Bashford, Andrew; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes) within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking age-related changes in cell morphology, suggestive of chondroptosis, and tissue remodelling of the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. Glycosaminoglycan analysis of the vertebral column by HPLC demonstrates a consistent, age-related increase in the yield of total chondroitin sulfate disaccharide, but no change in sulfation pattern, supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry strongly identifies all three chondroitin/dermatan sulphate isoforms (C-0-S, C-4-S/DS and C-6-S) within the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. In contrast, keratan sulfate immunolocalises specifically with the notochordal tissue of the intervertebral disc, and its

  18. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  19. The degenerative spine: pattern recognition and guidelines to image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Parizel, P M; Van Hoyweghen, A J L; Bali, A; Van Goethem, J; Van Den Hauwe, L

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the spine, in the form of intervertebral disc degeneration and bony growth, causing osteophytes and impinging upon the spinal canal and neural foramina, is the most frequent disorder affecting the spine. In this chapter we first discuss briefly the indications for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in suspected degenerative spine disease. We then describe changes of disc height, signal intensity, and disc contour with aging and repeated microtrauma, as well as the imaging techniques most appropriate to image them. A grading system for lumbar disc changes is provided. Stenosis of the canal and neural foramina is reviewed next, concluding with a description of degenerative changes affecting the vertebral endplates and bone marrow. PMID:27430442

  20. Connecting Malfunctioning Glial Cells and Brain Degenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Natalie; Bihari, Ofer; Kanner, Sivan; Barzilai, Ari

    2016-06-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex biological system activated by different types of DNA damage. Mutations in certain components of the DDR machinery can lead to genomic instability disorders that culminate in tissue degeneration, premature aging, and various types of cancers. Intriguingly, malfunctioning DDR plays a role in the etiology of late onset brain degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. For many years, brain degenerative disorders were thought to result from aberrant neural death. Here we discuss the evidence that supports our novel hypothesis that brain degenerative diseases involve dysfunction of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes). Impairment in the functionality of glial cells results in pathological neuro-glial interactions that, in turn, generate a "hostile" environment that impairs the functionality of neuronal cells. These events can lead to systematic neural demise on a scale that appears to be proportional to the severity of the neurological deficit. PMID:27245308

  1. Stack filter classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  2. Transionospheric chirp event classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Freeman, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we will discuss a project designed to provide computer recognition of the transionospheric chirps/pulses measured by the Blackbeard (BB) satellite, and expected to be measured by the upcoming FORTE satellite. The Blackbeard data has been perused by human means -- this has been satisfactory for the relatively small amount of data taken by Blackbeard. But with the advent of the FORTE system, which by some accounts might ``see`` thousands of events per day, it is important to provide a software/hardware method of accurately analyzing the data. In fact, we are providing an onboard DSP system for FORTE, which will test the usefulness of our Event Classifier techniques in situ. At present we are constrained to work with data from the Blackbeard satellite, and will discuss the progress made to date.

  3. “Slalom”: Microsurgical Cross-Over Decompression for Multilevel Degenerative Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Selective, bilateral multisegmental microsurgical decompression of lumbar spinal canal stenosis through separate, alternating cross-over approaches. Indications. Two-segmental and multisegmental degenerative central and lateral lumbar spinal stenosis. Contraindications. None. Surgical Technique. Minimally invasive, muscle, and facet joint-sparing bilateral decompression of the lumbar spinal canal through 2 or more alternating microsurgical cross-over approaches from one side. Results. From December 2010 until December 2015 we operated on 202 patients with 2 or multisegmental stenosis (115 f; 87 m; average age 69.3 yrs, range 51–91 yrs). All patients were suffering from symptoms typical of a degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All patients complained about back pain; however the leg symptoms were dominant in all cases. Per decompressed segment, the average OR time was 36 min and the blood loss 45.7 cc. Patients were mobilized 6 hrs postop and hospitalization averaged 5.9 days. A total of 116/202 patients did not need submuscular drainage. 27/202 patients suffered from a complication (13.4%). Dural tears occurred in 3.5%, an epidural hematoma in 5.5%, a deep wound infection in 1.98%, and a temporary radiculopathy postop in 1.5%. Postop follow-up ranged from 12 to 24 months. There was a significant improvement of EQ 5 D, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), VAS for Back and Leg Pain, and preoperative standing times and walking distances. PMID:27504456

  4. Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    SUGAWARA, Taku

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is an established surgical intervention for cervical degenerative disease and high success rate with excellent long-term outcomes have been reported. However, indications of surgical procedures for certain conditions are still controversial and severe complications to cause neurological dysfunction or deaths may occur. This review is focused mainly on five widely performed procedures by anterior approach for cervical degenerative disease; anterior cervical discectomy, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, anterior cervical foraminotomy, and arthroplasty. Indications, procedures, outcomes, and complications of these surgeries are discussed. PMID:26119899

  5. Imaging Approach to Temporomandibular Joint Disorders.

    PubMed

    Morales, H; Cornelius, R

    2016-03-01

    Internal derangement is the most common temporomandibular joint disorder. Degenerative osteoarthritis and trauma are next in frequency. Less common pathology includes rheumatoid arthritis, synovial chondromatosis, calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate deposition disease, pigmented villonodular synovitis, tumors, infection, and osteonecrosis. We provide a systematic approach to facilitate interpretation based on major anatomic structures: disc-attachments, joint space, condyle, and lateral pterygoid muscle. Relevant graphic anatomy and state of the art imaging are discussed in correlation with current clinical and therapeutic highlights of pathologic entities affecting the joint. PMID:26374243

  6. Chronic sole ulcerations associated with degenerative bone disease in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Luikart, Kimberly A; Stover, Susan M

    2005-12-01

    Chronic foot lesions and degenerative joint disease are common causes of morbidity in elephants. Lesions may become intractable and progressive despite intensive treatment regimens. The forelimbs of two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with chronic nonhealing sole ulcerations were examined using manual dissection and computed tomography. Both elephants had abnormal limb conformation that preceded the development of sole ulcerations. In both cases, sole ulcers were associated with remodeling and degeneration of underlying bones of the digits. Conformational abnormalities and altered weight distribution in these individuals may have induced compensatory bony degeneration and secondary ulcer formation. Sole ulcerations associated with digital abnormalities may have a guarded prognosis for resolution, even with aggressive treatment. Because limb conformational abnormalities could predispose to or result from chronic digital lesions, elephants with conformational abnormalities may have increased likelihood of having chronic sole ulcerations. PMID:17312727

  7. Classifying partner femicide.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity of domestic violent men has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe form of domestic violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Ninety men who had been convicted and imprisoned for the murder of their female partner or spouse in England were identified from two prison samples. A content dictionary defining offense and offender characteristics associated with two dimensions of psychopathology and criminality was developed. These variables were extracted from institutional records via content analysis and analyzed for thematic structure using multidimensional scaling procedures. The resultant framework classified 80% (n = 72) of the sample into three subgroups of men characterized by (a) low criminality/low psychopathology (15%), (b) moderate-high criminality/ high psychopathology (36%), and (c) high criminality/low-moderate psychopathology (49%). The latter two groups are akin to Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) generally violent/antisocial and dysphoric/borderline offender, respectively. The implications for intervention, developing consensus in research methodology across the field, and examining typologies of domestic violent men prospectively are discussed. PMID:18087033

  8. Progressive Agraphia Can Be a Harbinger of Degenerative Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukui, Toshiya; Lee, Eiyai

    2008-01-01

    By investigating three patients with progressive agraphia, we explored the possibility that this entity is an early sign of degenerative dementia. Initially, these patients complained primarily of difficulties writing Kanji (Japanese morphograms) while other language and cognitive impairments were relatively milder. Impairments in writing Kana…

  9. Finnish Degenerative Meniscal Lesion Study (FIDELITY): a protocol for a randomised, placebo surgery controlled trial on the efficacy of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for patients with degenerative meniscus injury with a novel ‘RCT within-a-cohort’ study design

    PubMed Central

    Sihvonen, Raine; Paavola, Mika; Malmivaara, Antti; Järvinen, Teppo L N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) to treat degenerative meniscus injury is the most common orthopaedic procedure. However, valid evidence of the efficacy of APM is lacking. Controlling for the placebo effect of any medical intervention is important, but seems particularly pertinent for the assessment of APM, as the symptoms commonly attributed to a degenerative meniscal injury (medial joint line symptoms and perceived disability) are subjective and display considerable fluctuation, and accordingly difficult to gauge objectively. Methods and analysis A multicentre, parallel randomised, placebo surgery controlled trial is being carried out to assess the efficacy of APM for patients from 35 to 65 years of age with a degenerative meniscus injury. Patients with degenerative medial meniscus tear and medial joint line symptoms, without clinical or radiographic osteoarthritis of the index knee, were enrolled and then randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either APM or diagnostic arthroscopy (placebo surgery). Patients are followed up for 12 months. According to the prior power calculation, 140 patients were randomised. The two randomised patient groups will be compared at 12 months with intention-to-treat analysis. To safeguard against bias, patients, healthcare providers, data collectors, data analysts, outcome adjudicators and the researchers interpreting the findings will be blind to the patients’ interventions (APM/placebo). Primary outcomes are Lysholm knee score (a generic knee instrument), knee pain (using a numerical rating scale), and WOMET score (a disease-specific, health-related quality of life index). The secondary outcome is 15D (a generic quality of life instrument). Further, in one of the five centres recruiting patients for the randomised controlled trial (RCT), all patients scheduled for knee arthroscopy due to a degenerative meniscus injury are prospectively followed up using the same protocol as in the RCT to provide an external

  10. Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Amandeep; Naik, Shobha; Pai, Anuradha; Anuradha, Ardra

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT) in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease. PMID:25684928

  11. 78 FR 36305 - Proposed Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune, Crystalline and Infectious Arthritis) and Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... disability benefits related to a claimant's diagnosis of a non-degenerative arthritis or...

  12. 78 FR 65450 - Agency Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune, Crystalline and Infectious Arthritis) and Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... oira_submission@omb.eop.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900- NEW (Non-Degenerative...

  13. Polynomial distance classifier correlation filter for pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Alkanhal, Mohamed; Vijaya Kumar, B V K

    2003-08-10

    We introduce what is to our knowledge a new nonlinear shift-invariant classifier called the polynomial distance classifier correlation filter (PDCCF). The underlying theory extends the original linear distance classifier correlation filter [Appl. Opt. 35, 3127 (1996)] to include nonlinear functions of the input pattern. This new filter provides a framework (for combining different classification filters) that takes advantage of the individual filter strengths. In this new filter design, all filters are optimized jointly. We demonstrate the advantage of the new PDCCF method using simulated and real multi-class synthetic aperture radar images. PMID:13678355

  14. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Immune Mechanisms in Inflammatory and Degenerative Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Victor L.; Caspi, Rachel R.

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that pathology of age-associated degenerative eye diseases such as adult macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, have strong immunological underpinnings. Attempts have been made to extrapolate to age-related degenerative disease insights from inflammatory processes associated with non-infectious uveitis, but these have not yet been sufficiently informative. Here we review recent findings on the immune processes underlying uveitis and those that have been shown to contribute to AMD, discussing in this context parallels and differences between overt inflammation and para-inflammation in the eye. We propose that mechanisms associated with ocular immune privilege, in combination with paucity of age-related antigen(s) within the target tissue, dampen what could otherwise be overt inflammation and result in the para-inflammation that characterizes age-associated neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25981967

  16. Nanoneuromedicines for Degenerative, Inflammatory, and Infectious Nervous System Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gendelman, Howard E.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Bronich, Tatiana; Ghaisas, Shivani; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Liu, Xinming; McMillan, JoEllyn; Mosley, R. Lee; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in nanoneuromedicine has grown rapidly due to the immediate need for improved biomarkers and therapies for psychiatric, developmental, traumatic, inflammatory, infectious and degenerative nervous system disorders. These, in whole or in part, are a significant societal burden due to growth in numbers of affected people and in disease severity. Lost productivity of the patient and his or her caregiver, and the emotional and financial burden cannot be overstated. The need for improved health care, treatment and diagnostics are immediate. A means to such an end is nanotechnology. Indeed, recent developments of health-care enabling nanotechnologies and nanomedicines range from biomarker discovery including neuroimaging to therapeutic applications for degenerative, inflammatory and infectious disorders of the nervous system. This review focuses on the current and future potential of the field to positively affect clinical outcomes. PMID:25645958

  17. Congenitally corrected transposition and degenerative severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Faganello, Giorgio; Nelson, Martin; Stuart, Graham

    2008-10-01

    Congenitally corrected transposition is a rare cardiac anomaly characterized by the combination of discordant atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections. Young patients with this lesion can present with congestive cardiac failure, usually secondary to a large ventricular septal defect or pulmonary stenosis. We report here our experience with a lady aged 79, admitted to our unit because of deterioration of her congestive cardiac failure as a consequence of uncorrected congenitally corrected transposition associated with degenerative severe aortic stenosis. PMID:18752714

  18. Copeptin constitutes a novel biomarker of degenerative aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Lasota, Bartosz; Mizia, Magdalena; Chmiel, Artur; Adamczyk, Tomasz; Chudek, Jerzy; Gasior, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    Copeptin is a new biomarker of cardiovascular diseases. Its diagnostic value in degenerative aortic valve stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricle systolic function is unknown. We aimed to assess the association of serum copeptin levels with AS severity and coexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Sixty-four patients with AS and preserved left ventricle systolic function including 40 with severe degenerative AS (group sAS, effective orifice area EOA = 0.67 cm(2)) and 24 with moderate degenerative AS (group mAS, EOA = 1.40 cm(2)) were enrolled into the study. Twenty-three patients without AS and heart failure, matched for age, sex, and CAD occurrence served as the control group (group C). Serum levels of copeptin and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean serum copeptin concentrations were significantly higher in patients with AS: sAS (405 pg/ml) and mAS (351 pg/ml; sAS vs mAS P < 0.05), compared with group C (302 pg/ml, P < 0.05). Serum copeptin levels correlated inversely with EOA (r = -0.55; P < 0.001) in AS patients. There was no correlation between copeptin and NT-proBNP or association with the coexisting CAD. Receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed that copeptin was a good marker of severe/moderate AS (sensitivity 71 %; specificity 87 %), with the optimized cut-off value of 354 pg/ml. Serum copeptin concentration constitutes a novel biomarker of degenerative AS. Coexisting CAD does not interfere with copeptin level. PMID:23142954

  19. Decompression without Fusion for Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective series. Purpose Assess results of decompression-only surgery for low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with consideration of instability. Overview of Literature There is no consensus on whether fusion or decompression-only surgery leads to better outcomes for patients with low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis. Current trends support fusion but many studies are flawed due to over-generalization without consideration of radiological instability and their variable presentations and natural history. Methods Patients with surgically treated degenerative spondylolisthesis from 1990–2013 were included. Clinical and radiological instability measures were included. Any residual or recurrence of symptoms, revision surgery performed and functional outcome scores including the numerical global rate of change scale, visual analogue scale, and modified Barthel index were measured. Follow-up periods for patients were divided into short-term (<5 years), mid-term (5–10 years) and long-term (>10 years). Results A total of 64 patients were recruited. Mechanical low back pain was noted in 48 patients and most (85.4%) had relief of back pain postoperatively. Radiological instability was noted in 4 subjects by flexion-extension radiographs and 12 subjects with prone traction radiographs by increased disc height and reduction of olisthesis and slip angle. From the results of the short-term, mid-term and long-term follow-up, reoperation only occurred within the first 5-year follow-up period. All functional scores improved from preoperative to postoperative 1-year follow-up. Conclusions Decompression-only for low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis has good long-term results despite instability. Further higher-level studies should be performed on this patient group with radiological instability to suggest the superior surgical option. PMID:26949462

  20. Degenerative myelopathy in 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs.

    PubMed

    March, P A; Coates, J R; Abyad, R J; Williams, D A; O'Brien, D P; Olby, N J; Keating, J H; Oglesbee, M

    2009-03-01

    Postmortem examination was performed on 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs (mean age 12.7 years) with clinical signs and antemortem diagnostic tests compatible with a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy. Tissue sections from specific spinal cord and brain regions were systematically evaluated in all dogs. Axonal degeneration and loss were graded according to severity and subsequently compared across different spinal cord segments and funiculi. White matter lesions were identified in defined regions of the dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi. The dorsolateral portion of the lateral funiculus was the most severely affected region in all cord segments. Spinal cord segment T12 exhibited the most severe axonal loss. Spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and brain sections were within normal limits, with the exception of areas of mild astrogliosis in gray matter of the caudal medulla. Dogs with more severe lesions showed significant progression of axonal degeneration and loss at T12 and at cord segments cranial and caudal to T12. Severity of axonal loss in individual dogs positively correlated with the duration of clinical signs. The distribution of axonal degeneration resembled that reported in German Shepherd Dog degenerative myelopathy but differed with respect to the transverse and longitudinal extent of the lesions within more clearly defined funicular areas. Although these lesion differences might reflect disease longevity, they could also indicate a form of degenerative myelopathy unique to the Pembroke Welsh Corgi dog. PMID:19261635

  1. Feature Selection and Effective Classifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deogun, Jitender S.; Choubey, Suresh K.; Raghavan, Vijay V.; Sever, Hayri

    1998-01-01

    Develops and analyzes four algorithms for feature selection in the context of rough set methodology. Experimental results confirm the expected relationship between the time complexity of these algorithms and the classification accuracy of the resulting upper classifiers. When compared, results of upper classifiers perform better than lower…

  2. [Arthrosonography as a method to assess the degenerative and inflammatory components of knee osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Krasivina, I G; Dolgova, L N; Sencha, A N; Beliaev, D V; Lavrukhina, A A

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the knee joints was performed in 254 patients with Kellgren-Lawrence I to III stage osteoarthrosis using Aloha Pro Sound 5500 device (Japan) and Philips Envision device with 7.5 to 12 MHz linear sensors. Bone contours, the height of the cartilage, the degree of the marginal osteophytosis, the structure of periarticular formations--the bursae, the tendons and their vaginas--as well as the presence and the quantity of articular excaudate, the thickness and changes in the synovian membrane, were evaluated. The degree of marginal osteophytosis detected by ultrasonography in manifest osteoarthrosis was in a direct correlation with the radiological picture. A decrease in cartilage height is an ultrasonographic sign of osteoarthrosis, while detailed evaluation of the stage of the degenerative process using ultrasonography should be based upon the revealing and evaluation of osteophytosis. An increase in the thickness of the knee joint synovian membrane by more than 2 mm according to ultrasound examination in case of prolonged secondary synoviitis evidences both the presence of an inflammatory process and the length of the osteoarthritic disease. PMID:18318167

  3. Early onset degenerative dementias: demographic characteristics and etiologic classification in a tertiary referral center.

    PubMed

    Maiovis, Pantelis; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Konstantinopoulou, Elina; Karacostas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Early onset dementia (EOD) is a major diagnostic challenge as it often presents with atypical features and may be attributed to treatable diseases. Primary degenerative dementias (Alzheimer's disease-AD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-FTLD, Lewy body dementia-LBD), although traditionally considered to affect older people, are still a main cause of EOD. 491 demented patients were assessed from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2010 in the Neurology Department of a tertiary referral center. Patients were classified as AD, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), non-fluent agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia (naPPA), semantic variant PPA (svPPA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) who also met criteria for naPPA and LBD. Finally, their demographic characteristics were analysed, according to age at onset (EOD <65 years, late onset dementia-LOD ≥65 years). From the 491 patients, 137 (27.9 %) were EOD. In the EOD group, 52 (38 %) were diagnosed with bvFTD, 34 (24.8 %) with AD, 27 (19.7 %) with naPPA, 10 (7.2 %) with svPPA, 12 (8.8 %) with CBD or PSP, and 2 (1.5 %) with LBD. Demographic characteristics did not differ significantly among diagnostic categories in the EOD group, while in the LOD group FTLD patients were younger and more frequently men compared to both AD and LBD patients. EOD patients had more years of education than LOD patients. Degenerative disorders as causes of EOD are not rare. High clinical alertness is warranted to achieve correct and timely diagnosis. PMID:24878660

  4. Classifying Chondrules Based on Cathodoluminesence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristarela, T. C.; Sears, D. W.

    2011-03-01

    Sears et al. (1991) proposed a scheme to classify chondrules based on cathodoluminesence color and electron microprobe analysis. This research evaluates that scheme and criticisms received from Grossman and Brearley (2005).

  5. MicroRNA Expression Signature in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis, characterized by narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, has become the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) signature in degenerative AS. Through microarray analysis, we identified the miRNA expression signature in the tissue samples from healthy individuals (n = 4) and patients with degenerative AS (n = 4). Six miRNAs (hsa-miR-193a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, hsa-miR-505-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-99b-3p, and hsa-miR-200b-3p) were overexpressed and 14 (hsa-miR-3663-3p, hsa-miR-513a-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-1972, hsa-miR-718, hsa-miR-3138, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-575, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-636, hsa-miR-34a-3p, hsa-miR-21-3p, and hsa-miR-516a-5p) were downregulated in aortic tissue from AS patients. GeneSpring 13.1 was used to identify potential human miRNA target genes by comparing a 3-way comparison of predictions from TargetScan, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with AS. Twenty miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between patients with AS samples and normal controls and identified potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways associated with this morbidity. This study describes the miRNA expression signature in degenerative AS and provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathobiology of this disease. PMID:27579316

  6. Health assessment of environmental pollutants; Proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O. )

    1987-01-01

    The health assessments of environmental air contaminants are at present frequently based upon probability of cancer, if this has been identified as a potential result of prolonged exposure to the particular inhalation hazard. However, for many airborne hazards chronic inhalation exposure may result in morbidity or mortality risks due to chronic degenerative diseases such as emphysema, fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that may be nearly as great or greater than those of more widely recognized neoplastic or proliferative disease. The relative hazards of environmentally released radioactive and chemical air contaminants, i.e., radon daughters and diesel engine exhaust, are discussed as examples.

  7. Revisiting the Term Neuroprotection in Chronic and Degenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Marco; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Matta, Andre P C; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Moreira, Rayele; Ribeiro, Pedro; Fiorelli, Stenio; Novellino, Pietro; Pessoa, Bruno; Cunha, Mariana; Pupe, Camila; Morales, Pedro S; Filho, Pedro F Moreira; Trajano, Eduardo Lima; Oliveira, Acary Bulle

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the development of several new researches, the lifetime presented a significant increase, even so, we still have many obstacles to overcome - among them, manage and get responses regarding neurodegenerative diseases. Where we are in the understanding of neuroprotection? Do we really have protective therapies for diseases considered degeneratives such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and its variants, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and many others? Neuroprotection is defined by many researches as interactions and interventions that can slow down or even inhibit the progression of neuronal degeneration process. We make some considerations on this neuroprotective effect. PMID:27127599

  8. Revisiting the Term Neuroprotection in Chronic and Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Matta, Andre P.C.; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Moreira, Rayele; Ribeiro, Pedro; Fiorelli, Stenio; Novellino, Pietro; Pessoa, Bruno; Cunha, Mariana; Pupe, Camila; Morales, Pedro S.; Filho, Pedro F. Moreira; Trajano, Eduardo Lima; Oliveira, Acary Bulle

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the development of several new researches, the lifetime presented a significant increase, even so, we still have many obstacles to overcome – among them, manage and get responses regarding neurodegenerative diseases. Where we are in the understanding of neuroprotection? Do we really have protective therapies for diseases considered degeneratives such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and its variants, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and many others? Neuroprotection is defined by many researches as interactions and interventions that can slow down or even inhibit the progression of neuronal degeneration process. We make some considerations on this neuroprotective effect. PMID:27127599

  9. MicroRNA Expression Signature in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hui; Kong, Xiangqing

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis, characterized by narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, has become the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) signature in degenerative AS. Through microarray analysis, we identified the miRNA expression signature in the tissue samples from healthy individuals (n = 4) and patients with degenerative AS (n = 4). Six miRNAs (hsa-miR-193a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, hsa-miR-505-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-99b-3p, and hsa-miR-200b-3p) were overexpressed and 14 (hsa-miR-3663-3p, hsa-miR-513a-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-1972, hsa-miR-718, hsa-miR-3138, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-575, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-636, hsa-miR-34a-3p, hsa-miR-21-3p, and hsa-miR-516a-5p) were downregulated in aortic tissue from AS patients. GeneSpring 13.1 was used to identify potential human miRNA target genes by comparing a 3-way comparison of predictions from TargetScan, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with AS. Twenty miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between patients with AS samples and normal controls and identified potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways associated with this morbidity. This study describes the miRNA expression signature in degenerative AS and provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathobiology of this disease. PMID:27579316

  10. Degenerative Pathways of Lumbar Motion Segments - A Comparison in Two Samples of Patients with Persistent Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Rikke K.; Kjaer, Per; Jensen, Tue S.; Albert, Hanne; Kent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to identify spinal pathoanatomy in people with persistent low back pain. However, the clinical relevance of spinal degenerative MRI findings remains uncertain. Although multiple MRI findings are almost always present at the same time, research into the association with clinical outcomes (such as pain) has predominantly focused on individual MRI findings. This study aimed to: (i) investigate how multiple MRI lumbar spine findings cluster together within two different samples of patients with low back pain, (ii) classify these clusters into hypothetical pathways of degeneration based on scientific knowledge of disco-vertebral degeneration, and (iii) compare these clusters and degenerative pathways between samples. Methods We performed a secondary cross-sectional analysis on two dissimilar MRI samples collected in a hospital department: (1) data from the spinal MRI reports of 4,162 low back pain patients and (2) data from an MRI research protocol of 631 low back pain patients. Latent Class Analysis was used in both samples to cluster MRI findings from lumbar motion segments. Using content analysis, each cluster was then categorised into hypothetical pathways of degeneration. Results Six clusters of MRI findings were identified in each of the two samples. The content of the clusters in the two samples displayed some differences but had the same overall pattern of MRI findings. Although the hypothetical degenerative pathways identified in the two samples were not identical, the overall pattern of increasing degeneration within the pathways was the same. Conclusions It was expected that different clusters could emerge from different samples, however, when organised into hypothetical pathways of degeneration, the overall pattern of increasing degeneration was similar and biologically plausible. This evidence of reproducibility suggests that Latent Class Analysis may provide a new approach to investigating the

  11. Age-Related Degenerative Functional, Radiographic, and Histological Changes of the Shoulder in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Plate, Johannes F.; Bates, Christopher M.; Mannava, Sandeep; Smith, Thomas L.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Register, Thomas C.; Stehle, John R.; High, Kevin P.; Shively, Carol A.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Saul, Katherine R.; Tuohy, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-human primates have similar shoulder anatomy and physiology compared to humans and may represent a previously underutilized model for shoulder research. This study sought to identify naturally occurring bony and muscular degeneration in the shoulder of non-human primates and to assess relationships between structural and functional aspects of the shoulder and measures of physical function of the animals. We hypothesized that age-related degenerative changes in the shoulders of non-human primates would resemble those observed in aging humans. Methods Middle-aged (n=5, ages 9.4 to 11.8 years) and elderly (n=6, ages 19.8 to 26.4 years) female vervet monkeys were studied for changes in mobility and shoulder function, and radiographic and histologic signs of age-related degeneration. Results Four out of six (4/6) elderly animals had degenerative changes of the glenoid compared to 0/5 of the middle-aged animals (p=0.005). Elderly animals had glenoid retroversion, decreased joint space, walked slower and spent less time climbing and hanging than middle-aged vervets (p<0.05). Physical mobility and shoulder function correlated with glenoid version angle (p<0.05). Supraspinatus muscles of elderly animals were less dense (p=0.001), had decreased fiber cross-sectional area (p<0.001), but similar amounts of nuclear material (p=0.085). Degenerative rotator cuff tears were not observed in any of the eleven animals. Discussion and Conclusion The vervet monkey naturally undergoes age-related functional, radiographic and histological changes of the shoulder and may qualify as an animal model for selected translational research of shoulder osteoarthritis. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, in-vivo Animal Model PMID:23352182

  12. Fellowship and Practice Composition Affect Surgical Decision Making in Patients with Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: Spinal Deformity versus Degenerative Spinal Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Patel, Ashish; Yoo, Andrew; Lonner, Baron

