Sample records for classroom observation schedule

  1. The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC): An Observational Measure of the Intentional Communication of Children with Autism in an Unstructured Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco, Greg; Gordon, Rosanna K.; Howlin, Patricia; Charman, Tony

    2008-01-01

    The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC) was devised to provide ecologically valid outcome measures for a communication-focused intervention trial. Ninety-one children with autism spectrum disorder aged 6 years 10 months (SD 16 months) were videoed during their everyday snack, teaching and free play…

  2. The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC): An Observational Measure of the Intentional Communication of Children with Autism in an Unstructured Classroom Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Pasco; Rosanna K. Gordon; Patricia Howlin; Tony Charman

    2008-01-01

    The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC) was devised to provide ecologically valid\\u000a outcome measures for a communication-focused intervention trial. Ninety-one children with autism spectrum disorder aged 6 years\\u000a 10 months (SD 16 months) were videoed during their everyday snack, teaching and free play activities. Inter-rater reliability\\u000a was high and relevant items showed significant associations with comparable items from concurrent Autism

  3. General Purpose Classroom Scheduling Guidelines Classes held in general purpose (Registrar scheduled) classrooms on the Evanston campus during

    E-print Network

    · Provide sufficient classroom resources to meet instructional requirements as the pool of available GP.g., a specific classroom furniture configuration, technology, access to department instructional aids). · Apply to accommodate more classes in fewer classrooms, classes with non-standard times will be scheduled after those

  4. Measurement Properties of Observation Schedule and Record, Form 4V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Donald M.; Hill, Russell A.

    The rationale of the Observation Schedule and Record (OScAR) is described, and research is reported to show the extent to which the form fulfills its purposes. In order to provide objective, reliable, and valid information about the teaching process, this classroom observation schedule is used to record the frequency of occurrence of 42 teacher…

  5. Observed Classroom Quality Profiles of Kindergarten Classrooms in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Jenni; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Pakarinen, Eija; Siekkinen, Martti; Hannikainen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to examine classroom quality profiles of kindergarten classrooms using a person-centered approach and to analyze these patterns in regard to teacher and classroom characteristics. Observations of the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support were conducted in…

  6. Block scheduling: Instructional practices in high school science classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Richelsoph

    2003-01-01

    Proponents of block scheduling perceive this approach to be a 'structural lever' to invite and impel teachers to change their teaching (Marshak, 1997). This desired shift is supposed to be manifest in movement from the traditional classroom structure, focusing on the teacher as lecturer or transmitter of subject matter, to that of teacher as coach with students as active learners,

  7. State-based scheduling: An architecture for telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Stephen F.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of constraint-based scheduling, a methodology previously developed and validated in the domain of factory scheduling, is extended to problem domains that require attendance to a wider range of state-dependent constraints. The problem of constructing and maintaining a short-term observation schedule for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which typifies this type of domain is the focus of interest. The nature of the constraints encountered in the HST domain is examined, system requirements are discussed with respect to utilization of a constraint-based scheduling methodology in such domains, and a general framework for state-based scheduling is presented.

  8. "Keeping SCORE": Reflective Practice through Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom

  9. Project Developmental Continuity: PDC Classroom Observation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Judy; And Others

    This classroom observation manual (Fall 1976) was developed for use in the evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and primary school experiences. The manual provides detailed instructions for the observer on…

  10. A scheduling algorithm for Spacelab telescope observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grone, B.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for sequencing and scheduling of observations of stellar targets by equipment on Spacelab. The method is a general one. The scheduling problem is defined and examined. The method developed for its solution is documented. Suggestions for further development and implementation of this method are made.

  11. Observations of Bullying in the Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rona S. Atlas; Debra J. Pepler

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of bullying was assessed on the basis of observations of children's interactions in the classroom. This study was based on a systemic-developmental model of bullying and victimization. Participants were drawn from 1 public school in metropolitan Toronto. Twenty-seven children (19 boys, 8 girls) identified by teachers as aggressive and nonaggressive were targeted for filming. The 27

  12. Tracking Observations: Using Handhelds and Computers for Classroom Observation Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hashi Bai; Greydon Buckley; Mark Howard; Edward Lank

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the synergistic use of handheld computers and desktop computers as tools for grade school teachers to record observational data from their classrooms. The system uses handheld devices to tersely log events in situ, and allows later reflection and elaboration through annotation of the logged events on desktop computer. The terse, ephemeral capture of events coupled with post-hoc

  13. Classroom Behaviors of Students with Disabilities in Rural Inclusive Classrooms: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butera, Gretchen; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Classroom observations of 71 disabled elementary students indicated that disabled students and their normative peers did not differ in behaviors measured by the Classroom Behavior Record (CBR), except that disabled students were significantly less attentive than their peers and even less attentive when more than one adult was in the classroom.…

  14. Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

  15. Altering Schedules of Reinforcement for Improved Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Ronnie N.; Apfel, Cathy H.

    1976-01-01

    A variable interval schedule of reinforcement was used with five behavior disordered boys (7-13 years old) to improve attending and study behavior of the children during the communicative skills period. (SBH)

  16. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. Heuristics for scheduling Earth observing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, William J.; Sorensen, Stephen E.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes several methods for assigning tasks to Earth Observing Systems Satellites (EOS). We present empirical results for three heuristics, called: Priority Dispatch (PD), Look Ahead (LA), and Genetic Algorithm (GA). These heuristics progress from simple to complex, from less accurate to more accurate, and from fast to slow. We present empirical results as applied to the Window-Constrained Packing problem (WCP). The WCP is a simplified version of the EOS scheduling problem. We discuss the problem of having more than one optimization criteria. We will also discuss the relationship between the WCP and the more traditional Knapsack and Weighted Early/Tardy problems.

  18. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  19. Variability of Attention Processes in ADHD: Observations From the Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Rapport; Michael J. Kofler; R. Matt Alderson; Thomas M. Timko; G. J. DuPaul

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongru- ent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children defined via clus- ter analysis, and 36 typically developing children, are observed while

  20. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is NASA's next generation airborne astronomical observatory, and will commence operations in 2005. The facility consists of a 747-SP modified to accommodate a 2.5 meter telescope. SOFIA is expected to fly an average of 140 science flights per year over its 20 year lifetime. Depending on the nature of the instrument used during flight, 5-15 observations per flight are expected. The SOFIA telescope is mounted aft of the wings on the port side of the aircraft and is articulated through a range of 20deg to 60deg of elevation. The telescope has minimal lateral flexibility; thus, the aircraft must turn constantly to maintain the telescope's focus on an object during observations. A significant problem in future SOFIA operations is that of scheduling flights in support of observations. Investigators are expected to propose small numbers of observations, and many observations must be grouped together to make up single flights. Flight planning for the previous generation airborne observatory, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was done by hand; planners had to choose takeoff time, observations to perform, and decide on setup-actions (called "dead-legs") to position the aircraft prior to observing. This task frequently required between 6-8 hours to plan one flight The scope of the flight planning problem for supporting GI observations with the anticipated flight rate for SOFIA makes the manual approach for flight planning daunting. In response, we have designed an Automated Flight Planner (AFP) that accepts as input a set of requested observations, designated flight days, weather predictions and fuel limitations, and searches automatically for high-quality flight plans that satisfy all relevant aircraft and astronomer specified constraints. The AFP can generate one candidate flight plan in 5-10 minutes, of computation time, a feat beyond the capabilities of human flight planners. The rate at which the AFP can generate flights enables humans to assess and analyze complex tradeoffs between fuel consumption, estimated science quality and the percentage of scheduled observations. Due to the changing nature of SOFIA scheduling problems, this functionality will play a crucial role in optimizing science and minimizing costs during operations. In the full paper, we will summarize the technical challenges that have been met in order to build this system. These include: design of the search algorithm, design of appropriate heuristics and approximations, and reduction in the size of the search space. We will also describe technical challenges that are currently being addressed, including the extension of the existing approach to handle new solution criteria. Finally, we will describe a variety of cultural challenges that the astronomical community must address in order to successfully use SOFIA, and describe how the AFT can be used to address some of these challenges. Specifically, many of the intended science users are accustomed to using ground-based or space-based observatories; we will identify some differences that arise due to the nature of airborne observatories, and how the AFT can be extended to provide useful services to ease these cultural differences.

  1. A survey on the dynamic scheduling problem in astronomical observations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . The most classical scheduling problem is the job-shop, where N ideal jobs are assigned to M identical example of dynamic scheduling can be found in [7]. It is proposed to divide the dynamic job-shopA survey on the dynamic scheduling problem in astronomical observations Matias Mora1,2 and Mauricio

  2. WVU Facilities Planning and Scheduling Event and General Purpose Classroom Scheduling Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    and Expectations Scheduling priority will be given in the following order: 1) Credited courses and final exams over academic and University events separate from credited courses ­ study sessions, make up exams, lectures Guidelines A. There are no "guaranteed" spaces for special events other than credited academic courses

  3. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

  4. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie M. Booren; Jason T. Downer; Virginia E. Vitiello

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. A total of 145 children were observed for an average of 80 min during 8 occasions across 2 days using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into

  5. Quality in Kindergarten Classrooms: Observational Evidence for the Need to Increase Children's Learning Opportunities in Early Education Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. La Paro; Bridget K. Hamre; Jennifer Locasale-Crouch; Robert C. Pianta; Donna Bryant; Dianne Early; Richard Clifford; Oscar Barbarin; Carollee Howes; Margaret Burchinal

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Using observational data gathered in 730 kindergarten classrooms in 6 states, the present study focuses on the quality of children's learning opportunities in kindergarten classrooms. Findings show that overall, children experience moderate to low levels of quality in the areas of classroom organization and instructional support in kindergarten. Results are also presented in comparison to children's experiences in

  6. Quality in Kindergarten Classrooms: Observational Evidence for the Need to Increase Children's Learning Opportunities in Early Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Locasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Pianta, Robert C.; Bryant, Donna; Early, Dianne; Clifford, Richard; Barbarin, Oscar; Howes, Carollee; Burchinal, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Using observational data gathered in 730 kindergarten classrooms in 6 states, the present study focuses on the quality of children's learning opportunities in kindergarten classrooms. Findings show that overall, children experience moderate to low levels of quality in the areas of classroom organization and instructional support…

  7. A Critical Examination of Classroom Communication Observation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Roger M.; Scafe, Marla

    More than 100 classroom communication observation instruments are surveyed and assessed from a communication-based perspective in this paper. In an overview, a schema designating three main types of approaches is established; they include behavioral descriptive, message functional, and cognitive/affective inferential observational categories.…

  8. Help-Seeking in Elementary Classrooms: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Le Gall, Sharon; Glor-Scheib, Susan

    A study was undertaken to explore how elementary school children employ help seeking as a means of problem solving in the classroom. High-, average-, and low-ability students at the first-, third-, and fifth-grade levels were targeted for in-depth observation. A "focal-child" observational procedure was used to gather data on naturally occurring…

  9. Evaluation of Handheld Computers for Direct Systematic Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Michael W.; Gouwens, Donald A.; Schuh, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Through this study the authors evaluate outcomes associated with the use of handheld computers by interventionists in improving the efficiency of direct systematic classroom observation. Information from observations is used by interventionists for treatment planning and evaluation. In this study, interventionists were trained to use personal…

  10. Observing Children's Stress Behaviors in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative methods to determine whether kindergarten children exhibited stress behaviors during the academic work period of the day. Sixteen children (8 male, 8 female) ages 5-6 years were observed. The data consisted of classroom observations by the researcher, open-ended interviews with teachers, artifacts collected from the…

  11. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  12. The Validity of Direct Observation Measures of Pupil Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the validity of direct observation measures of pupil classroom behaviors is presented. Three types of measures are discussed: molar, molecular, and molecular-composite. Consistent support for the validity of molar and molecular-composite types of measures is revealed. (Author/LMO)

  13. SOFIA's Choice: Scheduling Observations for an Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Kurklu, Elif; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne observatory. The problem is more complex than traditional scheduling problems in that it incorporates complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time of a mobile observatory, as well as traditional temporal constraints and optimization criteria. We describe the problem, its proposed solution and the empirical validation of that solution.

  14. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  15. The ISI Classroom Observation System: Examining the Literacy Instruction Provided to Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom

  16. SOFIA's Choice: Automating the Scheduling of Airborne Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne telescope. Given a set of prioritized observations to choose from, and a wide range of complex constraints governing legitimate choices and orderings, how can we efficiently and effectively create a valid flight plan which supports high priority observations? This problem is quite different from scheduling problems which are routinely solved automatically in industry. For instance, the problem requires making choices which lead to other choices later, and contains many interacting complex constraints over both discrete and continuous variables. Furthermore, new types of constraints may be added as the fundamental problem changes. As a result of these features, this problem cannot be solved by traditional scheduling techniques. The problem resembles other problems in NASA and industry, from observation scheduling for rovers and other science instruments to vehicle routing. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In 2 we describe the observatory in order to provide some background. In 3 we describe the problem of scheduling a single flight. In 4 we compare flight planning and other scheduling problems and argue that traditional techniques are not sufficient to solve this problem. We also mention similar complex scheduling problems which may benefit from efforts to solve this problem. In 5 we describe an approach for solving this problem based on research into a similar problem, that of scheduling observations for a space-borne probe. In 6 we discuss extensions of the flight planning problem as well as other problems which are similar to flight planning. In 7 we conclude and discuss future work.

  17. Radio observations of the Milky Way from the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chy?y, Krzysztof T.

    2014-12-01

    We present the project to introduce the first European network of radio telescopes for education. It enables pupils to detect spectral line emission of neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way at a wavelength of 21 cm. Any classroom connected to Internet via any web-browser can remotely control one of the radio-telescopes, observe and analyse obtained spectra: derive the Milky-Way rotation curve and recognise spiral arms in hydrogen distribution. Doing exercises pupils, guided by their teachers, learn the basics of radio astronomy research, use scientific method to explore and interpret the attained spectral data. A range of attractive educational materials are prepared to help in disseminating the scientific knowledge in the classroom and demonstrate the modern information technology.

  18. Observed Classroom Quality during Teacher Education and Two Years of Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hagger, Hazel; Burn, Katharine; Mutton, Trevor; Colls, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to investigate whether and how teachers change in their observed classroom quality (emotional and instructional support, classroom organization, and students' engagement; measured with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System observation measure for secondary school [CLASS-S]; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2006) during…

  19. The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS): A New Instrument to Characterize University STEM Classroom Practices

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michelle K.; Jones, Francis H. M.; Gilbert, Sarah L.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change. PMID:24297289

  20. The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS): a new instrument to characterize university STEM classroom practices.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle K; Jones, Francis H M; Gilbert, Sarah L; Wieman, Carl E

    2013-01-01

    Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change. PMID:24297289

  1. Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom

  2. Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-06-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

  3. Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre: observation scheduler and sequencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederoclite, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Moles, M.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín-Franch, A.; Yanes Díaz, A.; Gruel, N.; Varela, J.; Chueca, S.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; López-Sainz, A.; Chioare Díaz-Martín, M.

    2013-05-01

    Observational strategy is a critical path in any large survey. The planning of a night requires the knowledge of the fields observed, the quality of the data already secured, and the ones still to be observed to optimize scientific returns. Finally, field maximum altitude, sky distance/brightness during the night and meteorological data (cloud coverage and seeing) have to be taken into account in order to increase the chance to have a successful observation. To support the execution of the J-PAS project at the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory, we have prepared a scheduler and a sequencer (SCH/SQ) which takes into account all the relevant mentioned parameters. The scheduler first selects the fields which can be observed during the night and orders them on the basis of their figure of merit. It takes into account the quality and spectral coverage of the existing observations as well as the possibility to get a good observation during the night. The sequencer takes into account the meteorological variables in order to prepare the observation queue for the night. During the commissioning of the telescopes at OAJ, we expect to improve our figures of merit and eventually get to a system which can function semi-automatically. This poster describes the design of this software.

  4. Applying Squeaky-Wheel Optimization Schedule Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Kuerklue, Elif

    2004-01-01

    We apply the Squeaky Wheel Optimization (SWO) algorithm to the problem of scheduling astronomy observations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, an airborne observatory. The problem contains complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time at which the observation begins, telescope elevation limits, special use airspace, and available fuel. Solving the problem requires making discrete choices (e.g. selection and sequencing of observations) and continuous ones (e.g. takeoff time and setting up observations by repositioning the aircraft). The problem also includes optimization criteria such as maximizing observing time while simultaneously minimizing total flight time. Previous approaches to the problem fail to scale when accounting for all constraints. We describe how to customize SWO to solve this problem, and show that it finds better flight plans, often with less computation time, than previous approaches.

  5. Improving Method-in-Use through Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Method-in-use (Nunn, Describing classroom interaction in intercultural curricular research and development, University of Reading, 1996, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 37: 23-42, 1999) is a description of the method actually being enacted through classroom interaction in a particular context. The description is…

  6. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    PubMed Central

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)—Combined type (n = 64); ADHD—Inattentive type (n = 22); clinically referred without ADHD (n = 51); and nonreferred control children (n = 26). The ADHD—Combined group scored significantly higher than the referred without ADHD group and controls on the DOF Intrusive and Oppositional syndromes, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems scale, Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. The ADHD—Inattentive group scored significantly higher than controls on the DOF Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Attention Problems syndromes, Inattention subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. Implications are discussed regarding the discriminative validity of standardized classroom observations for identifying children with ADHD and differentiating between the two ADHD subtypes. PMID:20802813

  7. Observed Patterns of Teacher-Pupil Classroom Behavior as Predicators of Student Growth in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Homer; Lorentz, Jeffrey L.

    This study examined the relationship between observed classroom behavior (teacher-pupil interactions) and reading achievement. An elementary school reading teacher and six students with different coping styles were observed six times in each of 41 classrooms during the school year. Pretest and posttest reading scores, a measure for socioeconomic…

  8. A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen; Eve Kikas; Eija Pakarinen; Kaili Trossmann; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Helena Rasku-Puttonen; Martti Siekkinen; Jari-Erik Nurmi

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings were obtained of teachers’ teaching practices,

  9. Raising the Stakes: Classroom Observation in the Further Education Sector in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Matt; Brooks, Val

    2014-01-01

    Successive governments in England have regarded classroom observation as an essential tool for monitoring and improving teacher performance. Despite its importance in national policy for teacher development, the impact of classroom observation on individual teachers, and on improving quality and standards in teaching and learning, remain…

  10. A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Trossmann, Kaili; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings…

  11. Administrator Classroom Observations Using eWalk in a K-12 School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Amanda Kaye

    2010-01-01

    With the increased demands for school accountability from the federal, state, and district levels, many school administrators report limited time available for the critical task of classroom observations. This research examined the relationship between classroom observations using a walk-through procedure and student performance. Building…

  12. Austism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Lord; Michael Rutter; Susan Goode; Jacquelyn Heemsbergen; Heather Jordan; Lynn Mawhood; Eric Schopler

    1989-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), a standardized protocol for observation of social and communicative behavior associated with autism, is described. The instrument consists of a series of structured and semistructured presses for interaction, accompanied by coding, of specific target behaviors associated with particular tasks and by general ratings of the quality of behaviors. Interrater reliability for five raters exceeded

  13. Observations of Effective Teacher-Student Interactions in Secondary School Classrooms: Predicting Student Achievement with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori; Lun, Janetta; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary. After accounting for prior…

  14. Observing with HST V: Improvements to the Scheduling of HST Parallel Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. K.; Vanorsow, D.; Lucks, M.; Henry, R.; Ratnatunga, K.; Patterson, A.

    1994-12-01

    Recent improvements to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ground system have significantly increased the frequency of pure parallel observations, i.e. the simultaneous use of multiple HST instruments by different observers. Opportunities for parallel observations are limited by a variety of timing, hardware, and scientific constraints. Formerly, such opportunities were heuristically predicted prior to the construction of the primary schedule (or calendar), and lack of complete information resulted in high rates of scheduling failures and missed opportunities. In the current process the search for parallel opportunities is delayed until the primary schedule is complete, at which point new software tools are employed to identify places where parallel observations are supported. The result has been a considerable increase in parallel throughput. A new technique, known as ``parallel crafting,'' is currently under development to streamline further the parallel scheduling process. This radically new method will replace the standard exposure logsheet with a set of abstract rules from which observation parameters will be constructed ``on the fly'' to best match the constraints of the parallel opportunity. Currently, parallel observers must specify a huge (and highly redundant) set of exposure types in order to cover all possible types of parallel opportunities. Crafting rules permit the observer to express timing, filter, and splitting preferences in a far more succinct manner. The issue of coordinated parallel observations (same PI using different instruments simultaneously), long a troublesome aspect of the ground system, is also being addressed. For Cycle 5, the Phase II Proposal Instructions now have an exposure-level PAR WITH special requirement. While only the primary's alignment will be scheduled on the calendar, new commanding will provide for parallel exposures with both instruments.

  15. Observations of AA Tau requested to schedule XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Dr. Hans Moritz Guenther (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has requested nightly observations of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau in order to schedule x-ray observations with XMM-Newton that have been planned for between 2013 August 15 and September 15. The purpose of the AAVSO observations is to determine whether AA Tau is at a suitable magnitude for the satellite observations. Taurus is difficult to observe during this time period but that is exactly why AAVSO assistance is needed! AA Tau is a morning object, and also, many of the professional ground-based telescopes are offline because of the US southwest monsoon season. Since it is critical to know the brightness of AA Tau, AAVSO observations will be truly essential. Nightly visual and snapshot (not more than once per night) observations beginning now and continuing through September 20 are needed. Coverage beginning ahead of the XMM window is requested because there is a one- to two-week lead time for the target to be inserted into the telescope schedule. Continuing the nightly observations a few days beyond the end of the XMM window will give better optical context for the x-ray data. AA Tau ranges between ~12.8V and ~16.1V; since December 2011 or earlier it has been at ~14.5V. The most recent observation in the AAVSO International Database shows it at 14.779V on 2013 Feb 5 (J. Roe, Bourbon, MO). Dr. Guenther writes, "AA Tau is surrounded by a thick accretion disk which is seen nearly edge-on. For decades the light curve of AA Tau showed regular eclipsing events when the accretion funnel rotated through the line of sight. However, earlier this year J. Bouvier and his group found that this behavior changed dramatically: AA Tau now seems to be deeply absorbed all the time (V band 14.5 mag). In collaboration with this group we will perform X-ray observations of AA Tau with the XMM-Newton satellite." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plo! tter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  16. Bringing Real-time Astronomical Observations into the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominsky, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Sonoma State University Education and Public Outreach group (SSU E/PO) coordinates the Global Telescope Network (GTN) - an informal association of scientists, students, individuals and observatories interested in supporting NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) and Swift missions, as well as the joint ESA/NASA XMM-Newton mission. Partners and associates in the GTN obtain and reduce ground based observations for objects related to the primary science goals for these missions and work together with NASA mission scientists to conduct multi-wavelength studies of exotic objects such as monstrous black holes, and highly-magnetized neutron stars and white dwarfs. The Global Telescope Network provides hands-on classroom activities and engaging instructional materials for a range of levels and interests, including Cookie Cutter Photometry and Jelly Bean Spectroscopy. We also provide mentoring in research practices, telescope use, data analysis and other educational resources. Examples of ongoing research projects will be presented, and the educational resources available through the GTN will be discussed.

  17. (42355) Typhon Echidna: Scheduling observations for binary orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Virtanen, J.; Muinonen, K.; Kern, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Levison, H. F.; Spencer, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We describe a strategy for scheduling astrometric observations to minimize the number required to determine the mutual orbits of binary transneptunian systems. The method is illustrated by application to Hubble Space Telescope observations of (42355) Typhon-Echidna, revealing that Typhon and Echidna orbit one another with a period of 18.971±0.006 days and a semimajor axis of 1628±29 km, implying a system mass of (9.49±0.52)×10 kg. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.526±0.015. Combined with a radiometric size determined from Spitzer Space Telescope data and the assumption that Typhon and Echidna both have the same albedo, we estimate that their radii are 76-16+14 and 42-9+8 km, respectively. These numbers give an average bulk density of only 0.44-0.17+0.44 gcm, consistent with very low bulk densities recently reported for two other small transneptunian binaries.

  18. Research for the Classroom: Analyzing Classroom Literacy Events--What Observing Classroom Conversations about Popular Culture Can Reveal about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Mayer, a recently retired English language arts teacher, frequently used strategies described in John Golden's book "Reading in the Dark: Using Film as a Tool in the English Classroom." In this book, Golden suggests that ELA teachers "reverse the order: use a film clip to practice the reading and analytical skills that we want our students to…

  19. Concurrent Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale for Elementary School--Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an initial investigation of the concurrent validity of a new assessment, the Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS version 2.0) for Elementary School--Observer Form. The CSS assesses teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies. In the present study, the CSS is compared to the Classroom Assessment Scoring…

  20. Early Childhood Teachers' Curriculum Beliefs: Are They Consistent with Observed Classroom Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaoli; Elicker, James G.; McMullen, Mary B.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the consistency between early childhood teachers' self-reported curriculum beliefs and observations of their actual interactive behaviors with children in classrooms. Also tested was the hypothesized moderation by teacher and classroom characteristics of the association between beliefs and practices. A total…

  1. Features of Pre-Kindergarten Programs, Classrooms, and Teachers: Do They Predict Observed Classroom Quality and Child-Teacher Interactions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Pianta; Carollee Howes; Margaret Burchinal; Donna Bryant; Richard Clifford; Diane Early; Oscar Barbarin

    2005-01-01

    This study draws from the National Center for Early Development and Learning's Multi-State Pre-Kindergarten Study to examine the extent to which program, class- room, and teacher attributes of the program ecology predict observed quality and teacher-child interactions in a sample of 238 classrooms representing 6 states' pre-kindergarten programs. Quality was assessed observationally at the global level and for specific teaching

  2. Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college classrooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  3. Mathematical Observations: The Genesis of Mathematical Discovery in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaugris, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    In his "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos identifies the "Primitive Conjecture" as the first stage in the pattern of mathematical discovery. In this article, I am interested in ways of reaching the "Primitive Conjecture" stage in an undergraduate classroom. I adapted Realistic Mathematics Education methods in an…

  4. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social…

  5. Acquisition and Generalization of Activity Schedules and Their Effects on Task Engagement in a Young Child with Autism in an Inclusive Pre-School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, N. Gayle; Wheeler, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Individualized activity schedules were successfully used with a 4- year-old child with autism who attended an integrated public pre-school classroom. Graduated physical guidance and a system of most-to-least prompts were used during skill acquisition stages with teacher proximity and level of prompts being eventually faded. (Contains nine…

  6. (42355) Typhon-Echidna: Scheduling Observations for Binary Orbit Determination

    E-print Network

    Grundy, W M; Virtanen, J; Muinonen, K; Kern, S D; Stephens, D C; Stansberry, J A; Levison, H F; Spencer, J R

    2008-01-01

    We describe a strategy for scheduling astrometric observations to minimize the number required to determine the mutual orbits of binary transneptunian systems. The method is illustrated by application to Hubble Space Telescope observations of (42355) Typhon-Echidna, revealing that Typhon and Echidna orbit one another with a period of 18.971 +/- 0.006 days and a semimajor axis of 1628 +/- 29 km, implying a system mass of (9.49 +/- 0.52) x 10^17 kg. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.526 +/- 0.015. Combined with a radiometric size determined from Spitzer Space Telescope data and the assumption that Typhon and Echidna both have the same albedo, we estimate that their radii are 76 +14/-16 and 42 +8/-9 km, respectively. These numbers give an average bulk density of only 0.44 +0.44/-0.17 g cm^-3, consistent with very low bulk densities recently reported for two other small transneptunian binaries.

  7. (42355) Typhon-Echidna: Scheduling Observations for Binary Orbit Determination

    E-print Network

    W. M. Grundy; K. S. Noll; J. Virtanen; K. Muinonen; S. D. Kern; D. C. Stephens; J. A. Stansberry; H. F. Levison; J. R. Spencer

    2008-04-15

    We describe a strategy for scheduling astrometric observations to minimize the number required to determine the mutual orbits of binary transneptunian systems. The method is illustrated by application to Hubble Space Telescope observations of (42355) Typhon-Echidna, revealing that Typhon and Echidna orbit one another with a period of 18.971 +/- 0.006 days and a semimajor axis of 1628 +/- 29 km, implying a system mass of (9.49 +/- 0.52) x 10^17 kg. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.526 +/- 0.015. Combined with a radiometric size determined from Spitzer Space Telescope data and the assumption that Typhon and Echidna both have the same albedo, we estimate that their radii are 76 +14/-16 and 42 +8/-9 km, respectively. These numbers give an average bulk density of only 0.44 +0.44/-0.17 g cm^-3, consistent with very low bulk densities recently reported for two other small transneptunian binaries.

  8. A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

  9. S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

  10. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  11. Occasions and the Reliability of Classroom Observations: Alternative Conceptualizations and Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick; Cash, Anne H.; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Student-teacher interactions are dynamic relationships that change and evolve over the course of a school year. Measuring classroom quality through observations that focus on these interactions presents challenges when observations are conducted throughout the school year. Variability in observed scores could reflect true changes in the quality of…

  12. Functional Communication Training without Extinction Using Concurrent Schedules of Differing Magnitudes of Reinforcement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dawn H.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Gama, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders…

  13. Simulation-Based Optimal Sensor Scheduling with Application to Observer Trajectory Planning

    E-print Network

    Kantas, Nikolas

    Simulation-Based Optimal Sensor Scheduling with Application to Observer Trajectory Planning, Australia Abstract-- Sensor scheduling has been a topic of interest to the target tracking community for some years now. Recently, research into it has enjoyed fresh impetus with the current importance

  14. The Reliability of Classroom Observations by School Personnel. Research Paper. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Kane, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    For many teachers, the classroom observation has been the only opportunity to receive direct feedback from another school professional. As such, it is an indispensable part of every teacher evaluation system. Yet it also requires a major time commitment from teachers, principals, and peer observers. To justify the investment of time and resources,…

  15. Sustained Classroom Observation: What Does It Reveal about Changing Teaching Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the tension between classroom observation as a form of empowerment and as an instrument of control, the partnership between three 16-19 colleges and a university School of Education in delivering a programme of sustained observation over eight years is explicated. Drawing on the literature about continuing professional…

  16. An Observational Method in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Closer Look at Interaction Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Leona G.

    1975-01-01

    This paper analyzes both Flanders' and the Foreign Language Interaction (FLint) methods of classroom observation and concludes that both systems are deficient in accuracy, reliability and practicality. Observing, recording and decision-making difficulties are inherent, and system complexities and teacher biases add to the problems. (CHK)

  17. Measuring Reform Practices in Science and Mathematics Classrooms: The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Daiyo; Piburn, Michael D.; Judson, Eugene; Turley, Jeff; Falconer, Kathleen; Benford, Russell; Bloom, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP), a 25-item classroom observation protocol that is standards-based, inquiry-oriented, and student-centered. Provides the definition for reform and the basis for evaluation of the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers (ACEPT). Concludes that reform, as defined…

  18. Generalizability of Classroom Behavior Problem and On-Task Scores from the Direct Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Hintze, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study used generalizability theory to investigate the dependability of systematic observations of students' problem behavior and on-task behavior in classrooms. The Direct Observation Form (McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) was used with a sample of 24, 6- to-11-year-old children attending 18 different elementary schools. The participants…

  19. Systematic Classroom Observation of the Quality of Teacher Behaviors and Student Engagement in Ethnically Diverse Pre-Kindergarten Through Second-Grade Classrooms

    E-print Network

    Alford, Beverly Lynn

    2012-07-16

    findings showed that: (a) students taught by teachers rated as having a higher developmentally appropriate instructional practices (DAIP) score were more likely to be on-task and less likely to be off-task; (b) students taught by teachers with a higher... Observation System for Kindergarten CPI Classroom Practices Inventory DAP Developmentally Appropriate Practice ECLS Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ECCOM Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure ECE Early Childhood Education ECERS-R Early...

  20. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

  1. The Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Schedules on Problem Behavior of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Day-Treatment Classroom Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karina Rasmussen; ROBERT E. O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of students with emotional-behavioral disorders in a clinical day-treatment classroom setting. Three elementary-aged students with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems participated in the study. Initial functional assessments indicated that social attention was the maintaining reinforcer for their verbally disruptive behavior. Baseline phases were alternated with

  2. Systematic Observations: Relating Theory and Practice in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bob Burton; And Others

    The first of the five papers in this booklet, "Using Systematic Observation and Analysis of Teaching" by Bob Burton Brown, presents suggestions for the development of inservice education programs to train school staff members in the use of observational systems and lists suggested uses of such systems. In "Theoretical Bases of Observational

  3. On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

  4. The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers’ Competence in Classroom Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed. PMID:23175598

  5. Five Methods to Score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist and to Examine Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Rohrer, David; Chuang, Chi-ching; Fujiki, Mayo; Herman, Keith; Reinke, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 5 scoring methods in terms of their statistical assumptions. They were then used to score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist, a measure consisting of 3 subscales and 21 Likert-type items. The 5 methods used were (a) sum/average scores of items, (b) latent factor scores with continuous indicators, (c)…

  6. Classroom Observation Data and Instruction in Primary Mathematics Education: Improving Design and Rigour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics…

  7. Windows into the Classroom: Observing and Evaluating Beginning Teachers' Developing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Andrea; Markowitz, Nancy Lourie; Latter, Jody

    An observation study examined four dimensions of beginning teacher practice that had been heavily emphasized in the first year of a partial internship program and that typically pose problems for first year teachers. These dimensions included: (1) literacy instruction; (2) instructional planning; (3) positive classroom environments and management;…

  8. Observations of Children’s Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    PubMed Central

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children’s observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children’s interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children’s interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions. PMID:25717282

  9. Teacher Interviews, Student Interviews, and Classroom Observations in Combinatorics: Four Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caddle, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This research consists of teacher interviews, student interviews, and classroom observations, all based around the mathematical content area of combinatorics. Combinatorics is a part of discrete mathematics concerning the ordering and grouping of distinct elements. The data are used in four separate analyses. The first provides evidence that…

  10. Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms: Validating a Direct Observation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their study's…

  11. Classroom Phenology: Using the Environment as a Source of Data and Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is a classroom and schoolyard investigation where students collect daily temperature and precipitation readings, weather observations, and weekly phenology reports in a phenology binder and in nature journals. Students then analyze this data and compare to recorded values in the Weatherguide calendar.

  12. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: An Administrative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the possible use of structured classroom walk-through observations as a strategy to improve teaching and learning. A wide variety of programs and initiatives have recently been implemented across the country to improve student achievement. One such initiative is classroom walk-through observations.…

  13. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: A Student Centered Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Thomas R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasing pressure of meeting the demands of No Child Left Behind, and reducing the achievement gap between subgroups of school populations, school administrators across the nation have implemented a variety of short classroom walk-through observations. A walk-through is defined as a 3-5 minute observation of the classroom teacher by…

  14. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined. PMID:24341926

  15. The Relations of Observed Pre-K Classroom Quality Profiles to Children's Achievement and Social Competence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Curby; Jennifer LoCasale-Crouch; Timothy R. Konold; Robert C. Pianta; Carollee Howes; Margaret Burchinal; Donna Bryant; Richard Clifford; Diane Early; Oscar Barbarin

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Recent evidence suggests that children benefit from pre-K programs in terms of both academic and social skills and that this growth is predicted by the quality of the interactions teachers have with students. Prior cluster analysis revealed 5 distinct quality profiles of teacher–child interactions in pre-kindergarten based on classroom observations of 692 teachers. In the present study, the

  16. Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

  17. Selecting, Scheduling and Carrying out Observing Programmes at CFHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillet, Christian

    2006-12-01

    From paper proposals and photographic plate observations of the early days to today's submission, CFHT (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) went through many changes. However, a few basic features of the observatory did not change over the years, reflecting the very nature of an international collaboration deeply rooted in the concept of equal role and responsibilities of its two main partners, Canada and France. Nevertheless, the overall role of the observatory strongly evolved over the past years, as demonstrated by a more business-like management emphasizing the services rendered by the observatory to its customers, a move made possible by the Queues Service Observing mode. Together with a careful selection of its new generation of instruments, it allows the observatory to play a significant role in astronomy in spite of the relatively small size of its telescope.

  18. Classroom Use and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

  19. Classroom Observations of Instructional Practices and Technology Use by Elementary School Teachers and Students in an Ethnically-and Economically-Diverse School District

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Kayla Braziel

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this study was to observe pre-kindergarten through fifth-grade public school classrooms to examine differences among instructional practices and technology use by teachers, students and the overall classroom. The current study...

  20. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  1. Examination of Classroom Observations and Educator Perceptions of Classroom Interventions of Middle School Gifted Students Exhibiting Unhealthy Perfectionist Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawdy, LaTease

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy perfectionist tendencies plague many gifted middle school students, and this type of perfectionism can lead to a lack of classroom success. Identifying effective interventions that educators can utilize is important in assisting middle school gifted students who demonstrate these maladaptive tendencies in their achievement in the…

  2. Observations on SOFIA Observation Scheduling: Search and Inference in the Face of Discrete and Continuous Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Gross, Michael; Kuerklu, Elif

    2003-01-01

    We did cool stuff to reduce the number of IVPs and BVPs needed to schedule SOFIA by restricting the problem. The restriction costs us little in terms of the value of the flight plans we can build. The restriction allowed us to reformulate part of the search problem as a zero-finding problem. The result is a simplified planning model and significant savings in computation time.

  3. Monitoring Classroom Behavior in Early Childhood: Using Group Observation Data to Make Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delilah Krasch; Deborah Russell Carter

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating classroom behavior in early childhood for the purpose of improving teaching and learning is critical.\\u000a There is a clear link between social behavior and academic learning. Classrooms where students are following expectations,\\u000a engaging academically, and transitioning effectively between activities are classrooms where students spend more time accessing\\u000a instruction. In order to make efficient and effective decisions for

  4. Exploring Teachers' Knowledge of Second Language Pronunciation Techniques: Teacher Cognitions, Observed Classroom Practices, and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study explored some of the intricate connections between the cognitions (beliefs, knowledge, perceptions, attitudes) and pedagogical practices of five English language teachers, specifically in relation to pronunciation-oriented techniques. Integral to the study was the use of semistructured interviews, classroom observations, and stimulated…

  5. Teacher and TA Ratings of Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior: Agreement and Associations with Observed Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students'…

  6. The Development and Implementation of a Planned Program of Classroom Observation at the Elementary School Level. Maxi II Practicum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Samuel L.

    This report describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model for classroom observation designed to improve instructional supervisory skills and enhance teaching and learning. The project was carried out in 10 (Broward County, Florida) elementary schools with the principals and six teachers from each school involved. The aims of…

  7. An Observational Study of the Academic and Social Behaviors of Learning Disabled Adolescents in the Regular Classroom

    E-print Network

    Schumaker, Jean B.; Sheldon-Wildgen, Jan; Sherman, James A.

    1980-01-01

    This study examined the class performance of LD adolescents and the performance of their peers who are successful participants in the classroom environment . Data from live observations of 47 pairs of students (one LD and one non-LD student) were...

  8. Korean American Cultural Differences in Classroom Literacy Activities: Observations from an Ethnographic Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heriberto Godina

    This study explores teacher-student perceptions about cultural differences and their influence upon classroom literacy activities. An ethnographic case method focuses on a Korean American student. Secondary participants include a parent, teacher, and classmates in a white Midwestern community. The study accentuates the generalizable discourse that neglects the complexity inherent to intercultural relationships in a changing elementary classroom. Implications include how

  9. Observing Emotional Interactions between Teachers and Students in Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Elizabeth M.; Evans, Ian M.; Harvey, Shane T.