    2015-01-01

    Background For the Adult Degenerative Scoliosis (ADS) patient with radiculopathy, there is no clear data in the literature to guide the spine surgeon's decision making in choosing between limited decompression alone, short segment fusion, or longer arthrodesis of the deformity. This study investigates the differences in operative planning, for patients with ADS and radiculopathy, between two groups of spine surgeons based on fellowship experience and practice composition. Methods Six Degenerative Spine surgeons (Group 1) and 6 Spinal Deformity surgeons (Group 2) were shown 7 cases of patients with ADS and radiculopathy. Surgeons completed a questionnaire detailing their planned operative intervention including the number of fusion levels, if any, approach, choice of bone graft, and interbody device. Pearson Correlation was used to investigate the association between fellowship training, practice composition, number of levels fused, and other variables. Intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis was used to investigate the internal consistency among the groups. Results There was a direct correlation between fellowship deformity experience and practice composition (r=0.75, p<0.01), and between deformity practice composition and the number of planned fusion levels (r=0.90, p<0.001). Group 1 surgeons fused a mean 3.7 vertebral levels (range 0-6.7), while Group 2 surgeons fused a mean 10.8 levels (range 4-16.5). Group 2 surgeons fused a significantly greater number of levels for each case than degenerative surgeons on paired student t-test (p=0.002). Group 1 surgeons chose decompression alone more commonly than deformity surgeons (p<0.05). Group 2 surgeons had significantly higher group consistency by ICC analysis (p=0.004). Conclusions Fellowship and practice composition influence the physician's surgical planning in ADS. There is a lack of standardized treatment paradigms for the management of radiculopathy in patients with ADS. PMID:26114090

  13. Analysis of surgeries for Degenerative lumbarstenosis in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bin; Li, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of decompression alone and combined decompression, fusion and internal fixation procedure for degenerative lumbar stenosis in elderly patients. Methods: We reviewed 168 lumbar stenosis patients treated using decompression alone or with combined procedures in the department of orthopaedics of Tianjin 4th Centre Hospital from October 2010 to January 2014. The clinical data including age, gender, procedure type, operation time, follow-up period, blood loss, preoperative and postoperative JOA and ODI scores were recorded. The patients were divided into decompression alone group and combined surgeries group according to the procedure type. Results: The combined surgeries group presented with larger blood loss (p<0.05) and more operation time (p<0.05), compared with the group of decompression alone. The preoperative and postoperative JOA scores were significantly higher (p<0.05), and the ODI scores significantly lower in the decompression alone group (P<0.05), but at the final follow-up, there were no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The complication rate was lower in the group of decompression alone, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Both the decompression alone and combined surgeries can result in a satisfactory effects in elderly patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, but the combined surgeries presented with a relatively higher complication rate. PMID:27022361

  14. Role of Oxidative RNA Damage in Chronic-Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Normal cellular metabolism and exposure to ionizing and ultraviolet radiations and exogenous agents produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Due to their reactivity, they can interact with many critical biomolecules and induce cell damage. The reaction of ROS with free nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, or oligonucleotides can generate numerous distinct modifications in nucleic acids. Oxidative damage to DNA has been widely investigated and is strongly implicated in the development of many chronic-degenerative diseases. In contrast, RNA damage is a poorly examined field in biomedical research. In this review, I discuss the importance of RNA as a target of oxidative damage and the role of oxidative damage to RNA in the pathogenesis of some chronic-degenerative diseases, such as neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Furthermore, I review recent evidence suggesting that RNA may be the target for toxic agents and indicating RNA degradation as a powerful tool to treat any pathology in which there is an aberrant expression of mRNA and/or its gene products. PMID:26078805

  15. Retrolisthesis as a Compensatory Mechanism in Degenerative Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ikchan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posterior vertebral translation as a type of spondylolisthesis, retrolisthesis is observed commonly in patients with degenerative spinal problems. Nevertheless, there is insufficient literature on retrolisthesis compared to anterolisthesis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the clinical features of retrolisthesis, and its developmental mechanism associated with a compensatory role in sagittal imbalance of the lumbar spine. Methods From 2003 to 2012, 230 Korean patients who underwent spinal surgery in our department under the impression of degenerative lumbar spinal disease were enrolled. All participants were divided into four groups : 35 patients with retrolisthesis (group R), 32 patients with simultaneous retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis (group R+A), 76 patients with anterolisthesis (group A), and 87 patients with non-translation (group N). The clinical features and the sagittal parameters related to retrolisthesis were retrospectively analyzed based on the patients' medical records. Results There were different clinical features and developmental mechanisms between retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis. The location of retrolisthesis was affected by the presence of simultaneous anterolisthesis, even though it predominantly manifest in L3. The relative lower pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and lumbar lordosis compared to anterolisthesis were related to the generation of retrolisthesis, with the opposite observations of patients with anterolisthesis. Conclusion Retrolisthesis acts as a compensatory mechanism for moving the gravity axis posteriorly for sagittal imbalance in the lumbar spine under low pelvic incidence and insufficient intra-spinal compensation. PMID:25810857

  16. Total Disc Arthroplasty for Treating Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Lumber disc arthroplasty is a technological advancement that has occurred in the last decade to treat lumbar degenerative disk diseases. Purpose The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the impact and outcomes of managing patients with lumbar degenerative disk disease who have been treated with lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA). Overview of Literature Several studies have shown promising results following this surgery. Methods We reviewed the files of 104 patients at the Department of Neurosurgery in Colmar (France) who had been operated on by lumbar spine arthroplasty (Prodisc) between April 2002 and October 2008. Results Among the 104 patients, 67 were female and 37 were male with an average age of 33.1 years. We followed the cases for a mean of 20 months. The most frequent level of discopathy was L4-L5 with 62 patients (59.6%) followed by L5-S1 level with 52 patients (50%). Eighty-three patients suffered from low back pain, 21 of which were associated with radiculopathy. The status of 82 patients improved after surgery according to the Oswestry Disability Index score, and 92 patients returned to work. Conclusions The results indicate that TDA is a good alternative treatment for lumbar spine disk disease, particularly for patients with disabling and chronic low back pain. This technique contributes to improve living conditions with correct patient selection for surgery. PMID:25705336

  17. Total Disc Replacement in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) was introduced for the first time to the world market for the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). It seems like the right time to sum up the relevant results in order to understand where LTDR stands on now, and is heading forward to. The pathogenesis of DDD has been currently settled, but diagnosis and managements are still controversial. Fusion is recognized as golden standard of surgical managements but has various kinds of shortcomings. Lately, LTDR has been expected to replace fusion surgery. A great deal of LTDR reports has come out. Among them, more than 5-year follow-up prospective randomized controlled studies including USA IDE trials were expected to elucidate whether for LTDR to have therapeutic benefit compared to fusion. The results of these studies revealed that LTDR was not inferior to fusion. Most of clinical studies dealing with LTDR revealed that there was no strong evidence for preventive effect of LTDR against symptomatic degenerative changes of adjacent segment disease. LTDR does not have shortcomings associated with fusion. However, it has a potentiality of the new complications to occur, which surgeons have never experienced in fusion surgeries. Consequently, longer follow-up should be necessary as yet to confirm the maintenance of improved surgical outcome and to observe any very late complications. LTDR still may get a chance to establish itself as a substitute of fusion both nominally and virtually if it eases the concerns listed above. PMID:26713139

  18. Flexible Stabilisation of the Degenerative Lumbar Spine Using PEEK Rods

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Jacques; Garlenq, Bruno; Larroque, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using cages, titanium rods, and pedicle screws is considered today as the gold standard of surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative disease and has produced satisfying long-term fusion rates. However this rigid material could change the physiological distribution of load at the instrumental and adjacent segments, a main cause of implant failure and adjacent segment disease, responsible for a high rate of further surgery in the following years. More recently, semirigid instrumentation systems using rods made of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been introduced. This clinical study of 21 patients focuses on the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with lumbar degenerative disease treated with Initial VEOS PEEK®-Optima system (Innov'Spine, France) composed of rods made from PEEK-OPTIMA® polymer (Invibio Biomaterial Solutions, UK) without arthrodesis. With an average follow-up of 2 years and half, the chances of reoperation were significantly reduced (4.8%), quality of life was improved (ODI = 16%), and the adjacent disc was preserved in more than 70% of cases. Based on these results, combined with the biomechanical and clinical data already published, PEEK rods systems can be considered as a safe and effective alternative solution to rigid ones. PMID:26981285

  19. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... too far. In children with hypermobility syndrome, those ligaments are loose or weak. This may lead to: Arthritis, which may develop over time Dislocated joints, which is a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint Sprains and strains Children with hypermobile joints also often have flat ...

  20. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  1. Degenerative changes in rat condylar cartilage induced by non-matching occlusion created by scattered orthodontic teeth-moving.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiqing; Sun, Lei; Yu, Shi-Bin; Liu, Xiaodong; Jiao, Kai; Wang, Guo-Wei; Liu, Lei; He, Jian-Jun

    2012-10-01

    The effect of occlusion on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is debated. By inserting rubber-bands that were replaced by self-curing resin one week later, the left maxillary and the right mandibular first-molars were moved and kept mesially in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in both experimental I (EXP-I) and II (EXP-II) groups, aiming to establish a non-matching cusp-to-fossa occlusal relation. Four weeks later, the left maxillary and the right mandibular third-molars were moved and kept distally in the EXP-II group. Degenerative changes, typically as a cell-free area, were observed in TMJs of the EXP groups. Binary logistical analysis indicated that the odds ratio of EXP group, EXP-II vs. EXP-I, on the incidence of a cell-free area, was 2.8 (p=.036). Time point, gender, and side did not have such effects (p>0.05). The results indicate that the persistence of more scattered non-matching cusp-to-fossa occlusion is more harmful to the condylar cartilage in terms of the incidence of degenerative changes. PMID:23156970

  2. Discriminating among degenerative parkinsonisms using advanced (123)I-ioflupane SPECT analyses.

    PubMed

    Badoud, Simon; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Nicastro, Nicolas; Garibotto, Valentina; Burkhard, Pierre R; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a sensitive and well established imaging tool in Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS), yet a discrimination between PD and APS has been considered inconsistent at least based on visual inspection or simple region of interest analyses. We here reappraise this issue by applying advanced image analysis techniques to separate PD from the various APS. This study included 392 consecutive patients with degenerative parkinsonism undergoing (123)I-ioflupane SPECT at our institution over the last decade: 306 PD, 24 multiple system atrophy (MSA), 32 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 30 corticobasal degeneration (CBD) patients. Data analysis included voxel-wise univariate statistical parametric mapping and multivariate pattern recognition using linear discriminant classifiers. MSA and PSP showed less ioflupane uptake in the head of caudate nucleus relative to PD and CBD, yet there was no difference between MSA and PSP. CBD had higher uptake in both putamen relative to PD, MSA and PSP. Classification was significant for PD versus APS (AUC 0.69, p < 0.05) and between APS subtypes (MSA vs CBD AUC 0.80, p < 0.05; MSA vs PSP AUC 0.69 p < 0.05; CBD vs PSP AUC 0.69 p < 0.05). Both striatal and extra-striatal regions contain classification information, yet the combination of both regions does not significantly improve classification accuracy. PD, MSA, PSP and CBD have distinct patterns of dopaminergic depletion on (123)I-ioflupane SPECT. The high specificity of 84-90% for PD versus APS indicates that the classifier is particularly useful for confirming APS cases. PMID:27489771

  3. Static and Dynamic Parameters in Patients With Degenerative Flat Back and Change After Corrective Fusion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate characteristics of static and dynamic parameters in patients with degenerative flat back (DFB) and to compare degree of their improvement between successful and unsuccessful surgical outcome groups Methods Forty-seven patients with DFB were included who took whole spine X-ray and three-dimensional motion analysis before and 6 months after corrective surgery. Forty-four subjects were selected as a control group. As static parameters, thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TLJ), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT) were measured. As dynamic parameters, maximal and minimal angle of pelvic tilt, lower limb joints, and thoracic and lumbar vertebrae column (dynamic TK and LL) in sagittal plane were obtained. Results The DFB group showed smaller TK and larger LL, pelvic posterior tilt, hip flexion, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion than the control group. Most of these parameters were significantly corrected by fusion surgery. Dynamic spinal parameters correlated with static spinal parameters. The successful group obtained significant improvement in maximal and minimal dynamic LL than the unsuccessful group. Conclusion The DFB group showed characteristic lower limb and spinal angles in dynamic and static parameters. Correlation between static and dynamic parameters was found in spinal segment. Dynamic LL was good predictor of successful surgical outcomes. PMID:27606275

  4. Laser technologies in treatment of degenerative-dystrophic bone diseases in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abushkin, Ivan A.; Privalov, Valery A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Noskov, Nikolay V.; Neizvestnykh, Elena A.; Kotlyarov, Alexander N.; Shekunova, Yulia G.

    2014-03-01

    Two low invasive laser technologies for treatment of degenerative-dystrophic bone diseases in children are presented. The first is the transcutaneous laser osteoperforation developed by us and initially applied for treatment of different inflammatory and traumatic diseases (osteomyelitides, osteal and osteoarticular panaritiums, delayed unions, false joints, and others). Now the technology was applied to treatment of aseptic osteonecrosis of different localizations in 134 children aged from 1 to 16 years, including 56 cases with necrosis of femoral head (Legg-Calve-Perthes disease), 42 with necrosis of 2nd metatarsal bone head (Kohler II disease), and 36 with necrosis of tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease). The second technology is the laser intracystic thermotherapy for treatment of bone cysts. The method was applied to 108 children aged from 3 to 16 years with aneurismal and solitary cysts of different localizations. In both technologies a 970 nm diode laser was used. The suggested technologies increase the efficiency of treatment, reduce its duration, can be performed on outpatient basis, which resulted in great economical effect.

  5. Method for classifying ceramic powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takabe, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, powder A of particles of less than 10 microns, and carrier powder B, whose average particle diameter is more than five times that of powder A, are premixed so that the powder is less than 40 wt.% of the total mixture, before classifying.

  6. The Classified Catalogue: LU Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, C.-C.; Mount, Joan

    1971-01-01

    The Laurentian University Library has evolved a bilingual classified catalogue consisting of a public shelflist supplement by a French/English subject index. This produces an effective tool for locating all materials pertaining to a given topic in either or both of two languages. (Author/NH)

  7. Semiconstrained distal radioulnar joint prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Savvidou, Christiana; Murphy, Erin; Mailhot, Emilie; Jacob, Shushan; Scheker, Luis R

    2013-02-01

    Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) problems can occur as a result of joint instability, abutment, or incongruity. The DRUJ is a weight-bearing joint; the ulnar head is frequently excised either totally or partially, and in some cases it is fused, because of degenerative, rheumatoid, or posttraumatic arthritis. Articles about these procedures report the ability to pronate and supinate, but they rarely discuss grip strength, and even less do they address lifting capacity. We report the long term results of the first 35 patients who underwent total DRUJ arthroplasty with the Aptis DRUJ prosthesis after 5 years follow-up. Surgical indications were all causes of dysfunctional DRUJ (degenerative, posttraumatic, autoimmune, congenital). We recorded data for patient demographics, range of motion (ROM), strength, and lifting capacity of the operated and of the nonoperated extremity. Pain and functional assessments were also recorded. The Aptis DRUJ prosthesis, a bipolar self-stabilizing DRUJ endoprosthesis that restores forearm function, consists of a semiconstained and modular implant designed to replace the function of the ulnar head, the sigmoid notch of the radius, and the triangular fibrocartilage ligaments. The surgical technique is presented in detail. The majority of the patients regained adequate ROM and improved their strength and lifting capacity to the operated side. Pain and activities of daily living were improved. Twelve patients experienced complications, most commonly being extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendinitis, ectopic bone formation, bone resorption with stem loosening, low-grade infection, and need for ball replacement. The Aptis total DRUJ replacement prosthesis is an alternative to salvage procedures that enables a full range of motion as well as the ability to grip and lift weights encountered in daily living activities. PMID:24436788

  8. Meniscal Repair of Degenerative Horizontal Cleavage Tears Using Fibrin Clots

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Tamiko; Kimura, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presently, the treatment options available for patients with horizontal degenerative cleavage tears of the meniscus are limited. These tears are considered an indication for partial or subtotal meniscectomy because when the tear is located within an avascular area, it is difficult to induce healing. However, meniscectomy is not ideal because it disrupts the normal anatomical structure and function of the meniscus. Purpose: To examine the clinical and arthroscopic outcomes following meniscal repair of degenerative horizontal cleavage tears using fibrin clots. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Vertical sutures were placed in the meniscal tear, and the cleft was filled with fibrin clots before the sutures were tightened. We repaired 18 menisci in 18 consecutive eligible patients using a previously described technique. Three patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury who underwent simultaneous ACL reconstruction and 5 patients who did not undergo follow-up arthroscopy within 12 months were excluded. The remaining 10 menisci in 10 patients were evaluated in this study. The mean age of the patients was 35.8 ± 16.5 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up time was 40.8 ± 5.4 months. Pre- and postoperative Lysholm scores, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores, and Tegner activity levels were compared. The arthroscopy findings were evaluated at a mean postoperative time of 6.7 ± 2.9 months. Results: The mean Lysholm score improved significantly from 69.3 ± 16.3 points preoperatively to 95.4 ± 3.6 points postoperatively (P < .005). The mean IKDC subjective score also improved significantly from 26.5% ± 19.0% preoperatively to 87.8% ± 7.5% postoperatively (P < .001). The Tegner activity level recovered to the preinjury level in 6 patients and to 1 level below the preinjury level in 4 patients. The follow-up arthroscopies showed complete healing in 7 patients (70%) and incomplete healing in

  9. The cricothyroid joint in elderly Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, Masamitu; Yamamoto, Masahito; Kawamoto, Ai; Katori, Yukio; Kinoshita, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Using 15 cricothyroid joint (CT joint) specimens obtained from donated cadavers of elderly individuals, we examined the morphologies of the ceratocricoid ligaments as well as the synovial tissue. The ligaments consistently contained abundant elastic fibers: the fibers tended to be straight on the anterior side in contrast to a mesh-like arrangement on the posterior side. Thick and/or long synovial folds were often evident in the CT joint. The synovial tissue usually contained CD68-positive macrophages, but the positive cells were often restricted to certain parts of the tissue. Factor VIII-positive capillaries were present but few in number, and CD3- or IgM-positive lymphocytes were absent in the synovial tissue. Degenerative changes in the joint cartilage, such as roughness or thinning, were often present, but no cartilage defects were evident. Therefore, in contrast to the small, non-weight-bearing joints of the musculoskeletal system, we considered the degeneration of the CT joint to be a specific, silent form of osteoarthritis. For high-pitched phonation and ossification of the laryngeal cartilage, the CT joint in elderly individuals seemed to maintain its anterior gliding and rotation with the aid of elastic fiber-rich tissues compensating for the loss of congruity between the joint cartilage surfaces. PMID:26286109

  10. Incidental Dural Tears During Lumbar Spine Surgery: A Retrospective Case Study of 84 Degenerative Lumbar Spine Patients

    PubMed Central

    Anekstein, Yoram; Mirovsky, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective case study. Purpose To retrospectively review all incidental dural tears (DTs) that occurred at a single institution, classify them anatomically and evaluate the clinical significance of each subgroup. Overview of Literature Dural tears are considered the most commonly encountered complication during lumbar spine surgery. In contrast to the high frequency of DTs, reports on the characteristic location and mechanism are sparse. Methods We retrospectively retrieved all cases of degenerative lumbar spine surgery performed over a 9-year period and classified all identified DTs according to two independent planes. The coronal plane was divided into lower, middle and upper surgical fields, and the sagittal plane into posterior, lateral and ventral occurring tears. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved and analyzed to search for significant associations. Results From 2003 to 2011, 1,235 cases of degenerative lumbar spine conditions were treated surgically at our institution. In 84 operations (6.8%), an incidental DT was either identified intraoperatively or suspected retrospectively. The most commonly involved location was the lower surgical field (n=39, 46.4%; p=0.002), followed equally by the middle and upper fields (n=16, 19%). In the sagittal plane, the most commonly involved locations were those in close proximity to the nerve root (n=35, 41.6%), followed by the dorsal aspect of the dural sac (n=24, 28.6%). None of the variables recorded was found to be associated with a particular location. Conclusions In our series, incidental DTs were found to occur most commonly in the lower surgical field. We hypothesize that local anatomic feature, such as the lordotic and broadening lumbar dura, may play a role in the observed DT tendency to occur in the lower surgical field. In light of the high frequency and potentially substantial resulting morbidity of incidental DTs, a better characterization of its location and mechanism may

  11. [Progress of research in osteoarthritis. Gene expression and its regulatory mechanisms in the degenerative cartilage in osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ken; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2009-11-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of pathological changes were observed in the osteoarthritis joints. Gene expressions vary depending on the zones in the cartilage. For example, the expressions of degradative enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases were enhanced in the superficial zone whereas the expression of matrix proteins enhanced at the deep zone. Many factors such as mechanical stress, aging, genetic background, inflammation and phenotypic changes of chondrocytes influence the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, suggesting the involvement of many regulatory mechanisms in the gene expression. However, discoveries of regulatory factors that provide common pathways for the various phenomenon observed in the osteoarthritis cartilage suggest the interaction and co-operation of these important factors to conduct the pathology of degenerative cartilage. PMID:19880989

  12. 48 CFR 1803.907 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classified information... Whistleblower Protections 1803.907 Classified information. Nothing in this subpart provides any rights to disclose classified information not otherwise provided by law....

  13. 75 FR 705 - Classified National Security Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Executive Order 13526--Classified National Security Information Memorandum of December 29, 2009--Implementation of the Executive Order ``Classified National Security Information'' Order of December 29, 2009... ] Executive Order 13526 of December 29, 2009 Classified National Security Information This order prescribes...

  14. 76 FR 34761 - Classified National Security Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Classified National Security Information AGENCY: Marine Mammal Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... information, as directed by Information Security Oversight Office regulations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., ``Classified National Security Information,'' and 32 CFR part 2001, ``Classified National Security...

  15. Regenerative nanomedicine and the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, Marco A; Montemagno, Carlo; Leary, James F; Ritch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative medicine deals with the repair or the replacement of tissues and organs using advanced materials and methodologies. Regenerative nanomedicine uses nanoparticles containing gene transcription factors and other modulating molecules that allow reprogramming of cells in vivo as well as nanomaterials to induce selective differentiation of neural progenitor cells and to create neural-mechanical interfaces. In this article, we consider some applications of nanotechnology that may be useful for the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases, for example, use of nanoparticles for drug and gene therapy, use of nanomaterials for neural interfaces and extracellular matrix construction for cell-based therapy and neural prosthetics, and the use of bionanotechnology to re-engineer proteins and cell behavior for regenerative medicine. PMID:22170869

  16. Complement, a target for therapy in inflammatory and degenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Morgan, B Paul; Harris, Claire L

    2015-12-01

    The complement system is a key innate immune defence against infection and an important driver of inflammation; however, these very properties can also cause harm. Inappropriate or uncontrolled activation of complement can cause local and/or systemic inflammation, tissue damage and disease. Complement provides numerous options for drug development as it is a proteolytic cascade that involves nine specific proteases, unique multimolecular activation and lytic complexes, an arsenal of natural inhibitors, and numerous receptors that bind to activation fragments. Drug design is facilitated by the increasingly detailed structural understanding of the molecules involved in the complement system. Only two anti-complement drugs are currently on the market, but many more are being developed for diseases that include infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, traumatic and neoplastic disorders. In this Review, we describe the history, current landscape and future directions for anti-complement therapies. PMID:26493766

  17. Degenerative Mitral Stenosis: Unmet Need for Percutaneous Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sud, Karan; Agarwal, Shikhar; Parashar, Akhil; Raza, Mohammad Q; Patel, Kunal; Min, David; Rodriguez, Leonardo L; Krishnaswamy, Amar; Mick, Stephanie L; Gillinov, A Marc; Tuzcu, E Murat; Kapadia, Samir R

    2016-04-19

    Degenerative mitral stenosis (DMS) is an important cause of mitral stenosis, developing secondary to severe mitral annular calcification. With the increase in life expectancy and improved access to health care, more patients with DMS are likely to be encountered in developed nations. These patients are generally elderly with multiple comorbidities and often are high-risk candidates for surgery. The mainstay of therapy in DMS patients is medical management with heart rate control and diuretic therapy. Surgical intervention might be delayed until symptoms are severely limiting and cannot be managed by medical therapy. Mitral valve surgery is also challenging in these patients because of the presence of extensive calcification. Hence, there is a need to develop an alternative percutaneous treatment approach for patients with DMS who are otherwise inoperable or at high risk for surgery. In this review, we summarize the available data on the epidemiology of DMS and diagnostic considerations and current treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27142604

  18. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.

    PubMed Central

    Ames, B N; Shigenaga, M K; Hagen, T M

    1993-01-01

    Metabolism, like other aspects of life, involves tradeoffs. Oxidant by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. We argue that this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against this damage include ascorbate, tocopherol, and carotenoids. Dietary fruits and vegetables are the principal source of ascorbate and carotenoids and are one source of tocopherol. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables doubles the risk of most types of cancer as compared to high intake and also markedly increases the risk of heart disease and cataracts. Since only 9% of Americans eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, the opportunity for improving health by improving diet is great. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8367443

  19. Current Status of Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; FUNAKOSHI, Yusuke; OICHI, Yuki; KAWAOKA, Taigo; WATANABE, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented lumbar fusion can provide immediate stability and assist in satisfactory arthrodesis in patients who have pain or instability of the lumbar spine. Lumbar adjunctive fusion with decompression is often a good procedure for surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Among various lumbar fusion techniques, lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) has an advantage in that it maintains favorable lumbar alignment and provides successful fusion with the added effect of indirect decompression. This technique has been widely used and represents an advancement in spinal instrumentation, although the rationale and optimal type of LIF for DS remains controversial. We evaluated the current status and role of LIF in DS treatment, mainly as a means to augment instrumentation. We addressed the basic concept of LIF, its indications, and various types including minimally invasive techniques. It also has acceptable biomechanical features, and offers reconstruction with ideal lumbar alignment. Postsurgical adverse events related to each LIF technique are also addressed. PMID:27169496

  20. Systems Pharmacology Links GPCRs with Retinal Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    In most biological systems, second messengers and their key regulatory and effector proteins form links between multiple cellular signaling pathways. Such signaling nodes can integrate the deleterious effects of genetic aberrations, environmental stressors, or both in complex diseases, leading to cell death by various mechanisms. Here we present a systems (network) pharmacology approach that, together with transcriptomics analyses, was used to identify different G protein–coupled receptors that experimentally protected against cellular stress and death caused by linked signaling mechanisms. We describe the application of this concept to degenerative and diabetic retinopathies in appropriate mouse models as an example. Systems pharmacology also provides an attractive framework for devising strategies to combat complex diseases by using (repurposing) US Food and Drug Administration–approved pharmacological agents. PMID:25839098

  1. Inflammatory response in chronic degenerative endometritis mares treated with platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Reghini, Maria Fernanda S; Ramires Neto, Carlos; Segabinazzi, Lorenzo G; Castro Chaves, Maria Manoela B; Dell'Aqua, Camila de Paula F; Bussiere, Maria Clara C; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Papa, Frederico O; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio

    2016-07-15

    Degenerative changes of the endometrium are directly related to age and fertility in mares. Chronic degenerative endometritis (CDE) is correlated with uterine fluid retention and reduced ability to clear uterine inflammation. Recent research in the areas of equine surgery and sports medicine has shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment acts as an immunomodulator of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the uterine infusion of PRP could modulate the local inflammatory response and modify the intrauterine NO concentrations after artificial insemination (AI) in both normal mares and those with CDE. Thirteen mares with endometrium classified as grade III on the histology (mares with CDE) and eight mares with endometrial histological classification I or II-a normal mares were selected to investigate the effect of PRP therapy. The mares were inseminated with fresh semen in two consecutive cycles in a crossover study design. Thereby, each mare served as its own control and the treatment was performed with intrauterine PRP infusion four hours after AI. The percentage of neutrophils in uterine cytology (CIT, %), uterine fluid accumulation observed on ultrasonography (FLU, mm) and nitric oxide concentration of uterine fluid (NO, μM) were analyzed before and 24 hours after AI. The results reported that mares with CDE (CIT, 68.3 ± 3.27, FLU, 10.7 ± 1.61) have a higher (P < 0.05) intrauterine inflammatory response after AI than normal mares (CIT, 24.4 ± 3.56, FLU, 0), but NO concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between categories of mares. In treated cycles with PRP, the intrauterine inflammatory response decrease (P < 0.05) in CDE mares (CDE: CIT, 31.4 ± 6.48, FLU, 5.5 ± 1.28; normal mares: CIT, 13.5 ± 4.31, FLU, 0) when compared with nontreated cycle (CDE: CIT, 68.3 ± 3.27, FLU, 10.7 ± 1.61; NM: CIT, 24.4 ± 3.56, FLU, 0), but did not modify NO concentrations in uterine fluid. Thus, we can

  2. Molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of degenerative aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Hakuno, Daihiko; Kimura, Naritaka; Yoshioka, Masatoyo; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    Morbidity from degenerative aortic valve disease is increasing worldwide, concomitant with the ageing of the general population and the habitual consumption of diets high in calories and cholesterol. Immunohistologic studies have suggested that the molecular mechanism occurring in the degenerate aortic valve resembles that of atherosclerosis, prompting the testing of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for the prevention of progression of native and bioprosthetic aortic valve degeneration. However, the effects of these therapies remain controversial. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of aortic valve degeneration are largely unknown, research in this area is advancing rapidly. The signaling components involved in embryonic valvulogenesis, such as Wnt, TGF-beta(1), BMP, and Notch, are also involved in the onset of aortic valve degeneration. Furthermore, investigations into extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis in the aortic valve have been reported. Having noted avascularity of normal cardiac valves, we recently identified chondromodulin-I (chm-I) as a crucial anti-angiogenic factor. The expression of chm-I is restricted to cardiac valves from late embryogenesis to adulthood in the mouse, rat, and human. In human degenerate atherosclerotic valves, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases and angiogenesis is observed in the area of chm-I downregulation. Gene targeting of chm-I resulted in VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and calcification in the aortic valves of aged mice, and aortic stenosis is detected by echocardiography, indicating that chm-I is a crucial factor for maintaining normal cardiac valvular function by preventing angiogenesis. The present review focuses on the animal models of aortic valve degeneration and recent studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of degenerative aortic valve disease. PMID:18766323

  3. Copper deficiency myelopathy in the setting of advanced degenerative cervical spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Page, Paul S; Nazar, Ryan G; Park, Michael C; James, Robert F

    2016-08-01

    When presenting conjointly, degenerative cervical spondylosis and copper deficiency myelopathy may be difficult to differentiate providing the potential for mismanagement and unnecessary surgery. We present a case of a 69-year-old female with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to previous bowel resection in the setting of advanced degenerative cervical spondylotic disease. PMID:26337459

  4. Clustering signatures classify directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

    2008-09-01

    We use a clustering signature, based on a recently introduced generalization of the clustering coefficient to directed networks, to analyze 16 directed real-world networks of five different types: social networks, genetic transcription networks, word adjacency networks, food webs, and electric circuits. We show that these five classes of networks are cleanly separated in the space of clustering signatures due to the statistical properties of their local neighborhoods, demonstrating the usefulness of clustering signatures as a classifier of directed networks.