    2011-01-01

    Fostering emotional skills in the elementary (primary) school classroom can lead to improved learning outcomes, more prosocial behavior, and positive emotional development. Incorporating emotional skill development into the naturalistic and implicit teaching environment is a key feature of what is meant by the emotional climate of the classroom.…

  10. Cooperative scheduling of imaging observation tasks for high-altitude airships based on propagation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  11. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  12. Observation of Classroom Social Communication: Do Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Spend Their Time Differently than Their Typically Developing Peers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders…

  13. The Role of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in the Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in School and Community Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natacha Akshoomoff; Christina Corsello; Heather Schmidt

    Autism diagnostic practices among school and clinical psychologists, particularly those using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), were examined using national survey results (N = 132). School and clinical psychologists were similar in following the Best Practice Guidelines for screening, diagnosis and assessment, School psychologists were more likely to include a school or home observation and teacher report than clinical

  14. The autism diagnostic observation schedule, module 4: revised algorithm and standardized severity scores.

    PubMed

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4 algorithm and calibrates raw overall and domain totals to provide metrics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity. Sensitivity and specificity of the revised Module 4 algorithm exceeded 80 % in the overall sample. Module 4 calibrated severity scores provide quantitative estimates of ASD symptom severity that are relatively independent of participant characteristics. These efforts increase comparability of ADOS scores across modules and should facilitate efforts to examine symptom trajectories from toddler to adulthood. PMID:24590409

  15. Clinical use of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-second edition with children who are deaf.

    PubMed

    Mood, Deborah; Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) was administered to eight children who are deaf and who are native American Sign Language (ASL) users with previous autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Classification on two different module selection criteria was compared based on: (1) standardized administration rules (signs not counted as equivalent to words) and (2) commonly utilized clinical administration (sign language complexity treated equivalently to spoken language complexity). Differential module selection resulted in discrepant classification in five of the eight cases (63%) and suggests that ADOS-2 via standardized test administration may result in a failure to identify autism among children who are deaf with primary communication in ASL. Two of the eight children (25%) did not exceed the cutoff for an ASD classification on either module administered despite previous ASD diagnosis. Overall results suggest that caution should be used when utilizing the ADOS-2 with children who are deaf who primarily communicate using ASL. PMID:25321853

  16. Using Ocean Observing Systems Data in K-12 Classrooms: Proceedings from a Workshop Exploring the Merit and Feasibility of Developing a National Ocean Observing Systems (NOOS) Education Product

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean engineers and scientists are transforming the way we experience and understand the ocean through Integrated Ocean Observing Systems (IOOS). For the first time, there will be continuous, sustained, near-realtime, multi-dimensional data available from the oceans, collected both from within the oceans using sensors systems and above using remote sensing methodologies. These data make possible inquiry-driven questions concerning the dynamic nature of the ocean's physical, biological and chemical characteristics in both time and space. These data provide unique and meaningful access to the ocean for a broad range of users. One major expected user group is K-12 educators and their students, who will be able to explore and utilize data and information from coastal observing systems in real time from the classroom. This workshop, held in July of 2005, explored the feasability of developing a collection of resources, tools, and/or classroom applications that use National Ocean Observing Systems (NOOS) data and resources to promote ocean literacy and supplement classroom learning and understanding of the ocean environment.

  17. Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms through a Direct Observation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.

    2010-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that many students struggle to learn mathematics proficiently. One plausible contributor to the low math achievement is the quantity and quality of learning opportunities provided in classrooms. These opportunities may fall short of addressing the learning needs of students, especially those at risk for failure in…

  18. Observed Implementation of a Science Professional Development Program for K-8 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Becky Barton; Naizer, Gilbert; Ledbetter, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a teacher professional development program on the classroom teaching practices of the participants. This particular professional development program included an intensive summer institute, 8 monthly follow-up sessions, informal participant-professor mentoring and peer networking. The majority…

  19. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) schedule plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes Aerojet's methods and procedures used to control and administer contractual schedules for the EOS/AMSU-A program. Included are the following: the master, intermediate, and detail schedules; critical path analysis; and the total program logic network diagrams.

  20. Combinations of Response-Dependent and Response-Independent Schedule-Correlated Stimulus Presentation in an Observing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFulio, Anthony; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons pecked a response key on a variable-interval (VI) schedule, in which responses produced food every 40 s, on average. These VI periods, or components, alternated in irregular fashion with extinction components in which food was unavailable. Pecks on a second (observing) key briefly produced exteroceptive stimuli (houselight flashes)…

  1. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module: A New Module of a Standardized Diagnostic Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the…

  2. Observed Implementation of a Science Professional Development Program for K-8 Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Becky Barton Sinclair; Gilbert Naizer; Cynthia Ledbetter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a teacher professional development program on the classroom teaching\\u000a practices of the participants. This particular professional development program included an intensive summer institute, 8 monthly\\u000a follow-up sessions, informal participant-professor mentoring and peer networking. The majority of participants were teachers\\u000a (grades 4–8) in rural school districts. Qualitative and descriptive measures were

  3. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule?Generic: AStandard Measure of Social and Communication Deficits Associated with the Spectrum of Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Lord; Susan Risi; Linda Lambrecht; Edwin H. Cook; Bennett L. Leventhal; Pamela C. Dilavore; Andrew Pickles; Michael Rutter

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) is a semistructured, stan- dardized assessment of social interaction, communication, play, and imaginative use of ma- terials for individuals suspected of having autism spectrum disorders. The observational sched- ule consists of four 30-minute modules, each designed to be administered to different individuals according to their level of expressive language. Psychometric data are presented for

  4. Scheduling satellite imagery acquisition for sequential assimilation of water level observation into flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pintado, Javier; Neal, Jeff C.; Mason, David C.; Dance, Sarah L.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-04-01

    Satellite-based imagery has proved useful for obtaining information on water levels in flood events. Microwave frequencies are generally more useful for flood detection than visible-band sensors because of its all-weather day-night capability. Specifically, the future SWOT mission, with Ka-band interferometry, will be able to provide direct Water Level Observations (WLOs), and current and future Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can provide information of flood extent, which, when intersected with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the floodplain, provides indirect WLOs. By either means, satellite-based WLOs can be assimilated into a hydrodynamic model to decrease forecast uncertainty and further to estimate river discharge into the flooded domain. Operational scenarios can even make a combined use of imagery from different uncoordinated missions to sequentially estimate river discharge. Thus, with an increasing number of operational satellites with WLO capability, information on the relationship between satellite first visit, revisit times, and forecast performance is required to optimise the operational scheduling of satellite imagery. By using an Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) and a synthetic analysis with the 2D hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP based on a real flooding case affecting an urban area (summer 2007, Tewkesbury, Southwest UK), we evaluate the sensitivity of the forecast performance to visit parameters. As an example, we use different scenarios of revisit times and observational errors expected from the current COSMO-Skymed (CSK) constellation, with X-band SAR. We emulate a generic hydrologic-hydrodynamic modelling cascade by imposing a bias and spatiotemporal correlations to the inflow error ensemble into the hydrodynamic domain. First, in agreement with previous research, estimation and correction for this bias leads to a clear improvement in keeping the forecast on track. Second, imagery obtained early in the flood is shown to have a large influence on forecast statistics. Revisit interval is most influential for early observations. The results are promising for the future of remote sensing-based water level observations for real-time flood forecasting in complex scenarios.

  5. Checklist of Coping Skills: An Early Childhood Special Education Observation Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Ruth W.

    Presented is a checklist developed by the Austin Early Childhood Special Education Program to help teachers evaluate children's classroom behavior and coping skills. It is explained that results of the checklist should provide information on such factors as possible underlying problems experienced by a student, situations in which a student…

  6. CHIRON TOOLS: Integrated Target Submission, Scheduling and Observing Systems for a High-Resolution Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John M.; Giguere, Matthew; Fischer, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    The CHIRON spectrometer is a new high-resolution, fiber-fed instrument on the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-America Observatory (CTIO). To optimize use of the instrument and limited human resources, we have designed an integrated set of Web applications allowing target submission, observing script planning, nightly script execution and logging, and access to reduced data by multiple users. The unified and easy-to-use interface has dramatically reduced the time needed to submit and schedule observations and improved the efficiency and accuracy of nightly operations. We present our experience to help astronomers and project managers who need to plan for the scope of effort required to commission a queue-scheduled facility instrument.

  7. Classroom Acoustics

    MedlinePLUS

    Classroom Acoustics A student's ability to hear and understand what is being said in the classroom is vital for ... reverberation time. Who is affected by poor classroom acoustics? All children are affected by poor classroom acoustics, ...

  8. Testing gridded NWS 1-Day observed precipitation analysis in a daily irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the inputs required by daily irrigation schedulers is the amount of water supplied by rainfall. In-field measurements of daily precipitation are expensive or laborious, while measurements from gauges within a few kilometers are frequently not representative due to the high spatiotemporal vari...

  9. Initial validation of the prekindergarten Classroom Observation Tool and goal setting system for data-based coaching.

    PubMed

    Crawford, April D; Zucker, Tricia A; Williams, Jeffrey M; Bhavsar, Vibhuti; Landry, Susan H

    2013-12-01

    Although coaching is a popular approach for enhancing the quality of Tier 1 instruction, limited research has addressed observational measures specifically designed to focus coaching on evidence-based practices. This study explains the development of the prekindergarten (pre-k) Classroom Observation Tool (COT) designed for use in a data-based coaching model. We examined psychometric characteristics of the COT and explored how coaches and teachers used the COT goal-setting system. The study included 193 coaches working with 3,909 pre-k teachers in a statewide professional development program. Classrooms served 3 and 4 year olds (n = 56,390) enrolled mostly in Title I, Head Start, and other need-based pre-k programs. Coaches used the COT during a 2-hr observation at the beginning of the academic year. Teachers collected progress-monitoring data on children's language, literacy, and math outcomes three times during the year. Results indicated a theoretically supported eight-factor structure of the COT across language, literacy, and math instructional domains. Overall interrater reliability among coaches was good (.75). Although correlations with an established teacher observation measure were small, significant positive relations between COT scores and children's literacy outcomes indicate promising predictive validity. Patterns of goal-setting behaviors indicate teachers and coaches set an average of 43.17 goals during the academic year, and coaches reported that 80.62% of goals were met. Both coaches and teachers reported the COT was a helpful measure for enhancing quality of Tier 1 instruction. Limitations of the current study and implications for research and data-based coaching efforts are discussed. PMID:24059812

  10. Trajectory-Based Takeoff Time Predictions Applied to Tactical Departure Scheduling: Concept Description, System Design, and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Current aircraft departure release times are based on manual estimates of aircraft takeoff times. Uncertainty in takeoff time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route streams and lead to lost throughput. However, technology exists to improve takeoff time estimates by using the aircraft surface trajectory predictions that enable air traffic control tower (ATCT) decision support tools. NASA s Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) is designed to use automated surface trajectory-based takeoff time estimates to improve en route tactical departure scheduling. This is accomplished by integrating an ATCT decision support tool with an en route tactical departure scheduling decision support tool. The PDRC concept and prototype software have been developed, and an initial test was completed at air traffic control facilities in Dallas/Fort Worth. This paper describes the PDRC operational concept, system design, and initial observations.

  11. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  12. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Generic: A Standard Measure of Social and Communication Deficits Associated with the Spectrum of Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Lord; Susan Risi; Linda Lambrecht; Edwin H. Cook; Bennett L. Leventhal; Pamela C. DiLavore; Andrew Pickles; Michael Rutter

    2000-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Generic (ADOS-G) is a semistructured, standardized assessment of social interaction, communication, play, and imaginative use of materials for individuals suspected of having autism spectrum disorders. The observational schedule consists of four 30-minute modules, each designed to be administered to different individuals according to their level of expressive language. Psychometric data are presented for 223 children and

  13. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ? |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PMID:24341925

  14. Improving Classroom Learning by Collaboratively Observing Human Tutoring Videos while Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…

  15. Hypermedia and Direct Instruction: Do the Paradigms Fit? A Demonstration of a Learner-Centered Hypermedia Program in Classroom Observation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Semrau, Louis P.

    The program demonstrated in this paper, "The Classroom Behavior Record: School Version," is an alternative approach for training personnel in observational skills, designed for educators and health care professionals. The purpose of the program is to provide efficient and effective training in a flexible, learner-centered, hypermedia format. The…

  16. Changes in Student Teachers' Agency Beliefs during a Teacher Education Year, and Relationships with Observed Classroom Quality, and Day-to-Day Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hagger, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Conceptualizations of teachers' agency beliefs converge around domains of support and instruction. Aim: We investigated changes in student teachers' agency beliefs during a 1 year teacher education course, and related these to observed classroom quality and day-to-day experiences in partnership schools during the practicum. Samples:…

  17. Swedish Religious Education at the End of the 1960s: Classroom Observations, Early Video Ethnography and the National Curriculum of 1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flensner, K. Kittelmann; Larsson, G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a unique corpus of film-recorded classroom observations of sixth-grade classes (age 12-13) in the Swedish cities of Gothenburg, Partille and Trollhättan in the late 1960s. The material documents how RE could be taught in Swedish schools in line with the curriculum of Lgr 62 which internationally was an early…

  18. Effective Teaching and Student Engagement in the College Classroom: Using the Instructional Practices Inventory (IPI) as a Tool for Peer Observation and Self-Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzicker, J.; Lukowiak, T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present initial findings from a collaborative self-study exploring student engagement as a measure of teaching effectiveness. Focused on their college classrooms during one semester, the study pilots a peer observation model of the Instructional Practices Inventory (IPI) (Valentine, 2005). Data collection included IPI codes, anecdotal…

  19. An Investigation of Relationships Between Fifth Grade Students' Perception of the Physical Classroom Environment and Observed Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Russell Weidner

    An exploratory field study was conducted in 42 self-contained, elementary grade classrooms in 18 school buildings. Subjects were 1,030 fifth-grade students. The purpose of the study was to determine the range of physical environmental conditions in the classrooms; and how students' perceptions of the physical environment (1) describe the…

  20. Using Videoconferencing Technology to Enhance Classroom Observation Methodology for the Instruction of Preservice Early Childhood Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Lloyd E.; Walsh, Eamonn Joseph

    2011-01-01

    To learn about and become acclimated to the environment in which they someday plan to work, preservice teachers and pre-professional daycare providers are typically required to conduct onsite observations. Traditionally, these observations require that the pre-professional spend a required number of hours studying the dynamics of the real-world…

  1. Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

  2. Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faia, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

  3. The Notebook Problem. Report on Observations of Problem Solving Activity in USMES and Control Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Bernard

    The aspect of the Unified Science and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) project described in this paper was undertaken in an effort to observe the problem solving behaviors of elementary school children. The Notebook Problem consisted of presenting a student with three notebooks arranged so as to differ from each other in terms of such…

  4. Conceptualization, Measurement, and Improvement of Classroom Processes: Standardized Observation Can Leverage Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.; Hamre, Bridget K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors advance an argument that placing observation of actual teaching as a central feature of accountability frameworks, teacher preparation, and basic science could result in substantial improvements in instruction and related social processes and a science of the production of teaching and teachers. Teachers' behavioral interactions with…

  5. Media Equipped Classrooms: Giving Attention to the Teaching Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.; Cichocki, Ronald R.

    This paper provides an overview of the Media Equipped Classroom (MEC), i.e., a centrally scheduled or departmentally scheduled teaching space with permanently installed media and classroom support technology designed to enhance the quality of teaching when properly utilized. Specific emphasis is given to the teaching station at the State…

  6. Classroom Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    StarDate.org is the public education and outreach department of the University of Texas McDonald Observatory, which offers astronomy resources for teaches on their Classroom Activities site. The various projects are categorized by age and grade level including k-4, 5-8, and 9-12. Each provides a teachers guide, materials needed, a description of the process, any needed links (such as the StarDate Moon Phase Calculator within the Observing the Moon activity), and even printable versions of each lesson. Although not remarkable, the site does give teachers well designed and easy to accomplish activities which students should enjoy.

  7. A Tool for Scheduling THEMIS Observations Gregg Rabideau*, Steve Chien*, David Mclaren*, Russell Knight*,

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Steven

    instrument, onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This tool creates observations of both (a) targeted launched the Mars Odyssey spacecraft carrying several instruments including the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the purpose of collecting multi-spectral data of the surface of Mars. Since the start

  8. Classroom Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    C. Jill Swango

    2003-01-01

    Perhaps the most important skill a good teacher should possess is the ability to control students. A teacher who can devise fascinating and unique lesson plans for her classroom is useless if she can't get the kids to sit down and listen to her instructions. Unfortunately, many beginning teachers simply are not prepared to manage their classrooms effectively. Managing a classroom means you must teach your students behavior expectations, not just post your rules on the classroom wall. Classroom management becomes even more of an issue when it applies to the active nature of the science classroom.

  9. Pre-Service Teachers and Classroom Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classroom practices of five pre-service teachers from three secondary schools in a large southeastern state. Through classroom observations, survey responses, reviews of refection logs, and focus-group interview responses, we centered on the issue of developing classroom authority as a means to effective classroom

  10. Classroom Utilization Review. Research Monograph III [and] Classroom Utilization Comparing Spring 1984 to Spring 1985. Research Monograph VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirazi, Annmarie

    Studies were conducted to analyze classroom utilization at Oklahoma City Community College for spring and fall, 1984, and spring, 1985. During all three semesters, there were 68 general purpose classroom areas, although some of the lab areas had classes scheduled in them. Study findings revealed: (1) heaviest classroom usage was between 5:30 p.m.…

  11. Getting Classroom Observations Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover; Chingos, Matthew M.; Lindquist, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the body of knowledge on teacher evaluation systems by examining the actual design and performance of new teacher-evaluation systems in four school districts that are at the forefront of the effort to evaluate teachers meaningfully. The authors find first that the ratings assigned teachers by the districts'…

  12. Different Regions, Diverse Classrooms? a Study of Primary Classrooms in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lok, Beatrice; Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Song, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Classroom experience is shaped by a number of factors. In this paper, we report a classroom observation study in China, illustrating regional variation in students' classroom learning experiences. Through comparing and contrasting observed classroom practices in three different regions in China (Chongqing, Hong Kong and Shanghai), the paper…

  13. Craters in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

  14. Classroom Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankney, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)

  15. Relationship between Perceived and Observed Student-Centred Learning Environments in Qatari Elementary Mathematics and Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Stephanie L.; Parker, Dawn; Zimmerman, Whitney; Ikhlief, Atman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Qatar established educational reform in charter (independent) schools focusing on curriculum standards, student-centred teaching, standards-based assessment, English as the language of instruction, and extensive professional development. A primary area of emphasis was the creation of student-centred mathematics and science classrooms

  16. Observations of Representational Practices by Indian-Descent Children in a US Preschool Classroom: Connections among People, Spaces and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined children's experiences with producing and comprehending external representations in a preschool classroom. Data collection and analyses focused on how artifacts, spaces, adult-guided routines, and social conventions shape young children's representational development. Participants included 4- and…

  17. Emotions and Behaviors in the Head Start Classroom: Associations among Observed Dysregulation, Social Competence, and Preschool Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alison L.; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Seifer, Ronald; Dickstein, Susan; Shields, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Effective regulatory skills are essential in busy preschool classroom environments where children must maintain some control over their emotions and behavior to interact effectively with peers and teachers. Regulatory abilities can play a crucial role in a child's successful adjustment to preschool. We investigated whether individual differences…

  18. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  19. A strategy to rotate the Mars Observer orbit node line to advance the mapping schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pernicka, Henry J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer (MO) spacecraft was successfully launched on September 25, 1992 and will arrive at Mars on August 24, 1993. At Mars, the spacecraft will study the planet's surface, atmosphere, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In order to achieve these scientific objectives, MO will be placed in a 2 PM (descending node) sun-synchronous orbit. Upon arrival at Mars, however, the longitude of the descending node will be approximately 15 deg greater than the desired value. The baseline plan requires a 59 day `waiting' period for the correct solar orientation to occur. During this period, 28 days are required for scientific experimentation but the remaining 30.6 days potentially could be eliminated. The strategy developed in this study examined the possibility of using any `excess' Delta-V available at Mars arrival to rotate the node line to the desired value and thus allow mapping to begin earlier. A preliminary analysis completed prior to launch is described that examined the entire launch period including the required Delta-V to perform the needed nodal rotation. A more detailed study performed after launch is also summarized.