  5. Classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    There is a wide variety of flavours of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere, with differing structures and lifecycles. Previous studies have classified these manually using upper level flow features or satellite data. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first identified), has been used to objectively classify these cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere. This simple method is able to separate the cyclones into classes with quite different development mechanisms and lifecycle characteristics. Some of the classes seem to coincide with previous manual classifications on shorter timescales, showing their utility for climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  6. Cartilage degeneration in different human joints.

    PubMed

    Kuettner, K E; Cole, A A

    2005-02-01

    Variations among joints in the initiation and progression of degeneration may be explained, in part, by metabolic, biochemical and biomechanical differences. Compared to the cartilage in the knee joint, ankle cartilage has a higher content of proteoglycans and water, as well as an increased rate of proteoglycan turnover and synthesis, all of which are responsible for its increased stiffness and reduced permeability. Chondrocytes within ankle cartilage have a decreased response to catabolic factors such as interleukin-1 and fibronectin fragments, compared to the chondrocytes of knee cartilage. Moreover, in response to damage, ankle chondrocytes synthesize proteoglycans at a higher rate than that found in knee cartilage chondrocytes, which suggests a greater capacity for repair. In addition to the cartilages of the two joints, the underlying bones also respond differently to degenerative changes. Taken together, these metabolic, biochemical and biomechanical differences may provide protection to the ankle. PMID:15694570

  7. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  8. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  9. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  10. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  11. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  12. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  13. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  14. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  15. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  16. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  17. 14 CFR 1216.317 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified information. 1216.317 Section... Classified information. Environmental assessments and impact statements which contain classified information... organized so that the classified portions are appendices to the environmental document itself....

  18. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  19. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  20. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  1. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  2. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  3. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  4. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  5. 14 CFR 1216.317 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Classified information. 1216.317 Section... Classified information. Environmental assessments and impact statements which contain classified information... organized so that the classified portions are appendices to the environmental document itself....

  6. 28 CFR 701.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information. 701.14 Section... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 701.14 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any other Executive...

  7. 32 CFR 651.13 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Classified actions. 651.13 Section 651.13... § 651.13 Classified actions. (a) For proposed actions and NEPA analyses involving classified information... proposed action. (c) When classified information can be reasonably separated from other information and...

  8. 32 CFR 1602.8 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1602.8 Section 1602.8....8 Classifying authority. The term classifying authority refers to any official or board who is authorized in § 1633.1 to classify a registrant....

  9. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  10. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  11. 28 CFR 700.14 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information. 700.14 Section... the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.14 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified or classifiable under Executive Order 12356 or any...

  12. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  13. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  14. 10 CFR 25.35 - Classified visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified visits. 25.35 Section 25.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Classified Visits § 25.35 Classified visits. (a) The number of classified visits must be held to a minimum. The licensee, certificate holder, applicant for a...

  15. 14 CFR 1216.317 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified information. 1216.317 Section... Classified information. Environmental assessments and impact statements which contain classified information... organized so that the classified portions are appendices to the environmental document itself....

  16. 32 CFR 1633.1 - Classifying authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classifying authority. 1633.1 Section 1633.1... CLASSIFICATION § 1633.1 Classifying authority. The following officials are authorized to classify registrants... Service may in accord with the provisions of this chapter classify a registrant into any class for...

  17. Preservation of duplicate genes by complementary, degenerative mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Force, A; Lynch, M; Pickett, F B; Amores, A; Yan, Y L; Postlethwait, J

    1999-01-01

    The origin of organismal complexity is generally thought to be tightly coupled to the evolution of new gene functions arising subsequent to gene duplication. Under the classical model for the evolution of duplicate genes, one member of the duplicated pair usually degenerates within a few million years by accumulating deleterious mutations, while the other duplicate retains the original function. This model further predicts that on rare occasions, one duplicate may acquire a new adaptive function, resulting in the preservation of both members of the pair, one with the new function and the other retaining the old. However, empirical data suggest that a much greater proportion of gene duplicates is preserved than predicted by the classical model. Here we present a new conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of duplicate genes that may help explain this conundrum. Focusing on the regulatory complexity of eukaryotic genes, we show how complementary degenerative mutations in different regulatory elements of duplicated genes can facilitate the preservation of both duplicates, thereby increasing long-term opportunities for the evolution of new gene functions. The duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model predicts that (1) degenerative mutations in regulatory elements can increase rather than reduce the probability of duplicate gene preservation and (2) the usual mechanism of duplicate gene preservation is the partitioning of ancestral functions rather than the evolution of new functions. We present several examples (including analysis of a new engrailed gene in zebrafish) that appear to be consistent with the DDC model, and we suggest several analytical and experimental approaches for determining whether the complementary loss of gene subfunctions or the acquisition of novel functions are likely to be the primary mechanisms for the preservation of gene duplicates. For a newly duplicated paralog, survival depends on the outcome of the race between

  18. Management of complications of distal radioulnar joint.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Kagan

    2015-05-01

    The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is a complex structure that participates in forearm rotation and weight-bearing. Myriad disorders affect the DRUJ and present diagnostic and management challenges. Degenerative and posttraumatic arthritis and pain at the DRUJ have been traditionally treated with resection of 1 of the 2 arthritic surfaces. Although the procedure often relieves pain associated with incongruence, it creates a different problem by changing the overall dynamics of the forearm rotation and weight-bearing, resulting in radioulnar convergence and ulnar translation of the carpus. This article focuses on the management of painful radioulnar convergence after distal ulnar resections. PMID:25934199

  19. Dimensionality Reduction Through Classifier Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.; Tumer, Kagan; Norwig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In data mining, one often needs to analyze datasets with a very large number of attributes. Performing machine learning directly on such data sets is often impractical because of extensive run times, excessive complexity of the fitted model (often leading to overfitting), and the well-known "curse of dimensionality." In practice, to avoid such problems, feature selection and/or extraction are often used to reduce data dimensionality prior to the learning step. However, existing feature selection/extraction algorithms either evaluate features by their effectiveness across the entire data set or simply disregard class information altogether (e.g., principal component analysis). Furthermore, feature extraction algorithms such as principal components analysis create new features that are often meaningless to human users. In this article, we present input decimation, a method that provides "feature subsets" that are selected for their ability to discriminate among the classes. These features are subsequently used in ensembles of classifiers, yielding results superior to single classifiers, ensembles that use the full set of features, and ensembles based on principal component analysis on both real and synthetic datasets.

  20. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  1. [Homocysteinaemia and degenerative complications in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Zied, Aouni; Oudi, M; Chahib, Mazigh; Olfa, Essaies; Brahim, Nsiri; Hédi, M'henni; Habib, Haouala; Borni, Zidi; Salem, Machghoul

    2005-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: NIDDM) is known to be associated with degenerative complications. Although, the pathophysiology of such complications is well known, the role of homocysteine (Hcy) is still discussed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the homocysteine levels and the NIDDM related complications in a group of NIDDM patients. Our study population consisted of 41 NIDDM patients including 13 subjects (G1) without complications (group controls), 17 patients (G2) with microangiopathy and 11 patients (G3) with coronary deficiency. Plasmatic homocysteine, glycemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and lipidic parameters were essessed in all patients. Our results showed that mean levels of plasmatic homocysteine were within the normal range (10.4 +/- 3.3 micromol/l, 9.9 +/- 5.5 micromol/l and 14.8 +/- 10.4 micromol/l in G1, G2 and G3 respectively). Nevertheless, moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia was found in 36% in the coronary group (G3), 17.3% in patients with microangiopathy (G2) and 7.7% in controls. These preliminary results showed that cardiovascular complications in NIDDM patients may be related to high levels of homocysteine. PMID:16383199

  2. Reported Outcome Measures in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Maire; Elgheriani, Ali; Kolias, Angelos G.; Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Hutchinson, Peter J. A.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Kotter, Mark R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent group of diseases. Heterogeneous reporting of trial outcomes limits effective inter-study comparison and optimisation of treatment. This is recognised in many fields of healthcare research. The present study aims to assess the heterogeneity of outcome reporting in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set. Methods A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497) was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective) or >200 patients (retrospective), reporting outcomes of DCM were eligible. Results 108 studies, assessing 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. Reported outcome themes included function (reported by 97, 90% of studies), complications (reported by 56, 52% of studies), quality of life (reported by 31, 29% of studies), pain (reported by 29, 27% of studies) and imaging (reported by 59, 55% of studies). Only 7 (6%) studies considered all of domains in a single publication. All domains showed variability in reporting. Conclusions Significant heterogeneity exists in the reporting of outcomes in DCM. The development of a consensus minimum dataset will facilitate future research synthesis. PMID:27482710

  3. Canine degenerative myelopathy: a model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra C; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-02-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (CDM) represents a unique naturally occurring animal model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar clinical signs, neuropathologic findings, and involvement of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. A definitive diagnosis can only be made postmortem through microscopic detection of axonal degeneration, demyelination and astroglial proliferation, which is more severe in the dorsal columns of the thoracic spinal cord and in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus. Interestingly, the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes are intact in CDM prior to functional impairment, thus suggesting that muscle atrophy in CDM does not result from physical denervation. Moreover, since sensory involvement seems to play an important role in CDM progression, a more careful investigation of the sensory pathology in ALS is also warranted. The importance of SOD1 expression remains unclear, while oxidative stress and denatured ubiquinated proteins appear to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CDM. In this updated narrative review we performed a systematic search of the published studies on CDM that may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of human ALS. A better understanding of the factors that determine the disease progression in CDM may be beneficial for the development of effective treatments for ALS. PMID:26432396

  4. Aperius interspinous device for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Ashwanth; Lyons, Frank; Kelleher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    With an aging population, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) leading to neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) is a growing problem. For patients suffering from this condition, interspinous process distraction devices (IPDs) offer an effective and cheap alternative to conservative or decompressive surgery. Aperius is one such device that has been gaining popularity for its percutaneous insertion under local anesthetic, short operative time, and low risk of complications. The main objective of this review was to carry out a comprehensive search of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness and potential complications of Aperius. A database search, including PubMed, Clinical trials.gov, Cochrane (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Scopus, was carried out to identify relevant articles written in English reporting on complications with a minimum 12-month follow-up. The literature search resulted in six eligible studies; two nonrandomized comparative and four prospective case series were available. The analysis revealed that in total, 433 patients underwent treatment with Aperius, with all studies demonstrating an improvement in outcome measures. The average follow-up was 17 months with an overall complication rate of 10.62 %. Overall, the quality of evidence is low, suggesting that currently, the evidence is not compelling and further prospective randomized trials including cost-effectiveness studies are required. PMID:26324829

  5. Characterization of joint disease in mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Patricia G; Baldo, Guilherme; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Martinelli, Barbara; Meurer, Luise; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Ursula; Xavier, Ricardo M

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are lysosomal storage disorders characterized by mutations in enzymes that degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Joint disease is present in most forms of MPS, including MPS I. This work aimed to describe the joint disease progression in the murine model of MPS I. Normal (wild-type) and MPS I mice were sacrificed at different time points (from 2 to 12 months). The knee joints were collected, and haematoxylin–eosin staining was used to evaluate the articular architecture. Safranin-O and Sirius Red staining was used to analyse the proteoglycan and collagen content. Additionally, we analysed the expression of the matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, using immunohistochemistry. We observed progressive joint alterations from 6 months, including the presence of synovial inflammatory infiltrate, the destruction and thickening of the cartilage extracellular matrix, as well as proteoglycan and collagen depletion. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which could conceivably explain the degenerative changes. Our results suggest that the joint disease in MPS I mice may be caused by a degenerative process due to increase in proteases expression, leading to loss of collagen and proteoglycans. These results may guide the development of ancillary therapies for joint disease in MPS I. PMID:23786352

  6. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Effect of Hijikia fusiforme extracts on degenerative osteoarthritis in vitro and in vivo models

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Han Ol; Lee, Minhee; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Ha, Yejin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The inhibitory effect of Hijikia fusiforme (HF) extracts on degenerative osteoarthritis was examined in primary cultured rat cartilage cells and a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis rat model. MATERIALS/METHODS In vitro, cell survival and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), collagen type I, collagen type II, aggrecan, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was measured after H2O2 (800 µM, 2 hr) treatment in primary chondrocytes. In vivo animal study, osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of MIA into knee joints of rats, and then RH500, HFE250 and HFE500 were administered orally once a day for 28 days. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of HFE, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression were measured. In addition, real-time PCR was performed to measure the genetic expression of MMPs, collagen type I, collagen type II, aggrecan, and TIMPs. RESULTS In the in vitro assay, cell survival after H2O2 treatment was increased by HFE extract (20% EtOH). In addition, anabolic factors (genetic expression of collagen type I, II, and aggrecan) were increased by HFE extract (20% EtOH). However, the genetic expression of MMP-3 and 7, known as catabolic factors were significantly inhibited by treatment with HFE extract (20% EtOH). In the in vivo assay, anabolic factors (genetic expression of collagen type I, II, aggrecan, and TIMPs) were increased by oral administration of HFE extract. However, the genetic expression of MMP-3 and 7, known as catabolic factors, and production of NO and PGE2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with oral administration of HFE extract. CONCLUSIONS HFE extract inhibited articular cartilage degeneration through preventing extracellular matrix degradation and chondrocyte injury. PMID:27247722

  8. Degenerative changes of the cranial cruciate ligament harvested from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    PubMed Central

    ICHINOHE, Tom; KANNO, Nobuo; HARADA, Yasuji; YOGO, Takuya; TAGAWA, Masahiro; SOETA, Satoshi; AMASAKI, Hajime; HARA, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is characterized histologically by degenerating extracellular matrix (ECM) and chondroid metaplasia. Here, we describe the progression of chondroid metaplasia and the changes in the expression of ECM components in canine CCL rupture (CCLR). CCLs from 26 stifle joints with CCLR (CCLR group) and normal CCLs from 12 young beagles (control group) were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for expression of type I (COLI), type II (COLII), type III collagen (COLIII) and Sry-type HMG box 9 (SOX9). Cell density and morphology of CCLs were quantified using hematoxylin–eosin staining. The percentage of round cells was higher in the CCLR group than in controls. COLI-positive areas were seen extensively in the connecting fibers, but weakly represented in the cytoplasm of normal CCLs. In the CCLR group, there were fewer COLI-positive areas, but many COLI-positive cells. The percentages of COLII-, COLIII- and SOX9-positive cells were higher in the CCLR group than in controls. The number of spindle cells with perinuclear halo was high in the CCLR group, and most of these cells were SOX9-positive. Deposition of COLI, the main ECM component of ligaments, decreased with increased COLIII expression in degenerated CCL tissue, which shows that the deposition of the ECM is changed in CCLR. On the contrary, expression of SOX9 increased, which may contribute to the synthesis of cartilage matrix. The expression of COLII and SOX9 in ligamentocytes showed that these cells tend to differentiate into chondrocytes. PMID:25716871

  9. Minimally-invasive posterior lumbar stabilization for degenerative low back pain and sciatica. A review.

    PubMed

    Bonaldi, G; Brembilla, C; Cianfoni, A

    2015-05-01

    The most diffused surgical techniques for stabilization of the painful degenerated and instable lumbar spine, represented by transpedicular screws and rods instrumentation with or without interbody cages or disk replacements, require widely open and/or difficult and poorly anatomical accesses. However, such surgical techniques and approaches, although still considered "standard of care", are burdened by high costs, long recovery times and several potential complications. Hence the effort to open new minimally-invasive surgical approaches to eliminate painful abnormal motion. The surgical and radiological communities are exploring, since more than a decade, alternative, minimally-invasive or even percutaneous techniques to fuse and lock an instable lumbar segment. Another promising line of research is represented by the so-called dynamic stabilization (non-fusion or motion preservation back surgery), which aims to provide stabilization to the lumbar spinal units (SUs), while maintaining their mobility and function. Risk of potential complications of traditional fusion methods (infection, CSF leaks, harvest site pain, instrumentation failure) are reduced, particularly transitional disease (i.e., the biomechanical stresses imposed on the adjacent segments, resulting in delayed degenerative changes in adjacent facet joints and discs). Dynamic stabilization modifies the distribution of loads within the SU, moving them away from sensitive (painful) areas of the SU. Basic biomechanics of the SU will be discussed, to clarify the mode of action of the different posterior stabilization devices. Most devices are minimally invasive or percutaneous, thus accessible to radiologists' interventional practice. Devices will be described, together with indications for patient selection, surgical approaches and possible complications. PMID:24906245

  10. Arthroscopic Treatment of Subchondral Bony Cyst in Early Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joint Using Allogeneic Bone Graft: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gi-Soo; Kang, Chan; Lee, Jung-Bum; Noh, Chang-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Subchondral bony cyst, large solitary or multiple cysts in acetabular dome usually exacerbate progression to degenerative osteoarthritis in the hip joint. But it can be treated through arthroscopic intervention. We report two cases that treated by arthroscopic curettage and bone graft for subchondral bony cysts in early osteoarthritis of the hip joint, and it may delay progression to moderate osteoarthritis.

  11. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  12. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: gout (especially ...

  13. Compliant joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Kerley, James J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging-based interpretation of degenerative changes in the lower lumbar segments and therapeutic consequences

    PubMed Central

    Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Khan, M Fawad

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis of the lumbar spine are, among others, well known as a cause of low back and lower extremity pain. Together with their secondary disorders they set a big burden on health care systems and economics worldwide. Despite modern imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, for a large proportion of patients with low back pain (LBP) it remains difficult to provide a specific diagnosis. The fact that nearly all the lumbar structures are possible sources of LBP, may serve as a possible explanation. Furthermore, our clinical experience confirms, that imaging alone is not a sufficient approach explaining LBP. Here, the Oswestry Disability Index, as the most commonly used measure to quantify disability for LBP, may serve as an easy-to-apply questionnaire to evaluate the patient’s ability to cope with everyday life. For therapeutic purposes, among the different options, the lumbar facet joint intra-articular injection of corticosteroids in combination with an anaesthetic solution is one of the most frequently performed interventional procedures. Although widely used the clinical benefit of intra-articular steroid injections remains controversial. Therefore, prior to therapy, standardized diagnostic algorithms for an accurate assessment, classification and correlation of degenerative changes of the lumbar spine are needed. PMID:26339462

  15. Study of the Clinical Outcome between Traumatic and Degenerative (non-traumatic) Meniscal Tears after Arthroscopic Surgery: A 4-Years Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghislain, Nietiayurk Aminake; Wei, Ji-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The meniscus is a biconcave fibrocartilage in the knee joint interpose between the femoral condyles and tibial plateau; the meniscus has functions in load bearing, load transmission, shock absorption joint stability, joint lubrication, and joint congruity. Aim The aim of this study is to provide orthopeadic surgeon a base of reference in the choice of the optimal course of management for meniscal tears. Materials and Methods One hundred and seventeen patients met the criteria of inclusion for the present study. Patients were divided in two groups T and NT according to the presence of distinct previous traumatic events to the knees. Two subgroups were formed in each groups T and NT respectively at a mean follow up of 1 and 4 years. Postoperative clinical outcome were assessed using Lysholm scores and Rand SF-36 survey. Results One hundred and seventeen patients were included in the present study with 60(51.28%) patients in the traumatic group and 57(48.71%) in the degenerative group. 95(81.19%) patients in total were satisfied with their health status at end of follow up. The mean value of Lysholm scores at 1 year were respectively 85.25±8.78 for traumatic group and 86.38±12.14 for non-traumatic group and at 4 years were respectively 92.63±7.31 for traumatic group and 72.90±20.77 for non-traumatic group. According to Rand SF-36 health, traumatic group showed better improvements compare to non-traumatic group between 1 and 4 years after arthroscopic meniscus surgery. Conclusion A total of 95(81.19%) patients in total were satisfied with their health status at follow up, however, we found that arthroscopy as a treatment for meniscal tear have a relatively better mid-term clinical outcome for traumatic meniscal tears compare to non-traumatic/degenerative meniscal tears. PMID:27190905

  16. Degenerative Sacrolisthesis of S1-S2: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, Thakre Kunwar; Issac, Thomas; Swamy, B Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is usually seen at L4-L5 level and less frequently at L5-S1 level. This is a rare case report of spondylolisthesis of S1 over S2 with lumbarization of S1. Lumbarization of S1 is seen in just 1-2% of the population and to have spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer. The purpose is to report a rare case of DS at S1-S2 level. Case Report: This is a single case report of a 66-year-old gentleman who presented with complains of lower backache for 2 years and acute retention of urine to the emergency department. Detailed clinical and radiological evaluation of the spine was done which revealed lumbarization of S1 with spondylolisthesis at S1-S2 and facetal hypertrophy at L5, S1, and S2. He underwent decompression and stabilization at L5, S1, and S2 along with placement of autologous bone graft. The bladder symptoms disappeared after 3 weeks. At 1-year follow-up, patient’s clinical symptoms were relieved, and he improved clinically. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first case of DS of sacral vertebrae to be reported in English literature. The prevalence of complete lumbarization is around 1.8% and to get spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer, hence the lack of literature in this regard. Since this is the first of its kind of case, further case series or longitudinal studies of such cases may help understand better the pathomechanics related to spondylolisthesis at this level. PMID:27299082

  17. Assay of synovial fluid parameters: hyaluronan concentration as a potential marker for joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Praest, B M; Greiling, H; Kock, R

    1997-10-31

    Synovial fluids from the knees of patients with degenerative joint disease (n = 29), osteoarthritis (n = 16), diabetic arthropathy (n = 12), gout (n = 7) and acute inflammatory joint disease (n = 7) were investigated by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography combined with multiangle laser light scattering detection and differential refractometry. These data were compared with the viscosities of the same samples measured by rotation viscometry with one low shear rate, as well as with C reactive protein. The median value of the weight-average molecular weight of hyaluronan in synovial fluids, which differed less than the viscosity of these groups, varied between 1.09 x 10(6) g/mol (range 0.849-1.63 x 10(6) g/mol) (acute-inflammatory joint disease) and 1.91 x 10(6) g/mol (range 1.06-3.48 x 10(6) g/mol) (degenerative joint disease). The correlation between viscosity and hyaluronan concentration was much better than between viscosity and weight-average molecular weight. Changes in C reactive protein concentration were correlated with the disease activity. The concentration of hyaluronan was significantly higher in the cases of degenerative joint disease and diabetic arthropathy. These results suggest that synovial fluid concentration of hyaluronan is appropriate as a prognostic value in the evaluation of different kinds of joint diseases. PMID:9437540

  18. Cells from Degenerative Intervertebral Discs Demonstrate Unfavorable Responses to Mechanical and Inflammatory Stimuli: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Coelho, J. Paulo; Vo, Nam V.; Pacek, Corey; Westrick, Edward; Kang, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mechanical forces and inflammatory signaling influence intervertebral disc matrix homeostasis. We hypothesized that annulus fibrosus cells from degenerative discs would have altered responses to mechanical and inflammatory stimuli compared with cells isolated from normal discs. Design Annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits with normal and magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed degenerative discs created by annular stab. Cells were cultured with and without inflammatory and mechanical stimuli (tensile strain). After 4 or 24 hrs, the mRNA expression of inflammatory, catabolic, and anabolic genes was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Baseline gene expression differences were noted between cells from normal and degenerative discs. Degenerative cells demonstrated a more proinflammatory response profile to inflammatory and mechanical stimuli and loss of the beneficial effects of mechanical signaling. Decreased expression of catabolic and anabolic genes was observed in degenerative cells under conditions of inflammatory and mechanical stimuli. Conclusions These data demonstrate that degenerative cells have a decreased capacity to respond positively to beneficial levels of mechanical strain and demonstrate an exaggerated response to an inflammatory stimulus. This may, in part, help to explain differential responses to motion-based therapies in patients with intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:22760106

  19. Hybrid k -Nearest Neighbor Classifier.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Hantao; Liuxs, Jiming; You, Jane; Leung, Hareton; Han, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Conventional k -nearest neighbor (KNN) classification approaches have several limitations when dealing with some problems caused by the special datasets, such as the sparse problem, the imbalance problem, and the noise problem. In this paper, we first perform a brief survey on the recent progress of the KNN classification approaches. Then, the hybrid KNN (HBKNN) classification approach, which takes into account the local and global information of the query sample, is designed to address the problems raised from the special datasets. In the following, the random subspace ensemble framework based on HBKNN (RS-HBKNN) classifier is proposed to perform classification on the datasets with noisy attributes in the high-dimensional space. Finally, the nonparametric tests are proposed to be adopted to compare the proposed method with other classification approaches over multiple datasets. The experiments on the real-world datasets from the Knowledge Extraction based on Evolutionary Learning dataset repository demonstrate that RS-HBKNN works well on real datasets, and outperforms most of the state-of-the-art classification approaches. PMID:26126291

  20. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  1. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order concerning the classification of...

  2. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  3. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order concerning the classification of...

  4. 14 CFR 1216.310 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified actions. 1216.310 Section 1216... 1216.3 Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) § 1216.310 Classified... environmental impacts of a proposed action. (b) When classified information can reasonably be separated...

  5. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  6. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a proposed action is of a classified nature does not relieve the proponent of the action from complying with...

  7. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  8. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  9. 12 CFR 1301.9 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified information. 1301.9 Section 1301.9 Banks and Banking FINANCIAL STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 1301.9 Classified information. (a) Referrals of requests for classified information. Whenever a request is made for a...

  10. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  11. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  12. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a proposed action is of a classified nature does not relieve the proponent of the action from complying with...