  20. Classroom Dimensions and Classroom Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Arthur J.; Solomon, Daniel

    Although classroom "openness" has been much discussed in recent years, there has been little effort to investigate to what degree this openness occurs within a general sample of classrooms. The purpose of this study is to identify significant attributes of classroom activity and organization relevant to the concepts of "traditional" and "open" and…

  1. Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

  2. Development and evaluation of a driving observation schedule (DOS) to study everyday driving performance of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Vlahodimitrakou, Z; Charlton, J L; Langford, J; Koppel, S; Di Stefano, M; Macdonald, W; Mazer, B; Gelinas, I; Vrkljan, B; Porter, M M; Smith, G A; Cull, A W; Marshall, S

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of an on-road procedure, the Driving Observation Schedule (DOS), for monitoring individual driving behavior. DOS was developed for use in the Candrive/Ozcandrive five-year prospective study of older drivers. Key features included observations in drivers' own vehicles, in familiar environments chosen by the driver, with start/end points at their own homes. Participants were 33 drivers aged 75+ years, who drove their selected route with observations recorded during intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low speed maneuvers and maneuver-free driving. Driving behaviors were scored by a specialist occupational therapy driving assessor and another trained observer. Drivers also completed a post-drive survey about the acceptability of DOS. Vehicle position, speed, distance and specific roadways traveled were recorded by an in-vehicle device installed in the participant's vehicle; this device was also used to monitor participants' driving over several months, allowing comparison of DOS trips with their everyday driving. Inter-rater reliability and DOS feasibility, acceptability and ecological validity are reported here. On average, drivers completed the DOS trip in 30.48min (SD=7.99). Inter-rater reliability measures indicated strong agreement between the trained and the expert observers: intra-class correlations (ICC)=0.905, CI 95% 0.747-0.965, p<0.0001; Pearson product correlation, r (18)=.83, p<0.05. Standard error of the measurement (SEM), method error (ME) and coefficient of variation (CV) measures were consistently small (3.0, 2.9 & 3.3%, respectively). Most participants reported being 'completely at ease' (82%) with the driving task and 'highly familiar with the route' (97%). Vehicle data showed that DOS trips were similar to participants' everyday driving trips in roads used, roadway speed limits, drivers' average speed and speed limit compliance. In summary, preliminary findings suggest that DOS can be scored reliably, is of feasible duration, is acceptable to drivers and representative of everyday driving. Pending further research with a larger sample and other observers, DOS holds promise as a means of quantifying and monitoring changes in older drivers' performance in environments typical of their everyday driving. PMID:23639887

  3. Data for the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Data for the Classroom collection gathers datasets that have accompanying instructional materials or other pertinent information for using the dataset in a classroom setting for grades K-16. The data may be numerical, visual, maps, charts, tables or images. The data may be observational, remotely sensed or model data. The primary component is that there are materials supporting the use and understanding of the data either by educators or directly by students. Additionally, the dataset itself is desribed.

  4. Influences of block scheduling on secondary science teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Donna Louise

    Increasing the length of class periods has become one of the most frequently implemented recommendations from the secondary school restructuring movement. Many schools have changed to a block schedule in which the students have four 90--100 minute periods each day. The needs of science classes, such as time to set up and perform lab experiments, suggest the block schedule may be particularly appropriate for science. A case study design was used to explore the instructional and attitudinal changes that accompany the restructuring of the daily schedule. Classroom observations were conducted before and after the implementation of block scheduling to document the student-teacher interactions and the instructional strategies used by the science teachers. Teacher and student surveys were administered to obtain information about attitudes towards the block schedule as well as self-reported instructional strategies. Interviews were conducted to elicit beliefs about good teaching practices. Changes in instructional strategies and learning climate were considered within the context of teacher beliefs, state standards, and the organizational change to the school schedule. The results support other studies that have found positive attitudes toward block scheduling. Teachers in this study changed their instructional strategies, although not necessarily in line with the theorized changes. In several instances, the changes were closely aligned with the teachers' beliefs about good science instruction. Test scores and grades were not strongly influenced. Teachers met more of the state science standards and spent more time interacting with small groups during the block schedule. The results suggest teachers' beliefs about good teaching practice play an important role in the influences of restructuring efforts. The block schedule, preferred by teachers, provides an opportunity for improvement in science instruction and learning climate. How this popular form of restructuring manifests itself at the classroom level is largely a function of the individual teacher. Practical implications can be used to guide teachers and administrators in making scheduling decisions. Theoretical implications based on increased knowledge of teacher change emerge from the results. This study adds to the literature on the relationships among teacher beliefs, practices, and the process of organizational change in secondary school restructuring efforts.

  5. The Relationship between Older Drivers’ Performance on the Driving Observation Schedule (eDOS) and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith; Langford, Jim; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Di Stefano, Marilyn; Macdonald, Wendy; Mazer, Barbara; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Marshall, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Research question/Objective: The Driving Observation Schedule (eDOS) was developed for use in the Candrive/Ozcandrive five-year prospective study of older drivers to observe the driving behavior of older drivers and monitor changes in driving behaviors over time. The aim of this study is to describe participants’ driving performance during the eDOS driving task and investigate the association between driving performance and cognitive measures. Methods: A subset of Ozcandrive participants (n = 144, 104 male [72%], 40 female [28%], Mean age = 81.49 years, SD = 3.58 years, Range: 76 – 96 years) completed the eDOS driving task. Participants drove to their selected destinations (up to 4 locations), with observations of driving behaviors (both inappropriate and appropriate) recorded for specific driving maneuvers: intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low speed maneuvers and maneuver-free driving. Driving behaviors (e.g. signalling, speed regulation, gap acceptance, lane position, ‘critical errors’) were scored by a trained observer and participants received an overall eDOS driving task score (Maximum = 100 points). Participants also completed a series of cognitive assessments as part of the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocols. Results: The overall eDOS driving task score was very high (M = 95.77; SD = 5.15; Range = 65.63 – 100). Detailed analyses of participants’ driving behavior revealed a high level of appropriate driving behavior (96%, n = 5,935 maneuvers), with few errors (4%, n = 252 maneuvers). While most participants’ performance on the cognitive assessments was high, some scores were below the criteria for cogntive impairment (BIC) according to conventional benchmarks: (MoCA: M = 26.56, SD = 2.12, Range = 19 – 30, % BIC = 28%; MMSE: M = 29.10, SD = 1.01, Range = 26–30, %BIC = 0%; Trails B: M = 111.66, SD = 43.53, Range = 50 – 301, %BIC = 6%). There was no significant relationship observed between participants’ overall eDOS driving task scores and age (r (144) = ?0.17, p > 0.05), and performance on various cognitive assessments including: MoCA (r (144) = 0.07, p > 0.1), MMSE (r (144) = 0.03, p > 0.5), Trail Making Test B (r (144) = 0.09, p > 0.1). Implications: Preliminary analyses of the eDOS driving task revealed a high level of appropriate driving behavior among Ozcandrive older drivers. Despite some participants’ cognitive performance suggesting impairment, participants’ overall eDOS driving task scores were not significantly related to cognitive performance. This finding is consistent with previous research suggesting some older drivers are able to compensate well for age-related cognitive impairment. PMID:24406947

  6. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  7. Responsive Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Responsive Classroom addresses some of the challenges present in any elementary classroom, be it first-grade mathematics or third-grade science, by offering "an approach to teaching and learning that fosters safe, challenging, and joyful classrooms and schools, kindergarten through eighth grade." Through this website, classroom teachers share "practical strategies for bringing together social and academic learning throughout the school day." They report that teachers in urban, rural, and suburban settings nationwide find that these strategies have increased student investment, responsibility, and learning, and decreased problem behaviors. Studies detailing the effectiveness of the program are posted on this website. The basic principles of the program are also described, but the books detailing their approach must be purchased. The newsletter, however, is available free of charge and the archive includes previously published articles, which can be searched by topic, such as technology in the classroom and family involvement.

  8. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH ON CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDMUND T. EMMER; CAROLYN M. EVERTSON

    ffective classroom management consists of teacher behaviors that produce high levels of stu dent involvement in classroom activi ties, minimal amounts of student behaviors that interfere with the teacher's or other students' work, and efficient use of instructional time. These criteria have the advantage of being directly observable. Classroom management should be viewed as one major dimension of effective teaching,

  10. Classroom Interactions of Children with Behavior Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Shores; Susan L. Jack; Philip L. Gunter; David N. Ellis; Terry J. DeBriere; Joseph H. Wehby

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify significant social stimuli that were associated with prosocial and inappropriate behavior of children classified as severe behavior disordered (SBD). Two children from each of 19 classrooms–10 from integrated and 9 from segregated special classrooms (for children with SBD)–were observed. One student in each classroom was defined as aggressive and one student was

  11. Teaching Practices and Elementary Classroom Peer Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom

  12. Kindergarten to 1st Grade: Classroom Characteristics and the Stability and Change of Children's Classroom Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. La Paro; Sara E. Rimm-Kaufman; Robert C. Pianta

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the classroom experiences of 192 children followed longitudinally from kindergarten to 1st grade. Time-sampled observations of children were conducted to compare learning formats, teaching activities, and children's engagement in activities between kindergarten and 1st grade. Classroom observations also were conducted to examine differences in classroom quality; specifically, teacher sensitivity and instructional and emotional support for learning. Results

  13. Inclusive Classrooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Konstantinos Alexakos

    2001-03-01

    Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

  14. Classroom Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Daryl

    1984-01-01

    A game is used to study population control factors on a wolf pack and to explore human competition with these animals. A game board and chance cards to be photocopied for use in the classroom are provided. (DH)

  15. Classroom Catapults

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Diane D. Villano

    2001-02-01

    "Wow, our plastic load flew 540 centimeters! This is so cool!" An interdisciplinary unit on catapults was responsible for the excitement and enthusiasm generated in the author's classroom. In their social studies class, students learned about the Middle A

  16. Classroom Triangles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, they must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a "mystery location." With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own maps of the classroom or other school location and comparing them with their classmates' efforts.

  17. Classroom Triangles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Lippis

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, students will use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, students must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a mystery location. With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own map of the classroom or other school location and comparing it with their classmates' efforts.

  18. Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Johnston

    1990-01-01

    The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

  19. Beyond Classroom Walls: Developing Innovative Work Roles for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Julie; Brinson, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The teaching profession has long been structured around full-time classroom responsibilities that are defined by the location, timing, and schedule of the school day and a ubiquitous one-teacher-per-classroom model. In most districts, the only option for highly successful teachers to advance in the profession or serve more students is to leave the…

  20. Communication Scheduling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Mattson; William J. Dally; Scott Rixner; Ujval J. Kapasi; John D. Owens

    2000-01-01

    The high arithmetic rates of media processing applications require architectures with tens to hundreds of functional units, multiple register files, and explicit interconnect between functional units and register files. Communication scheduling enables scheduling to these emerging architectures, including those that use shared buses and register file ports. Scheduling to these shared interconnect architectures is difficult because it requires simultaneously allocating

  1. Computers and Classroom Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward

    This book explores the meaning of computer technology in schools. The book is based on data gathered from a two-year observation of more than 30 different classrooms in an urban high school: geometry classes in which students used artificially intelligent tutors; business classes in which students learned word processing; and computer science…

  2. The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

  3. Classroom Observations and Reflections: Using Online Streaming Video as a Tool for Overcoming Barriers and Engaging in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; McCrory, Michael R.; Blessing, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In typical school settings, teachers are not afforded the opportunity to observe the instructional practices of their peers. Time constraints, opportunity, and willingness to participate in observational practices are just three of the factors that may limit teachers' engagement in this type of activity. To provide teachers with opportunities…

  4. Classroom Age Composition and Developmental Change in 70 Urban Preschool Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlen C. Moller; Emma Forbes-Jones; A. Dirk Hightower

    2008-01-01

    A multilevel modeling approach was used to investigate the influence of age composition in 70 urban preschool classrooms. A series of hierarchical linear models demonstrated that greater variance in classroom age composition was negatively related to development on the Child Observation Record (COR) Cognitive, Motor, and Social subscales. This was true when controlling for class size, general classroom quality, and

  5. Inside the pre-kindergarten door: Classroom climate and instructional time allocation in Tulsa's pre-K programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah A. Phillips; William T. Gormley; Amy E. Lowenstein

    2009-01-01

    This observational study of 106 pre-K classrooms in Tulsa, Oklahoma provides descriptive data on children's classroom experiences – classroom climate and exposure to academic instruction – and comparisons of Tulsa classrooms with a multi-state sample of pre-K and Head Start classrooms led by comparably educated teachers. We also examined teacher and classroom characteristics that were associated with variation in children's

  6. The system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom based physical activity

    E-print Network

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Leon; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic...

  7. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

  8. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

  9. Classroom Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jacqueline; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes five classroom activities or projects used in Canadian social studies classes. Includes discussions of the use of artifacts, a field trip to Spain, a simulation of the Earth Summit meeting, and the application of mahatma Gandhi's philosophy to current problems. (CFR)

  10. Classroom Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article features the latest classroom technologies namely the FLY Pentop, WriteToLearn, and a new iris scan identification system. The FLY Pentop is a computerized pen from Leapster that "magically" understands what kids write and draw on special FLY paper. WriteToLearn is an automatic grading software from Pearson Knowledge Technologies and…

  11. Jigsaw Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elliot Aronson

    The Jigsaw Classroom is a website for the jigsaw cooperative learning technique that strives to reduce racial conflict, promote better learning, improve motivation, and increase the enjoyment of the learning experience among school children. The website includes an overview of jigsaw techniques, jigsaw history, implementing tips, related books and articles, and links on cooperative learning, school violence, and jigsaw developer Elliot Aronson.

  12. Classroom Antarctica

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    As part of the Australian Antarctic Division, Classroom Antarctica gives dozens of downloadable Adobe Acrobat files that allow students to discover this unique continent. Subjects include the history of the scientific research undertaken on Antarctica, surviving its climate, its biological ecosystem, the land's physical characteristics and affects on climate, and much more.

  13. Scanning to the Beep: A Teacher-Tested Computer-Based Observational Assessment Tool for the Distance Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausafus, Cheryl O.; Torrie, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses results of a study that examined preservice and inservice teachers' use of hand-held Computer-Based Observational Assessment Tools (CBOATs) in a distance education environment using the Iowa Communications Network. The CBOAT studied was Learner Profile, which included a small bar-code reader and data management software. (LRW)

  14. Profiles of classroom behavior in high schools: Associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Cash, Anne H; O'Brennan, Lindsey; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-04-01

    Although there has been considerable attention to the issue of classroom management and processes in educational reform models, there has been relatively limited research on these factors in high schools. The current study utilized observational data from 1262 classrooms in 52 high schools to examine teacher classroom management strategies and ratings of student compliance, engagement, and social disruption. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to examine specific patterns of classroom-wide student behavior in relation to teachers' use of classroom management strategies and classroom composition. The LPA revealed three distinct classroom behavioral profiles where students consistently met behavioral expectations (71%), inconsistently met expectations (23%), and were noncompliant (6%). Analyses indicated a functional association between patterns of student behavior and teachers' classroom management. In classrooms where students consistently met expectations, teachers provided more opportunities to respond and less disapproval and reactive behavioral management. Classrooms with noncompliant students had teachers who used the most disapproval and reactive behavior management. In addition, classrooms characterized as consistent had fewer males and more White students than classrooms characterized by inconsistent and noncompliant behaviors. These findings highlight the link between student patterns of behavior and teacher classroom management and have important implications for screening and professional development. PMID:25746823

  15. IRRIGATION SCHEDULING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation scheduling is essential for maximum crop production. The humid climate in the midsouthern U.S. complicates irrigation scheduling, with annual rainfall generally sufficient for crop production, but periods of drought during the growing season that make irrigation essential for optimum yiel...

  16. Scheduling game

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W

    1982-04-01

    Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

  17. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  18. Sports Scheduling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Trick

    \\u000a Sports scheduling has been an extremely active area of research over the past twenty 20years. One important reason for this\\u000a is that the computational methods for creating playable sports schedules have improved enough to be useful to real sports\\u000a leagues. A key aspect to these computational improvements has been the development of hybrid methods that combine two or more\\u000a of

  19. The Classroom Animal: Crickets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

  20. Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? An observational real-time study in German hospital departments

    PubMed Central

    Mache, Stefanie; Scutaru, Cristian; Vitzthum, Karin; Quarcoo, David; Schöffel, Norman; Welte, Tobias; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified. Methods Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer. Results Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care. Conclusion This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization. PMID:19473487

  1. Classroom Antarctica

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Haywood

    This website is a collection of units designed to teach students about the global importance of Antarctica. Topics covered in these units includes ice, the ocean, geology, weather, topography, auroras, the history of Antarctic exploration, living in Antarctica, animals, plants, the Antarctic Treaty, and the environment. Each unit has a selection of activities that are adaptable to the range of abilities in a class and the particular interests of the students. There are hundreds of useful web links throughout and a wealth of support material listed under Classroom Resources.

  2. The LSST OCS scheduler design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

    2014-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

  3. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  4. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly Ness

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first- through fifth-grade classrooms, a total of 751 minutes (or 25% of instructional time) was

  5. Classroom Organization: Understanding the Context in which Children are Expected to Learn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuen Ling Li

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on classroom organization, carried out in 2000 in kindergartens in Hong Kong. The findings contribute to understandings of current cross-cultural studies on classroom organization. Half-day session classroom observations of nine kindergarten teachers from three schools in Hong Kong were carried out. Data sources included field notes of nine classroom observations, transcripts of nine videotaped lessons,

  6. Virtual Cluster Scheduling Through the Scheduling Graph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep M. Codina; F. Jesús Sánchez; Antonio González

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an instruction scheduling and cluster assignment approach for clustered processors. The proposed technique makes use of a novel representation named the scheduling graph which describes all possible schedules. A powerful deduction process is applied to this graph, reducing at each step the set of possible schedules. In contrast to traditional list scheduling techniques, the proposed scheme tries

  7. An Ethnographic Analysis of Open Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirabayshi, Richard

    A study to investigate the significance of teacher decisions concerning the social and physical dimensions of the Open Classroom was conducted. Preliminary observation reviewed teacher goals and decisions for the Open Classroom. This research is based upon Hall's theory of culture reflecting the communication model. There are five basic structural…

  8. Hey, There's a Forest in that Classroom!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ginny Coppedge

    2004-03-01

    After a prolonged visit to an elementary classroom, this author was inspiredto share his reflections on the effective combination of creative scienceteaching approaches he observed. In particular, the author highlights the unusual classroom environment, the use of thematic elements, and the hands-on teaching approach.

  9. Inside the Pre-Kindergarten Door: Classroom Climate and Instructional Time Allocation in Tulsa's Pre-K Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah A.; Gormley, William T.; Lowenstein, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This observational study of 106 pre-K classrooms in Tulsa, Oklahoma provides descriptive data on children's classroom experiences--classroom climate and exposure to academic instruction--and comparisons of Tulsa classrooms with a multi-state sample of pre-K and Head Start classrooms led by comparably educated teachers. We also examined teacher and…

  10. Kindergarten to 1st Grade: Classroom Characteristics and the Stability and Change of Children's Classroom Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the classroom experiences of 192 children followed longitudinally from kindergarten to 1st grade. Time-sampled observations of children were conducted to compare learning formats, teaching activities, and children's engagement in activities between kindergarten and 1st grade. Classroom observations also were conducted to…

  11. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jennifer Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the enactment of culturally responsive teaching practices (Gay, 2010) within two African American elementary teachers' classrooms. Teacher interviews, classroom observations, and classroom documents were collected and analyzed to examine the supports and barriers these teachers encountered as they attempted to…

  12. A Multi-Instrument Examination of Preschool Classroom Quality and the Relationship between Program, Classroom, and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Joanna Hope; Hallam, Rena; Homer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A statewide study of preschool classroom quality was conducted using 3 distinct classroom observation measures in order to inform a statewide quality rating system. Findings suggested that Tennessee preschool classrooms were approaching "good" quality on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and provided…

  13. Efficient Backtracking Instruction Schedulers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santosh G. Abraham; Waleed M. Meleis; Ivan D. Baev

    2000-01-01

    Current schedulers for acyclic regions schedule operations in dependence order and never undo a scheduling decision. In contrast, backtracking schedulers may unschedule operations and can often generate better schedules. In this paper, we describe a conventional cycle scheduler followed by two novel backtracking schedulers, OperBT and ListBT. The full-backtracking OperBT scheduler enables backtracking for all operations and unschedules operations to

  14. Back to Basics: Working with Young Children with Autism in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deris, Aaron R.; Di Carlo, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Young children with autism benefit from various adaptations made to an early childhood classroom. This article includes modifications for both teacher-directed and child-initiated activities. Adaptations are given for the classroom environment, daily schedule, sensory needs, transitions and general teaching strategies. The techniques described are…

  15. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  16. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  17. Implicit Rewards in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1985-01-01

    Research on classroom rewards is reviewed with emphasis on the effect of seeing another student rewarded for performing the same task that the observing classmate has performed. Four further experiments are briefly described, and research variables are reviewed. Suggestions are made for increasing the effects on peers of implicit rewards. (GDC)

  18. Classroom Solar Calendar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students engage in an ongoing investigation to find patterns of sunlight and shadow in a classroom (or any room that gets sunlight) at different times of the day and different times of the year. Students look for repeating patterns, keep a log to describe and sketch observations of when and where certain easily recognized patters appear and turn the room into a solar calendar that may survive into the future for other classes to use. Part 1 of this activity requires occasional note-taking and casual observation over the course of a day. Part 2 requires 30-60 minutes to create the calendar record, then casual observation and note-taking throughout the school year. The lesson plan includes a math extension activity and background information about the Sun Dagger at Chaco Canyon. This activity is the third lesson in the Ancient Eyes Look to the Skies curriculum guide.