  13. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  14. 12 CFR 1070.19 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified information. 1070.19 Section 1070.19... of Information Act § 1070.19 Classified information. Whenever a request is made for a record containing information that another agency has classified, or which may be appropriate for classification...

  15. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  16. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  17. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a proposed action is of a classified nature does not relieve the proponent of the action from complying with...

  18. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  19. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  20. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order concerning the classification of...

  1. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  2. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  3. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  4. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  5. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order concerning the classification of...

  6. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  7. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  8. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  9. 12 CFR 1070.19 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classified information. 1070.19 Section 1070.19... of Information Act § 1070.19 Classified information. Whenever a request is made for a record containing information that another agency has classified, or which may be appropriate for classification...

  10. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  11. 28 CFR 16.44 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information. 16.44 Section 16... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 16.44 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified...

  12. 12 CFR 1301.9 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classified information. 1301.9 Section 1301.9 Banks and Banking FINANCIAL STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 1301.9 Classified information. (a) Referrals of requests for classified information. Whenever a request is made for a...

  13. 6 CFR 5.24 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified information. 5.24 Section 5.24... INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.24 Classified information. In processing a request for access to a record containing information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 or any other executive order,...

  14. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  15. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  16. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a proposed action is of a classified nature does not relieve the proponent of the action from complying with...

  17. 28 CFR 61.8 - Classified proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classified proposals. 61.8 Section 61.8... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.8 Classified proposals. If an environmental document includes classified matter, a version containing only unclassified material shall be prepared unless...

  18. 12 CFR 1070.19 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classified information. 1070.19 Section 1070.19... of Information Act § 1070.19 Classified information. Whenever a request is made for a record containing information that another agency has classified, or which may be appropriate for classification...

  19. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  20. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  1. 28 CFR 16.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified information. 16.7 Section...

  2. 32 CFR 148.2 - Classified programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classified programs. 148.2 Section 148.2... Inspections of Facilities § 148.2 Classified programs. Once a facility is authorized, approved, certified, or accredited, all U.S. Government organizations desiring to conduct classified programs at the facility at...

  3. 6 CFR 5.7 - Classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act § 5.7 Classified information. In processing a request for information that is classified under Executive Order 12958 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 333) or any other executive order, the... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified information. 5.7 Section 5.7...

  4. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information..., the information shall be reviewed to determine whether it should remain classified. Ordinarily...

  5. The sternocostoclavicular joint: normal and abnormal features.

    PubMed

    Le Loët, Xavier; Vittecoq, Olivier

    2002-03-01

    Many physicians are unfamiliar with the characteristics of the sternocostoclavicular joint (SCCJ). Disorders of the SCCJ, although common, frequently escape recognition. Computed tomography (CT) with thin slices and no gap is at presentthe best means of investigating the SCCJ. CTfeatures in normal subjects have been described in detail; some are misleading. The most common SCCJ disorder is degenerative disease manifesting as osteoarthritis or as periarticular lesions causing antero-medial dislocation of the clavicle. Septic arthritis is the most severe disorder and can lead to mediastinitis. All inflammatory joint diseases, including spondyloarthropathies, can affect the SCCJ. SCCJ involvement is a typical component of the osteoarticular manifestations seen in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis. PMID:12027306

  6. Entropic One-Class Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Livi, Lorenzo; Sadeghian, Alireza; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-12-01

    The one-class classification problem is a well-known research endeavor in pattern recognition. The problem is also known under different names, such as outlier and novelty/anomaly detection. The core of the problem consists in modeling and recognizing patterns belonging only to a so-called target class. All other patterns are termed nontarget, and therefore, they should be recognized as such. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class classification system that is based on an interplay of different techniques. Primarily, we follow a dissimilarity representation-based approach; we embed the input data into the dissimilarity space (DS) by means of an appropriate parametric dissimilarity measure. This step allows us to process virtually any type of data. The dissimilarity vectors are then represented by weighted Euclidean graphs, which we use to determine the entropy of the data distribution in the DS and at the same time to derive effective decision regions that are modeled as clusters of vertices. Since the dissimilarity measure for the input data is parametric, we optimize its parameters by means of a global optimization scheme, which considers both mesoscopic and structural characteristics of the data represented through the graphs. The proposed one-class classifier is designed to provide both hard (Boolean) and soft decisions about the recognition of test patterns, allowing an accurate description of the classification process. We evaluate the performance of the system on different benchmarking data sets, containing either feature-based or structured patterns. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. PMID:25879977

  7. Classifier mills for coal grinding and drying

    SciTech Connect

    Galk, J.; Peukert, W.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents a special air classifier mill for coal grinding. Air classifier mills use the two fundamental process steps grinding and classifying in one machine. An essential advantage is the independent operation of grinding rotor speed and classifier rotor speed. This offers good control of the produced particle size distribution and great flexibility in process control. Using an air classifier mill for grinding coal followed by direct injection into the firing chamber allows for good control of burnout. Another advantage is that drying of coal can take place as a parallel step by heating process air passing through the classifier mill. In this report an air classifier mill, some typical process data, possible throughput, and an industrial application are shown.

  8. Joint lubrication.

    PubMed

    McCutchen, C W

    1983-01-01

    The fine-pored, easily compressed articular cartilage provides animal joints with self-pressurized hydrostatic (weeping) lubrication. The solid skeletons of the cartilages press against each other, but so lightly that their rubbing is lubricated successfully by synovial fluid--a boundary lubricant too weak to lubricate ordinary bearings. PMID:6317095

  9. Do Cartilage Repair Procedures Prevent Degenerative Meniscus Changes? Longitudinal T1ρ and Morphological Evaluation at 3.0T

    PubMed Central

    Jungmann, Pia M.; Li, Xiaojuan; Nardo, Lorenzo; Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Lin, Wilson; Ma, C. Benjamin; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cartilage repair (CR) procedures are widely accepted for treatment of isolated cartilage defects at the knee joint. However, it is not well known whether these procedures prevent degenerative joint disease. Hypothesis/Purpose CR procedures prevent accelerated qualitative and quantitative progression of meniscus degeneration in individuals with focal cartilage defects. Study Design Cohort Study; Level of evidence 2b Methods A total of 94 subjects were studied. CR procedures were performed on 34 patients (n=16 osteochondral transplantation, n=18 microfracture); 34 controls were matched. An additional 13 patients received CR and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (CR&ACL) and 13 patients received only ACL reconstruction. 3.0T MRI with T1ρ mapping and sagittal fat-saturated intermediate-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences was performed to analyze menisci quantitatively and qualitatively (Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score, WORMS). CR and CR&ACL patients were examined 4 months (n=34; n=13), 1 (n=21; n=8) and 2 (n=9; n=5) years post CR. Control subjects were scanned at baseline and after 1 and 2 years, ACL patients after 1 and 2 years. Results At baseline, global meniscus T1ρ values were higher in individuals with CR (14.2±0.6ms; P=0.004) and in individuals with CR&ACL (17.1±0.9ms; P<0.001) when compared to controls (12.8±0.6ms). After two years, there was a statistical difference between T1ρ at the overlying meniscus above cartilage defects (16.4±1.0ms) and T1ρ of the subgroup of control knees without cartilage defects (12.1±0.8ms; P<0.001) and a statistical trend to the CR group (13.3±1.0 ms; P=0.088). At baseline, 35% of subjects with CR showed morphological meniscus tears at the overlying meniscus; 10% of CR subjects showed an increase of WORMS meniscus score within the first year, none progressed in the second year. Control subjects with (without) cartilage defects showed meniscus tears in 30% (5%) at baseline; 38% (19

  10. A hybrid classifier for remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, G S; Schardt, M; Balzuweit, G; Hussain, M

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents a hybrid-unsupervised and supervised-classifier for land use classification of remote sensing images. The entire satellite image is quantized by an unsupervised Neural Gas process and the resulting codebook is labeled by a supervised majority voting process using the ground truth. The performance of the classifier is similar to that of Maximum Likelihood and is only a little worse than Multilayer Perceptions while training and classifying requires no expert knowledge after collecting the ground truth. The hybrid classifier is much better suited to classifications with complex non-normally distributed classes than Maximum Likelihood. The main advantage of the Neural Gas classifier, however, is that it requires much less user interaction than other classifiers, especially Maximum Likelihood. PMID:9228578

  11. Error minimizing algorithms for nearest eighbor classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Don; Zimmer, G. Beate

    2011-01-03

    Stack Filters define a large class of discrete nonlinear filter first introd uced in image and signal processing for noise removal. In recent years we have suggested their application to classification problems, and investigated their relationship to other types of discrete classifiers such as Decision Trees. In this paper we focus on a continuous domain version of Stack Filter Classifiers which we call Ordered Hypothesis Machines (OHM), and investigate their relationship to Nearest Neighbor classifiers. We show that OHM classifiers provide a novel framework in which to train Nearest Neighbor type classifiers by minimizing empirical error based loss functions. We use the framework to investigate a new cost sensitive loss function that allows us to train a Nearest Neighbor type classifier for low false alarm rate applications. We report results on both synthetic data and real-world image data.

  12. Feasibility of T2* mapping for the evaluation of hip joint cartilage at 1.5T using a three-dimensional (3D), gradient-echo (GRE) sequence: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S; Hughes, Tim; Kim, Young-Jo; Werlen, Stefan; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Mamisch, Tallal C

    2009-10-01

    This study defines the feasibility of utilizing three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI at 1.5T for T(2)* mapping to assess hip joint cartilage degenerative changes using standard morphological MR grading while comparing it to delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). MRI was obtained from 10 asymptomatic young adult volunteers and 33 patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The protocol included T(2)* mapping without gadolinium-enhancement utilizing a 3D-GRE sequence with six echoes, and after gadolinium injection, routine hip sequences, and a dual-flip-angle 3D-GRE sequence for dGEMRIC T(1) mapping. Cartilage was classified as normal, with mild changes, or with severe degenerative changes based on morphological MRI. T(1) and T(2)* findings were subsequently correlated. There were significant differences between volunteers and patients in normally-rated cartilage only for T(1) values. Both T(1) and T(2)* values decreased significantly with the various grades of cartilage damage. There was a statistically significant correlation between standard MRI and T(2)* (T(1)) (P < 0.05). High intraclass correlation was noted for both T(1) and T(2)*. Correlation factor was 0.860 to 0.954 (T(2)*-T(1) intraobserver) and 0.826 to 0.867 (T(2)*-T(1) interobserver). It is feasible to gather further information about cartilage status within the hip joint using GRE T(2)* mapping at 1.5T. PMID:19645008

  13. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Interferon Signalling Molecules and IGFBP3 in Human Degenerative Annulus Fibrosus.

    PubMed

    Kazezian, Zepur; Gawri, Rahul; Haglund, Lisbet; Ouellet, Jean; Mwale, Fackson; Tarrant, Finbarr; O'Gaora, Peadar; Pandit, Abhay; Alini, Mauro; Grad, Sibylle

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a major cause of disability especially for people between 20 and 50 years of age. As a costly healthcare problem, it imposes a serious socio-economic burden. Current surgical therapies fail to replace the normal disc in facilitating spinal movements and absorbing load. The focus of regenerative medicine is on identifying biomarkers and signalling pathways to improve our understanding about cascades of disc degeneration and allow for the design of specific therapies. We hypothesized that comparing microarray profiles from degenerative and non-degenerative discs will lead to the identification of dysregulated signalling and pathophysiological targets. Microarray data sets were generated from human annulus fibrosus cells and analysed using IPA ingenuity pathway analysis. Gene expression values were validated by qRT-PCR, and respective proteins were identified by immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 238 differentially expressed genes in the degenerative annulus fibrosus. Seventeen of the dysregulated molecular markers showed log2-fold changes greater than ±1.5. Various dysregulated cellular functions, including cell proliferation and inflammatory response, were identified. The most significant canonical pathway induced in degenerative annulus fibrosus was found to be the interferon pathway. This study indicates interferon-alpha signalling pathway activation with IFIT3 and IGFBP3 up-regulation, which may affect cellular function in human degenerative disc. PMID:26489762

  14. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Interferon Signalling Molecules and IGFBP3 in Human Degenerative Annulus Fibrosus

    PubMed Central

    Kazezian, Zepur; Gawri, Rahul; Haglund, Lisbet; Ouellet, Jean; Mwale, Fackson; Tarrant, Finbarr; O’Gaora, Peadar; Pandit, Abhay; Alini, Mauro; Grad, Sibylle

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a major cause of disability especially for people between 20 and 50 years of age. As a costly healthcare problem, it imposes a serious socio-economic burden. Current surgical therapies fail to replace the normal disc in facilitating spinal movements and absorbing load. The focus of regenerative medicine is on identifying biomarkers and signalling pathways to improve our understanding about cascades of disc degeneration and allow for the design of specific therapies. We hypothesized that comparing microarray profiles from degenerative and non-degenerative discs will lead to the identification of dysregulated signalling and pathophysiological targets. Microarray data sets were generated from human annulus fibrosus cells and analysed using IPA ingenuity pathway analysis. Gene expression values were validated by qRT-PCR, and respective proteins were identified by immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 238 differentially expressed genes in the degenerative annulus fibrosus. Seventeen of the dysregulated molecular markers showed log2-fold changes greater than ±1.5. Various dysregulated cellular functions, including cell proliferation and inflammatory response, were identified. The most significant canonical pathway induced in degenerative annulus fibrosus was found to be the interferon pathway. This study indicates interferon-alpha signalling pathway activation with IFIT3 and IGFBP3 up-regulation, which may affect cellular function in human degenerative disc. PMID:26489762

  15. Biomechanical behavior of plantar fat pad in healthy and degenerative foot conditions.

    PubMed

    Fontanella, Chiara Giulia; Nalesso, Federica; Carniel, Emanuele Luigi; Natali, Arturo N

    2016-04-01

    The plantar fat pad of the human foot is a specific tissue made up of adipose chambers enveloped by fibrous septa. Aging, pathology or trauma may affect its histo-morphological configuration and mechanical response. The correlation between histo-morphological configuration and mechanical properties is analyzed by a computational approach, aiming to identify the influence of degenerative phenomena on plantar fat pad mechanics. Finite element meso-models, as numerical model of an intermediate-length scale, are developed for healthy and degenerative conditions, considering the different properties that degenerative phenomena may affect, such as the adipose chambers dimension, the fibrous septa thickness, the fibers orientation and the sub-components mechanical behavior. Histo-morphometric data are analyzed to identify average configurations of the fat chambers and fibrous septa, while specific constitutive formulations are provided to define their mechanical response. Numerical analyses are performed to identify the stress-strain behavior of the plantar fat pad considering healthy and degenerative configurations. The results from meso-models are applied to identify the parameters of a phenomenological constitutive formulation that interprets the overall human fat pad tissue mechanics. The constitutive formulation is implemented within a 3D finite element model of the heel region that is applied to evaluate the influence of degenerative phenomena on the overall mechanical functionality of the foot. PMID:26272439

  16. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  17. Effects of age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of human nucleus pulposus cells on selecting age range for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Lee, S M; Jeong, S W; Sung, Y G; Lee, J H; Kim, K W

    2016-07-01

    Autologous disc cell implantation, growth factors and gene therapy appear to be promising therapies for disc regeneration. Unfortunately, the replicative lifespan and growth kinetics of human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells related to host age are unclear. We investigated the potential relations among age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of NP cells, and determined the age range that is suitable for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases. We used NP tissues classified by decade into five age groups: 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s. The mean cumulative population doubling level (PDL) and population doubling rate (PDR) of NP cells were assessed by decade. We also investigated correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR decreased significantly in patients in their 60s. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR in the younger groups (30s, 40s and 50s) were significantly higher than those in the older groups (60s and 70s). There also were significant negative correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. We found that the replicative lifespan and growth rate of human NP cells decreased with age. The replicative potential of NP cells decreased significantly in patients 60 years old and older. Young individuals less than 60 years old may be suitable candidates for NP cell-based biological therapies for treating degenerative disc diseases. PMID:27149303

  18. Bowman lecture on the role of inflammation in degenerative disease of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, J V

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation, in the pathogenesis of many diseases previously thought to be strictly genetic, degenerative, metabolic, or endocrinologic in aetiology, has gradually entered the framework of a general mechanism of disease. This is exemplified by conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and the more recently described Metabolic Syndrome. Chronic inflammatory processes have a significant, if not primary role, in ophthalmic diseases, particularly in retinal degenerative diseases. However, inflammation itself is not easy to define, and some aspects of inflammation may be beneficial, in a process described as ‘para-inflammation' by Medhzitov. In contrast, the damaging effects of inflammation, mediated by pro-inflammatory macrophages through activation of the intracellular protein-signalling complexes, termed inflammasomes, are well recognised and are important therapeutic targets. In this review, the range of inflammatory processes in the eye is evaluated in the context of how these processes impact upon retinal degenerative disease, particularly diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:23288138

  19. Intervertebral Fusion with Mobile Microendoscopic Discectomy for Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-Shan; Liu, Yue; Xu, Hai-Wei; Yang, Qiang; Ma, Xin-Long; Hu, Yong-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a technique for lumbar intervertebral fusion that incorporates mobile microendoscopic discectomy (MMED) for lumbar degenerative disc disease. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion is frequently performed to treat degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine; however, the scope of such surgery and vision is limited by what the naked eye can see through the expanding channel system. To expand the visual scope and reduce trauma, we perform lumbar intervertebral fusion with the aid of a MMED system that provides a wide field through freely tilting the surgical instrument and canals. We believe that this technique is a good option for treating lumbar degenerative disc disease that requires lumbar intervertebral fusion. PMID:27384734

  20. Novel Insights into Acid-Sensing Ion Channels: Implications for Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ren-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Zhi-Sen; Xie, Ya-Ya; Ge, Jin-Fang; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative diseases often strike older adults and are characterized by progressive deterioration of cells, eventually leading to tissue and organ degeneration for which limited effective treatment options are currently available. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of extracellular H+-activated ligand-gated ion channels, play critical roles in physiological and pathological conditions. Aberrant activation of ASICs is reported to regulate cell apoptosis, differentiation and autophagy. Accumulating evidence has highlighted a dramatic increase and activation of ASICs in degenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, intervertebral disc degeneration and arthritis. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the critical roles of ASICs and their potential utility as therapeutic targets in degenerative diseases. PMID:27493834

  1. Novel Insights into Acid-Sensing Ion Channels: Implications for Degenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ren-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Zhi-Sen; Xie, Ya-Ya; Ge, Jin-Fang; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2016-08-01

    Degenerative diseases often strike older adults and are characterized by progressive deterioration of cells, eventually leading to tissue and organ degeneration for which limited effective treatment options are currently available. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of extracellular H(+)-activated ligand-gated ion channels, play critical roles in physiological and pathological conditions. Aberrant activation of ASICs is reported to regulate cell apoptosis, differentiation and autophagy. Accumulating evidence has highlighted a dramatic increase and activation of ASICs in degenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, intervertebral disc degeneration and arthritis. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the critical roles of ASICs and their potential utility as therapeutic targets in degenerative diseases. PMID:27493834

  2. Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors in the Treatment of Retinal Degenerative Diseases: Overview and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Du, Wei; Pang, Ji-jing

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases are one of the important refractory ophthalmic diseases, featured with apoptosis of photoreceptor cells. Histone acetylation and deacetylation can regulate chromosome assembly, gene transcription, and posttranslational modification, which are regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. The histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have the ability to cause hyperacetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, resulting in a variety of effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Several HDACis have been approved for clinical trials to treat cancer. Studies have shown that HDACis have neuroprotective effects in nervous system damage. In this paper, we will summarize the neuroprotective effects of common HDACis in retinal degenerative diseases and make a prospect to the applications of HDACis in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in the future. PMID:26137316

  3. The Changes in the Expression of NF-KB in a Degenerative Human Intervertebral Disc model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongyi; Yin, Zhanmin; Liu, Chao; Tian, Jiwei

    2015-05-01

    We aim at determining the changes in the expression of NF-kB signaling pathway in degenerative intervertebral discs. We collected normal and degenerated intervertebral discs tissues. The normal and degenerated cells were cultivated and their histopathology and immunofluoresence studies were used to observe the position of NF-kB p65 in the cell. We also treated the nucleus pulposus cells with inflammatory factors and inhibitors. Western blot was used to analyze the expression of different proteins. Real time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR was used for observation of NF-kB regulation of change in gene expression. Immunofluorescence showed that in the non-degenerative group the p65 was found in the cytoplasm of the nucleus pulposus cell while in the degenerated cell group the p65 protein was found in the nucleus of the cell. The expression of p65 increased with increase in the degree of degenerative change of the nucleus pulposus cell. RT-PCR showed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, aggrecanases and IL-6 was higher in the degenerative group. The amount of aggrecan and type II collagen was significantly decreased in the degenerative group. IL-1β was able to upregulate the activation of NF-kB and the expression of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 was also significantly increased. The effect of these proteins can be inhibited by the NF-kB inhibitor, BAY11-7082. The activation of the NK-kB signaling pathway in a degenerative intervertebral disc is gradually increased, regulating the over-expression of matrix-degrading enzymes. It plays an important role in the degradation of extracellular matrix. PMID:25433723

  4. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  5. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  6. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  7. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  8. 48 CFR 927.207 - Classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classified contracts. 927.207 Section 927.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.207 Classified contracts....

  9. 32 CFR 775.5 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classified actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.5 Classified actions. (a) The fact that a...

  10. A fuzzy classifier system for process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.; Phillips, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A fuzzy classifier system that discovers rules for controlling a mathematical model of a pH titration system was developed by researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). Fuzzy classifier systems successfully combine the strengths of learning classifier systems and fuzzy logic controllers. Learning classifier systems resemble familiar production rule-based systems, but they represent their IF-THEN rules by strings of characters rather than in the traditional linguistic terms. Fuzzy logic is a tool that allows for the incorporation of abstract concepts into rule based-systems, thereby allowing the rules to resemble the familiar 'rules-of-thumb' commonly used by humans when solving difficult process control and reasoning problems. Like learning classifier systems, fuzzy classifier systems employ a genetic algorithm to explore and sample new rules for manipulating the problem environment. Like fuzzy logic controllers, fuzzy classifier systems encapsulate knowledge in the form of production rules. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the ability of fuzzy classifier systems to generate a fuzzy logic-based process control system.

  11. Evaluating degenerative changes in the wrist after surgical treatment for scaphoid pseudarthrosis using a corticocancellous graft for anatomical reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, Agnieszka; Baczkowski, Bogusław; Lorczyński, Adam; Sawicka, Joanna; Siwicka, Karolina

    2006-10-31

    Background. Pseudoarthrosis of the scaphoid results in the development of carpal instability and severe posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Modern methods of treatment focus on reconstruction of the anatomical shape and length of the scaphoid. The purpose of our study was to determine the occurrence of carpal osteoarthritis after surgical treatment of scaphoid pseudoarthrosis using a cortico-cancellous bone grafting technique. Material and methods. 48 patients who had undergone surgical treatment for scaphoid union failure were examined. The surgical method included the anatomical reconstruction of the scaphoid bone, which resulted in normal ligament tension and carpal stability. The clinical examination included pain evaluation, return to work, range of wrist motion, and grip strength. On comparative x-rays of both wrists we evaluated union, the length and shape of the scaphoid bone, the scapho-lunate angle, the carpal height ratio, and the carpal ulnar shift. Results. Union was obtained in 42 cases. In 26 patients there were no signs of osteoarthritis, while 11 patients had slight degenerative changes in the radio-scaphoid joint. Conclusions. According to our analysis, cortico-cancellous bone grafting is an effective surgical procedure, useful not only in obtaining union, but also in reconstructing the shape and length of the scaphoid and preventing posttraumatic carpal asteoarthritis. PMID:17589397

  12. Physical Activity After Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Laura A.; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Basti, John J.; Levine, William N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a common surgical option to treat painful degenerative joint disease. However, there is currently no consensus on the appropriate intensity of physical activity after TJA or how physical activity level affects the rate of revision surgery. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding physical or athletic activity after TJA was performed to determine current clinical opinion and recommendations regarding appropriate activity levels after TJA, as well as variables affecting successful surgery and improved outcomes. Results: Many studies in the literature regarding athletic activity after TJA focus on total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. The literature reports contradictory results regarding rates of physical activity after TJA as well as the relationship between physical activity and rates of revision surgery. The current trend in expert opinion shows more liberal recommendations for patients to engage in athletic activity after TJA. Conclusions: Individual characteristics, lifestyle, and patient preferences must be taken into account when one considers appropriate recommendations for athletic activity after TJA. Current trends in clinical opinion favor a higher level of athletic activity after TJA, but clinicians should caution patients not to participate in contact sports or sports that create high joint loads in the replaced joint. PMID:23016041

  13. Technique and pearls in performing the first metatarsal phalangeal joint arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Schnirring-Judge, Molly

    2011-04-01

    When there is a considerable loss of first metatarsal phalangeal joint (MTPJ) motion and/or ankylosis is apparent then a joint preservation procedure may not be feasible. For end-stage degenerative change within the MTPJ, nonreducible joint incongruity, or instability of the first MTPJ, an arthrodesis can provide the most predictable and, arguably, the most definitive correction of the deformity, especially in patients with higher functional demands. This article discusses principles of techniques with an emphasis on the procedure to prepare a successful arthrodesis, and expounds on technical nuances including those associated with fixation devices. PMID:21669343

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow in dialysis encephalopathy and primary degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Rabin, P.; Stone, W.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in patients with dialysis encephalopathy, primary degenerative dementia, dialysis patients with no central nervous system (CNS) complications, and normal controls. Both groups of dialysis patients (with and without CNS complications) demonstrated higher CBF values, and the dementia patients, lower CBF values than the controls. The dialysis patients had lower hematocrit, which correlated inversely with the cerebral blood flow. No such correlations were present in normals and patients with primary degenerative dementia. The dialysis patients and controls obtained similar CBF when the flow values were adjusted for the differences in hematocrit.

  15. The role of joint architecture in the etiology of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bullough, Peter G

    2004-01-01

    Focal degenerative changes occur in some joints very early in life. These changes in the articular cartilage appear to occur in the unloaded, rather than the loaded, areas of the joint. One possible cause for this pattern of degeneration is lack of use or stress in these particular areas of the joint; just as unused bone and unused muscle atrophy, so may unused cartilage. If these unloaded areas were never subjected to mechanical stress, degeneration at these sites perhaps would not be important. However, bones, including their articular ends, are in a constant state of change through the process of remodeling, which continues throughout life. Joint surfaces are not, in general, spherical, and therefore must be incongruent during most of their arc of movement. In the young person, this incongruity maintains physiologic loading and joint nutrition. Studies have shown age-related changes in the remodeling process that lead to increasing joint congruity in old age. These age-related increases in congruity may result in a redistribution of load in the joint such that there is an increased stress on formerly unloaded atrophic cartilage. Arthritis always results in a change in joint shape. It is suggested that a change in shape caused by a disturbance in the remodeling process may itself be an important contributing cause of osteoarthritis. PMID:14698635

  16. 18F Sodium Fluoride PET/CT in Patients with Prostate Cancer: Quantification of Normal Tissues, Benign Degenerative Lesions, and Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Oldan, Jorge D.; Hawkins, A. Stewart; Chin, Bennett B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the range and variability of normal, benign degenerative, and malignant 18F sodium fluoride (18F NaF) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) uptake is important in influencing clinical interpretation. Further, it is essential for the development of realistic semiautomated quantification techniques and simulation models. The purpose of this study is to determine the range of these values in a clinically relevant patient population with prostate cancer. 18F NaF PET/CT scans were analyzed in patients with prostate cancer (n = 47) referred for evaluation of bone metastases. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values [SUVs (SUVmean and SUVmax)] were made in normal background regions (n = 470) including soft tissues (liver, aorta, bladder, adipose, brain, and paraspinal muscle) and osseous structures (T12 vertebral body, femoral diaphyseal cortex, femoral head medullary space, and ribs). Degenerative joint disease (DJD; n = 281) and bone metastases (n = 159) were identified and quantified by an experienced reader using all scan information including coregistered CT. For normal bone regions, the highest 18F NaF PET SUVmean occurred in T12 (6.8 ± 1.4) and it also showed the lowest coefficient of variation (cv = 21%). For normal soft tissues, paraspinal muscles showed very low SUVmean (0.70 ± 0.11) and also showed the lowest variability (cv = 16%). Average SUVmean in metastatic lesions is higher than uptake in benign degenerative lesions but values showed a wide variance and overlapping values (16.3 ± 13 vs 11.1 ± 3.8; P < 0.00001). The normal 18F NaF PET uptake values for prostate cancer patients in normal background, benign degenerative disease, and osseous metastases are comparable to those reported for a general population with a wide variety of diagnoses. These normal ranges, specifically for prostate cancer patients, will aid in clinical interpretation and also help to establish the basis of normal limits in a semiautomated data

  17. (18)F Sodium Fluoride PET/CT in Patients with Prostate Cancer: Quantification of Normal Tissues, Benign Degenerative Lesions, and Malignant Lesions.

    PubMed

    Oldan, Jorge D; Hawkins, A Stewart; Chin, Bennett B

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the range and variability of normal, benign degenerative, and malignant (18)F sodium fluoride ((18)F NaF) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) uptake is important in influencing clinical interpretation. Further, it is essential for the development of realistic semiautomated quantification techniques and simulation models. The purpose of this study is to determine the range of these values in a clinically relevant patient population with prostate cancer. (18)F NaF PET/CT scans were analyzed in patients with prostate cancer (n = 47) referred for evaluation of bone metastases. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values [SUVs (SUVmean and SUVmax)] were made in normal background regions (n = 470) including soft tissues (liver, aorta, bladder, adipose, brain, and paraspinal muscle) and osseous structures (T12 vertebral body, femoral diaphyseal cortex, femoral head medullary space, and ribs). Degenerative joint disease (DJD; n = 281) and bone metastases (n = 159) were identified and quantified by an experienced reader using all scan information including coregistered CT. For normal bone regions, the highest (18)F NaF PET SUVmean occurred in T12 (6.8 ± 1.4) and it also showed the lowest coefficient of variation (cv = 21%). For normal soft tissues, paraspinal muscles showed very low SUVmean (0.70 ± 0.11) and also showed the lowest variability (cv = 16%). Average SUVmean in metastatic lesions is higher than uptake in benign degenerative lesions but values showed a wide variance and overlapping values (16.3 ± 13 vs 11.1 ± 3.8; P < 0.00001). The normal (18)F NaF PET uptake values for prostate cancer patients in normal background, benign degenerative disease, and osseous metastases are comparable to those reported for a general population with a wide variety of diagnoses. These normal ranges, specifically for prostate cancer patients, will aid in clinical interpretation and also help to establish the basis of normal limits in a

  18. Impact extractive fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daimaruya, M.; Fujiki, H.; Ambarita, H.

    2012-08-01

    This study is concerned with the development of a fracture criterion for the impact fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in a car body. For the accurate prediction of crash characteristics of car bodies by computer-aided engineering (CAE), it is also necessary to examine the behavior and fracture of jointed steel plates subjected to impact loads. Although the actual impact fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in cars is complicated, for simplifying the problem it might be classified into the shear fracture and the extractive fracture of jointed steel plates. Attention is given to the extractive fracture of jointed steel plates in this study. The extractive behavior and fracture of three kinds of steel plates used for cars are examined in experiments and numerical simulations. The impact extraction test of steel plates jointed by a bolt is performed using the one-bar method, together with the static test. In order to understand the mechanism of extractive fracture process of jointed steel plates, numerical simulations by a FEM code LS-DYNA are also carried out. The obtained results suggest that a stress-based fracture criterion may be developed for the impact extractive fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in a car body.

  19. Integrating heterogeneous classifier ensembles for EMG signal decomposition based on classifier agreement.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sarbast; Stashuk, Daniel W; Kamel, Mohamed S

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we present a design methodology for integrating heterogeneous classifier ensembles by employing a diversity-based hybrid classifier fusion approach, whose aggregator module consists of two classifier combiners, to achieve an improved classification performance for motor unit potential classification during electromyographic (EMG) signal decomposition. Following the so-called overproduce and choose strategy to classifier ensemble combination, the developed system allows the construction of a large set of base classifiers, and then automatically chooses subsets of classifiers to form candidate classifier ensembles for each combiner. The system exploits kappa statistic diversity measure to design classifier teams through estimating the level of agreement between base classifier outputs. The pool of base classifiers consists of different kinds of classifiers: the adaptive certainty-based, the adaptive fuzzy k -NN, and the adaptive matched template filter classifiers; and utilizes different types of features. Performance of the developed system was evaluated using real and simulated EMG signals, and was compared with the performance of the constituent base classifiers. Across the EMG signal datasets used, the developed system had better average classification performance overall, especially in terms of reducing classification errors. For simulated signals of varying intensity, the developed system had an average correct classification rate CCr of 93.8% and an error rate Er of 2.2% compared to 93.6% and 3.2%, respectively, for the best base classifier in the ensemble. For simulated signals with varying amounts of shape and/or firing pattern variability, the developed system had a CCr of 89.1% with an Er of 4.7% compared to 86.3% and 5.6%, respectively, for the best classifier. For real signals, the developed system had a CCr of 89.4% with an Er of 3.9% compared to 84.6% and 7.1%, respectively, for the best classifier. PMID:19171524

  20. Zigzag configurations and air classifier performance

    SciTech Connect

    Peirce, J.J.; Wittenberg, N.

    1984-03-01

    The fundamental aspects of zigzag air classifier configurations are studied in terms of the design and operation of a waste-to-energy production facility. The development of a method of performance evaluation defined by operating range is examined. Historically, air classification has been used in industry and agriculture in mineral extraction, limestone sizing, and seed and grain cleaning. However, the adaption of air classifiers to resource recovery and waste-to-energy production facilities presents new problems due to the complex and variable nature of the wastes. A series of configurations providing a continuous range of zigzag classifier shape components are tested. Each configuration is evaluated to determine its efficiency of separation, and sensitivity to operating air speeds. Results indicate that the configuration of a zigzag classifier does not influence its peak efficiency of separation. However, findings point to distinct limits on operating parameters which lead to peak efficiencies for the different configurations. These operating range values represent the sensitivity of the air classifier to changes in the air flow. A major finding concerns the effect of configuration on the particle size distribution observed in the material exiting the classifier: smaller particles appear to be influenced by configuration changes and larger particles do not. A new method for classifier performance evaluation is developed and applied.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Uninstrumented Posterolateral Fusion in the Degenerative Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Jalalpour, Kourosh; Neumann, Pavel; Johansson, Christer; Hedlund, Rune

    2015-08-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective Despite a large number of publications of outcomes after spinal fusion surgery, there is still no consensus on the efficacy of the several different fusion methods. The aim of this study was to determine whether transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) results in an improved clinical outcome compared with uninstrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) in the surgical treatment for chronic low back pain. Methods This study included 135 patients with degenerative disk disease (n = 96) or postdiskectomy syndrome (n = 39). Inclusion criteria were at least 1 year of back pain with or without leg pain in patients aged 20 to 65 with one- or two-level disease. Exclusion criteria were sequestration of disk hernia, psychosocial instability, isthmic spondylolisthesis, drug abuse, and previous spine surgery other than diskectomy. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale (pain index). Functional disability was quantified by the disability rating index and Oswestry Disability Index. The global outcome was assessed by the patient and classified as much better, better, unchanged, or worse. The patients were randomized to conventional uninstrumented PLF (n = 67) or TLIF (n = 68). PLF was performed in a standardized fashion using autograft. TLIF was performed with pedicle titanium screw fixation and a porous tantalum interbody spacer with interbody and posterolateral autograft. The clinical outcome measurements were obtained preoperatively and at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. The 2-year follow-up rate was 98%. Results The two treatment groups improved significantly from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up. At final follow-up, the results in the TLIF group were significantly superior to those in the PLF group in pain index (2.0 versus 3.9, p = 0.007) and in disability rating index (22 versus 36, p = 0.003). The Oswestry Disability Index was better in the TLIF group (20 versus 28, p = 0

  2. Palatal and Oromandibular Tremor Secondary to Degenerative Olivary Hypertrophy After Ependymoma Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Ros, Alberto; Miranda-Acuña, Jahir A; Hidalgo-de la Cruz, Milagros; Fernández-García, Pilar; Massot-Tarrús, Andreu; García-Domínguez, José M

    2016-09-01

    Palatal tremor (PT) is a rare movement disorder that involves pharynx, tongue, and other facial muscles. Symptomatic PT is due to lesions on the dentate-rubro-olivary pathways. We present an illustrative case of PT due to degenerative olivary hypertrophy after ependymoma surgery. PMID:27564077

  3. Nutritional degenerative myopathy in a population of captive bred Uroplatus phantasticus (satanic leaf-tailed geckoes).

    PubMed

    Les Gabor, J

    2005-01-01

    Severe generalized degenerative myopathy was diagnosed in a population of captive bred satanic leaf-tailed geckoes (Uroplatus phantasticus). The diagnosis was based on characteristic histological changes and response to dietary therapy. This is the first reported case of nutritional myopathy in the satanic leaf-tailed gecko. PMID:15690956

  4. Short aggrecan gene repetitive alleles associated with lumbar degenerative disc disease in Turkish patients.

    PubMed

    Eser, O; Eser, B; Cosar, M; Erdogan, M O; Aslan, A; Yıldız, H; Solak, M; Haktanır, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a possible association between aggrecan gene polymorphism and lumbar degenerative disc disease in Turkish patients. One hundred 20-30-year-old patients with or without low back pain were selected for the study. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all patients. The patient group had low back pain clinically and degenerative disc disease radiographically. The control group included patients with and without low back pain: all were negative radiographically for degenerative disc disease. Genomic DNA was extracted from all participants. A PCR assay were used to evaluate variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of aggrecan gene alleles to determine if there was any correlation with degenerative disc disease. Significant associations were found between short repeated alleles of the aggrecan gene and severe disc degeneration. A significant association was also found between short repeated alleles of the aggrecan gene and multilevel disc herniation as well as extrusion and sequestration types of disc herniation. In Turkish population, short repeated alleles of the aggrecan gene are associated with increased disc degeneration and disc herniation. PMID:21948754

  5. Complex traumatic-degenerative injury of the proximal metaepiphysis of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Porcellini, G; Campi, F; Piu, M; Paladini, P

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe one case of displaced fracture of the proximal third of the humerus with high-grade degenerative arthropathy in the humeral head and in the glenoid surface on a humerus that had previously been treated thirty years earlier with a Delitala intramedullary nail for diaphyseal fracture. PMID:12025103

  6. Temporal changes of mechanical signals and extracellular composition in human intervertebral disc during degenerative progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Gao, Xin; Gu, Weiyong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model was used to investigate the changes in tissue composition and mechanical signals within human lumbar intervertebral disc during the degenerative progression. This model was developed based on the cell-activity coupled mechano-electrochemical mixture theory. The disc degeneration was simulated by lowering nutrition levels at disc boundaries, and the temporal and spatial distributions of the fixed charge density, water content, fluid pressure, Von Mises stress, and disc deformation were analyzed. Results showed that fixed charge density, fluid pressure, and water content decreased significantly in the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the inner to middle annulus fibrosus (AF) regions of the degenerative disc. It was found that, with degenerative progression, the Von Mises stress (relative to that at healthy state) increased within the disc, with a larger increase in the outer AF region. Both the disc volume and height decreased with the degenerative progression. The predicted results of fluid pressure change in the NP were consistent with experimental findings in the literature. The knowledge of the variations of temporal and spatial distributions of composition and mechanical signals within the human IVDs provide a better understanding of the progression of disc degeneration. PMID:25305690

  7. Assessment of various psychopharmacological combinations in the treatment of presenile and senile primary degenerative dementia.

    PubMed

    Tudorache, B; Lupulescu, R; Duţan, I; Sârbulescu, A

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various psychopharmacological combinations were used in a sample of 90 patient fulfilling the DMS-III criteria for presenile or senile primary degenerative dementia divided into 3 equal subgroups. Regardless of the drug combination used, an improvement of verbal test performances was noticed. PMID:2100154

  8. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Spectrum of Related Disorders Affecting the Aging Spine.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Goldstein, Christina L; Arnold, Paul; Harrop, James; Hilibrand, Alan; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spinal cord dysfunction can result from either traumatic or nontraumatic causes, including tumors, infections, and degenerative changes. In this article, we review the range of degenerative spinal disorders resulting in progressive cervical spinal cord compression and propose the adoption of a new term, degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). DCM comprises both osteoarthritic changes to the spine, including spondylosis, disk herniation, and facet arthropathy (collectively referred to as cervical spondylotic myelopathy), and ligamentous aberrations such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology of DCM and describes the cascade of events that occur after compression of the spinal cord, including ischemia, destruction of the blood-spinal cord barrier, demyelination, and neuronal apoptosis. Important features of the diagnosis of DCM are discussed in detail, and relevant clinical and imaging findings are highlighted. Furthermore, this review outlines valuable assessment tools for evaluating functional status and quality of life in these patients and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other topics of this review include epidemiology, the prevalence of degenerative changes in the asymptomatic population, the natural history and rates of progression, risk factors of diagnosis (clinical, imaging and genetic), and management strategies. PMID:26378358

  9. Motor training in degenerative spinocerebellar disease: ataxia-specific improvements by intensive physiotherapy and exergames.

    PubMed

    Synofzik, Matthis; Ilg, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is essentially involved in movement control and plays a critical role in motor learning. It has remained controversial whether patients with degenerative cerebellar disease benefit from high-intensity coordinative training. Moreover, it remains unclear by which training methods and mechanisms these patients might improve their motor performance. Here, we review evidence from different high-intensity training studies in patients with degenerative spinocerebellar disease. These studies demonstrate that high-intensity coordinative training might lead to a significant benefit in patients with degenerative ataxia. This training might be based either on physiotherapy or on whole-body controlled videogames ("exergames"). The benefit shown in these studies is equal to regaining one or more years of natural disease progression. In addition, first case studies indicate that even subjects with advanced neurodegeneration might benefit from such training programs. For both types of training, the observed clinical improvements are paralleled by recoveries in ataxia-specific dysfunctions (e.g., multijoint coordination and dynamic stability). Importantly, for both types of training, the retention of the effects seems to depend on the frequency and continuity of training. Based on these studies, we here present preliminary recommendations for clinical practice, and articulate open questions that might guide future studies on neurorehabilitation in degenerative spinocerebellar disease. PMID:24877117

  10. Motor Training in Degenerative Spinocerebellar Disease: Ataxia-Specific Improvements by Intensive Physiotherapy and Exergames

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is essentially involved in movement control and plays a critical role in motor learning. It has remained controversial whether patients with degenerative cerebellar disease benefit from high-intensity coordinative training. Moreover, it remains unclear by which training methods and mechanisms these patients might improve their motor performance. Here, we review evidence from different high-intensity training studies in patients with degenerative spinocerebellar disease. These studies demonstrate that high-intensity coordinative training might lead to a significant benefit in patients with degenerative ataxia. This training might be based either on physiotherapy or on whole-body controlled videogames (“exergames”). The benefit shown in these studies is equal to regaining one or more years of natural disease progression. In addition, first case studies indicate that even subjects with advanced neurodegeneration might benefit from such training programs. For both types of training, the observed clinical improvements are paralleled by recoveries in ataxia-specific dysfunctions (e.g., multijoint coordination and dynamic stability). Importantly, for both types of training, the retention of the effects seems to depend on the frequency and continuity of training. Based on these studies, we here present preliminary recommendations for clinical practice, and articulate open questions that might guide future studies on neurorehabilitation in degenerative spinocerebellar disease. PMID:24877117

  11. [Whiplash injury of the cervical spine--on the role of pre-existing degenerative diseases].

    PubMed

    Meenen, N M; Katzer, A; Dihlmann, S W; Held, S; Fyfe, I; Jungbluth, K H

    1994-06-01

    Radiological investigations contribute little in differentiating the problems of patients with whiplash injuries. Nevertheless the more prolonged cases of whiplash injuries must not be attributed to preexisting degenerative disease, despite radiologically-proven medicolegal opinion. In this study, 60 patients who were seen for whiplash injuries in the Department for Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery at the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf for clinical and radiological evaluation, an average of 5.7 years post injury, were divided into two groups (n = 30) depending on radiologically-proven preexisting degenerative changes of the cervical spine. On average the patients with degenerative changes were 11.2 years older than those with healthy vertebral columns and also demonstrated an increase in acute symptoms in the lower cervical spine (cervicobrachial syndrome). The chronicity of individual symptoms such as neck-pain, dizziness, nausea and psychological illness was also observed in both groups. Problems such as paresthesias as well as pain in the shoulder-arm-area appeared to increase in subsequent check-ups, irrespective of the earlier degenerative changes. Patients with typical posterior headaches recovered faster when they had radiologically normal spines. Presenting late, there was a significant accumulation of patients with pre-existing degenerative changes complaining merely of tinnitus. The earlier changes in any individual motion segment do not determine the clinical course of whiplash injuries, but merely represent an area of increased vulnerability to trauma. On the other hand, trauma has not been proven to influence the development or aggravation of degenerative changes in normal or diseased spines. We are not able to differentiate the posttraumatic course from the natural history of the degenerative process, either clinically or radiologically. Considering the involvement of sensitive neurological structures the classical objective organic diagnosis

  12. How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Classified?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia treated? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? Most types of cancers are assigned numbered ... ALL are now named as follows: B-cell ALL Early pre-B ALL (also called pro-B ...

  13. 5 CFR 1312.4 - Classified designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., (50 U.S.C. 401) Executive Order 12958 provides the only basis for classifying information. Information...) Top Secret. This classification shall be applied only to information the unauthorized disclosure...

  14. 5 CFR 1312.4 - Classified designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., (50 U.S.C. 401) Executive Order 12958 provides the only basis for classifying information. Information...) Top Secret. This classification shall be applied only to information the unauthorized disclosure...

  15. 5 CFR 1312.4 - Classified designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., (50 U.S.C. 401) Executive Order 12958 provides the only basis for classifying information. Information...) Top Secret. This classification shall be applied only to information the unauthorized disclosure...

  16. 5 CFR 1312.4 - Classified designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., (50 U.S.C. 401) Executive Order 12958 provides the only basis for classifying information. Information...) Top Secret. This classification shall be applied only to information the unauthorized disclosure...

  17. 5 CFR 1312.4 - Classified designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., (50 U.S.C. 401) Executive Order 12958 provides the only basis for classifying information. Information...) Top Secret. This classification shall be applied only to information the unauthorized disclosure...

  18. Zigzag configurations and air classifier performance

    SciTech Connect

    Peirce, J.; Wittenberg, N.

    1984-03-01

    The fundamental aspects of zigzag air classifier configurations are studied in terms of the design and operation of a waste-to-energy production facility. The development of a method of performance evaluation defined by operating range is examined. Historically, air classification has been used in industry and agriculture in mineral extraction, limestone sizing, and seed and grain cleaning. However, the adaption of air classifiers to resource recovery and waste-to-energy production facilities presents new problems due to the complex and variable nature of the wastes. A series of configurations providing a continuous range of zigzag classifier shape components are tested. Each configuration is evaluated to determine its efficiency of separation, and sensitivity to operating air speeds. Results indicate that the configuration of a zigzag classifier does not influence its peak efficiency of separation. However, findings point to distinct limits on operating parameters which lead to peak efficiencies for the different configurations. These operating range values represent the sensitivity of the air classifier to changes in the air flow. A major finding concerns the effect of configuration on the particle size distribution observed in the material exiting the classifier: smaller particles appear to be influenced by configuration changes and larger particles do not. A new method for classifer performance evaluation is developed and applied.

  19. Phenotypic characteristics of joint fluid cells from patients with continuous joint effusion after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Otani, Toshiro; Yatabe, Taku; Funayama, Atsushi; Maeno, Shinichi; Tomatsu, Taisuke; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-03-01

    Joint effusion after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a manifestation of inflammatory reactions within the prosthetic joint. Among the various causes for joint effusion following TJA, deep infection (DI), wear particle-induced synovitis (PS) and metal sensitivity to the implant should be excluded as soon as possible, as these may result in the failure of TJA. The present study analyzed joint fluid cells from patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), and examined the feasibility of using FACS to exclude the possibility of biomaterial-related complication. A total of 72TKAs from 64 patients suffering from joint effusion were examined in this study. Joint fluid was aspirated in outpatient clinics and applied to FACS. The results indicated that patients could be clearly classified into four types based on forward/side scatter profiles. Analysis of specific CD markers revealed that leukocytes were selectively recruited from blood to inflamed prosthetic joints. Dominant cell types were CD16+neutrophils in DI and increased rheumatoid activity, CD14+macrophages in PS, and CD3+CD45RO+T cells in metal sensitivity. These findings suggest the feasibility of diagnosing joint effusion by analyzing dominant cell type recruited using FACS. In conclusion, FACS may offer a useful tool for analyzing joint fluid cells from post-TJA patients and for excluding biomaterial-related complication following TJA. PMID:16183112

  20. Obstetric and gynaecological factors in susceptibility to peripheral joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Silman, A J; Newman, J

    1996-01-01

    There is clear evidence that the age period coinciding with the peak age of the menopause is associated with an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis and this fits in with clinical observation of high likelihood of presentation at this age. A number of pieces of biological evidence also support the notion that changes in sex hormone status might influence risk of degenerative disease at peripheral joint sites. There do not appear, however, to be any important epidemiological predictors based on menstrual or obstetric history that might be useful in predicting who these women might be. PMID:8882147

  1. GACEM: Genetic Algorithm Based Classifier Ensemble in a Multi-sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rongwu; He, Lin

    2008-01-01

    Multi-sensor systems (MSS) have been increasingly applied in pattern classification while searching for the optimal classification framework is still an open problem. The development of the classifier ensemble seems to provide a promising solution. The classifier ensemble is a learning paradigm where many classifiers are jointly used to solve a problem, which has been proven an effective method for enhancing the classification ability. In this paper, by introducing the concept of Meta-feature (MF) and Trans-function (TF) for describing the relationship between the nature and the measurement of the observed phenomenon, classification in a multi-sensor system can be unified in the classifier ensemble framework. Then an approach called Genetic Algorithm based Classifier Ensemble in Multi-sensor system (GACEM) is presented, where a genetic algorithm is utilized for optimization of both the selection of features subset and the decision combination simultaneously. GACEM trains a number of classifiers based on different combinations of feature vectors at first and then selects the classifiers whose weight is higher than the pre-set threshold to make up the ensemble. An empirical study shows that, compared with the conventional feature-level voting and decision-level voting, not only can GACEM achieve better and more robust performance, but also simplify the system markedly.

  2. A Multi-Classifier Based Guideline Sentence Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi Hwa; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Dong Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives An efficient clinical process guideline (CPG) modeling service was designed that uses an enhanced intelligent search protocol. The need for a search system arises from the requirement for CPG models to be able to adapt to dynamic patient contexts, allowing them to be updated based on new evidence that arises from medical guidelines and papers. Methods A sentence category classifier combined with the AdaBoost.M1 algorithm was used to evaluate the contribution of the CPG to the quality of the search mechanism. Three annotators each tagged 340 sentences hand-chosen from the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) clinical guideline. The three annotators then carried out cross-validations of the tagged corpus. A transformation function is also used that extracts a predefined set of structural feature vectors determined by analyzing the sentential instance in terms of the underlying syntactic structures and phrase-level co-occurrences that lie beneath the surface of the lexical generation event. Results The additional sub-filtering using a combination of multi-classifiers was found to be more effective than a single conventional Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF)-based search system in pinpointing the page containing or adjacent to the guideline information. Conclusions We found that transformation has the advantage of exploiting the structural and underlying features which go unseen by the bag-of-words (BOW) model. We also realized that integrating a sentential classifier with a TF-IDF-based search engine enhances the search process by maximizing the probability of the automatically presented relevant information required in the context generated by the guideline authoring environment. PMID:22259724

  3. Performance evaluation of blind steganalysis classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Mark T.; Silvestre, Guenole C. M.; Hurley, Neil J.

    2004-06-01

    Steganalysis is the art of detecting and/or decoding secret messages embedded in multimedia contents. The topic has received considerable attention in recent years due to the malicious use of multimedia documents for covert communication. Steganalysis algorithms can be classified as either blind or non-blind depending on whether or not the method assumes knowledge of the embedding algorithm. In general, blind methods involve the extraction of a feature vector that is sensitive to embedding and is subsequently used to train a classifier. This classifier can then be used to determine the presence of a stego-object, subject to an acceptable probability of false alarm. In this work, the performance of three classifiers, namely Fisher linear discriminant (FLD), neural network (NN) and support vector machines (SVM), is compared using a recently proposed feature extraction technique. It is shown that the NN and SVM classifiers exhibit similar performance exceeding that of the FLD. However, steganographers may be able to circumvent such steganalysis algorithms by preserving the statistical transparency of the feature vector at the embedding. This motivates the use of classification algorithms based on the entire document. Such a strategy is applied using SVM classification for DCT, FFT and DWT representations of an image. The performance is compared to a feature extraction technique.

  4. Self-correcting 100-font classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Nagy, George

    1994-03-01

    We have developed a practical scheme to take advantage of local typeface homogeneity to improve the accuracy of a character classifier. Given a polyfont classifier which is capable of recognizing any of 100 typefaces moderately well, our method allows it to specialize itself automatically to the single -- but otherwise unknown -- typeface it is reading. Essentially, the classifier retrains itself after examining some of the images, guided at first by the preset classification boundaries of the given classifier, and later by the behavior of the retrained classifier. Experimental trials on 6.4 M pseudo-randomly distorted images show that the method improves on 95 of the 100 typefaces. It reduces the error rate by a factor of 2.5, averaged over 100 typefaces, when applied to an alphabet of 80 ASCII characters printed at ten point and digitized at 300 pixels/inch. This self-correcting method complements, and does not hinder, other methods for improving OCR accuracy, such as linguistic contextual analysis.

  5. Visualizing Validation of Protein Surface Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, A; Albers, D; Mitchell, J; Gleicher, M

    2014-06-01

    Many bioinformatics applications construct classifiers that are validated in experiments that compare their results to known ground truth over a corpus. In this paper, we introduce an approach for exploring the results of such classifier validation experiments, focusing on classifiers for regions of molecular surfaces. We provide a tool that allows for examining classification performance patterns over a test corpus. The approach combines a summary view that provides information about an entire corpus of molecules with a detail view that visualizes classifier results directly on protein surfaces. Rather than displaying miniature 3D views of each molecule, the summary provides 2D glyphs of each protein surface arranged in a reorderable, small-multiples grid. Each summary is specifically designed to support visual aggregation to allow the viewer to both get a sense of aggregate properties as well as the details that form them. The detail view provides a 3D visualization of each protein surface coupled with interaction techniques designed to support key tasks, including spatial aggregation and automated camera touring. A prototype implementation of our approach is demonstrated on protein surface classifier experiments. PMID:25342867

  6. Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anthony G.; Sun, Junjiang; Hannah, William B.; Livingston, Eric W.; Heymann, Dominique; Bateman, Ted A.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of hemophilia, a very high prevalance of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with hemophilia. The current study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of hemophilic mice resulting from hemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology. Methods Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint hemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous Factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after hemorrhage. Mice were euthanized two-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging. Results Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number, and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci, and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration. Conclusion Knee joint hemorrhage resulted in acute changes of adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding. PMID:24712867

  7. Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement.

    PubMed

    Lau, A G; Sun, J; Hannah, W B; Livingston, E W; Heymann, D; Bateman, T A; Monahan, P E

    2014-09-01

    While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of haemophilia, a very high prevalence of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with haemophilia. This study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of haemophilic mice resulting from haemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology. Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint haemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after haemorrhage. Mice were killed 2-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging. Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration. Knee joint haemorrhage resulted in acute changes in adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding. PMID:24712867

  8. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  9. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  10. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  11. What are the differences between Bayesian classifiers and mutual-information classifiers?