  19. Testing Task Schedulers on Linux System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenkovi?, Leonardo; Groš, Stjepan; Jakobovi?, Domagoj

    Testing task schedulers on Linux operating system proves to be a challenging task. There are two main problems. The first one is to identify which properties of the scheduler to test. The second problem is how to perform it, e.g., which API to use that is sufficiently precise and in the same time supported on most platforms. This paper discusses the problems in realizing test framework for testing task schedulers and presents one potential solution. Observed behavior of the scheduler is the one used for “normal” task scheduling (SCHED_OTHER), unlike one used for real-time tasks (SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR).

  20. Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

  1. Classrooms Are Killing Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Leslie A.

    1981-01-01

    From his knowledge of the brain and learning, the author argues that Horace Mann's classroom system is the core cause for the outdated state of public education and attendant problems. He asserts that the conventional classroom is brain-antagonistic and the continued use of graded classrooms, ruinous. (Author/WD)

  2. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  3. Arranging the Informal Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Brenda S.

    With the advent of the informal or open classroom, a new area of concern has become important--classroom arrangement. In the past, classrooms were oriented toward the front, toward the teacher's desk and the blackboard. Education depended mainly on the pupil's interaction with the teacher and with printed materials. Nowadays, in informal…

  4. Cockroaches in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christine Moseley

    2005-03-01

    Welcome the Madagascar hissing cockroach into your classroom--they are not your average pest! This article describes the basic biology of this relatively tame creature, and how to set up and care for a classroom colony. It includes a list of suggested inquiry-centered classroom activities that you and your students will find both educational and fun!

  5. Creating a Positive Classroom Culture: Minute by Minute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a peek into high school math teacher Ali Wright's typical school day, which includes time-tested strategies that she uses to build a positive culture in her classroom. Scheduled timeframes and activities include before school starts, five minutes before class, during announcements, during class, last five minutes of class,…

  6. Observing Objects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on materials and their composition includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  7. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The Basics Vaccines Home Immunization Schedules Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Get Email Updates Get the best protection ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  8. Iterative refinement scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric

    1992-01-01

    We present a heuristics-based approach to deep space mission scheduling which is modeled on the approach used by expert human schedulers in producing schedules for planetary encounters. New chronological evaluation techniques are used to focus the search by using information gained during the scheduling process to locate, classify, and resolve regions of conflict. Our approach is based on the assumption that during the construction of a schedule there exist several disjunct temporal regions where the demand for one resource type or a single temporal constraint dominates (bottleneck regions). If the scheduler can identify these regions and classify them based on their dominant constraint, then the scheduler can select the scheduling heuristic.

  9. School of Music, Theatre & Dance Facilities Scheduling Policy and Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    on the compatibility of the space with the activity to be scheduled. Enrollment capacity, class activity, sound for their creative, scholarly, and professional activities. Allocation of classroom space depends transfer, and electronic technology needs will be considered. Given the competing priorities

  10. Classroom Creature Culture: Algae to Anoles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1994-01-01

    Living organisms are important classroom resources and require appropriate, responsible care. This anthology of articles from NSTA's award-winning journal Science and Children provides the basics about collecting, investigating, and caring for plants and animals in classroom settings. From daddy longlegs to box turtles, from duckweed to butterflies, emphasis is placed on responsible observation, respect for living beings, and the individual needs of nature's many creatures. Also makes an excellent complement to ecological studies.

  11. Classroom Vocabulary Classroom Vocabulary [msamiati wa darasani

    E-print Network

    / chaki [chalk / chalks] zulia / mazulia [carpet / carpets] swichi [switch] swichi ya feni [fan switch, ubao... [This classroom has a table, backpack, chalk, board...] 2. Hii ni nini? [What is this?] Hii ni

  12. Scheduler's assistant: a tool for intelligent scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Neal L.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this project was to use expert system technology to aid in the scheduling activities performed at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The WSMR range scheduling problem presents a complex interactive environment. A human factors approach was undertaken, in that, the goal was to implement a system which mimics current WSMR scheduling procedures. The results of this project have produced a prototypic scheduling tool, called Scheduler's Assistant (SA), to aid WSMR range schedulers to generate a daily schedule. The system provides resource conflict detection and resolution advice through a series of cooperating expert systems. Immediate advantages of the system are increased safety, insurance of proper schedule execution and improved speed for turnaround time of sudden schedule changes. Additional benefits of SA include: expandability as future operations grow, allows for rapid redeployment for changing resources, promotes efficient management of WSMR resources, provides a formal representation of knowledge such that years of range personnel experience is preserved and enables the flexibility of a scheduling aid as opposed to a rigid methodology. Prior development efforts by Perceptics have produced a sophisticated expert system development tool, called Knowledge Shaper, which was used to implement all of the expert systems. The development of SA included a library of routines (the SA toolbox) to permit the manipulation of internal data tables and define a data transfer protocol to and from the SA environment. The combination of Knowledge Shaper and the SA toolbox provide a powerful set of design tools for the development of future scheduling applications.

  13. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

  14. The Block Scheduling Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    Block scheduling encourages increased comprehensive immersion into subject matter, improved teacher-student relationships, and decreased disciplinary problems. While block scheduling may offer many advantages, moving to a block schedule from conventional scheduling can be a major adjustment for both students and teachers. This guide is intended to…

  15. Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

    2007-01-01

    A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

  16. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  17. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  18. Scientific Observations: A Schoolyard BioBlitz

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joanne Michet

    This activity is a classroom and field activity where students learn about and practice scientific observations in the classroom and then complete a field activity by making and recording scientific observations on school grounds.

  19. Ideas for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some of the activities for the classroom invented by Gill Hatch. One of those activities is the activity for older students, which is for the five-year-olds through to post-graduates. Card-sorting game, geometry games, algebra games, and loop games are also some of those activities for the classroom invented by…

  20. For the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartig, Gordon; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four games for use in the foreign language classroom are described. The first, "A Shopping Game," by Gordon Hartig, is played on a game board in the German classroom and provides practice in producing sentences with the preposition "in," which in some instances takes the dative and in others takes the accusative. A diagram of the game board is…

  1. Technology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, Gisela E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue contains 20 articles dealing with technology in the classroom. The articles are: (1) "Distance Learning and the Future of Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate" (Henry E. Meyer); (2) "Technology and Multiple Intelligences" (Bette Savini); (3) "Technology Brings Voyagers into Classrooms" (Kristina Inn and others); (4) "Technologies Old…

  2. Speaking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

  3. The Homeliving Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Katie

    1975-01-01

    A system of point cards, which may be redeemed in tokens, money, or privileges, motivates mentally retarded teenagers to succeed in a "homeliving" classroom employing individualized work stations to prepare functioning students to leave the institution and live in the community. The classroom procedures are outlined. (AJ)

  4. Artifacts, Tools, and Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Geraldine; Le, Huong; Higgins, Joanna; Podmore, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    Although schools contain many material artifacts, studies in classrooms have tended to focus on discourse and quality of social interaction even when artifacts are being used. Responding to Engstrom's (1999) invitation to take artifacts seriously, three studies are described in which a material object was essential to a classroom activity. The…

  5. Frontloading Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

  6. Is Your Classroom Exciting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Suggests ways for making classrooms fun, including giving children opportunities to work together, moving things around, letting children learn to set their own controls, setting up the classroom so students can experiment and discover together, and providing bonuses or incentives for the child who is falling behind. (CR)

  7. Evaluation in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becnel, Shirley

    Six classroom research-based instructional projects funded under Chapter 2 are described, and their outcomes are summarized. The projects each used computer hardware and software in the classroom setting. The projects and their salient points include: (1) the Science Technology Project, in which 48 teachers and 2,847 students in 18 schools used…

  8. Classroom versus Online Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Michael F.; McMillan, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined students' effort and performance using online versus traditional classroom testing procedures. The instructor and instructional methodology were the same in different sections of an introductory finance class. Only the procedure in which students were tested--online versus in the classroom--differed. The authors measured…

  9. Classroom Management and Safety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jackie Cleveland

    2004-01-01

    Welcome to the challenge of making good science come to life in your classroom. In this chapter, we look at how to get the science classroom ready for inquiry-based lessons and how to prepare students for engaging, productive, and safe activities. In addition, suggestions are provided to foster an emotionally safe environment for your middle level students.

  10. Epidemiology in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.

  11. The effect of task structure, practice schedule, and model type on the learning of relative and absolute timing by physical and observational practice

    E-print Network

    Black, Charles Beyer

    2004-11-15

    observers of an expert model were able to produce the relative timing as well as those who physically practiced the skill, while those who observed learning models were not. All observers and the physical practice participants were able to produce...

  12. Use of the Classroom Management Link System (CMLS) Across Multiple Classrooms

    E-print Network

    Lee, Steven W.; Shepard, Courtney

    2013-08-01

    on disruptive behavior were likely due to floor effects as few instances of disruptive behavior were observed in either class during the course of the study. Surveys The Teacher Manageability Scale (TMS). CMLS ACROSS MULTIPLE CLASSROOMS 23 The Teacher... Manageability Scale (TMS) was designed to measure teachers’ perceived self-effectiveness at handling common classroom behavioral and emotional problems (Safran et al., 1988). It consists of 18 demographic and background questions regarding the teacher...

  13. Classroom Management: Theory into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernsey, Marsha A.; Peary, Marjorie

    Educators cite classroom management as intrinsic to the learning process. This paper presents a broad picture of classroom management and offers some suggestions for actual classroom implementation. Major findings are highlighted, along with practical techniques for their instructional application. Classroom management is an organizational process…

  14. The Inclusion Classroom. Your Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Special education students struggle with labels. Other kids can be very cruel with names and attitudes toward anyone who is different. Teachers cannot solve this problem completely, but they can minimize its effects with careful manipulation. The author, a teacher in an inclusion classroom, suggests passing out modified assignments along with all…

  15. Classroom Research by Classroom Teachers, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Michael, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This volume celebrates teachers as life-long learners of the art of teaching, by presenting 21 action research studies designed and implemented by classroom teachers. A "How To Get Started" section outlines action research steps and offers worksheets. Descriptions of the research studies begin with ethnographic studies, which include "Adopt a…

  16. Dosing Schedules for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses—the schedule—that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

  17. Cross-Sex Collaborative Learning in Elementary Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlaine E. Lockheed; Abigail M. Harris

    1984-01-01

    Structured naturalistic observations, representing about 1,400 hours of classroom behavior, and student surveys were analyzed to determine: (a) the extent to which small group instruction was used in elementary school classrooms, (b) the academic conditions under which small group instruction was used, and (c) the effects of small group instruction on student attitudes and perceptions, particularly those related to gender

  18. Socialising Multilingualism: Determinants of Codeswitching in Kenyan Primary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Marilyn; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Using ethnographic observations of classroom interaction in three primary schools, determinants of teachers' language choice and codeswitching among English, Swahili, and mother-tongue were explored: official school policy, cognitive concerns, classroom management concerns, values and attitudes about societal multilingualism. (36 references)…

  19. Say "YES" to Telephone Lines in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Larry W.

    In June 1994, the Texas Center for Educational Technology (TCET) posted a survey on several educational listservs and conference groups on the Internet requesting comments, observations, and opinions from educators having experience with telephones in classrooms. Most of the respondents agreed on the need to equip K-12 classrooms with modern…

  20. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  1. Dialogical Patterns of Interaction in Pre-School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Siekkinen, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The present study set out to identify and examine dialogic educational interactions in Finnish pre-school classrooms. Video recordings of five observed pre-school classrooms that had shown a high or moderate quality of instructional support in literacy, maths and science studies were transcribed for micro-scale qualitative content analysis. Three…

  2. The Classroom Assessment Scoring System: Findings from the Prekindergarten Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; Pianta, Robert C.; Stuhlman, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Research on teacher-child relationships, classroom environments, and teaching practices provided the rationale for constructing a system for observing and assessing emotional and instructional elements of quality in early childhood educational environments: the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). The CLASS provides a framework for…

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  4. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  5. Seeing Eye to Eye: Predicting Teacher-Student Agreement on Classroom Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise; Wagner, Caroline; Atkins, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between classroom characteristics and teacher-student agreement in perceptions of students' classroom peer networks. Social network, peer nomination, and observational data were collected from a sample of second through fourth grade teachers (N = 33) and students (N = 669) in 33 classrooms across five…

  6. Children's Agreement on Classroom Social Networks: Cross-Level Predictors in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Sahu, Neha

    2012-01-01

    Informed by research on interpersonal perception, peer relationships, and classroom climate, this study examines predictors of children's agreement with classmates on their classroom social networks. Social network data, peer nominations of positive behavior, and classroom observations were collected from 418 second-grade to fourth-grade children…

  7. The Classroom as Community: Ideas from an Early Childhood Teacher. Occasional Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jeannette G.

    This paper responds to the questions: "How do we shape classroom life to reflect a spirit of social justice and equality, of tolerance and respect?" It presents a philosophy and a set of practices by which preschool classrooms may become communities that work for everyone. The paper begins with an observation of a preschool classroom and notes…

  8. Teacher Consultation and Coaching Within Mental Health Practice: Classroom and Child Effects in Urban Elementary Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise Cappella; Bridget K. Hamre; Ha Yeon Kim; David B. Henry; Stacy L. Frazier; Marc S. Atkins; Sonja K. Schoenwald

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Method: Thirty-six classrooms within 5 urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training + consultation\\/coaching) and control (training only) conditions. Classroom and child

  9. In Search of Cultural Themes and Their Expressions in the Dynamics of Classroom Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, A. Wade; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Miller, Oronde

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the existence of cultural themes in classrooms serving low-income African American students. A classification scheme categorizing classroom dynamics that evidenced cultural themes is developed and used to record teachers and students' behaviors. Four hundred sixty classroom observations are specified to either a…

  10. Classroom Organization: Understanding the Context in Which Children Are Expected to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuen Ling

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on classroom organization, carried out in 2000 in kindergartens in Hong Kong. The findings contribute to understandings of current cross-cultural studies on classroom organization. Half-day session classroom observations of nine kindergarten teachers from three schools in Hong Kong were carried out. Data sources included…

  11. Female Students of Color in Special Education: Classroom Behaviors and Perceptions in Single-Gender and Coeducational Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Jennifer C.

    This qualitative research examined classroom behaviors and school perceptions of female students of color (Latina and African American) in single-gender and coeducational secondary-level special education placements for students with mild to moderate learning disabilities. Classroom observations and interviews were conducted with eight female…

  12. "Medium of Instruction" vs. "Medium of Classroom Interaction": Language Choice in a French Complementary School Classroom in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacina, Florence; Gafaranga, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to account for language choice and alternation phenomena we have observed in a French complementary school classroom in Scotland. In this classroom, talk can be conducted in French (the official medium of instruction), in English (the other language in contact) and in both French and English. A critical review of the…

  13. Goodness of Fit Between Children and Classrooms: Effects of Child Temperament and Preschool Classroom Quality on Achievement Trajectories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia E. Vitiello; Olga Moas; Heather A. Henderson; Daryl B. Greenfield; Pelin M. Munis

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child temperament differentially predicted academic school readiness depending on the quality of classroom interactions for 179 Head Start preschoolers. Teachers rated children's temperament as overcontrolled, resilient, or undercontrolled in the fall and reported on children's language\\/literacy and math skills continuously throughout the year. Observations of classroom emotional and instructional

  14. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  15. Alternative congestion pricing schedules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuehao Chu

    1999-01-01

    It is important that alternative congestion pricing schedules are compared with respect to a broad spectrum of their effects. This paper uses an equilibrium simulation model of peak-period commuting along an urban highway to compare quantitatively both positive and normative effects of six congestion pricing schedules. Three of these schedules have been investigated qualitatively in the literature; the others are

  16. Children's Agreement on Classroom Social Networks: Cross-Level Predictors in Urban Elementary Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise Cappella; Jennifer Watling Neal; Neha Sahu

    2012-01-01

    Informed by research on interpersonal perception, peer relationships, and classroom climate, this study examines predictors of children's agreement with classmates on their classroom social networks. Social network data, peer nominations of positive behavior, and classroom observations were collected from 418 second-grade to fourth-grade children (99% African American) and 33 teachers and classrooms in low-income, urban schools. Children's perceptions of their

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of plasma- and albumin-free recombinant factor VIII in children and adults: the influence of blood sampling schedule on observed age-related differences and implications for dose tailoring

    PubMed Central

    BJÖRKMAN, S; BLANCHETTE, V S; FISCHER, K; OH, M; SPOTTS, G; SCHROTH, P; FRITSCH, S; PATRONE, L; EWENSTEIN, B M; COLLINS, P W

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Dose tailoring of coagulation factors requires reliably estimated and reproducible pharmacokinetics (PK) in the individual patient. Objectives: To investigate the contribution of both biological and methodological factors to the observed variability of factor VIII (FVIII) PK, with the focus on differences between children and adults, and to examine the implications for dosing. Patients: Data from 52 1–6-year-old and 100 10–65-year-old patients with hemophilia A (FVIII ? 2 IU dL?1) in three clinical studies were included. Results: In vivo recovery was lower, weight-adjusted clearance was higher and FVIII half-life was on average shorter in children than in adults. However, a reduced blood sampling schedule for children was estimated to account for up to one half of the total observed differences. Intrapatient variance in PK was smaller than interpatient variance in 10–65-year-olds. Age and ratio of actual to ideal weight only showed weak relationships with PK parameters. Variance in PK caused large variance in the calculated dose required to maintain a target FVIII trough level during prophylactic treatment. Conclusion: Differences in blood sampling schedules should be taken into account when results from different PK studies are compared. However, even with this consideration, PK cannot be predicted from observable patient characteristics but must be determined for the individual. Because the influence of reducing the blood sampling was minor in comparison to the true variance between patients, a reduced blood sampling protocol can be used. Low intrapatient variability supports the use of PK measurements for dose tailoring of FVIII. PMID:20398185

  18. Toys in The Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.

    2005-01-01

    A number of chemical concepts can be easily illustrated in a more friendly way to children by using toys as teaching tools in the classroom. Some of the examples illustrated are shrinking toys, drinking birds and hand boiler.

  19. Cartoons in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children and Animals, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Approaches the topic of responsible pet care through the use of cartoon strips. Provides a two-page cartoon layout that can be duplicated for classroom use. Poses questions for possible discussions and investigations. (ML)

  20. Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

  1. Polymer Literature for Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshenbaum, Gerald S.

    1987-01-01

    Lists eight sources of technical information suitable for classroom use which deal with polymer materials. Provides the names and addresses of these societies and associations and describes the type of information each has available. (TW)

  2. Frontloading Classroom Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keith Roscoe

    2010-07-01

    In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new

  3. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  4. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the behavior, housing, care, diet, and feeding of painted turtles. Also suggests several classroom activities and provides guidelines related to long-term captivity and human disease prevention. (DH)

  5. The Classroom Space Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbickas, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Classroom Space project aimed at revitalizing science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. (Author/YDS)

  6. Critters in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

  7. In the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History and Social Science Teacher, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Using cartoons and comic strips to teach the concept of social class and newspapers to teach economic principles are suggested classroom activities for elementary and secondary courses. A lesson plan for teaching democratic values is also included. (JR)

  8. Stargazing in Your Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jos? Rios

    2003-05-01

    When taking students outside to see the stars is not an option, teachers can bring the stars inside the classroom. These instructions for building a portable planetarium also include suggestions for cross-cultural and social studies connections.

  9. Natural Resources: Outdoor Classrooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Valynda Mayes

    2010-02-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community

  10. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides information on various classroom assessment techniques (CATs) such as primary trait analysis, using anonymous assessments, goal ranking and matching, self assessment, active learning, transfer and applied learning, and group work assessment.

  11. For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

  12. Floor Plan Your Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-19

    This resource guides the learner, step-by-step, in creating a scale floor plan of a classroom. The instructions include sample drawings of student work. The activity includes: sketching a map of the classroom; measuring the room and calculating the area and perimeter; creating a scale drawing; and drafting a CAD (computer-aided design) floor plan. The lesson provides students with hands-on, real world practice solving problems of measurement, ratio, and scale.