    PubMed

    Hu, Bao-Gang

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, both Bayesian and mutual-information classifiers are examined for binary classifications with or without a reject option. The general decision rules are derived for Bayesian classifiers with distinctions on error types and reject types. A formal analysis is conducted to reveal the parameter redundancy of cost terms when abstaining classifications are enforced. The redundancy implies an intrinsic problem of nonconsistency for interpreting cost terms. If no data are given to the cost terms, we demonstrate the weakness of Bayesian classifiers in class-imbalanced classifications. On the contrary, mutual-information classifiers are able to provide an objective solution from the given data, which shows a reasonable balance among error types and reject types. Numerical examples of using two types of classifiers are given for confirming the differences, including the extremely class-imbalanced cases. Finally, we briefly summarize the Bayesian and mutual-information classifiers in terms of their application advantages and disadvantages, respectively. PMID:24807026

  12. An in Silico Analysis of Ankle Joint Loads in Secondary Ankle Osteoarthritis. Case Study.

    PubMed

    Lorkowski, Jacek; Mrzygłód, Mirosław W; Grzegorowska, Oliwia; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    Secondary, post-traumatic, degenerative lesions of the ankle joint remain a serious clinical challenge. This paper presents the case of a 66-year-old patient with secondary, post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis and subchondral cysts. The use of rapid computer modelling FEM 2D enabled optimization of surgical treatment. A FEM 2D model of biomechanical changes in bones may help in streamlining treatment as well as improve our understanding of the pathomechanism of osteoarthritis. PMID:26248632

  13. Classifying Multiple Imbalanced Attributes in Relational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Amal S.; Venkatesh, Svetha; West, Geoff

    Real-world data are often stored as relational database systems with different numbers of significant attributes. Unfortunately, most classification techniques are proposed for learning from balanced non-relational data and mainly for classifying one single attribute. In this paper, we propose an approach for learning from relational data with the specific goal of classifying multiple imbalanced attributes. In our approach, we extend a relational modelling technique (PRMs-IM) designed for imbalanced relational learning to deal with multiple imbalanced attributes classification. We address the problem of classifying multiple imbalanced attributes by enriching the PRMs-IM with the "Bagging" classification ensemble. We evaluate our approach on real-world imbalanced student relational data and demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting student performance.

  14. Reinforcement Learning Based Artificial Immune Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Karakose, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method. PMID:23935424

  15. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  16. Spacesuit mobility joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Joints for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit which have low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are described. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics. Linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli are featured. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  17. Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: cone beam computed tomography findings, clinical features, and correlations.

    PubMed

    Cömert Kiliç, S; Kiliç, N; Sümbüllü, M A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and associations between clinical signs and symptoms and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). Seventy-six patients (total 117 TMJ) with osteoarthritis were included in this study. Clinical signs and symptoms and CBCT findings were reviewed retrospectively. A considerable decrease in mandibular motions and mastication efficiency, and considerable increase in joint sounds and general pain complaints were observed. The most frequent condylar bony changes were erosion (110 joints, 94.0%), followed by flattening (108 joints, 92.3%), osteophytes (93 joints, 79.5%), hypoplasia (22 joints, 18.8%), sclerosis (14 joints, 12.0%), and subchondral cyst (four joints, 3.4%). Flattening of the articular eminence and pneumatization were each observed in five joints. Forty-one patients had bilateral degeneration and 35 had unilateral degeneration. Hypermobility was detected in 47 degenerative joints. Masticatory efficiency was negatively correlated with both condylar flattening and sclerosis, and general pain complaints was positively correlated with condylar flattening. Condylar erosion, flattening, osteophytes, pain, joint sounds, reduced jaw movements, and worsened mastication were common findings in TMJ-OA in the present study. Poor correlations were found between osseous changes and clinical signs and symptoms of TMJ-OA. CBCT is a powerful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of TMJ-OA. PMID:26194774

  18. Dengue--how best to classify it.

    PubMed

    Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Rothman, Alan L; Gibbons, Robert V; Sittisombut, Nopporn; Malasit, Prida; Ennis, Francis A; Nimmannitya, Suchitra; Kalayanarooj, Siripen

    2011-09-01

    Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem worldwide. Dengue virus infection causes a wide range of clinical manifestations. Since the 1970s, clinical dengue has been classified according to the World Health Organization guideline as dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The classification has been criticized with regard to its usefulness and its applicability. In 2009, the World Health Organization issued a new guideline that classifies clinical dengue as dengue and severe dengue. The 2009 classification differs significantly from the previous classification in both conceptual and practical levels. The impacts of the new classification on clinical practice, dengue research, and public health policy are discussed. PMID:21832264

  19. A survey of decision tree classifier methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safavian, S. Rasoul; Landgrebe, David

    1990-01-01

    Decision Tree Classifiers (DTC's) are used successfully in many diverse areas such as radar signal classification, character recognition, remote sensing, medical diagnosis, expert systems, and speech recognition. Perhaps, the most important feature of DTC's is their capability to break down a complex decision-making process into a collection of simpler decisions, thus providing a solution which is often easier to interpret. A survey of current methods is presented for DTC designs and the various existing issue. After considering potential advantages of DTC's over single stage classifiers, subjects of tree structure design, feature selection at each internal node, and decision and search strategies are discussed.

  20. A survey of decision tree classifier methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safavian, S. R.; Landgrebe, David

    1991-01-01

    Decision tree classifiers (DTCs) are used successfully in many diverse areas such as radar signal classification, character recognition, remote sensing, medical diagnosis, expert systems, and speech recognition. Perhaps the most important feature of DTCs is their capability to break down a complex decision-making process into a collection of simpler decisions, thus providing a solution which is often easier to interpret. A survey of current methods is presented for DTC designs and the various existing issues. After considering potential advantages of DTCs over single-state classifiers, subjects of tree structure design, feature selection at each internal node, and decision and search strategies are discussed.

  1. High-intensity laser therapy during chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Gazzotti, Valeria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The aims of this study was the safety and the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on chronic degenerative tenosynovitis. We have effectuated the histological evaluation and seroassay (C reactive protein) on 18 chickens affect by chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced. We have been employed a Nd:YAG laser pulsed wave; all irradiated subjects received the same total energy (270 Joule) with a fluence of 7,7 J/cm2 and intensity of 10,7 W/cm2. The histological findings revealed a distinct reduction of the mineralization of the choral matrix, the anti-inflammatory effect of the laser, the hyperplasia of the synoviocytes and ectasia of the lymphatic vessels.

  2. Oxygen-ozone therapy for degenerative spine disease in the elderly: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Matteo; Fontana, Alessandro; Martinelli, Francesco; Andreula, Cosma

    2011-01-01

    We describe our experience of oxygen-ozone therapy to treat degenerative spine disease in the elderly. From April 2004 to March 2008 we selected 129 patients with CT and/or MR evidence of spondyloarthrosis and disc degeneration of the lumbar spine. All patients enrolled in the study had contraindications to the administration of commonly used analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.Oxygen-ozone therapy was given by CT-guided intraforaminal injection as the first treatment followed by 4 weekly paralumbar infiltrations on an outpatient basis. The full treatment lasted a month. Clinical outcome was assessed 3 months and 1 year after treatment. The good results obtained indicate that oxygen-ozone therapy is an ideal treatment with no side-effects in elderly patients with degenerative spine disease. PMID:21107950

  3. Degenerative primer design and gene sequencing validation for select turkey genes.

    PubMed

    Hutsko, Stephanie L; Lilburn, Michael S; Wick, Macdonald

    2016-06-01

    We successfully designed and validated degenerative primers for turkey genes MUC2, RPS13, TBP and TFF2 based on chicken sequences in order to use gene transcription analysis to evaluate (quantify) the mucin transcription to probiotic supplementation in turkeys. Primers were designed for the genes MUC2, TFF2, RPS13 and TBP using a degenerative primer design method based on the available Gallus gallus sequences. All primer sets, which produced a single PCR amplicon of the expected sizes, were cloned into the TOPO(®) vector and then transformed into TOP 10(®) competent cells. Plasmid DNA isolation was performed on the TOP10(®) cell culture and sent for sequencing. Sequences were analyzed using NCBI BLAST. All genes sequenced had over 90% homology with both the chicken and predicted turkey sequences. The sequences were used to design new 100% homologous primer sets for the genes of interest. PMID:27053625

  4. Pigmentary degenerative maculopathy as prominent phenotype in an Italian SPG56/CYP2U1 family.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Luca; Ziccardi, Lucia; Marcotulli, Christian; Rubegni, Anna; Longobardi, Antonino; Serrao, Mariano; Storti, Eugenia; Pierelli, Francesco; Tessa, Alessandra; Parisi, Vincenzo; Santorelli, Filippo M; Carlo, Casali

    2016-04-01

    SPG56 is an autosomal recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) associated with mutations in CYP2U1. There is no clear documentation of visual impairment in the few reported cases of SPG56, although this form is complex on clinical ground and visual deficit are extremely frequent in complicated HSP. We report three patients in a consanguineous family harboring the novel homozygous c.1168C>T (p.R390*) in SPG56/CYP2U1, and showing a pigmentary degenerative maculopathy associated with progressive spastic paraplegia. Furthermore, we characterized precisely the ophthalmologic phenotype through indirect ophthalmoscopy, retinal optical coherence tomography and visual evoked potentials. This is the first formal report of pigmentary degenerative maculopathy associated with a CYP2U1 homozygous mutation. PMID:26914923

  5. Regeneration of the retina: toward stem cell therapy for degenerative retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sohee; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2015-04-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases affect millions of people worldwide, which can lead to the loss of vision. However, therapeutic approaches that can reverse this process are limited. Recent efforts have allowed the possibility of the stem cell-based regeneration of retinal cells and repair of injured retinal tissues. Although the direct differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into terminally differentiated photoreceptor cells comprises one approach, a series of studies revealed the intrinsic regenerative potential of the retina using endogenous retinal stem cells. Muller glial cells, ciliary pigment epithelial cells, and retinal pigment epithelial cells are candidates for such retinal stem cells that can differentiate into multiple types of retinal cells and be integrated into injured or developing retina. In this review, we explore our current understanding of the cellular identity of these candidate retinal stem cells and their therapeutic potential for cell therapy against degenerative retinal diseases. PMID:25560700

  6. Neuroimaging and Genetic Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease and Addiction-Related Degenerative Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshad, Neda; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging offers a powerful means to assess the trajectory of brain degeneration in a variety of disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we describe how multimodal imaging can be used to study the changing brain during the different stages of AD. We integrate findings from a range of studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Neuroimaging reveals how risk genes for degenerative disorders affect the brain, including several recently discovered genetic variants that may disrupt brain connectivity. We review some recent neuroimaging studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Some genetic variants that increase risk for drug addiction may overlap with those associated with degenerative brain disorders. These common associations offer new insight into mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and addictive behaviors, and may offer new leads for treating them before severe and irreversible neurological symptoms appear. PMID:24142306

  7. Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: Current and Future Concepts of Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Fadi; Essig, David; Lebl, Darren R.; Hughes, Alexander P.; Sama, Andrew A.; Cammisa, Frank P.; Girardi, Federico P.

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain as a result of degenerative disc disease imparts a large socioeconomic impact on the health care system. Traditional concepts for treatment of lumbar disc degeneration have aimed at symptomatic relief by limiting motion in the lumbar spine, but novel treatment strategies involving stem cells, growth factors, and gene therapy have the theoretical potential to prevent, slow, or even reverse disc degeneration. Understanding the pathophysiological basis of disc degeneration is essential for the development of treatment strategies that target the underlying mechanisms of disc degeneration rather than the downstream symptom of pain. Such strategies ideally aim to induce disc regeneration or to replace the degenerated disc. However, at present, treatment options for degenerative disc disease remain suboptimal, and development and outcomes of novel treatment options currently have to be considered unpredictable. PMID:22567411

  8. Breed Distribution of SOD1 Alleles Previously Associated with Canine Degenerative Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, R; Coates, JR; Johnson, GC; Hansen, L; Awano, T; Kolicheski, A; Ivansson, E; Perloski, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; O'Brien, DP; Guo, J; Katz, ML; Johnson, GS

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous reports associated 2 mutant SOD1 alleles (SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T) with degenerative myelopathy in 6 canine breeds. The distribution of these alleles in other breeds has not been reported. Objective To describe the distribution of SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T in 222 breeds. Animals DNA from 33,747 dogs was genotyped at SOD1:c.118, SOD1:c.52, or both. Spinal cord sections from 249 of these dogs were examined. Methods Retrospective analysis of 35,359 previously determined genotypes at SOD1:c.118G>A or SOD1:c.52A>T and prospective survey to update the clinical status of a subset of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias. Results The SOD1:c.118A allele was found in cross-bred dogs and in 124 different canine breeds whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele was only found in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Most of the dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A homozygotes, but 8 dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes and had no other sequence variants in their SOD1 amino acid coding regions. The updated clinical conditions of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias suggest that SOD1:c.118A homozygotes are at a much higher risk of developing degenerative myelopathy than are SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We conclude that the SOD1:c.118A allele is widespread and common among privately owned dogs whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele is rare and appears to be limited to Bernese Mountain Dogs. We also conclude that breeding to avoid the production of SOD1:c.118A homozygotes is a rational strategy. PMID:24524809

  9. Study of metabolism and energetics in hypogravity: Degenerative effects of prolonged hypogravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    The role of gravity in the formation of rigid, lignified plant cell walls hence to the development of the erect land plant body is examined. An experiment was proposed with a general hypothesis that a chosen plant, a dwarf marigold, would display degenerative changes in mechanical supportive systems under hypogravity because normal lignin-cellulose wall structure fails to develop. Observational and experimental results are given.

  10. Tricuspid Annular Size and Regurgitation Progression After Surgical Repair for Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Sordelli, Chiara; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Carlomagno, Guido; Di Giannuario, Giovanna; Alati, Emanuela; De Bonis, Michele; Alfieri, Ottavio; La Canna, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The late worsening of nonsevere tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after mitral valve surgery is a relevant clinical problem that can lead to high-risk reoperation. Although tricuspid annulus (TA) dilatation has been proposed for prophylactic annuloplasty to prevent TR worsening, prospective data in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) are lacking. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate TA dimension to predict TR progression after valve repair for degenerative MR. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluation of 706 patients with degenerative MR and no significant TR was obtained preoperatively and at follow-up after isolated mitral valve repair. Together with standard cardiac chamber and valve analysis, 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography was performed to evaluate TA, including the anteroposterior and septolateral diameters. After a mean follow-up of 24 ± 15 months (range 6 to 60), 2 patients died while 14 developed severe MR. Compared with preoperative values, TR decreased (≤1 degree) in 227 patients, was unchanged in 437, and increased (≥1 degree) in 39 patients, with the development of significant TR (3 to 4 degree) in 3 patients. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis did not identify significant TA values predicting postoperative TR worsening. On multivariate regression analysis, recurrent MR and pulmonary hypertension at follow-up emerged as significant positive predictors of TR progression. Newly developed significant TR is a rare event after successful repair of degenerative MR. Although more accurate than conventional 2D measurement, 3D analysis of TA does not predict early to midterm subsequent TR progression. PMID:27287061

  11. Negative MRI findings in a case of degenerative myelopathy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Okada, M; Kitagawa, M; Kanayama, K; Yamamura, H; Sakai, T

    2009-12-01

    An 11-year-old male Rough collie was submitted with paraparesis, but did not respond to medical treatment. Clinical signs worsened and the dog displayed paralysis, inability to stand and loss of voluntary bladder control, whereupon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. No significant abnormalities were identified from MRI, blood tests, cerebrospinal fluid tests or radiography. After MRI, the dog developed dyspnoea and died. Autopsy and subsequent histopathological examination led to a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy. PMID:20458868

  12. Dynamic classifiers improve pulverizer performance and more

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerlad, R.E.; Dugdale, K.L.

    2007-07-15

    Keeping coal-fired steam plants running efficiently and cleanly is a daily struggle. An article in the February 2007 issue of Power explained that one way to improve the combustion and emissions performance of a plant is to optimize the performance of its coal pulverizers. By adding a dynamic classifier to the pulverizers, you can better control coal particle sizing and fineness, and increase pulverizer capacity to boot. A dynamic classifier has an inner rotating cage and outer stationary vanes which, acting in concert, provide centrifugal or impinging classification. Replacing or upgrading a pulverizer's classifier from static to dynamic improves grinding performance reducing the level of unburned carbon in the coal in the process. The article describes the project at E.ON's Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power station in the UK to retrofit Loesche LSKS dynamic classifiers. It also mentions other successful projects at Scholven Power Station in Germany, Tilbury Power Station in the UK and J.B. Sims Power Plant in Michigan, USA. 8 figs.

  13. Classifying the Context Clues in Children's Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowds, Susan J. Parault; Haverback, Heather Rogers; Parkinson, Meghan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which types of context clues exist in children's texts and whether it is possible for experts to identify reliably those clues. Three experienced coders used Ames' clue set as a foundation for a system to classify context clues in children's text. Findings showed that the adjustments to Ames' system resulted in 15…

  14. Visual Classifier Training for Text Document Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, F; Koch, S; Bosch, H; Ertl, T

    2012-12-01

    Performing exhaustive searches over a large number of text documents can be tedious, since it is very hard to formulate search queries or define filter criteria that capture an analyst's information need adequately. Classification through machine learning has the potential to improve search and filter tasks encompassing either complex or very specific information needs, individually. Unfortunately, analysts who are knowledgeable in their field are typically not machine learning specialists. Most classification methods, however, require a certain expertise regarding their parametrization to achieve good results. Supervised machine learning algorithms, in contrast, rely on labeled data, which can be provided by analysts. However, the effort for labeling can be very high, which shifts the problem from composing complex queries or defining accurate filters to another laborious task, in addition to the need for judging the trained classifier's quality. We therefore compare three approaches for interactive classifier training in a user study. All of the approaches are potential candidates for the integration into a larger retrieval system. They incorporate active learning to various degrees in order to reduce the labeling effort as well as to increase effectiveness. Two of them encompass interactive visualization for letting users explore the status of the classifier in context of the labeled documents, as well as for judging the quality of the classifier in iterative feedback loops. We see our work as a step towards introducing user controlled classification methods in addition to text search and filtering for increasing recall in analytics scenarios involving large corpora. PMID:26357193

  15. The Front Line: Satisfaction of Classified Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Karen W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses job satisfaction in classified support staff (primarily clerical and secretarial) of colleges and universities. Notes that these staff are frequently the first representatives of the institution encountered by prospective students, parents, and others. Finds that rewards and recognition, opportunities for feedback, and help with…

  16. Classifying and quantifying basins of attraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sprott, J. C.; Xiong, Anda

    2015-08-15

    A scheme is proposed to classify the basins for attractors of dynamical systems in arbitrary dimensions. There are four basic classes depending on their size and extent, and each class can be further quantified to facilitate comparisons. The calculation uses a Monte Carlo method and is applied to numerous common dissipative chaotic maps and flows in various dimensions.

  17. 32 CFR 651.13 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process... meaningful environmental analysis produced, unclassified documents will be prepared and processed in accordance with this part. Classified portions will be kept separate and provided to reviewers and...

  18. 32 CFR 651.13 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process... meaningful environmental analysis produced, unclassified documents will be prepared and processed in accordance with this part. Classified portions will be kept separate and provided to reviewers and...

  19. 32 CFR 651.13 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process... meaningful environmental analysis produced, unclassified documents will be prepared and processed in accordance with this part. Classified portions will be kept separate and provided to reviewers and...

  20. 32 CFR 651.13 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process... meaningful environmental analysis produced, unclassified documents will be prepared and processed in accordance with this part. Classified portions will be kept separate and provided to reviewers and...

  1. Shape and Function in Hmong Classifier Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakuragi, Toshiyuki; Fuller, Judith W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined classifiers in the Hmong language with a particular focus on gaining insights into the underlying cognitive process of categorization. Forty-three Hmong speakers participated in three experiments. In the first experiment, designed to verify the previously postulated configurational (saliently one-dimensional, saliently…

  2. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All classified... instances where the Emergency Coordinator is not available to receive classified documents, they may...

  3. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All classified... instances where the Emergency Coordinator is not available to receive classified documents, they may...

  4. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All classified... instances where the Emergency Coordinator is not available to receive classified documents, they may...

  5. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All classified... instances where the Emergency Coordinator is not available to receive classified documents, they may...

  6. 5 CFR 1312.23 - Access to classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access to classified information. 1312.23... Classified Information § 1312.23 Access to classified information. Classified information may be made... proposed recipient is eligible to receive classified information only after he/she has been granted...

  7. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All classified... instances where the Emergency Coordinator is not available to receive classified documents, they may...

  8. 5 CFR 1312.23 - Access to classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access to classified information. 1312.23... Classified Information § 1312.23 Access to classified information. Classified information may be made... proposed recipient is eligible to receive classified information only after he/she has been granted...

  9. Registration of knee joint surfaces for the in vivo study of joint injuries based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rita W. T.; Habib, Ayman F.; Frayne, Richard; Ronsky, Janet L.

    2006-03-01

    In-vivo quantitative assessments of joint conditions and health status can help to increase understanding of the pathology of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects a large population each year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive and accurate means to assess and monitor joint properties, and has become widely used for diagnosis and biomechanics studies. Quantitative analyses and comparisons of MR datasets require accurate alignment of anatomical structures, thus image registration becomes a necessary procedure for these applications. This research focuses on developing a registration technique for MR knee joint surfaces to allow quantitative study of joint injuries and health status. It introduces a novel idea of translating techniques originally developed for geographic data in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing to register 3D MR data. The proposed algorithm works with surfaces that are represented by randomly distributed points with no requirement of known correspondences. The algorithm performs matching locally by identifying corresponding surface elements, and solves for the transformation parameters relating the surfaces by minimizing normal distances between them. This technique was used in three applications to: 1) register temporal MR data to verify the feasibility of the algorithm to help monitor diseases, 2) quantify patellar movement with respect to the femur based on the transformation parameters, and 3) quantify changes in contact area locations between the patellar and femoral cartilage at different knee flexion angles. The results indicate accurate registration and the proposed algorithm can be applied for in-vivo study of joint injuries with MRI.

  10. Total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint. Up to 8 years of follow-up of patients treated with Biomet(®) total joint prostheses.

    PubMed

    Westermark, A

    2010-10-01

    12 patients underwent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstruction with Biomet total joint prostheses. Indications for TMJ reconstruction included ankylosis, rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease and condylar resorption. Five patients had unilateral procedures, seven had bilateral. The follow-up ranged between 2 and 8 years. Amongst the ankylotic patients the mean jaw-opening capacity increased from 3.8mm preoperatively to 30.2mm 1 year after surgery, and in most of those patients the opening capacity remained stable over the years. The other patients maintained a mean opening capacity of more than 35 mm. Joint related pain and interference with eating were eliminated after TMJ reconstruction. There were no permanent facial nerve disturbance, no postoperative infections and no device related complications. The outcome supports prosthetic TMJ reconstruction as a useful treatment modality in patients with advanced TMJ disease. PMID:20594807

  11. 22 CFR 125.3 - Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... addressed to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (see 37 CFR 5.11). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles. 125.3 Section 125.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...

  12. 22 CFR 125.3 - Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... addressed to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (see 37 CFR 5.11). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles. 125.3 Section 125.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...

  13. 22 CFR 125.3 - Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addressed to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (see 37 CFR 5.11). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles. 125.3 Section 125.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...

  14. 22 CFR 125.3 - Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addressed to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (see 37 CFR 5.11). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles. 125.3 Section 125.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...

  15. 22 CFR 125.3 - Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... addressed to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (see 37 CFR 5.11). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles. 125.3 Section 125.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...

  16. Predominant Leg Pain Is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis: Results from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam; Blood, Emily; Lurie, Jon; Abdu, William; Sengupta, Dilip; Frymoyer, John W.; Weinstein, James

    2010-01-01

    Study Design As-treated analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and surgical and nonoperative outcomes in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients stratified by predominant pain location (i.e. leg vs. back). Summary of Background Data Evidence suggests that degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients with predominant leg pain may have better surgical outcomes than patients with predominant low back pain (LBP). Methods The DS cohort included 591 patients (62% underwent surgery), and the SpS cohort included 615 patients (62% underwent surgery). Patients were classified as leg pain predominant, LBP predominant or having equal pain according to baseline pain scores. Baseline characteristics were compared between the three predominant pain location groups within each diagnostic category, and changes in surgical and nonoperative outcome scores were compared through two years. Longitudinal regression models including baseline covariates were used to control for confounders. Results Among DS patients at baseline, 34% had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 40% had equal pain. Similarly, 32% of SpS patients had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 42% had equal pain. DS and SpS patients with predominant leg pain had baseline scores indicative of less severe symptoms. Leg pain predominant DS and SpS patients treated surgically improved significantly more than LBP predominant patients on all primary outcome measures at one and two years. Surgical outcomes for the equal pain groups were intermediate to those of the predominant leg pain and LBP groups. The differences in nonoperative outcomes were less consistent. Conclusions Predominant leg pain patients improved significantly more with surgery than predominant LBP patients. However, predominant LBP patients still improved significantly more with surgery than with

  17. Acoustic characteristics of sounds from temporomandibular joints with and without effusion: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Sano, T; Widmalm, S E; Westesson, P L; Yamaga, T; Yamamoto, M; Takahashi, K; Michi, K I; Okano, T

    2002-02-01

    Joint effusion has been associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain but can only be diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For screening of patients with suspected effusion a simple and less expensive method would be desirable. We recorded joint sounds during jaw opening and closing movement from 34 TMJs with internal derangement (ID). Seventeen joints had joint effusion seen on MRI. Spectrograms of the sounds were displayed as waterfall plots showing profiles of the consecutive Hamming windows. If the profiles were similar, as judged by initial evaluation, the displayed pattern was classified as stable. If some profiles were distinctly deviating in their pattern, this was classified as unstable. Joints with effusion showed unstable sound pattern more often than joints without effusion (P < 0.001). It was concluded that TMJ sound analyses have a potential to identify joints with effusion based on their unstable sound pattern. PMID:11856395

  18. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  19. Disparities in Rates of Spine Surgery for Degenerative Spine Disease Between HIV Infected and Uninfected Veterans

    PubMed Central

    King, Joseph T.; Gordon, Adam J.; Perkal, Melissa F.; Crystal, Stephen; Rosenthal, Ronnie A.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Butt, Adeel A.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Rimland, David; Simberkoff, Michael S.; Justice, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of nationwide Veterans Health Administration (VA) clinical and administrative data. Objective Examine the association between HIV infection and the rate of spine surgery for degenerative spine disease. Summary of Background Data Combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has prolonged survival in patients with HIV/AIDS, increasing the prevalence of chronic conditions such as degenerative spine disease that may require spine surgery. Methods We studied all HIV infected patients under care in the VA from 1996–2008 (n=40,038) and uninfected comparator patients (n=79,039) matched on age, gender, race, year, and geographic region. The primary outcome was spine surgery for degenerative spine disease defined by ICD-9 procedure and diagnosis codes. We used a multivariate Poisson regression to model spine surgery rates by HIV infection status, adjusting for factors that might affect suitability for surgery (demographics, year, comorbidities, body mass index, cART, and laboratory values). Results Two-hundred twenty eight HIV infected and 784 uninfected patients underwent spine surgery for degenerative spine disease during 700,731 patient-years of follow-up (1.44 surgeries per 1,000 patient-years). The most common procedures were spinal decompression (50%), and decompression and fusion (33%); the most common surgical sites were the lumbosacral (50%), and cervical (40%) spine. Adjusted rates of surgery were lower for HIV infected patients (0.86 per 1,000 patient-years of follow-up) than for uninfected patients (1.41 per 1,000 patient-years; IRR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.74, P<0.001). Among HIV infected patients, there was a trend towards lower rates of spine surgery in patients with detectable viral loads levels (IRR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.05, P=0.099). Conclusion In the VA, HIV infected patients experience significantly reduced rates of surgery for degenerative spine disease. Possible explanations include disease prevalence, emphasis on

  20. Classifier Fusion of Hyperspectral and LIDAR Remote Sensing Data for Improvement of Land Cover Classifcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Reinartz, P.

    2013-09-01

    The interest in the joint use of remote sensing data from multiple sensors has been remarkably increased for classification applications. This is because a combined use is supposed to improve the results of classification tasks compared to single-data use. This paper addressed using of combination of hyperspectral and Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data in classification field. This paper presents a new method based on the definition of a Multiple Classifier System on Hyperspectral and LIDAR data. In the first step, the proposed method applied some feature extraction strategies on LIDAR data to produce more information in this data set. After that in second step, Support Vector Machine (SVM) applied as a supervised classification strategy on LIDAR data and hyperspectal data separately. In third and final step of proposed method, a classifier fusion method used to fuse the classification results on hypersepctral and LIDAR data. For comparative purposes, results of classifier fusion compared to the results of single SVM classifiers on Hyperspectral and LIDAR data. Finally, the results obtained by the proposed classifier fusion system approach leads to higher classification accuracies compared to the single classifiers on hyperspectral and LIDAR data.

  1. Disassembly and Sanitization of Classified Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stockham, Dwight J.; Saad, Max P.