  13. Solar Powered Classroom

    ScienceCinema

    none

    2013-06-27

    A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

  14. Solar Powered Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    none

    2013-06-13

    A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

  15. Science teachers' understanding and use of instructional strategies within the 4 x 4 block schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosshans, Kurt

    The primary purpose of this researcher was to investigate how science teachers engage students under the 4 x 4 block schedule and how the teachers' understanding of how they use instructional strategies influenced their lessons. As an inquiry-based approach has been adopted by the National Science Standards, research has suggested that block scheduling provides more time for teachers to incorporate varied strategies such as inquiry-based and cooperative learning teaching which have philosophical roots in a social constructivist philosophy. This research investigated the questions: What instructional strategies do science teachers use to engage students on the 4 x 4 block schedule? How do science teachers understand their use of instructional strategies? The methodology was qualitative in nature and involved a multiple case study of three high school science teachers at a large rural county high school. Data sources included pre-observation interviews, classroom observations, post-observation interviews, and the collection of documents and artifacts such as lesson plans, student hand-outs, worksheets, laboratory exercises, homework and other document(s) the teacher used to prepare for or implement a lesson. The evidence observed in this study, suggests that the strategies used by these three science teachers remain mostly didactic in nature. Although the teachers reported in the interview phase of this research that they use a wide variety of strategies, what was observed within the 4 x 4 block structure was the use of different didactic strategies, not different holistic strategies. Although the teachers were aware of more holistic strategies such as inquiry-based and cooperative learning, they were not adopted nor adapted within the lesson. The three teachers used strategies that were consistent with their scientific realist views concerning the nature of science. These scientific realist philosophies are antithetical to a social constructivist approach to teaching and learning, which is what the National Research Council suggests science teachers adopt.

  16. Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Ketelaars, Cees; Kraijer, Dirk; Mulder, Erik; Volkmar, Fred; Minderaa, Ruud

    2004-04-01

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a substantial difference between younger and older children (5-8 vs. 8+ years). Compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) classification of Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), both instruments measure AD or PDD validly and reliably. Even in low-functioning children the interrelationship between the instruments and the clinical classification was satisfactory. The combination of ADI-R and ADOS-G identifies AD or PDD, as described in the DSM-IV-TR, most appropriately. Both instruments seem to be of great value in the diagnostic process of PDD in children and adolescents with MR. PMID:15162932

  17. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  18. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  19. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss or argue scientific issues as the national science curriculum stipulates. We found that traditional assessment methods, such as tests, examinations and assignments were the most common methods used to assess and grade students' learning. Different aspects of knowledge stipulated in the national Swedish curriculum, such as lifelong learning, stimulation to students' creativity, curiosity as well as their wish to explore and convert new ideas into action, and find solutions to problems, were restricted by teachers' discourses. The observed teachers' learning and assessment practices constrain students' agency leading to students' silence consequently hindering students' development.

  20. Supporting students' strategic competence: a case of a sixth-grade mathematics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, ?. Elif Yetkin; Pape, Stephen J.

    2012-06-01

    Mathematics education research has documented several classroom practices that might influence student self-regulation. We know little, however, about the ways these classroom practices could be structured in real classroom settings. In this exploratory case study, we purposefully selected a sixth-grade mathematics teacher who had participated in a professional development program focussed on NCTM standards and SRL in the mathematics classroom for extensive classroom observation. The purpose was to explore how and to what extend she structured classroom practices to support strategic competence in her students. Four features of classroom practices were found as evidence for how strategic competence was potentially supported in this classroom: (a) allowing autonomy and shared responsibility during the early stages of learning, (b) focusing on student understanding, (c) creating contexts for students to learn about strategic learning and to exercise strategic behaviour, and (d) helping students to personalise strategies by recognising their ideas and strategic behaviours.

  1. An Array of Strategies for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews five types of classroom assessment methods: forced-choice items (i.e., multiple-choice and true-false items, matching exercises, and fill-in-the-blank items); essay tests; performance tasks and portfolios; teacher observation; and student self-assessment. Provides examples of each method and describes the skills that they are intended to…

  2. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  3. Hydrogen and Palladium Foil: Two Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In these two classroom demonstrations, students observe the reaction between H[subscript 2] gas and Pd foil. In the first demonstration, hydrogen and palladium combine within one minute at 1 atm and room temperature to yield the non-stoichiometric, interstitial hydride with formula close to the maximum known value, PdH[subscript 0.7]. In the…

  4. Argumentations in proving discourses in mathematics classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Knipping

    This paper focuses on argumentations in proving discourses in mathematics classrooms. Examples of different types of argumentations that were observed in a comparative study of French and German lessons on the Pythagorean Theorem are presented. These illustrate different argumentations within two kinds of proving discourse. In one case the argumentation is characterised as intuitive-visual, and in the other as conceptual.

  5. Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

  6. Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms for Scheduling the James Webb Space Telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Giuliano; Mark D. Johnston

    2008-01-01

    Effective scheduling of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) requires managing the trade-off between multiple scheduling criteria including minimizing unscheduled time, angular momentum build-up, and the number of observations that miss their last opportunity to schedule. Previous studies examined momentum management and wasted space and showed that effective JWST scheduling requires modeling momentum as a resource that is three- dimensional,

  7. A Stream Ecosystem in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Tweed (Augusta High School REV)

    1995-06-30

    To build a model of the world of nature is never an easy task. In this case the lotic ecosystem for the classroom is no exception. However, with the right materials, some time, and student involvement you can have an operational classroom ecosystem, complete with organisms, physical environment, interactions and relationships, and natural succession. The classroom stream ecosystem provides a focus for biology class projects, lessons, experiments and research. It provides students with a sense of ownership in the class if they are involved in the development of the system early in the school year. I have found students simply standing and observing, conversing about their ideas, and actively wondering what is going on in the stream on a daily basis. The model is a magnet for student curiosity. If you have a chance to build one and use it, I recommend it strongly, and wish you luck in your new quest to make biology real and relevant to your students.

  8. The Elephant in the Classroom: The Impact of Misbehavior on Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Nancy J.; Jones, Cathy R.; Costner, Richard H.; Savage-Davis, Emma; Hunt, Gilbert H.

    2010-01-01

    The research discussed here is based on a one year study of 34 second and fourth grade teachers and their 588 students. Data were collected in 40 minute observational segments; six unannounced observations took place in each teacher's classroom for a total of 240 minutes per teacher. The data were analyzed in SPSS as quantitative data. Half of the…

  9. Teachers' Practical Knowledge about Classroom Management in Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tartwijk, Jan; den Brok, Perry; Veldman, Ietje; Wubbels, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in…

  10. Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2009-01-01

    Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)--what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the…

  11. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  12. Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christie Nicole Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination you'll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. An

  13. Security for Classroom Learning Partner

    E-print Network

    Iancu, Karin

    2006-01-01

    This MENG thesis implements a security system for a classroom presentation system called the Classroom Learning Partner (CLP). The goal of the security system is to prevent cheating on electronic quizzes. CLP is a system ...

  14. Becoming Galileo in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Galileo's contributions are so familiar as to be taken for granted, obscuring the exploratory process by which his discoveries arose. The wonder that Galileo experienced comes alive for undergraduates and teachers that I teach, when they find themselves taking Galileo's role by means of their own explorations. These classroom journeys include: sighting through picture frames to understand perspective, watching the night sky, experimenting with lenses and motion, and responding to Galileo's story. In teaching, I use critical exploration, the research pedagogy developed by Eleanor Duckworth that arose historically from both the clinical interviewing of Jean Piaget and B"arbel Inhelder and the Elementary Science Study of the 1960s. During critical explorations, the teacher supports students' investigations by posing provocative experiences while interactively following students' emergent understandings. In the context of Galileo, students learned to observe carefully, trust their observations, notice things they had never noticed before, and extend their understanding in the midst of pervasive confusion. Personal investment moved students to question assumptions that they had never critically evaluated. By becoming Galileo in today's classroom, we found the ordinary world no less intriguing and unsettling to explore, as the historical world of protagonists in Galileo's Dialogue.

  15. Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The inverted classroom is a course design model in which students' initial contact with new information takes place outside of class meetings, and students spend class time on high-level sense-making activities. The inverted classroom model is so called because it inverts or "flips" the usual classroom design where typically class…

  16. Flipping the classroom (abstract only)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Brown

    2012-01-01

    In a flipped classroom, students watch or listen to the lecture at home and do homework in the classroom. The classroom becomes much more interactive and the educator has ample opportunity to provide individualized guidance when it's most needed. The watch-at-home content can include recorded lectures, demonstration videos, adaptive quizzes, or anything in between. Come share your experiences developing \\

  17. MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM

    E-print Network

    MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM: How Educators Can Help Students Succeed Ingle International cares about you and your students www.studyinsured.com #12;www.studyinsured.comMental Illness in the Classroom: How Educators Can Help Students Succeed Mental Illness in the Classroom: How Educators Can Help

  18. Teacher Attitudes about Classroom Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research was designed to investigate the possible relationship between the attitudes, teachers have about the condition of their classrooms when the classrooms were independently assessed. Previous research reported teachers in unsatisfactory classrooms felt frustrated and neglected to such an extent that they sometimes reported they…

  19. Sound Advice on Classroom Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of acoustic standards in classroom design, presenting an interview with the Acoustical Society of America's (ASA's) standards manager which focuses on reasons for the new ASA standards, the standards document (which was written for K-12 classroom but applies to college classrooms), the need to avoid echo and be able to…

  20. GALAXY Classroom: Television for Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graumann, Peter

    1994-01-01

    An interactive learning service for elementary grades, "GALAXY Classroom," offers enrichment opportunities to classrooms. Students communicate via fax in response to questions posed in satellite transmitted segments. The primary market for "GALAXY Classroom" is the at-risk student. Sidebars describe costs and current offerings. (SLW)

  1. Agriculture in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agriculture in the Classroom Web site(last mentioned in the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has recently been updated. One of the current features, Listening to the Prairie - Farming in Nature's Image, is a useful resource which has many lesson plans and classroom activities for all grades and can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. These lesson plans explore subjects like how energy passes through food webs, where our food comes from, how agriculture affects our lives, and soil and erosion. This is a useful site that focuses on a subject that many urban students may not normally be exposed to.

  2. Bringing Classroom Utilization Reporting Up-to-Date. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John D.

    The purpose, audience, methodology, and statistics of classroom utilization reports used at the University of Colorado, Boulder, are examined with a view toward an evolving report on a schedule of classes. Utilization reports from the past decade are examined in terms of information attributes discussed by Kleijnen (1980). A computer-generated…

  3. Employing the Power of Technology to Change the Concept of the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontos, George; And Others

    Nova Southeastern University (NSU) is constantly striving to expand the concept of the classroom and fulfill the mission of the university, which includes serving the educational needs of employed professionals, regardless of their schedules and distance from the central campus. "Distant learners" include those whose job demands, family…

  4. Improving Classroom Discussion: A Rhetorical Approach

    E-print Network

    Bruss, Kristine S.

    2009-01-01

    and sustaining a discussion as a group. In one class, students carried on a discussion of Thucydides while the professor removed himself from the group and observed silently from the edge of the classroom. In the last few minutes of class, the professor guided..., somewhat superficial analysis, and too much emphasis on what students thought as opposed to what Thucydides thought. The professor confirmed these observations, adding that, in addition, the class could work on strategies for drawing out the students who...

  5. Development of a Classroom Authority Observation Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middendorf, Joan; McNary, Erin

    2011-01-01

    When student end-of-course ratings are not commensurate with instructor skill and effort, one possible reason may be that students question the instructor's authority. It is proposed here that such doubts about authority are reinforced by specific instructor behaviors. This pilot study attempts to identify these behaviors in the interest of…

  6. Classroom Management: Beliefs of Preservice Teachers and Classroom Teachers Concerning Classroom Management Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laut, John

    Noting that preservice teachers and experienced teachers share a concern for classroom management, this study compared the beliefs of classroom teachers, intern teachers, and senior level practicum students regarding classroom management styles. Participating in the study were 43 early childhood and 44 elementary education preservice teachers, and…

  7. NCI-Frederick PHL - Scheduling

    Cancer.gov

    Services Price List Courier Services & Shipment Procedures Scheduling Contact Information Related Links Establishing an Account PHL Forms PHL Portal Scheduling Project scheduling will depend on the type, scope and size of the project. Detailed information

  8. Injuries in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

  9. Animals in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  10. Windows into Art Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John Matthews; Paul…

  11. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Seven articles on classroom icebreakers are compiled: "Picture Stories and Other Opportunities" (Joy Egbert, Deborah Hanley, Rosemary Delaney); "Hey, What's Your Name" (Janet Leamy); "Surprise!" (Lynne Burgess); "Memory Game" (Sally Winn); "Picturesque" (Margaret Beiter); "The Name Game" (Jeanne-Marie Garcia); "Exercise the Body--And the Mind…

  12. Inquiry in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohl, Christina

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) As schools scramble to restructure in the hope of thwarting failure, administrators often appropriate money for outside experts who counsel on professional development as well as outside magic-pill programs for student achievement. High-stakes testing remains the arbiter. Perhaps the use of the best practice of inquiry, or classroom

  13. Barcode Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes applications of bar coding technology that will help teachers to organize and energize their classrooms. Explains how bar codes--the black-and-white lines used for identification--are read and produced. Educational applications include their use in testing, equipment inventory, specimen identification, time keeping in experiments,…

  14. The Classroom Traffic Jam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Arthur W.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

  15. Cockroaches in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

  16. Caring as Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chrystal S.; Thomas, Adrian T.

    2009-01-01

    When planning for the new school year, K-2 teachers might consider the benefits of creating a caring classroom. Caring has the potential to not only encourage thoughtful social studies practice, but to also enhance it. The best K-2 teachers also recognize the importance of caring in the development of responsible citizens. Such teachers plan and…

  17. Your Outdoor Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

  18. In the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Fourteen conference papers on classroom techniques for second language teaching are presented, including: "Cooperative Learning at the Post-Secondary Level in Japan" (Steve McGuire, Patricia Thornton, David Kluge); "Shared Inquiry Fosters Critical Thinking Skills in EFL Students" (Carol Browning, Jerold Halvorsen, Denise Ahlquist); "Story Grammar:…

  19. Elementary Classroom Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children's literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support…

  20. Artists in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Stephen R., Ed.; Place, Richard, Ed.

    Since 1970, the Connecticut Commission on the Arts has sponsored educational programs in which artists participate actively in the classroom with students and teachers. This book contains eight case studies showing the effects of visiting artists in eight Connecticut schools. Topics of these studies are song writing, dance movement in suburbia,…

  1. Robots in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George; Spain, Tom

    1984-01-01

    Educational robots are defined, their essential characteristics and features are outlined, and their educational applications and what makes them run are discussed. Classroom experiences with five educational robots--Topo, Rhino XR-2, RB5X, Hero I and Tasman Turtle--are described. (MBR)

  2. Poetry in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Linda, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue focus on the use of poetry for study in classrooms at all levels. Titles and authors of the articles include (1) "Summoning the Poem: Several Roads to Xanadu" by Ben F. Nelms; (2) "ABC's of Reading and Writing Poetry in Junior High" by Barbara Arnold; (3) "Invitations" by Elizabeth D. Nelms; (4) "Teaching Poetry…

  3. Classroom of the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Denise Monte

    2000-03-01

    Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

  4. "Frankenstein" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veidemanis, Gladys V.

    1986-01-01

    Presents five reasons for classroom study of Mary Shelley's gothic work: (1)intriguing style and subject matter, brevity and novelty; (2)narrative versatility; (3)representation of the Romantic Era in English literature; (4)female authorship; (5)significance of the central theme of "scientific aims pursued in reckless disregard of human…

  5. Classroom Contexts for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Various factors influence the development of creative potential, including everything from individual differences to the kinds of experiences and opportunities that creators experience throughout the lifespan. When it comes to nurturing creativity in the classroom, the learning environment is one of the most important factors--determining, in…

  6. Researching Classroom Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lores Gonzalez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    The complexities of the modern society and interconnected world in which we live requires students who are able to problem solve and think critically. The research on which this article is based aims to explore how classroom questioning can help students guide their learning and model the spirit of inquiry to become lifelong learners. The research…

  7. Flipping the Classroom Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    I received many emails following the first column on flipping the classroom. Many of my local colleagues also approached me at our physics alliance, Physics Northwest. Teachers are very interested in this new pedagogy. As I result, I wanted to share some more videos to inspire you.

  8. Classroom influences on bullying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erling Roland; David Galloway

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between estimates of teachers' management of the class, the social structure of the class and bullying otherswas investigated by questionnaires answered by 2,002 pupils and 99 teachers in Norwegian primary schools. A path analysis demonstrated that the social structure of the class had a direct impact on bullying behaviour. Classroom management had a direct impact on the prevalence

  9. Fluency in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie R., Ed.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book offers two distinct approaches to oral reading instruction that can easily be incorporated into primary-grade literacy curricula. It enables teachers to go beyond the conventional "round-robin" approach by providing strong instructional support and using challenging texts. Grounded in research and classroom experience, the book explains…

  10. The Electronic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Al P.; Centini, Barry M.

    The role of telecommunications in establishing the electronic classroom in distance education is illustrated. Using a computer-based doctoral program and the UNIX operating system as an example, how a personal computer and modem may be combined with a telephone line for instructional delivery is described. A number of issues must be addressed in…

  11. Classroom Supply Kit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-04-22

    This convenient kit provides all the basics for classroom exploration. These are the essentials for any hands-on science instruction. Packaged in a handy case, the kit offers 7 plastic coated magnetic wands, 2 desk-size digital scales, 28 glass hand lense

  12. Classroom Management That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleve, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the best classroom management strategies to use when teaching in an elementary school setting. I wanted to conduct the best possible management tools for a variety of age groups as well as meet educational standards. Through my research I found different approaches in different grade levels is an important…

  13. Creating a Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, David

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State university. The system consists of three basic components: a home theater combo, a tablet PC, and a digital projector, costing a total of $7,300, or $8,800 if a podium, screen, and projector mount are purchased. The…

  14. Classroom Idea-Sparkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieff, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents four Idea-Sparkers that were submitted by Jason McKinney, a graduate student at Southern Mississippi University and a 1st-grade teacher at Pisgah Elementary in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. First is entitled, "Raceway in the Classroom." This activity can help increase children's fluency and ability to identify numerous sight…

  15. Implementing the Synchronous Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    This commentary describes an action research project conducted by selected staff at the Northern Valley Regional High School District in New Jersey. The project focused on the idea of developing a synchronous classroom to provide world language learning opportunities to students. Relevant research is provided as are ideas regarding logistics and…

  16. Salvage in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Dannel

    1977-01-01

    Describes the development of a program to establish in-school salvage systems for school-generated and nonschool-generated waste materials. Students from conservation classes became involved in collecting waste from "recycle" boxes in every classroom, in field trips, newspaper drives, and salvage of aluminum cans. (CS)

  17. The Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dorothy E.

    An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

  18. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  19. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  20. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  1. The Environmental Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald E.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    Two modern crises--in education and ecology--can both be alleviated by adopting an "environmental classroom"; that is, by moving from the traditional schoolroom to closer contact with the world outside. The first part of the volume examines traditional approaches to education and them moves step by step to innovative ones, such as using the urban…

  2. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  3. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times of the aircraft. Findings from these initial experiments indicate that it is possible to schedule arrivals into Anchorage with minimal delays under low-visibility conditions with less disruption to high-cost, international flights.

  4. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  5. VU University Amsterdam Outpatient Scheduling

    E-print Network

    Bhulai, Sandjai

    Practitioner PEARL STAM #12;2 Outpatient scheduling Outpatient scheduling for a general practitioner .................................................................................................................................. 7 1.1.2 General Practitioner

  6. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community.

  7. A New Mirror for the Classroom: A Technology-Based Tool for Documenting the Impact of Technology on Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Maryl; And Others

    One of the new measures developed as part of the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) program is described. The ACOT project examines the impact of access to educational technology on the kindergarten through grade 12 classroom environments. The new measure is a technology-based classroom observation instrument for documenting the impact of…

  8. "Teacher Only Calls Her Pets": Teacher's Selective Attention and the Invisible Life of a Diverse Classroom in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    Studies on classroom practices in Africa and the developing world tend to report on the visible general features, i.e. code switching, rote learning, memorisation and safe talk, with very little on the micro, invisible, classroom life. This article, based on the findings of a study involving classroom observations of teachers and pupils'…

  9. Pneumococcal vaccination in Europe: schedule adherence.

    PubMed

    Gervaix, Alain; Ansaldi, Filippo; Brito-Avô, António; Azzari, Chiara; Knuf, Markus; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Tuerlinckx, David; Tin Htar, Myint Tin; Syrogiannopoulos, George A

    2014-05-01

    Nonadherence to recommended pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) schedules may have implications for protection against pneumococcal disease. In this commentary, we have assessed adherence to the recommended dosing schedules (the completion of the primary PCV and booster series) in different European countries. We found that adherence with the PCV schedule was lower than that for diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and that higher adherence was observed in countries where PCV vaccination is recommended and funded. Adherence with the booster dose is often lower than that with the primary series completion, and it is often given after the recommended age. These data highlight the need to encourage timely vaccination of children with PCV, in line with local immunization schedules. There is no single solution to improve adherence; actions need to be tailored to the context of individual countries through initiatives at the national, regional, and local levels and should target different stakeholders. PMID:24746990

  10. Interactive Dynamic Mission Scheduling for ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Nagase, F.; Isobe, T.