    2008-01-15

    The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) process was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition by using recycling and waste minimization measures. This process was initiated by treaty agreements and reconfigurations within both the DOD and DOE Complexes. The DOE is faced with disassembling and disposing of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, weapon maintenance equipment, and associated material. In addition, regulations have caused a dramatic increase in the need for information required to support the handling and disposition of these parts and materials. In the past, huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and at many other locations throughout the DoE Complex. These materials are placed in onsite storage unit due to classification issues and they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components. Since no disposal options exist for this material, the only choice was long-term storage. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic, requiring a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing, and presenting the potential for loss or theft of the material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made of high quality materials and once this material has been sanitized, the demand for the component metals for recycling efforts is very high. The DSO process for NGPF, classified components established the credibility of this technique for addressing the long-term storage requirements of the classified weapons component inventory. The success of this application has generated interest from other Sandia organizations and other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are requesting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these requests by expanding its scope to include Work-for- Other projects. For example

  2. Low expression of microRNA-143 is related to degenerative scoliosis possibly by regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Yonghong; Zhao, Kefeng; Wang, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study is to determine if expression level of microRNA-143 (miR-143) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are related to the occurrence and development of degenerative scoliosis. Methods: A total of 30 patients with degenerative scoliosis, 30 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were enrolled in this study. For control, 30 patients with spinal burst fractures were also enrolled in this study. Real-time PCR and western blotting was performed to measure the expression levels of COX-2 in intervertebral disc tissues, peripheral blood and cerebrospinal. Expression levels of miR-143 in intervertebral disc tissues, peripheral blood and cerebrospinal were detected by real-time PCR. Results: The expression levels of COX-2 were increased in intervertebral disc tissues, peripheral blood and cerebrospinal of patients with degenerative scoliosis when compared with those of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spinal burst fractures (P < 0.05). However, the expression levels of miR-143 were decreased in intervertebral disc tissues, peripheral blood and cerebrospinal of patients with degenerative scoliosis when compared with those of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spinal burst fractures (P < 0.05). Conclusions: COX-2 is highly expressed whereas miR-143 is lowly expressed in patients with degenerative scoliosis. Decreased expression of miR-143 may be related to the aggravation of degenerative scoliosis by regulation of COX-2. PMID:26064322

  3. Semantic Features for Classifying Referring Search Terms

    SciTech Connect

    May, Chandler J.; Henry, Michael J.; McGrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.; Marshall, Eric J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-05-11

    When an internet user clicks on a result in a search engine, a request is submitted to the destination web server that includes a referrer field containing the search terms given by the user. Using this information, website owners can analyze the search terms leading to their websites to better understand their visitors needs. This work explores some of the features that can be used for classification-based analysis of such referring search terms. We present initial results for the example task of classifying HTTP requests countries of origin. A system that can accurately predict the country of origin from query text may be a valuable complement to IP lookup methods which are susceptible to the obfuscation of dereferrers or proxies. We suggest that the addition of semantic features improves classifier performance in this example application. We begin by looking at related work and presenting our approach. After describing initial experiments and results, we discuss paths forward for this work.

  4. Classifying Land Cover Using Spectral Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiye, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studying land cover has become increasingly important as countries try to overcome the destruction of wetlands; its impact on local climate due to seasonal variation, radiation balance, and deteriorating environmental quality. In this investigation, we have been studying the spectral signatures of the Jamaica Bay wetland area based on remotely sensed satellite input data from LANDSAT TM and ASTER. We applied various remote sensing techniques to generate classified land cover output maps. Our classifiers relied on input from both the remote sensing and in-situ spectral field data. Based upon spectral separability and data collected in the field, a supervised and unsupervised classification was carried out. First results suggest good agreement between the land cover units mapped and those observed in the field.

  5. Comparing cosmic web classifiers using information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Florent; Lavaux, Guilhem; Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a decision scheme for optimally choosing a classifier, which segments the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters). Our framework, based on information theory, accounts for the design aims of different classes of possible applications: (i) parameter inference, (ii) model selection, and (iii) prediction of new observations. As an illustration, we use cosmographic maps of web-types in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the relative performance of the classifiers T-WEB, DIVA and ORIGAMI for: (i) analyzing the morphology of the cosmic web, (ii) discriminating dark energy models, and (iii) predicting galaxy colors. Our study substantiates a data-supported connection between cosmic web analysis and information theory, and paves the path towards principled design of analysis procedures for the next generation of galaxy surveys. We have made the cosmic web maps, galaxy catalog, and analysis scripts used in this work publicly available.

  6. Classification Studies in an Advanced Air Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routray, Sunita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, experiments are carried out using VSK separator which is an advanced air classifier to recover heavy minerals from beach sand. In classification experiments the cage wheel speed and the feed rate are set and the material is fed to the air cyclone and split into fine and coarse particles which are collected in separate bags. The size distribution of each fraction was measured by sieve analysis. A model is developed to predict the performance of the air classifier. The objective of the present model is to predict the grade efficiency curve for a given set of operating parameters such as cage wheel speed and feed rate. The overall experimental data with all variables studied in this investigation is fitted to several models. It is found that the present model is fitting good to the logistic model.

  7. Development of multi-size classifying cyclone

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan Hanhui; Wang Zuna

    1994-12-31

    The authors have developed a multi-size classifying cyclone, which is characterized by its distinctive structure and quasi forced vortex in a rotary flow region. The cyclone differs from a conventional cyclone in three-dimensional velocity distribution in a rotary flow region, but the former has the same pressure distribution law as the latter. Tests show that satisfactory multi-size classification can be achieved using the cyclone.

  8. Surgical treatment of an aseptic fistulized acromioclavicular joint cyst: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Murena, Luigi; D’angelo, Fabio; Falvo, Daniele A

    2009-01-01

    An acromioclavicular joint cyst is an uncommonly reported condition, which seems to result from a massive rotator cuff tear and degenerative osteoarthritis of the acromioclavicular joint. We present the case of an 81-year-old man affected by an acromioclavicular joint cyst, associated to a massive rotator cuff tear, proximal migration of the humeral head and osteoarthritis of the gleno-humeral joint. The mass was 7 × 2.5 cm in size and the overlying skin presented a fistula that drained clear synovial-like fluid. Plain X-ray examination of the left shoulder showed proximal migration of the humeral head migration and osteoarthritis of the gleno-humeral joint, and further MRI evaluation confirmed the clinical diagnosis of a complete rotator cuff tear and observed a large subcutaneous cyst in communication with the degenerative acromioclavicular joint. The patient underwent surgical excision of the cyst and lateral resection of the clavicle to prevent disease recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an acromioclavicular joint cyst complicated by an aseptic fistula resulting from multiple aspirations. PMID:19918423

  9. Degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Clemmons, R M

    1992-07-01

    DM in the German Shepherd is an immune-related disorder whose clinical signs are explained by a widespread degeneration of the white matter pathways in the thoracolumbar spinal cord. Therapy includes exercise, vitamin supplementation, and EACA medication. Avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures is also important to preclude permanent deterioration that can result following surgery in DM patients. In dogs other than German Shepherds, other identifiable causes should be treated. Additional confirmation of the diagnosis of DM may be assisted by performing cell-mediated immune studies or other serodiagnostic tests as they become available. PMID:1641928

  10. Synostosis of the proximal tibiofibular joint.

    PubMed

    Sferopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of synostosis of the proximal tibiofibular joint (TFJ) was assessed among 1029 patients examined for osteoarthritis of the knee in a 4-year period. Radiographic evidence of a synostosis of the proximal TFJ was demonstrated in 3 knees (3 patients). The synostosis appeared incidental and was not the cause of symptoms in any of them. These patients were further examined with MRI and/or CT scans. In two cases, which were found to be primary (idiopathic), the synostosis was complete and bony. In a third case the lesion was secondary (acquired) to surgical reconstruction for a depressed fracture of the lateral tibial plateau. This iatrogenic complication followed open reduction, internal fixation, and grafting with synthetic bone. The bridging of the joint on the CT views was partial and compatible with ectopic calcification rather than ossification. The patients were treated conservatively and were followed for an average period of 3 years. No evidence that the synostosis accelerated the onset or progression of the degenerative changes to the ipsilateral knee could be verified. PMID:20592991

  11. Synostosis of the Proximal Tibiofibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Sferopoulos, Nikolaos K.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of synostosis of the proximal tibiofibular joint (TFJ) was assessed among 1029 patients examined for osteoarthritis of the knee in a 4-year period. Radiographic evidence of a synostosis of the proximal TFJ was demonstrated in 3 knees (3 patients). The synostosis appeared incidental and was not the cause of symptoms in any of them. These patients were further examined with MRI and/or CT scans. In two cases, which were found to be primary (idiopathic), the synostosis was complete and bony. In a third case the lesion was secondary (acquired) to surgical reconstruction for a depressed fracture of the lateral tibial plateau. This iatrogenic complication followed open reduction, internal fixation, and grafting with synthetic bone. The bridging of the joint on the CT views was partial and compatible with ectopic calcification rather than ossification. The patients were treated conservatively and were followed for an average period of 3 years. No evidence that the synostosis accelerated the onset or progression of the degenerative changes to the ipsilateral knee could be verified. PMID:20592991

  12. Coracoclavicular joint: osteologic study of 1020 human clavicles

    PubMed Central

    Gumina, S; Salvatore, M; De Santis, P; Orsina, L; Postacchini, F

    2002-01-01

    We examined 1020 dry clavicles from cadavers of Italian origin to determine the prevalence of the coracoclavicular joint (ccj), a diarthrotic synovial joint occasionally present between the conoid tubercle of the clavicle and the superior surface of the horizontal part of the coracoid process. Five hundred and nine clavicles from individuals of different ages were submitted to X-ray examination. Using radiography, we measured the entire length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve, on which the distance between the conoid tubercle and the coracoid process depends. We also used radiography to record the differences in prevalence of arthritis in two neighbouring joints, the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints. Of the 1020 clavicles, eight (0.8%) displayed the articular facet of the ccj. No statistical correlation was found between clavicular length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve. The prevalence of arthritis in clavicles with ccj was higher than that revealed in clavicles without ccj. The prevalence of ccj in the studied clavicles is lower than that observed in Asian cohorts. Furthermore, ccj is not conditioned by either length or sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve of the clavicle. Finally, the assumption that ccj is a predisposing factor for degenerative changes of neighbouring joints is statistically justified. PMID:12489763

  13. Butt Joint Tool Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-12-06

    ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.

  14. Robust Framework to Combine Diverse Classifiers Assigning Distributed Confidence to Individual Classifiers at Class Level

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Sannia; Rho, Seungmin

    2014-01-01

    We have presented a classification framework that combines multiple heterogeneous classifiers in the presence of class label noise. An extension of m-Mediods based modeling is presented that generates model of various classes whilst identifying and filtering noisy training data. This noise free data is further used to learn model for other classifiers such as GMM and SVM. A weight learning method is then introduced to learn weights on each class for different classifiers to construct an ensemble. For this purpose, we applied genetic algorithm to search for an optimal weight vector on which classifier ensemble is expected to give the best accuracy. The proposed approach is evaluated on variety of real life datasets. It is also compared with existing standard ensemble techniques such as Adaboost, Bagging, and Random Subspace Methods. Experimental results show the superiority of proposed ensemble method as compared to its competitors, especially in the presence of class label noise and imbalance classes. PMID:25295302

  15. Coronal joint spaces of the Temporomandibular joint: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana-Cristina; Pires, Carlos A.; Ponces-Ramalhão, Maria-João-Feio; Lopes, Jorge-Dias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The joint space measurements of the temporomandibular joint have been used to determine the condyle position variation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the coronal joint spaces measurements of the temporomandibular joint. Material and Methods An electronic database search was performed with the terms “condylar position”; “joint space”AND”TMJ”. Inclusionary criteria included: tomographic 3D imaging of the TMJ, presentation of at least two joint space measurements on the coronal plane. Exclusionary criteria were: mandibular fractures, animal studies, surgery, presence of genetic or chronic diseases, case reports, opinion or debate articles or unpublished material. The risk of bias of each study was judged as high, moderate or low according to the “Cochrane risk of bias tool”. The values used in the meta-analysis were the medial, superior and lateral joint space measurements and their differences between the right and left joint. Results From the initial search 2706 articles were retrieved. After excluding the duplicates and all the studies that did not match the eligibility criteria 4 articles classified for final review. All the retrieved articles were judged as low level of evidence. All of the reviewed studies were included in the meta-analysis concluding that the mean coronal joint space values were: medial joint space 2.94 mm, superior 2.55 mm and lateral 2.16 mm. Conclusions the analysis also showed high levels of heterogeneity. Right and left comparison did not show statistically significant differences. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, systematic review, meta-analysis. PMID:26330944

  16. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  17. Stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability.

    PubMed

    Holinka, Johannes; Krepler, Petra; Matzner, Michael; Grohs, Josef G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers (IS) in combination with interlaminar decompression in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis and to compare its clinical effect to patients with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments treated by interlaminar decompression only. Fifty consecutive patients with a minimum age of 60 years were scheduled for interlaminar decompression for clinically and radiologically confirmed lumbar spinal stenosis. Twenty-two of these patients (group DS) with concomitant degenerative low-grade lumbar instability up to 5 mm translational slip were treated by interlaminar decompression and additional dynamic IS implantation. The control group (D) with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments included 28 patients and underwent only interlaminar decompression. The mean follow-up was 46 months in group D and 44 months in group DS. A visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and walking distance were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. The segmental instability was evaluated in flexion-extension X-rays. The implantation of an IS significantly reduced the lumbar instability on flexion-extension X-rays. At the time of follow-up walking distance, VAS and ODI showed a significant improvement in both groups, but no statistical significance between groups D and DS. Four patients each in groups D and DS had revision surgery during the period of evaluation. The stabilising effect of dynamic IS in combination with interlaminar decompression offers an opportunity for an effective treatment for degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:20419452

  18. Ninety-day readmissions after degenerative cervical spine surgery: A single-center administrative database study

    PubMed Central

    Akamnonu, Chibuikem; Goldstein, Jeffrey A.; Errico, Thomas J.; Bendo, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unplanned hospital readmissions result in significant clinical and financial burdens to patients and the healthcare system. Readmission rates and causes have been investigated using large administrative databases which have certain limitations in data reporting and coding. The objective of this study was to provide a description of 90 day post-discharge readmissions following surgery for common degenerative cervical spine pathologies at a large-volume tertiary hospital. The study also compared the readmission rates of patients who underwent anterior- and posterior-approach procedures. Methods The administrative records from a single-center, high-volume tertiary institution were queried using ICD-9 codes for common cervical pathology over a three year period to determine the rate and causes of readmissions within the 90 days following the index surgery. Results A total of 768 patients underwent degenerative cervical spine surgery during the three year study period. Within 90 days of discharge, 24 (3.13%) patients were readmitted; 16 (2.06%) readmissions were planned for lumbar surgery; 8 (1.04%) readmissions were unplanned. 640 patients underwent procedures involving an anterior approach and 128 patients underwent procedures involving a posterior approach. There were 14 (2.17%) planned readmissions in the anterior group and 2 (1.5%) in the posterior group. The unplanned readmission rate was 0.63% (4 patients) and 3.13% (4 patients) in the anterior and posterior groups, respectively. (p=0.0343). Conclusion The 90 day post-discharge unplanned readmission rate that followed elective degenerative cervical spine surgery was 1.04%. The unplanned readmission rate associated with posterior-approach procedures (3.13%) was significantly higher than that of anterior-approach procedures (0.63%). Level of evidence: IV PMID:26114088

  19. Comparison of the Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization System and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Shan, Jian-Lin; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Li, Fang; Guan, Kai; Sun, Tian-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been few studies comparing the clinical and radiographic outcomes between the Dynesys dynamic stabilization system and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Dynesys and PLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods Of 96 patients with lumbar degenerative disease included in this retrospectively analysis, 46 were treated with the Dynesys system and 50 underwent PLIF from July 2008 to March 2011. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. We also evaluated the occurrence of radiographic and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). Results The mean follow-up time in the Dynesys group was 53.6 ± 5.3 months, while that in the PLIF group was 55.2 ± 6.8 months. At the final follow-up, the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale score were significantly improved in both groups. The range of motion (ROM) of stabilized segments in Dynesys group decreased from 7.1 ± 2.2° to 4.9 ± 2.2° (P < 0.05), while that of in PLIF group decreased from 7.3 ± 2.3° to 0° (P < 0.05). The ROM of the upper segments increased significantly in both groups at the final follow-up, the ROM was higher in the PLIF group. There were significantly more radiographic ASDs in the PLIF group than in the Dynesys group. The incidence of complications was comparable between groups. Conclusions Both Dynesys and PLIF can improve the clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to PLIF, Dynesys stabilization partially preserves the ROM of the stabilized segments, limits hypermobility in the upper adjacent segment, and may prevent the occurrence of ASD. PMID:26824851

  20. A classifier neural network for rotordynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, R.; Jionghua, Jin; Sankar, T. S.

    1995-07-01

    A feedforward backpropagation neural network is formed to identify the stability characteristic of a high speed rotordynamic system. The principal focus resides in accounting for the instability due to the bearing clearance effects. The abnormal operating condition of 'normal-loose' Coulomb rub, that arises in units supported by hydrodynamic bearings or rolling element bearings, is analysed in detail. The multiple-parameter stability problem is formulated and converted to a set of three-parameter algebraic inequality equations. These three parameters map the wider range of physical parameters of commonly-used rotordynamic systems into a narrow closed region, that is used in the supervised learning of the neural network. A binary-type state of the system is expressed through these inequalities that are deduced from the analytical simulation of the rotor system. Both the hidden layer as well as functional-link networks are formed and the superiority of the functional-link network is established. Considering the real time interpretation and control of the rotordynamic system, the network reliability and the learning time are used as the evaluation criteria to assess the superiority of the functional-link network. This functional-link network is further trained using the parameter values of selected rotor systems, and the classifier network is formed. The success rate of stability status identification is obtained to assess the potentials of this classifier network. The classifier network is shown that it can also be used, for control purposes, as an 'advisory' system that suggests the optimum way of parameter adjustment.

  1. 28 CFR 17.16 - Violations of classified information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Violations of classified information requirements. 17.16 Section 17.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Administration § 17.16 Violations of classified...

  2. 49 CFR 1280.3 - Authority to classify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authority to classify. 1280.3 Section 1280.3... AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.3 Authority to classify. The Board does not have authority of its own to classify any of its internally generated documents. The only documents handled by the Board...

  3. 49 CFR 1280.3 - Authority to classify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority to classify. 1280.3 Section 1280.3... AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.3 Authority to classify. The Board does not have authority of its own to classify any of its internally generated documents. The only documents handled by the Board...

  4. 20 CFR 641.853 - How are costs classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How are costs classified? 641.853 Section 641... costs classified? (a) All costs must be classified as “administrative costs” or “programmatic activity... whose costs are normally classified as administrative costs, compensation provided to the...

  5. 48 CFR 14.409-2 - Award of classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Award of classified... classified contracts. In addition to 14.409-1, if classified information was furnished or created in.... Information regarding a classified award shall not be furnished by telephone....

  6. 7 CFR 42.106 - Classifying and recording defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classifying and recording defects. 42.106 Section 42... § 42.106 Classifying and recording defects. (a) Classifying defects. Examine each sample unit for the.... Other defects, not specifically listed, shall be classified according to their effect on the...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.55 - Foreign disclosure of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign disclosure of classified information... SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.55 Foreign disclosure of classified information. Classified...

  8. 49 CFR 1280.3 - Authority to classify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority to classify. 1280.3 Section 1280.3... AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.3 Authority to classify. The Board does not have authority of its own to classify any of its internally generated documents. The only documents handled by the Board...

  9. 48 CFR 504.475 - Return of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Return of classified... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 504.475 Return of classified information. (a) Contracting officers must recover classified information, unless it has...

  10. 36 CFR 1256.46 - National security-classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National security-classified... Restrictions § 1256.46 National security-classified information. In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), NARA... properly classified under the provisions of the pertinent Executive Order on Classified National...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.55 - Foreign disclosure of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign disclosure of classified information... SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.55 Foreign disclosure of classified information. Classified...

  12. 46 CFR 503.59 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information. 503.59 Section 503... Information Security Program § 503.59 Safeguarding classified information. (a) All classified information... classification. (b) Whenever classified material is removed from a storage facility, such material shall not...

  13. 48 CFR 14.409-2 - Award of classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Award of classified... classified contracts. In addition to 14.409-1, if classified information was furnished or created in.... Information regarding a classified award shall not be furnished by telephone....

  14. 6 CFR 7.12 - Violations of classified information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Violations of classified information... CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Administration § 7.12 Violations of classified information... suspected loss or compromise of classified information, shall promptly report such violations or...

  15. 49 CFR 1280.3 - Authority to classify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authority to classify. 1280.3 Section 1280.3... AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.3 Authority to classify. The Board does not have authority of its own to classify any of its internally generated documents. The only documents handled by the Board...

  16. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  17. 10 CFR 110.126 - Protection of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of classified information. 110.126 Section 110... MATERIAL Special Procedures for Classified Information in Hearings § 110.126 Protection of classified information. Nothing in this subpart shall relieve any person from safeguarding classified information...

  18. 48 CFR 14.409-2 - Award of classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Award of classified... classified contracts. In addition to 14.409-1, if classified information was furnished or created in.... Information regarding a classified award shall not be furnished by telephone....

  19. 28 CFR 17.41 - Access to classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to classified information. 17.41 Section 17.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.41 Access to...

  20. 48 CFR 14.409-2 - Award of classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Award of classified... classified contracts. In addition to 14.409-1, if classified information was furnished or created in.... Information regarding a classified award shall not be furnished by telephone....

  1. 7 CFR 42.106 - Classifying and recording defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classifying and recording defects. 42.106 Section 42... § 42.106 Classifying and recording defects. (a) Classifying defects. Examine each sample unit for the.... Other defects, not specifically listed, shall be classified according to their effect on the...

  2. 28 CFR 17.16 - Violations of classified information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Violations of classified information requirements. 17.16 Section 17.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Administration § 17.16 Violations of classified...

  3. 48 CFR 504.475 - Return of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return of classified... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 504.475 Return of classified information. (a) You must recover classified information unless it has been destroyed as...

  4. 7 CFR 42.106 - Classifying and recording defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifying and recording defects. 42.106 Section 42... § 42.106 Classifying and recording defects. (a) Classifying defects. Examine each sample unit for the.... Other defects, not specifically listed, shall be classified according to their effect on the...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.55 - Foreign disclosure of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign disclosure of classified information... SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.55 Foreign disclosure of classified information. Classified...

  6. 48 CFR 504.475 - Return of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Return of classified... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 504.475 Return of classified information. (a) Contracting officers must recover classified information, unless it has...

  7. 18 CFR 1301.69 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Safeguarding classified... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.69 Safeguarding classified information. (a) All classified information shall be afforded a level of protection against...

  8. 18 CFR 1301.69 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Safeguarding classified... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.69 Safeguarding classified information. (a) All classified information shall be afforded a level of protection against...

  9. 18 CFR 1301.69 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Safeguarding classified... PROCEDURES Protection of National Security Classified Information § 1301.69 Safeguarding classified information. (a) All classified information shall be afforded a level of protection against...

  10. 48 CFR 14.409-2 - Award of classified contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Award of classified... classified contracts. In addition to 14.409-1, if classified information was furnished or created in.... Information regarding a classified award shall not be furnished by telephone....

  11. 10 CFR 110.126 - Protection of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of classified information. 110.126 Section 110... MATERIAL Special Procedures for Classified Information in Hearings § 110.126 Protection of classified information. Nothing in this subpart shall relieve any person from safeguarding classified information...

  12. 7 CFR 42.106 - Classifying and recording defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classifying and recording defects. 42.106 Section 42... § 42.106 Classifying and recording defects. (a) Classifying defects. Examine each sample unit for the.... Other defects, not specifically listed, shall be classified according to their effect on the...

  13. 10 CFR 110.126 - Protection of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of classified information. 110.126 Section 110... MATERIAL Special Procedures for Classified Information in Hearings § 110.126 Protection of classified information. Nothing in this subpart shall relieve any person from safeguarding classified information...

  14. 48 CFR 504.475 - Return of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Return of classified... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 504.475 Return of classified information. (a) Contracting officers must recover classified information, unless it has...

  15. 20 CFR 641.853 - How are costs classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are costs classified? 641.853 Section 641... costs classified? (a) All costs must be classified as “administrative costs” or “programmatic activity... whose costs are normally classified as administrative costs, compensation provided to the...

  16. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  17. 32 CFR 2001.55 - Foreign disclosure of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign disclosure of classified information... SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.55 Foreign disclosure of classified information. Classified...

  18. 46 CFR 503.59 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information. 503.59 Section 503... Information Security Program § 503.59 Safeguarding classified information. (a) All classified information... classification. (b) Whenever classified material is removed from a storage facility, such material shall not...

  19. 7 CFR 42.106 - Classifying and recording defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classifying and recording defects. 42.106 Section 42... § 42.106 Classifying and recording defects. (a) Classifying defects. Examine each sample unit for the.... Other defects, not specifically listed, shall be classified according to their effect on the...

  20. 10 CFR 110.126 - Protection of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of classified information. 110.126 Section 110... MATERIAL Special Procedures for Classified Information in Hearings § 110.126 Protection of classified information. Nothing in this subpart shall relieve any person from safeguarding classified information...

  1. 6 CFR 7.23 - Emergency release of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency release of classified information. 7.23 Section 7.23 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.23 Emergency release of classified information....

  2. 49 CFR 1280.3 - Authority to classify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority to classify. 1280.3 Section 1280.3... AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.3 Authority to classify. The Board does not have authority of its own to classify any of its internally generated documents. The only documents handled by the Board...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.55 - Foreign disclosure of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign disclosure of classified information... SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.55 Foreign disclosure of classified information. Classified...

  4. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  5. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  6. 46 CFR 503.59 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information. 503.59 Section 503... Information Security Program § 503.59 Safeguarding classified information. (a) All classified information... classification. (b) Whenever classified material is removed from a storage facility, such material shall not...

  7. 36 CFR 1256.46 - National security-classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National security-classified... Restrictions § 1256.46 National security-classified information. In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), NARA... properly classified under the provisions of the pertinent Executive Order on Classified National...

  8. 46 CFR 108.185 - Ventilation for enclosed classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed classified locations. 108.185... enclosed classified locations. (a) The ventilation system for each enclosed classified location must be designed to maintain a pressure differential between the enclosed classified location and each...

  9. 28 CFR 17.16 - Violations of classified information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Violations of classified information requirements. 17.16 Section 17.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Administration § 17.16 Violations of classified...

  10. 43 CFR 2.41 - Declassification of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Declassification of classified documents. 2...; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Declassification of Classified Documents § 2.41 Declassification of classified... classification review of a document of the Department of the Interior containing information classified...

  11. 46 CFR 503.59 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information. 503.59 Section 503... Information Security Program § 503.59 Safeguarding classified information. (a) All classified information... classification. (b) Whenever classified material is removed from a storage facility, such material shall not...

  12. 20 CFR 641.853 - How are costs classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are costs classified? 641.853 Section 641... costs classified? (a) All costs must be classified as “administrative costs” or “programmatic activity... whose costs are normally classified as administrative costs, compensation provided to the...

  13. 36 CFR 1256.46 - National security-classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National security-classified... Restrictions § 1256.46 National security-classified information. In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), NARA... properly classified under the provisions of the pertinent Executive Order on Classified National...

  14. 10 CFR 110.126 - Protection of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of classified information. 110.126 Section 110... MATERIAL Special Procedures for Classified Information in Hearings § 110.126 Protection of classified information. Nothing in this subpart shall relieve any person from safeguarding classified information...

  15. 48 CFR 504.475 - Return of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Return of classified... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 504.475 Return of classified information. (a) You must recover classified information unless it has been destroyed as...

  16. 28 CFR 17.16 - Violations of classified information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Violations of classified information requirements. 17.16 Section 17.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Administration § 17.16 Violations of classified...

  17. 20 CFR 641.853 - How are costs classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are costs classified? 641.853 Section 641... costs classified? (a) All costs must be classified as “administrative costs” or “program costs.” (OAA... are normally classified as Administrative Cost, compensation provided to the participants shall...

  18. 28 CFR 17.41 - Access to classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to classified information. 17.41 Section 17.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.41 Access to...

  19. 36 CFR 1256.46 - National security-classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National security-classified... Restrictions § 1256.46 National security-classified information. In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), NARA... properly classified under the provisions of the pertinent Executive Order on Classified National...

  20. 20 CFR 641.853 - How are costs classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are costs classified? 641.853 Section 641... costs classified? (a) All costs must be classified as “administrative costs” or “programmatic activity... whose costs are normally classified as administrative costs, compensation provided to the...

  1. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 46 CFR 503.59 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Security Program § 503.59 Safeguarding classified information. (a) All classified information... security; (2) Takes appropriate steps to protect classified information from unauthorized disclosure or... security check; (2) To protect the classified information in accordance with the provisions of...

  3. Learnability of min-max pattern classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping-Fai; Maragos, Petros

    1991-11-01

    This paper introduces the class of thresholded min-max functions and studies their learning under the probably approximately correct (PAC) model introduced by Valiant. These functions can be used as pattern classifiers of both real-valued and binary-valued feature vectors. They are a lattice-theoretic generalization of Boolean functions and are also related to three-layer perceptrons and morphological signal operators. Several subclasses of the thresholded min- max functions are shown to be learnable under the PAC model.

  4. Sampling design for classifying contaminant level using annealing search algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christakos, George; Killam, Bart R.

    1993-12-01

    A stochastic method for sampling spatially distributed contaminant level is presented. The purpose of sampling is to partition the contaminated region into zones of high and low pollutant concentration levels. In particular, given an initial set of observations of a contaminant within a site, it is desired to find a set of additional sampling locations in a way that takes into consideration the spatial variability characteristics of the site and optimizes certain objective functions emerging from the physical, regulatory and monetary considerations of the specific site cleanup process. Since the interest is in classifying the domain into zones above and below a pollutant threshold level, a natural criterion is the cost of misclassification. The resulting objective function is the expected value of a spatial loss function associated with sampling. Stochastic expectation involves the joint probability distribution of the pollutant level and its estimate, where the latter is calculated by means of spatial estimation techniques. Actual computation requires the discretization of the contaminated domain. As a consequence, any reasonably sized problem results in combinatorics precluding an exhaustive search. The use of an annealing algorithm, although suboptimal, can find a good set of future sampling locations quickly and efficiently. In order to obtain insight about the parameters and the computational requirements of the method, an example is discussed in detail. The implementation of spatial sampling design in practice will provide the model inputs necessary for waste site remediation, groundwater management, and environmental decision making.

  5. Time-frequency filtering for classifying targets in nonstationary clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomatam, Vikram Thiruneermalai; Loughlin, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Classifying underwater targets from their sonar backscatter is often complicated by induced or self-noise (i.e. clutter, reverberation) arising from the scattering of the sonar pulse from non-target objects. Because clutter is inherently nonstationary, and because the propagation environment can induce nonstationarities as well, in addition to any nonstationarities / time-varying spectral components of the target echo itself, a joint phase space approach to target classification has been explored. In this paper, we apply a previously developed minimum mean square time-frequency spectral estimation method to design a bank of time-frequency filters from training data to distinguish targets from clutter. The method is implemented in the ambiguity domain in order to reduce computational requirements. In this domain, the optimal filter (more commonly called a "kernel" in the time-frequency literature) multiples the ambiguity function of the received signal, and then the mean squared distance to each target class is computed. Simulations demonstrate that the class-specific optimal kernel better separates each target from the clutter and other targets, compared to a simple mean-squared distance measure with no kernel processing.

  6. Metatarsal phalangeal joint arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shonka, T E

    1991-01-01

    An overview of metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) arthroscopy is presented. Indications, technique, and perioperative management are discussed. The author believes it is the operative treatment of choice for various pathology encountered in this joint. PMID:2002183

  7. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  8. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: the ...

  9. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  10. Hip joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002975.htm Hip joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part ...

  11. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal end of the femur ( ...

  12. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002974.htm Knee joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Knee joint replacement is a surgery to replace a knee ...

  13. Large displacement spherical joint

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

  14. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

  15. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000610.htm Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe the ...

  16. A Systematic Comparison of Supervised Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Amancio, Diego Raphael; Comin, Cesar Henrique; Casanova, Dalcimar; Travieso, Gonzalo; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; Rodrigues, Francisco Aparecido; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition has been employed in a myriad of industrial, commercial and academic applications. Many techniques have been devised to tackle such a diversity of applications. Despite the long tradition of pattern recognition research, there is no technique that yields the best classification in all scenarios. Therefore, as many techniques as possible should be considered in high accuracy applications. Typical related works either focus on the performance of a given algorithm or compare various classification methods. In many occasions, however, researchers who are not experts in the field of machine learning have to deal with practical classification tasks without an in-depth knowledge about the underlying parameters. Actually, the adequate choice of classifiers and parameters in such practical circumstances constitutes a long-standing problem and is one of the subjects of the current paper. We carried out a performance study of nine well-known classifiers implemented in the Weka framework and compared the influence of the parameter configurations on the accuracy. The default configuration of parameters in Weka was found to provide near optimal performance for most cases, not including methods such as the support vector machine (SVM). In addition, the k-nearest neighbor method frequently allowed the best accuracy. In certain conditions, it was possible to improve the quality of SVM by more than 20% with respect to their default parameter configuration. PMID:24763312

  17. Objectively classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    There has been a long tradition in attempting to separate extratropical cyclones into different classes depending on their cloud signatures, airflows, synoptic precursors, or upper-level flow features. Depending on these features, the cyclones may have different impacts, for example in their precipitation intensity. It is important, therefore, to understand how the distribution of different cyclone classes may change in the future. Many of the previous classifications have been performed manually. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850 hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first detected), has been used to objectively classify identified cyclones. The results are compared to the manual classification of Sinclair and Revell (2000) and the four objectively identified classes shown in this presentation are found to match well. The relative importance of diabatic heating in the clusters is investigated, as well as the differing precipitation characteristics. The success of the objective classification shows its utility in climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  18. Mercury⊕: An evidential reasoning image classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddle, Derek R.

    1995-12-01

    MERCURY⊕ is a multisource evidential reasoning classification software system based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. The design and implementation of this software package is described for improving the classification and analysis of multisource digital image data necessary for addressing advanced environmental and geoscience applications. In the remote-sensing context, the approach provides a more appropriate framework for classifying modern, multisource, and ancillary data sets which may contain a large number of disparate variables with different statistical properties, scales of measurement, and levels of error which cannot be handled using conventional Bayesian approaches. The software uses a nonparametric, supervised approach to classification, and provides a more objective and flexible interface to the evidential reasoning framework using a frequency-based method for computing support values from training data. The MERCURY⊕ software package has been implemented efficiently in the C programming language, with extensive use made of dynamic memory allocation procedures and compound linked list and hash-table data structures to optimize the storage and retrieval of evidence in a Knowledge Look-up Table. The software is complete with a full user interface and runs under Unix, Ultrix, VAX/VMS, MS-DOS, and Apple Macintosh operating system. An example of classifying alpine land cover and permafrost active layer depth in northern Canada is presented to illustrate the use and application of these ideas.

  19. Classifying multispectral data by neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telfer, Brian A.; Szu, Harold H.; Kiang, Richard K.

    1993-01-01

    Several energy functions for synthesizing neural networks are tested on 2-D synthetic data and on Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data. These new energy functions, designed specifically for minimizing misclassification error, in some cases yield significant improvements in classification accuracy over the standard least mean squares energy function. In addition to operating on networks with one output unit per class, a new energy function is tested for binary encoded outputs, which result in smaller network sizes. The Thematic Mapper data (four bands were used) is classified on a single pixel basis, to provide a starting benchmark against which further improvements will be measured. Improvements are underway to make use of both subpixel and superpixel (i.e. contextual or neighborhood) information in tile processing. For single pixel classification, the best neural network result is 78.7 percent, compared with 71.7 percent for a classical nearest neighbor classifier. The 78.7 percent result also improves on several earlier neural network results on this data.

  20. Cross-classified occupational exposure data.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the regression analysis of exposure determinants using cross-classified random effects in the context of lead exposures resulting from blasting surfaces in advance of painting. We had three specific objectives for analysis of the lead data, and observed: (1) high within-worker variability in personal lead exposures, explaining 79% of variability; (2) that the lead concentration outside of half-mask respirators was 2.4-fold higher than inside supplied-air blasting helmets, suggesting that the exposure reduction by blasting helmets may be lower than expected by the Assigned Protection Factor; and (3) that lead concentrations at fixed area locations in containment were not associated with personal lead exposures. In addition, we found that, on average, lead exposures among workers performing blasting and other activities was 40% lower than among workers performing only blasting. In the process of obtaining these analyses objectives, we determined that the data were non-hierarchical: repeated exposure measurements were collected for a worker while the worker was a member of several groups, or cross-classified among groups. Since the worker is a member of multiple groups, the exposure data do not adhere to the traditionally assumed hierarchical structure. Forcing a hierarchical structure on these data led to similar within-group and between-group variability, but decreased precision in the estimate of effect of work activity on lead exposure. We hope hygienists and exposure assessors will consider non-hierarchical models in the design and analysis of exposure assessments. PMID:27029937

  1. Induction with cross-classified categories.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G L; Ross, B H

    1999-11-01

    One of the main functions of categories is to allow inferences about new objects. However, most objects are cross-classified, and it is not known whether and how people combine information from these different categories in making inferences. In six experiments, food categories, which are strongly cross-classified (e.g., a bagel is both a bread and a breakfast food), were studied. For each food, the subjects were told fictitious facts (e.g., 75% of breads are subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds) about two of the categories to which it belonged and then were asked to make an inference about the food (e.g., how likely is a bagel to be subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds?). We found no more use of multiple categories in these cases of cross-classification than in ambiguous classification, in which it is uncertain to which category an item belongs. However, some procedural manipulations did markedly increase the use of both categories in inferences, primarily those that focused the subjects' attention on the critical feature in both categories. PMID:10586578

  2. Sacroiliac joint imaging.

    PubMed

    Tuite, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    The sacroiliac (SI) joint has several unique anatomical features that make it one of the more challenging joints to image. The joint is difficult to profile well on radiographic views, and therefore the radiographic findings of sacroiliitis are often equivocal. Computed tomography images can usually show the findings of sacroiliitis and osteoarthritis earlier than radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging performed with proper sequences is excellent for diagnosing even very early sacroiliitis and for following treatment response. The SI joint is often involved in patients with osteoarthritis or one of the inflammatory spondyloarthritides, most notably ankylosing spondylitis. Ankylosing spondylitis often presents with sacroiliitis, which appears as erosions, sclerosis, and joint space narrowing, eventually leading to ankylosis. Several disorders can cause sacroiliitis-like changes of the joint, including hyperparathyroidism and repetitive shear-stress injuries in athletes. The joint can become painful during pregnancy as it widens and develops increased motion, and some postpartum women develop iliac sclerosis adjacent to the joint termed osteitis condensans ilii. Another cause of SI joint pain is a disorder called sacroiliac joint dysfunction, which typically has few abnormal imaging findings. Patients with SI joint dysfunction, as well as sacroiliitis, often get relief from image-guided SI joint therapeutic injections. PMID:18382946

  3. Joint Enrollment Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Education collects information on joint enrollment in Iowa's 15 community colleges. Jointly enrolled students are high school students enrolled in community college credit coursework. Most jointly enrolled students enroll through Senior Year Plus (SYP) programs such as Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) and concurrent…

  4. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  5. Fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR data using decision template-based fuzzy multiple classifier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Behnaz; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Reinartz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Regarding to the limitations and benefits of remote sensing sensors, fusion of remote sensing data from multiple sensors such as hyperspectral and LIDAR (light detection and ranging) is effective at land cover classification. Hyperspectral images (HSI) provide a detailed description of the spectral signatures of classes, whereas LIDAR data give height detailed information. However, because of the more complexities and mixed information in LIDAR and HSI, traditional crisp classification methods could not be more efficient. In this situation, fuzzy classifiers could deliver more satisfactory results than crisp classification approaches. Also, referring to the limitation of single classifiers, multiple classifier system (MCS) may exhibit better performance in the field of multi-sensor fusion. This paper presents a fuzzy multiple classifier system for fusions of HSI and LIDAR data based on decision template (DT). After feature extraction and feature selection on each data, all selected features of both data are applied on a cube. Then classifications were performed by fuzzy k-nearest neighbour (FKNN) and fuzzy maximum likelihood (FML) on cube of features. Finally, a fuzzy decision fusion method is utilized to fuse the results of fuzzy classifiers. In order to assess fuzzy MCS proposed method, a crisp MCS based on support vector machine (SVM), KNN and maximum likelihood (ML) as crisp classifiers and naive Bayes (NB) as crisp classifier fusion method is applied on selected cube feature. A co-registered HSI and LIDAR data set from Houston of USA was available to examine the effect of proposed MCSs. Fuzzy MCS on HSI and LIDAR data provide interesting conclusions on the effectiveness and potentialities of the joint use of these two data.

  6. Nd:YAG laser in experimentally induced chronic degenerative osteoarthritis in broiler chickens: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Cardillo, Ilaria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been widely tested in arthritis disorders, but there is still some disagreement in the results, therefore in this study we have investigated High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT). The degenerative arthritis was induced in 18 chickens by intra-articular inoculation of Freund's complete adjuvant. Clinical studies were carried out (weight increase and grades of lameness) as well as morphological (macroscopic and histological) tests and seroassay (C Reactive Protein). The Nd:YAG pulsed wave was employed. The serologic data revealed the anti-inflammatory effect on the laser, with a highly significant difference between those treated and the control group. No lesion on the skin, i.e. burn, or in depth has been observed in the Treated group. Heavyline of broiler chickens in growing age has been revealed a good animal model of O.A.. The Nd:YAG Pulsed Wave it is safe on these structures. The anti-inflammatory effect of the HILT it seems to contrast the destructive degenerative process.

  7. Association of COL2A1 Gene Polymorphism with Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dae Woo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jung Youn; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) progresses with aging after 50-60 years, and the genetic association of DLS remains largely unclear. In this study, the genetic association between collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) gene and DLS was investigated. Methods COL2A1 gene polymorphism was investigated in DLS subjects compared to healthy controls to investigate the possibility of its association with COL2A1 gene. Based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database, SNP (rs2276454) in COL2A1 were selected and genotyped using direct sequencing in 51 patients with DLS and 235 healthy controls. The SNP effects were analyzed using three models of codominant, dominant, and recessive. Logistic regression models were calculated for odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and corresponding p-values, controlling age and gender as co-variables. Results SNP (rs2276454) in COL2A1 was significantly associated with the degenerative lumbar scoliosis in the codominant (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.10; p = 0.008) and dominant models (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.59 to 9.29; p = 0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that COL2A1 is associated with the risk of DLS in Korean population. PMID:25436060

  8. Tau accumulation in astrocytes in progressive supranuclear palsy is a degenerative rather than a reactive process.

    PubMed

    Togo, Takashi; Dickson, Dennis W

    2002-10-01

    Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) have a distinctive morphology and are referred to as tufted astrocytes (TA). We hypothesized that TA may be a degenerative change in reactive astrocytes. To test this hypothesis we examined the relationship of TA to gliosis in PSP. We first examined the distribution of gliosis [glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes], TA, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and pretangles in brain sections of neuropathologically pure PSP cases. Second, we examined PSP cases complicated by infarcts or Alzheimer's disease, since these cases would have reactive astrocytes associated with lesions. We used double immunostaining for GFAP and tau for cases with vascular lesions, and triple immunostaining for GFAP, tau and beta-amyloid protein for sections with senile plaques. There was no correlation between the distribution of gliosis and TA, with gliosis prominent in globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus, and TA prominent in motor cortex and striatum. On the other hand, gliosis paralleled the distribution of NFT, but not the distribution of pretangles, suggesting that NFT contributes to gliosis in PSP. Although reactive astrocytes were present around infarcts and senile plaques, TA were not associated with these lesions. Tau accumulation in astrocytes in PSP was not preferential to (and was actually independent of) reactive astrocytes. This is consistent with the notion that tau accumulation in astrocytes is a degenerative rather than reactive process. Unlike NFT, astrocytic degeneration does not seem to contribute to gliosis or neuronal loss in PSP, and its clinical significance remains unclear. PMID:12200627

  9. [Prediction of outcomes of surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disk disease].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, Iu I; Nazarenko, G I; Cherkashov, A M; Riazanov, V V; Nazarenko, A G

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on algorithms of outcomes assessment of surgical treatment of the patients with degenerative lumbar disk disease. From 1997 to 2006 389 patients with discogenic lumbar pain were operated in the Medical Center of Central Bank of Russia. 185 patients underwent radiofrequency destruction of facet nerves, laser percutaneous lumbar discectomy was performed in 39 patients, microdiscectomy -- in 131, and decompression combined with lumbar spine stabilization -- in 31 cases. Clinical and radiological data of each patient were recorded in the database using 3-point scale according to intensity of the feature. Assessment of patients' condition was performed pre- and postoperatively (after discharge and after 6, 12 and 24 months interval). Postoperative outcome was recorded for the current period in compliance with modified criteria of Kawabata et al. Obtained data were mathematically and statistically processed. Developed algorithms allowed assessment of postoperative outcome in the patients with degenerative lumbar disk disease. Outcome data can be used for evaluation of feasibility of surgical treatment as well as for selection of surgical technique. PMID:19505029

  10. Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Laasanen, Mikko S.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Töyräs, Juha

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair.

  11. Current concepts on spinal arthrodesis in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Lykissas, Marios G; Aichmair, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Back pain is a common chronic disorder that represents a large burden for the health care system. There is a broad spectrum of available treatment options for patients suffering from chronic lower back pain in the setting of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine, including both conservative and operative approaches. Lumbar arthrodesis techniques can be divided into sub-categories based on the part of the vertebral column that is addressed (anterior vs posterior). Furthermore, one has to differentiate between approaches aiming at a solid fusion in contrast to motion-sparing techniques with the proposed advantage of a reduced risk of developing adjacent disc disease. However, the field of application and long-term outcomes of these novel motion-preserving surgical techniques, including facet arthroplasty, nucleus replacement, and lumbar disc arthroplasty, need to be more precisely evaluated in long-term prospective studies. Innovative surgical treatment strategies involving minimally invasive techniques, such as lateral lumbar interbody fusion or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, as well as percutaneous implantation of transpedicular or transfacet screws, have been established with the reported advantages of reduced tissue invasiveness, decreased collateral damage, reduced blood loss, and decreased risk of infection. The aim of this study was to review well-established procedures for lumbar spinal fusion with the main focus on current concepts on spinal arthrodesis and motion-sparing techniques in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. PMID:24303453

  12. Novel Strategies for the Improvement of Stem Cells' Transplantation in Degenerative Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nicoară, Simona Delia; Șușman, Sergiu; Tudoran, Oana; Bărbos, Otilia; Cherecheș, Gabriela; Aștilean, Simion; Potara, Monica; Sorițău, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no cure for the permanent vision loss caused by degenerative retinal diseases. One of the novel therapeutic strategies aims at the development of stem cells (SCs) based neuroprotective and regenerative medicine. The main sources of SCs for the treatment of retinal diseases are the embryo, the bone marrow, the region of neuronal genesis, and the eye. The success of transplantation depends on the origin of cells, the route of administration, the local microenvironment, and the proper combinative formula of growth factors. The feasibility of SCs based therapies for degenerative retinal diseases was proved in the preclinical setting. However, their translation into the clinical realm is limited by various factors: the immunogenicity of the cells, the stability of the cell phenotype, the predilection of SCs to form tumors in situ, the abnormality of the microenvironment, and the association of a synaptic rewiring. To improve SCs based therapies, nanotechnology offers a smart delivery system for biomolecules, such as growth factors for SCs implantation and differentiation into retinal progenitors. This review explores the main advances in the field of retinal transplantology and applications of nanotechnology in the treatment of retinal diseases, discusses the challenges, and suggests new therapeutic approaches in retinal transplantation. PMID:27293444

  13. Compounded pimobendan for canine chronic degenerative mitral valve disease and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Helms, Scott R; Fox, Samantha; Mixon, William; Vail, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Pimobendan (Vetmedin) is an effective treatment for canine chronic degenerative mitral valve disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. In an off-label use, it may also be of benefit for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in dogs. In this report, we describe the effects of a palatable customized oral form of pimobendan used with both compounded and commercially manufactured conventional drug therapy to treat degenerative mitral valve disease and pulmonary hypertension in two small dogs. For those patients, who resisted many types of oral medication, the standard manufactured dose of pimobendan was inappropriate. Formulations of the preparations used to treat the patients described in this report are provided for easy reference. It should be noted that at the time of this writing, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH (Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany), the manufacturer of pimobendan, has expressed concern about the stability of that agent in aqueous compounded form. To our knowledge, no current data confirming the stability or bioequivalence of compounded pimobendan exist. PMID:23050309

  14. Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone.

    PubMed

    Saarakkala, Simo; Laasanen, Mikko S; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2006-10-21

    Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p<0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair. PMID:17019042

  15. Degenerative Tissue Responses to Space-like Radiation Doses in a Rodent Model of Simulated Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Akel, Nisreen; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Gaddy, Dana; Griffin, Robert J; Yadlapalli, Jai Shankar K; Dobretsov, Maxim

    2016-03-01

    This study examines acute and degenerative tissue responses to space-like radiation doses in a rodent model of simulated microgravity. We have studied four groups of rats, control (CON), irradiated (IR), irradiated and hindlimb suspended (IR-HLS), and suspended (HLS) that were maintained for two weeks. IR and IR+HLS groups were exposed to five sessions of X-ray irradiation (1.2 Gy each, at 3-4 days intervals). Body weights, soleus muscle weights, and hindlimb bone mineral density (BMD) were measured. Results show that compared to CON animals, IR, HLS, and IR+HLS group reduced the body weight gain significantly. IR-associated growth retardation appeared to be closely linked to acute and transient post-IR 'anorexia' (a decrease in food intake). HLS but not IR induced major changes in the musculoskeletal system, consisting in decreases in soleus muscle mass and bone mineral density of distal femur and proximal tibia. Additional dosimetric studies showed that the effect of IR on weight is detectable at 0.3 Gy X-ray doses, while no threshold dose for the IR-produced decrease in food intake could be observed. This study suggests that space flight-associated anorexia and musculoskeletal degenerative changes may be driven by different, radiation- and microgravity-associated (respectively) mechanisms. PMID:27098627

  16. Redox Signaling as a Therapeutic Target to Inhibit Myofibroblast Activation in Degenerative Fibrotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Peter; Zenzmaier, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative fibrotic diseases encompass numerous systemic and organ-specific disorders. Despite their associated significant morbidity and mortality, there is currently no effective antifibrotic treatment. Fibrosis is characterized by the development and persistence of myofibroblasts, whose unregulated deposition of extracellular matrix components disrupts signaling cascades and normal tissue architecture leading to organ failure and death. The profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is considered the foremost inducer of fibrosis, driving myofibroblast differentiation in diverse tissues. This review summarizes recent in vitro and in vivo data demonstrating that TGFβ-induced myofibroblast differentiation is driven by a prooxidant shift in redox homeostasis. Elevated NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) supported by concomitant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) signaling and reactive oxygen species scavengers are central factors in the molecular pathogenesis of fibrosis in numerous tissues and organs. Moreover, complex interplay between NOX4-derived H2O2 and NO signaling regulates myofibroblast differentiation. Restoring redox homeostasis via antioxidants or NOX4 inactivation as well as by enhancing NO signaling via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclases or inhibition of phosphodiesterases can inhibit and reverse myofibroblast differentiation. Thus, dysregulated redox signaling represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of wide variety of different degenerative fibrotic disorders. PMID:24701562

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of degenerative cervical myelopathy: a review of structural changes and measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Aria; Martin, Allan R; Mikulis, David; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy encompasses a spectrum of age-related structural changes of the cervical spine that result in static and dynamic injury to the spinal cord and collectively represent the most common cause of myelopathy in adults. Although cervical myelopathy is determined clinically, the diagnosis requires confirmation via imaging, and MRI is the preferred modality. Because of the heterogeneity of the condition and evolution of MRI technology, multiple techniques have been developed over the years in an attempt to quantify the degree of baseline severity and potential for neurological recovery. In this review, these techniques are categorized anatomically into those that focus on bone, ligaments, discs, and the spinal cord. In addition, measurements for the cervical spine canal size and sagittal alignment are also described briefly. These tools have resulted collectively in the identification of numerous useful parameters. However, the development of multiple techniques for assessing the same feature, such as cord compression, has also resulted in a number of challenges, including introducing ambiguity in terms of which methods to use and hindering effective comparisons of analysis in the literature. In addition, newer techniques that use advanced MRI are emerging and providing exciting new tools for assessing the spinal cord in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy. PMID:27246488

  18. Evaluation of a proposed therapeutic protocol in 12 dogs with tentative degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Koutinas, Alexander F; Patsikas, Michael N; Soubasis, Nektarios

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of a proposed therapeutic protocol in 12 dogs with a tentative diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy, followed-up for a 6-month period. Twelve dogs fulfilling the antemortem inclusion criteria (breed, age, adequate vaccination, history of progressive posterior ataxia and/or paraparesis, no radiographic and myelographic abnormalities in the spinal cord and vertebral column) were allocated. All these dogs presented signs of thoracolumbar syndrome (T3-L3), scored as grade I (mild to moderate ataxia and paraparesis) in 10 and grade II (severe ataxia and ambulatory paraparesis) in 2 cases. Treatment included the use of epsilon-aminocaproic acid and N-acetylcysteine, supplemented with vitamins B, C and E. Prednisolone was given for the first two weeks and upon worsening of neurological signs. Daily exercise, performed as walking or swimming, was strongly recommended. Clinicopathological evaluation was normal in all 12 dogs, and survey radiographs and myelograms did not show spinal cord compression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed only in 4 dogs, did not disclose compressive disorders or intramedullary lesions. Neurological signs were progressively worsening in all 12 animals, eventually resulting in severe paraparesis (grade III) or paraplegia (grade IV). The applied medications do not appear to be an attractive alternative to conservative management (physiotherapy) or euthanasia in canine degenerative myelopathy, irrespective of its chronicity. PMID:18828481

  19. [Authors of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions"].

    PubMed

    Shin, S S

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the career and official ranks of the authors of the Sejong text (1443-1445), Sejo text (1451-1464), and Seongjong text (1475-1477) of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions" were investigated. In the completion of Sejong text, Kim Rye-mong (1406-1469), Ryu Seong-won (?-1456), and Min Bohua (?) collected and arranged all medical books inside and outside of Choseon; Kim Moon (?-1448), Shin Seok-jo (1407-1459), Lee Ye (1419-1480), Kim Soo-on (1410-1481), Jeon soon-eui (?), Choi Yun (?), and Kim Yu-ji (?-1469) took part in the edition; Lee Yong (1418-1453), Lee Sa-cheol (1405-1456), Lee Sa-soon (?-1455), and Rho Joon-g-rye (?-1452) participated in the editorial supervision. Ryang Seong-ji (1415-1482), Son So (1433-1484), Ryu Yo (?), Han Chi-ryang (?), An Geuk-sang (?), Han Kye-mi (1421-1471), and Choi Young-rin (?) took part in the completion of Sejo text. Han Kye-heiu (1423-1482), Rym Won-joon (1423-1500), Kueon Chan (1430-1487), Ryu Seo (?), and Baek Soo-heui(?) participated in the completion of Seongjong text. All 96 persons participated in the completion of draft text, revision text, and first-publication text of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions". 14 persons (14.58%) participated in the completion of draft text. 77 persons (80.21%) participated in revision text, and 5 persons (5.21%) participated in first-publication text. Even though "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions" is a medical book, civil officials participated in its completion together with medical officials. The scholars of Jiphyeonjeon (The Jade Hall of Scholars) who led the academy at those days and famous medical officials were ordered to complete it by Sejong (1419-1450), Sejo (1455-1468), and Seongjong (1470-1494) who showed special interest in their own health and the health of common people. PMID:12214602

  20. Efficacy of a Human Amniotic Tissue-derived Allograft, NuCel, in Patients Undergoing Posteriolateral Lumbar Fusions for Degenerative Disc Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease; Spinal Stenosis; Spondylolisthesis; Spondylosis; Intervertebral Disk Displacement; Intervertebral Disk Degeneration; Spinal Diseases; Bone Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Spondylolysis