    The Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission requires scheduling for each 6-month observation phase, further broken down into weekly schedules at a few minutes resolution. Two tools, SPIKE and NEEDLE, written in Lisp and C, use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques combined with a graphic user interface for fast creation and alteration of mission schedules. These programs consider viewing and satellite attitude constraints as well as observer-requested criteria and present an optimized set of solutions for review by the planner. Six-month schedules at 1 day resolution are created for an oversubscribed set of targets by the SPIKE software, originally written for HST and presently being adapted for EUVE, XTE and AXAF. The NEEDLE code creates weekly schedules at 1 min resolution using in-house orbital routines and creates output for processing by the command generation software. Schedule creation on both the long- and short-term scale is rapid, less than 1 day for long-term, and one hour for short-term.

  11. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With Income (Loss) per Return)), Schedule...Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of...

  12. Implementation of a Posted Schedule to Increase Class-Wide Interobserver Agreement Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Stefanie; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.; Maguire, Helena; Marquardt, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of an antecedent intervention in the form of a daily posted schedule on the interobserver agreement (IOA) assessment of educational goals implemented within a classroom at a private school serving individuals with disabilities. During baseline, the percentage of academic goals with interobserver agreement…

  13. Course Scheduling to Find the Minimum Cost Set of Facilities Required.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccatore, Luis A.

    The problem of determining the quantity of classroom, laboratories and instructors to train sections of students attending numerous distinct courses in a school such as the Fleet Ballistic Missile School is considered. A procedure is developed for determining feasible schedules in order to graduate a fixed number of trainees over time while…

  14. The Effect of Immersion Scheduling on Academic Performance and Students' Ratings of Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Curl, Layton S.; Broussard, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, little research has investigated the effects of immersion scheduling on the psychology classroom. Therefore, we sought to compare academic performance of students in 2-week immersion psychology courses to that of students in traditional 16-week courses. In Study 1, students who received instruction in a 2-week immersion…

  15. Photographs and Classroom Response Systems in Middle School Astronomy Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan

    2014-12-01

    In spite of being readily available, photographs have played a minor and passive role in science classes. In our study, we present an active way of using photographs in classroom discussions with the use of a classroom response system (CRS) in middle school astronomy classes to teach the concepts of day-night and seasonal change. In this new pedagogical method, students observe objects or phenomena in photographs and use the information to develop understanding of the scientific concepts. They share their ideas in classroom discussion with the assistance of the CRS. Pre- and posttest results showed that the new pedagogy helped students overcome primitive conceptions and enhanced their understanding of the concepts. The observation of the rich details of photographs played three pedagogical roles in classroom discussion: easing students' anxiety about learning a new scientific concept; continuous stimulus of learning; and as evidence or data.

  16. Pressures of the Season: A Descriptive Look at Classroom Quality in Second and Third Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen B.; Condliffe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This report presents findings from two years of classroom observation designed to help understand the in-school experiences of students who had been first graders in eight Baltimore public schools in 2007-08. During the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years, the authors conducted fieldwork to understand learning opportunities and settings for a set of…

  17. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-02-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

  18. Making Observations Interactive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Lillie R.; Moyette, Gail; Sohn, Sheila Cutler

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on observational assessment in student learning of mathematical concepts in two sixth grade classrooms. Many of the class activities involved algorithms and open-ended problems in which students worked in collaborative groups, pairs, or individually. (MM)

  19. Scheduling CSP model Resources Optimization Basic Class Timetabling Constraint-based Scheduling: Introduction

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Machine scheduling allocation of jobs to computational resources Scheduling of flexible assembly systems car production Employees scheduling nurse rostering Transport scheduling gate assignment for flightsScheduling CSP model Resources Optimization Basic Class Timetabling Constraint-based Scheduling

  20. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  1. Mentoring Effects on Protégés' Classroom Practice: An Experimental Field Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Evertson; Margaret W. Smithey

    2000-01-01

    The classroom practices of protégés assisted by mentors who participated in a formal mentoring program were compared with protégés mentored by experienced teachers with no formalized mentoring preparation. Forty-six protégé-mentor pairs (23 treatment; 23 comparison) participated in this study conducted in 2 large school consortia in a mid-western state. Data include ratings and narrative records from classroom observations, weekly summaries

  2. Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations Traditional Schedulers

    E-print Network

    interactive and CPU­bound workload offered by decay usage priority scheduler the FreeBSD operating system. Moreover, standard lottery scheduling ignores kernel priorities used FreeBSD scheduler reduce kernel­ tions present FreeBSD scheduler to improve interac­ tive response time and reduce kernel lock contention

  3. Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations in Traditional Schedulers

    E-print Network

    priority scheduler of the FreeBSD operating system. Moreover, standard lottery scheduling ignores kernel priorities used in the FreeBSD scheduler to reduce kernel lock contention. In this paper, we show how to use in the FreeBSD scheduler to improve interac- tive response time and reduce kernel lock contention. We achieve

  4. Operating Systems: CPU Scheduling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site from the University of Bridgeport provides the context and explanation for CPU scheduling mechanisms. It includes a rationale for context switching along with with pseudocode, and it explains the difference between non-preemptive versus preemptive scheduling. It offers visuals that could be incorporated into lectures analyzing various scheduling algorithms including first in first out (FIFO), round-robin, priority-based, shortest job first (SJF), and multilevel feedback queues. It includes an assignment as well as an online slideshow presentation. This site is applicable for technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses.

  5. Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna R. Sterling

    2009-07-01

    Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)—what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the first time: the physical environment; routines, policies, and procedures; materials management; as well as a review process to extend what students learn.

  6. Bringing Social Media to the Writing Classroom: Classroom Salon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kaufer; Ananda Gunawardena; Aaron Tan; Alexander Cheek

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a new IText technology called Classroom Salon. The goal of Classroom Salon is to bring some of the benefits of social media—the expression of personal identity and community—to writing classrooms. It provides Facebook-like features to writing classes, where students can form social networks as annotators within the drafts of their peers. The authors discuss how the technology

  7. Classroom Assessment Techniques: Interviews

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mike U. Smith

    This page describes the technique of using interviews to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Interviews enable instructors to judge the extent of understanding students have developed with respect to a series of well-focused, conceptually-related scientific ideas. This site provides an overview of this assessment instrument including information about how to use classroom interviews to their maximum benefit. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

  8. Marine Mammal Classroom Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website features teachers' guides developed by Sea World featuring marine mammal educational materials for K-12. 14 different topics covered including sharks, wetlands, whales, birds, and much more. Several feature activities for all grade levels. Each guide includes goals and objectives, information, vocabulary, a bibliography, and classroom activities. Activities strive to integrate science, mathematics, geography, art, and language. Orca guide is also in Spanish.

  9. Sustainable Seas Classroom Ideas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Multimedia approach promotes ocean exploration and conservation. Underwater expeditions to National Marine Sanctuaries provide case studies and data for lesson plans. Topics include: biological oceanography; ocean regions and habitats; physical ocean process; human links to and impacts on the ocean; applications of oceanography. Virtual expeditions link the classroom experience with the individual National Marine Sanctuaries, research methods and technology, and researchers' experiences. Free, on-line teacher workshops feature top ocean researchers and policy makers.

  10. The Virtual Science Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rick Ferdig

    2008-01-01

    Virtual schooling offers students the opportunity to enroll in a science course not taught at their home school or school district, interact with expert instructors in a particular field, and gain access to subject matter they may have otherwise missed (i.e., teenage moms, home-schooled students, expelled students, etc.). This chapter examines best teaching practices emerging within this new field and showcases specific examples of how various technologies are used within virtual science classrooms.

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Classroom Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity page introduces hydrogen and facts on how it is used as an automobile power source. In this lesson, students will participate in a hands-on activity in generating hydrogen. The classroom activity involves generating hydrogen gas by splitting water in an electrolysis process. Step by step directions are provided for the experiment. This lesson plan is intended for grades 9-12 but may also be useful for undergraduate classes.These materials may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  12. CIESE Online Classroom Projects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers of all grades can use these projects to enhance their science curriculum through use of the Internet. Many projects utilize real time data, others draw from primary/historical information sources. In collaborative projects, students from around the world contribute data for comparison. Each project includes a brief description, teacher guide, standards, classroom activities, data source links, even online help. Many projects focus on water, water quality, weather, oceanography topics. Undergraduate science education is also featured.

  13. C-SPAN Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The C-SPAN in the classroom website is geared toward teachers of political science - or specifically U.S. Government. The site is split into six segments: Principles of Government, the Constitution, Political Participation and each of the three branches of government. Each of these sections features video clips, and questions for class discussion. Free site membership is available, but not required to use the site. Some additional content and services are available with membership.

  14. Classroom implementation of the practices learned in the Master of Chemistry Education program by the School District of Philadelphia's high school chemistry teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Uma Devi

    This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory case study utilizing quantitative and qualitative methodologies intended to ascertain the extent and differences of implementation of research-based instructional practices, learned in an intensive 26-month professional development, in their urban classrooms. Both the extent and differences in the implementation of practices were investigated in relation to the lesson design and implementation, content, and classroom culture aspects of research-based practices. Additionally, this research includes the concerns of the teachers regarding the factors that helped or hindered the implementation of research-based practices in their classrooms. Six graduates of the Master of Chemistry Education Program who were teaching a chemistry course in a high school in the School District of Philadelphia at the time of the study (2006-8), were the case. The teachers completed a concerns questionnaire with closed and open-ended items, and rated their perceptions of the extent of implementation of the practices in their urban classrooms. Additionally, the teachers were observed and rated by the researcher using a reform-teaching observation protocol and were interviewed individually. Also, the teachers submitted their lesson plans for the days they were observed. Data from these sources were analyzed to arrive at the findings for this study. The research findings suggest that the group of teachers in the study implemented the research-based practices in their classrooms to a low extent when compared to the recommended practices inherent to the MCE Program. The extents of implementation of the practices differed widely among the teachers, from being absent to being implemented at a high level, with inconsistent levels of implementation from various data sources. Further, the teachers expressed the depth of knowledge (gained in the MCE Program), formal laboratory exercises and reports, administrative support, self-motivated students, and group/collaborative work as several factors that enabled or would have enabled the implementation of practices. Among the many factors that hindered the implementation of the practices in their urban classrooms were, the core curriculum and pacing schedule, followed by test preparation, administrative paper-work, large class-size, students not prepared for student-centered work, poor math and reading skills of students, students' lack of motivation, unsupportive department head, unresponsive administration, and lack of resources.

  15. Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling. Optimization based prototype scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Surender

    1991-01-01

    Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling (optimization based prototype scheduler) are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; need and viability of polynomial time techniques for SNC (Space Network Control); an intrinsic characteristic of SN scheduling problem; expected characteristics of the schedule; optimization based scheduling approach; single resource algorithms; decomposition of multiple resource problems; prototype capabilities, characteristics, and test results; computational characteristics; some features of prototyped algorithms; and some related GSFC references.

  16. Science Beyond the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Taking science education beyond the classroom provides learning opportunities and experiences for students that just aren't available within school walls, and Science Beyond the Classroom has a wealth of ideas on how to do it successfully. These carefully selected articles from the NSTA journals Science Scope and Science and Children were gathered into a compendium because of the value of informal science education in providing access to those experiences and in tapping into student interests. Science Beyond the Classroom provides an overview of information and ideas--many of them include step-by-step, teacher-tested instructions and guidelines--that can be easily modified and adapted by teachers and others--scout leaders, club sponsors, parents, and home schoolers among them--who want to nurture enthusiasm for science. An introduc?tion providing background and ideas for using the articles and a list of additional articles and web sites leads each of the five sections: ? Extending Science Learning Beyond the Curriculum: Projects and Challenges ? Extending Science Learning Beyond the School Building Walls: Using Local Sites ? Extending Science Learning Beyond the School Day: Clubs, Camps and Science Expositions ? Extending Science Learning to the Family: Take-Home Projects and Family Science Events ? Extending Science Learning to Informal Institutions: Museums, Zoos, and Other Field Trips With its potential for engaging student interest, this book aims also at encouraging more students to enter academic fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  17. Transformational approach to transportation scheduling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R. Smith; Eduardo A. Parra

    1993-01-01

    The authors have used KIDS (Kestrel Interactive Development System) to derive extremely fast and accurate transportation schedulers from formal specifications. As test data, strategic transportation plans which are generated by US government planners are used. In one such problem, the derived scheduler was able to schedule 15,460 individual movement requirements in 71 cpu seconds. The computed schedules use relatively few

  18. The Stanford School Scheduling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Industrial Engineering.

    This booklet gives a general overview of the computerized Stanford School Scheduling System (SSSS) which is designed to make scheduling less difficult for individualized programs in secondary education. Topics covered include new flexible scheduling and variable course structure designs in secondary education, the school scheduling problem,…

  19. Communication Strategies Used by High School English Language Learners in Multilingual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spromberg, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In this study, twenty-five high school English language learners were observed in their classrooms in a New York City public school while they worked in small groups. All observations were video recorded or done by the researcher while in the classrooms. The videos were then transcribed. Communication strategies that the participants used were…

  20. Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cauthen, Nancy K.

    In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

  1. NASA Television Schedules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online television schedule provides listings of NASA's televised programming, including mission coverage, educational shows, and historical programs. A link is provided to a list of organizations that transmit NASA television to the World Wide Web.

  2. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Vaccines Home Share Compartir Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... never outgrow the need for vaccines. The specific immunizations you need as an adult are determined by ...

  3. Adaptive Scheduling Algorithms for Planet Searches

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford

    2007-12-17

    High-precision radial velocity planet searches have surveyed over ~2000 nearby stars and detected over ~200 planets. While these same stars likely harbor many additional planets, they will become increasingly challenging to detect, as they tend to have relatively small masses and/or relatively long orbital periods. Therefore, observers are increasing the precision of their observations, continuing to monitor stars over decade timescales, and also preparing to survey thousands more stars. Given the considerable amounts of telescope time required for such observing programs, it is important use the available resources as efficiently as possible. Previous studies have found that a wide range of predetermined scheduling algorithms result in planet searches with similar sensitivities. We have developed adaptive scheduling algorithms which have a solid basis in Bayesian inference and information theory and also are computationally feasible for modern planet searches. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of plausible planet searches to test the power of adaptive scheduling algorithms. Our simulations demonstrate that planet searches performed with adaptive scheduling algorithms can simultaneously detect more planets, detect less massive planets, and measure orbital parameters more accurately than comparable surveys using a non-adaptive scheduling algorithm. We expect that these techniques will be particularly valuable for the N2K radial velocity planet search for short-period planets as well as future astrometric planet searches with the Space Interferometry Mission which aim to detect terrestrial mass planets.

  4. First Floor Records Office, Classroom

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    , NW FuturE HomE oF tHE law lEarNINg CENtEr & garagE burNS law lIbrary StoCktoN Hall E buIlDINg Sto Areas, Computer Information Center, Westlaw/Lexis Print Room, Library Entrance third Floor Career, Classrooms third Floor Classrooms Fourth Floor Writing Center, Classrooms lErNEr Hall tHE QuaD 20th Street

  5. The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike to other problem domains, and plans for the future evolution of the system.

  6. A Classroom of Polymer Factories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

  7. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  8. 5 Keys to Effective Classroom Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Kode

    When new teachers walk into their first classroom, they take on many new responsibilities, including establishing and enforcing classroom rules. Five simple guidelines can help new teachers develop an effective classroom management that reflects their teaching style.

  9. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  10. Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation

  11. Teaching and nature: Middle school science teachers' relationship with nature in personal and classroom contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine Butcher Ball

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study describes three middle-school science teachers' relationship-with-nature in personal and classroom contexts. Participating teachers had more than 7 years experience and were deemed exemplary practitioners by others. Interview data about personal context focused on photographs the teacher took representing her\\/his relationship-with-nature in daily life. Interview data for classroom context explored classroom events during three or more researcher observations.

  12. Classroom Connectivity: Increasing Participation and Understanding Inside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegedus, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This article shows how highly mobile computing, when used with new forms of network connectivity, can allow new forms of activities in the mathematics classroom. Examples are provided, such as the ability to share, harvest, and aggregate mathematical objects, and the ability for teachers and students to analyze the entire set of classroom

  13. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

  14. Assessing the Classroom Environment of the Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Susan M.; Davis, Michaeleen; Torrence, Eileen

    This pilot study was conducted in order to determine whether a virtual classroom can be assessed, and whether it can be done using already proven techniques for classroom environment assessment. Study participants were 20 graduate students in education enrolled in three different courses offered at a distance via the World Wide Web. Each of the…

  15. Active Classroom Participation in a Group Scribbles Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    A key stimulus of learning efficacy for students in the classroom is active participation and engagement in the learning process. This study examines the nature of teacher-student and student-student discourse when leveraged by an interactive technology--Group Scribbles (GS) in a Primary 5 Science classroom in Singapore which supports rapid…

  16. Physics & Astronomy Open House Schedule UH Manoa Watanabe Hall

    E-print Network

    Physics & Astronomy Open House Schedule UH Manoa Watanabe Hall 22 November 2014 0830 - 1245 *** Physics & Astronomy info. available at www.phys.hawaii.edu *** Welcome & Overview: Prof. Pui Lam in Physical Science 217 at 0830 ** schedules for groups 1 to 10 below for 0900-1100 ** **solar observing

  17. An integrated scheduling and program management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D.; Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    An integrated scheduling and program management system is being developed for the MMT Observatory (MMTO), Arizona, USA. A systems engineering approach is used to combine existing and new relational databases, spreadsheets, file storage systems, and web-based user interfaces into a single unified system. An overview of software design, data management, user interfaces, and techniques for performance assessment is presented. Goals of this system include streamlined data management and an optimized user experience. The MMTO has over a dozen different telescope configurations, including three secondary mirrors and a wide range of observing instruments. Scheduling is complex for the varying telescope configurations, limited available observing time, and appropriate astronomic conditions (e.g., lunar phase) for each science project. Scheduled telescope configurations can be used to perform safety checks of actual configuration during telescope operations. Programmatic information is automatically input into nightly telescope operator (TO) logs by the system. The TO's provide additional information into the system on telescope usage, observing conditions (e.g., weather conditions), and observatory closure (e.g., from instrument malfunction or inclement weather). All of this information is synthesized to assess telescope and observatory performance. Web interfaces to the system can be used by observers to submit information, such as travel plans, instrumentation requirements, and observing catalogs. A service request (SR) (i.e., trouble report) system has also been developed for tracking operational issues. The specific needs of the MMTO have been met through in-house software development of this integrated scheduling and program management system.

  18. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  19. Geoboards in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-06-29

    This resource for teachers presents the geoboard as a conceptual tool to help students gain a sense of geometric shape and area. The suggested activities range from an introduction of a concept, to extended student exploration of shapes and area using the geoboard. The teacher is fully supported with a list of materials needed, discussion guides and classroom activities for investigating length and area, and sample pages of dot paper to print. Explanations of the Pythagorean theorem, Pick's area theorem, and area formulas for 2-dimensional shapes are provided. Five lesson plans focus on lines, squares, rectangles, parallelograms, and right triangles. A bibliography is included.

  20. Negotiating Critical Literacies in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara, Ed.; Simpson, Anne, Ed.

    This book brings together accounts of educators who have sought to make a difference in the lives of their students through literacy education--from university classrooms in the United States, England, and South Africa, to policy and curriculum development in Singapore and Australia. The literacy classrooms explored in the book range from the…

  1. Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom" is a groundbreaking collection of essays by leading scholars, who examine and respond to the tension that many educators face in valuing student creativity but believing that they cannot support it given the curricular constraints of the classroom. Is it possible for teachers to nurture creative development…

  2. Working Alliances in College Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    I explain how professors can establish working alliances with students to cultivate a climate conducive to learning. This process involves (a) attending to the emotional bonds that exist in the college classroom, (b) developing shared educational goals and tasks to promote a common sense of purpose, and (c) addressing classroom conflict to repair…

  3. Learning outside the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgwick, Fred

    2012-01-01

    In "Learning Outside the Primary Classroom," the educationalist and writer Fred Sedgwick explores in a practical way the many opportunities for intense learning that children and teachers can find outside the confines of the usual learning environment, the classroom. This original work is based on tried and tested methods from UK primary schools.…

  4. Time Management in the Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy Collins

    1990-01-01

    Many special services providers want to assist classroom teachers in using instructional time more wisely. Unfortunately, prior to this publication, few aids were available to assist in this effort. The purpose of this paper is to inform special services providers about time management so that they can assist classroom teachers and other special service personnel to increase student success. In

  5. Classroom Interaction, Satellite-Interposed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Burton H.

    1973-01-01

    The PEACESAT project for interconnecting classrooms of colleges in the Pacific Basin was tried for the first time in June and July, 1971, between two campuses of the University of Hawaii. The experimenters found that, while classroom interconnection by satellite produces some frustrations, it has infinite possibilities. (Author)

  6. Classroom Interaction, Satellite-Interposed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Burton H.

    The Pan-Pacific Educational and Communication Experiments by Satellite (PEACESAT) project for interconnecting classroom of colleges in the Pacific Basin was tried for the first time in June and July, 1971, between two campuses of the University of Hawaii. The experimenters found that while classroom interconnection by satellite produces some…

  7. Mentoring in the Art Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Denise; Mitchell, Timothy; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring in classrooms allows teachers the opportunity to be motivational tools in the lives of students while operating as role models. The current research shows that mentoring in the art classroom provides stimulation and the momentum to students who are less motivated with creative assignments. The first part of this study looks at the…

  8. The Classroom as a Courtroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Weiner

    2003-01-01

    Using the metaphor of the classroom as a courtroom promotes insights regarding our school system. For example, in the courtroom, act severity and the presence or absence of a ‘guilty mind’ determine criminal sentencing. In a similar manner, in the classroom, the respective determinants of performance evaluation are exam score and the presence or absence of effort expenditure. In addition,

  9. Classroom Furniture: The Mod Squad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    This is the first article in a six-part series on the elements of a collaborative classroom: furniture, social media, video/web conferencing tools, collaborative software, interactive devices, and mobile devices. With most universities facing tight budgets, convincing administrators to invest in expensive new classrooms is a challenge. Many higher…

  10. Winning Strategies for Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Carol

    This book offers advice on arranging classrooms, diagnosing student behavior, and responding to students' emotional needs, examining intellectual, emotional, and physical challenges students face and providing strategies which help teachers create communities of learners, design classrooms, diagnose student behavior, and respond to student needs.…

  11. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  12. Conditions for Classroom Technology Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong; Pugh, Kevin; Sheldon, Stephen; Byers, Joe L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the complex process of classroom technology innovation, following a group of teachers for 1 year as they attempted to implement technology-rich projects in their classrooms. Results indicated that 11 factors significantly impacted their degree of success. These factors fell into three interactive domains: the teacher, the innovation,…

  13. Satellite Technologies in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portz, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on ways of using satellite imagery obtained from the Internet, to enhance classroom learning. Discusses satellite deployment; classroom applications, including infrared imagery, high-resolution photography, and global positioning satellites; and use of satellite data for hands-on activities, including cartography, city and community…

  14. Bringing Globalization into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Nancy Carter

    2006-01-01

    Some of the most effective resources for bringing the concept of globalization into the classroom is through the personal and professional experiences of the classroom teacher, the personal experiences of students from diverse cultures, the inclusion of curriculum activities with a global context, and the involvement of guest speakers with global…

  15. Career Development Classroom Money System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston-Hall, Charmaine

    This paper outlines the Career Development Classroom Money System, a curriculum created specifically for young people, as well as the teachers, administrators, and school officials confronting the difficult tasks of helping them reach social, economic, and personal achievement. The Classroom Money System is a comprehensive, competency-based…

  16. Fight Obesity in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsis, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

  17. Joy in the Montessori Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Tamara D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author states that it is a delight to walk into a Montessori classroom to the hum of children engaged in a variety of activities, especially when there is an accompanying feeling of joy and happiness. In desiring the peaceful calm of the classroom, educators may inadvertently hinder the joy, enthusiasm, and imagination that…

  18. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  19. Society and the Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Hywel, Ed.

    The collection of essays on sociocultural factors in the second language classroom includes: "Autonomy and Ideology in the English Language Classroom" (Hywel Coleman); "Safe-Talk: Collusion in Apartheid Education" (J. Keith Chick); "English Language Education in Japan" (Virginia LoCastro); "Shadow Puppets and Language Lessons: Interpreting…

  20. Changing Classroom Instruction in Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paratore, Jeanne R.; Indrisano, Roselmina

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the results from a comprehensive review of instructional practices in reading and writing elementary classrooms in Chelsea (Massachusetts) followed by a review of the corrective actions taken via the Boston University/Chelsea Public Schools Partnership and their outcomes. Children's classroom performance in reading and writing is…

  1. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  2. Why Classroom Token Economies Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token economies are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token economy is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)

  3. SPANR planning and scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry

    2001-07-01

    SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.

  4. MESA: Mercator scheduler and archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, Florian; Prins, Saskia; Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Perez Padilla, Jesus; Van Winckel, Hans; Aerts, Conny

    2012-09-01

    We have developed an observing scheduling and archive system for the 1.2 meter Mercator Telescope. The goal was to optimize the specific niche of this modern small telescope in observational astrophysics: the building-up of long-term time series of photometric or high-resolution spectroscopic data with appropriate sampling for any given scientific program. This system allows PIs to easily submit their technical requirements and keep track of the progress of the observing programmes. The scheduling system provides the observer with an optimal schedule for the night which takes into account the current observing conditions as well as the priorities and requirements of the programmes in the queue. The observer can conveniently plan an observing night but also quickly adapt it to changing conditions. The archiving system automatically processes new files as they are created, including reduced data. It extracts the metadata and performs the normalization. A user can query, inspect and retrieve observing data. The progress of individual programmes, including timeline and reduced data plots can be seen at any time. Our MESA project is based on free and open source software (FOSS) using the Python programming language. The system is fully integrated with the Mercator Observing Control System1 (MOCS).

  5. Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  6. Young Scientist in Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    Bringing space exploration recent results and future challenges and opportunities to the knowledge of students has been a preoccupation of educators and space agencies for quite some time. The will to foster student’s interest and reawaken their interest for science topics and in particular research is something occupying the minds of educators in all corners of the globe. But the challenge is growing literally at the speed of light. We are in the age of “Big Data”. Information is available, opportunities to build smart algorithms flourishing. The problem at hand is how we are going to make use of all this possibilities. How can we prepare students to the challenges already upon them? How can we create a scientifically literate and conscious new generation? They are the future of mankind and therefore this is a priority and should quickly be recognized as such. Empowering teachers for this challenge is the key to face the challenges and hold the opportunities. Teachers and students need to learn how to establish fruitful collaboration in the pursuit of meaningful teaching and learning experiences. Teachers need to embrace the opportunities this ICT world is offering and accompany student’s path as tutors and not as explorers themselves. In this training session we intend to explore tools and repositories that bring real cutting edge science to the hands of educators and their students. A full space exploration will be revealed. Planetarium Software - Some tools tailored to prepare an observing session or to explore space mission’s results will be presented in this topic. Participants will also have the opportunity to learn how to plan an observing session. This reveals to be an excellent tool to teach about celestial movements and give students a sense of what it means to explore for instance the Solar System. Robotic Telescopes and Radio Antennas - Having planned an observing session the participants will be introduced to the use of robotic telescopes, a very powerful tool that allows educators to address a diversity of topics ranging from ICT tools to the Exploration of our Universe. Instead of using traditional methods to teach about certain subjects for instance: stellar spectra, extra-solar planets or the classification of galaxies, they can use these powerful tools. Among other advantages a clear benefit of such tool is that teachers can use telescopes during regular classroom hours, provided they choose one located in the opposite part of the planet, where it is night time. Participants will also have the opportunity to use one of the radio antennas devoted for education from the EUHOU Consortium (European Hands-on Universe). A map of the arms of our galaxy will be built during the training session. Image Processing - After acquiring the images participants will be introduced to Salsa J, an image processing software that allows educators to explore the potential of astronomical images. The first example will be a simple measurement task: measuring craters on the Moon. Further exploration will guide them from luminosity studies to the construction of colour images, from making movies exhibiting the circular motion of the Sun to Jupiter Moons dance around the planet. e-learning repositories - In the ICT age it is very important that educators have support and know where to find meaningful and curriculum adapted resources for the construction of modern lessons. Some repositories will be presented in this session. Examples of such repositories are: Discover the Cosmos and EUHOU or a congregator of such repositories with quite advanced possibilities to support the work of teachers, the Open Discovery Space portal. This type of sessions are being successfully implemented by the Galileo Teacher Training Program team in Portugal under the scope of the EC funded GO-LAB project. This is a project devoted to demonstrate innovative ways to involve teachers and students in e-Science through the use of virtual labs, that simulate experiments, in order to spark young people’s interest in science and in following scie

  7. Dynamic airline scheduling and robust airline schedule de-peaking

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Hai, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Demand stochasticity is a major challenge for the airlines in their quest to produce profit maximizing schedules. Even with an optimized schedule, many flights have empty seats at departure, while others suffer a lack of ...

  8. Seeing Eye to Eye: Predicting Teacher-Student Agreement on Classroom Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise; Wagner, Caroline; Atkins, Marc S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between classroom characteristics and teacher-student agreement in perceptions of students’ classroom peer networks. Social network, peer nomination, and observational data were collected from a sample of second through fourth grade teachers (N=33) and students (N=669) in 33 classrooms across five high poverty urban schools. Results demonstrate that variation in teacher-student agreement on the structure of students’ peer networks can be explained, in part, by developmental factors and classroom characteristics. Developmental increases in network density partially mediated the positive relationship between grade level and teacher-student agreement. Larger class sizes and higher levels of normative aggressive behavior resulted in lower levels of teacher-student agreement. Teachers’ levels of classroom organization had mixed influences, with behavior management negatively predicting agreement, and productivity positively predicting agreement. These results underscore the importance of the classroom context in shaping teacher and student perceptions of peer networks. PMID:21666768

  9. The flipped classroom, putting learning back into the hands of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkelson, Virginia

    Flipping the classroom is a new style of teaching that puts learning back into the hands of the student and allows the teacher to facilitate each child's learning based on their individual needs. Three units of Chemistry were flipped to give the researcher experience and skill in this new ideology. Technology was used to create podcasts for student's to watch outside of the classroom. Student's used classroom time for problem-solving, activities, discussions and labs. From this experience as well as conferences, classroom observations of the flipping process in action and discussions with other teachers also using this new style of teaching, a handbook was written.

  10. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  11. Classroom goal orientation in high school classrooms: revealing links between teacher beliefs and classroom environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Deemer

    2004-01-01

    Uncovering how teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning influence their instructional practices and students’ goals in the classroom is important for understanding how to create learning environments focused on mastery and understanding. Most of the previous research on this topic has investigated these relationships in teachers, classrooms and students at either the elementary, middle or college level. Using this research

  12. When a Classroom Is Not Just a Classroom: Building Digital Playgrounds in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Chuang, Chi-Kuo; Nurkhamid; Liu, Tzu-Chien

    2012-01-01

    In the context of classroom, it is possible to create a playground with digital technology beneficial for learning in spite of rising enthusiasm in incorporating educational games in classroom. This paper is an essay to describe a learning playground called Digital Learning Playground (DLP). It is essentially an application of digital technology…

  13. Real-Time Ocean Data in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura; Gibson, Deidre; Ward, Angela

    2008-01-01

    To apply students' savvy internet skills in the science classroom--as well as capture their interest in science and investigation, and provide opportunities for authentic research--introduce them to real-time data from ocean-observing systems. Students can use data from these ocean-observing systems to discover the winds and waves from storms or…

  14. Tracing the Effects of Teacher Inquiry on Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermeling, Bradley A.

    2010-01-01

    Videotape and participant observation were used to document an American high school teacher workgroup's experience with collaborative teacher inquiry and to monitor changes in practice through two cycles of instructional planning, classroom implementation, and reflective analysis. Detectable changes in practice were observed, including a…

  15. Classroom Discourse of an Experienced Teacher of Indigenous Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaite, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This paper will examine the discourse of one experienced teacher of Indigenous children in lessons observed as part of the Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL) project conducted by Edith Cowan University in Perth. In the classroom observed, all the children were Indigenous and the teacher was aware that some children were suffering from CHL. This…

  16. What hinders teachers in using computer and video games in the classroom? Exploring factors inhibiting the uptake of computer and video games.

    PubMed

    Baek, Young Kyun

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors inhibiting teachers' use of computer and video games in the classroom setting and to examine the degree to which teaching experience and gender affect attitudes toward using games. Six factors that hinder teachers' use of games in the classroom were discovered: Inflexibility of curriculum, Negative effects of gaming, Students' lack of readiness, Lack of supporting materials, Fixed class schedules, and Limited budgets. Lack of supporting material, Fixed class schedules, and Limited budgets were factors that female teachers believed to be more serious obstacles to game use in the classroom than male teachers did. Experienced teachers, more so than inexperienced teachers, believed that adopting games in teaching was hindered by Inflexibility of curriculum and Negative effects of gaming. On the other hand, inexperienced teachers, more so than experienced teachers, believed that adopting games in teaching is less hindered by Lack of supporting materials and Fixed class schedules. PMID:19006464

  17. NASA revises shuttle schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    The new schedule for Space Shuttle missions and expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) calls for a 7-month delay in sending up the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA was forced to put off launching the telescope until February 1990 to keep the Magellan and Galileo missions within their narrow launch windows. The first post-Challenger shuttle launch is now scheduled for late this month. Discovery's most recent delays were due to a hydrogen leak discovered July 29 that has still not been corrected and an engine valve malfunction during an August 4 test fire.

  18. Spike: Artificial intelligence scheduling for Hubble space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Sponsler, Jeff; Vick, Shon; Jackson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spacecraft resources is essential, but the accompanying scheduling problems are often computationally intractable and are difficult to approximate because of the presence of numerous interacting constraints. Artificial intelligence techniques were applied to the scheduling of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This presents a particularly challenging problem since a yearlong observing program can contain some tens of thousands of exposures which are subject to a large number of scientific, operational, spacecraft, and environmental constraints. New techniques were developed for machine reasoning about scheduling constraints and goals, especially in cases where uncertainty is an important scheduling consideration and where resolving conflicts among conflicting preferences is essential. These technique were utilized in a set of workstation based scheduling tools (Spike) for HST. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. High level scheduling strategies using both rule based and neural network approaches were developed. While the specific constraints implemented are those most relevant to HST, the framework developed is far more general and could easily handle other kinds of scheduling problems. The concept and implementation of the Spike system are described along with some experiments in adapting Spike to other spacecraft scheduling domains.

  19. Dosing schedules for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: considerations for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Cynthia G; Goldblatt, David; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses-the schedule-that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

  20. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  1. QoS scheduling QoS scheduling

    E-print Network

    QoS scheduling Pag. 1 QoS scheduling QoS Issues in Telecommunication Networks - 1Andrea Bianco a link among all packets stored in a given buffer (multiplexing point) · Mainly look at QoS scheduling algorithms QoS Issues in Telecommunication Networks - 2Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino N

  2. QoS scheduling QoS scheduling

    E-print Network

    QoS scheduling Pag. 1 QoS scheduling Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group QoS Issues) · Mainly look at QoS scheduling algorithms ­ Choose the packet according to QoS needs QoS Issues in Telecommunication Networks - 2Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino N inputs OUTPUT BUFFER #12;QoS

  3. CRI planning and scheduling for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarup, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Computer Resources International (CRI) has many years of experience in developing space planning and scheduling systems for the European Space Agency. Activities range from AIT/AIV planning over mission planning to research in on-board autonomy using advanced planning and scheduling technologies in conjunction with model based diagnostics. This article presents four projects carried out for ESA by CRI with various subcontractors: (1) DI, Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems is an on-going research project; (2) GMPT, Generic Mission Planning Toolset, a feasibility study concluded in 1993; (3) OPTIMUM-AIV, Open Planning Tool for AIV, development of a knowledge based AIV planning and scheduling tool ended in 1992; and (4) PlanERS-1, development of an AI and knowledge-based mission planning prototype for the ERS-1 earth observation spacecraft ended in 1991.

  4. Classroom Management: What Does Research Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postholm, May Britt

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews studies that focus on classroom management. The aim of classroom management is twofold. The first is to establish a quiet and calm environment in the classroom so that the pupils can take part in meaningful learning in a subject. The second aim is that classroom management contributes to the pupils' social and moral…

  5. Supporting Classroom Activities with the BSUL System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Ogata; Nobuji A. Saito; Rosa G. J. Paredes; Gerardo Ayala San Martin; Yoneo Yano

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the students interact among each other and with the professor

  6. Supporting Talk? Partnership Teachers in Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Angela

    2006-01-01

    The literature on classroom discourse has too long constructed the classroom as a place of one teacher and many pupils. This paper challenges this view by investigating classroom discourse in two-teacher classrooms. Specifically, it presents a case study of an English as an additional language teacher and geography teacher working together in the…

  7. Classroom Environment Instruments: Development, Validity and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry J. Fraser

    1998-01-01

    Few fields of educational research have such a rich diversity of valid, economical and widely-applicable assessment instruments as does the field of learning environments. This article describes nine major questionnaires for assessing student perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment (the Learning Environment Inventory, Classroom Environment Scale, Individualised Classroom Environment Questionnaire, My Class Inventory, College and University Classroom Environment Inventory, Questionnaire on

  8. MINIMUM DISSATISFACTION PERSONNEL SCHEDULING D ?

    E-print Network

    Mugurel

    2008-08-07

    Abstract: In this paper we consider two problems regarding the scheduling of available personnel in order to perform a given ..... Vanden Berghe, G., “A Memetic Approach to the Nurse ... scheduling in a complex logistic system: a railway.

  9. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Pregnancy > C-section > Scheduling a c-section C-section A cesarean section is the birth of ... It's been added to your dashboard . Scheduling a c-section Cesarean birth (also called c-section) is ...

  10. About Creativity, Giftedness, and Teaching the Creatively Gifted in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sak, Ugur

    2004-01-01

    In this case study the author explored a teacher's beliefs about creativity and giftedness and investigated the classroom practices of this teacher of gifted students for 20 years. Seven semi-structured and 2 open observations were carried out in her classroom, and 2 prefigured interviews were conducted with her. She believed that creative…

  11. Single-Gender and Co-Educational Special Education Classrooms: Latina Student Attitudes, Perceptions, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Jennifer C.

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative research was designed to give voice to Latina students in single-gender and co-educational secondary-level special education placements for students with mild to moderate learning disabilities. Classroom observations and interviews were conducted with Latina special education students and classroom teachers in both single-gender…

  12. In-Depth Analysis of Handwriting Curriculum and Instruction in Four Kindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Hart, Nanho; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Cortesa, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The quality of handwriting curriculum and instructional practices in actual classrooms was investigated in an in-depth case study of four inner city kindergarten classrooms using quantitative and qualitative methods. The handwriting proficiency of students was also evaluated to assess the impact of the instructional practices observed. The…

  13. The Utility of Interaction Analysis for Generalizing Characteristics of Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Sangueza, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Validating and generalizing from holistic observation protocols of classroom practice have proven difficult. These tools miss crucial classroom characteristics, like the type of instruction, the organization of learners, and the level of cognitive engagement that occur differentially in the time span of a lesson. As a result, this study examined…

  14. Paraprofessionals in early childhood classrooms: an examination of duties and expectations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Ratcliff

    2011-01-01

    Millions of dollars are expended, in the USA and elsewhere, to provide paraprofessionals or ‘teaching assistants’ for regular early childhood classrooms. However, little consistent information exists related to best practice in the use of paraprofessionals in these early childhood settings. This article describes a study employing the use of 159 teacher and 161 paraprofessional surveys and classroom observations in 23

  15. Circle Time: An Exploratory Study of Activities and Challenging Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine circle time activities in eight Head Start classrooms. A total of 7 h of observations occurred in eight classrooms. Songs and academic activities were the most frequently occurring activities. Challenging behavior during circle time also was examined. The three activities with the highest…

  16. Learning to Estimate Slide Comprehension in Classrooms with Support Vector Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattanasri, N.; Mukunoki, M.; Minoh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehension assessment is an essential tool in classroom learning. However, the judgment often relies on experience of an instructor who makes observation of students' behavior during the lessons. We argue that students should report their own comprehension explicitly in a classroom. With students' comprehension made available at the slide…

  17. The Emergence of Student Creativity in Classroom Settings: A Case Study of Elementary Schools in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Younsoon; Chung, Hye Young; Choi, Kyoulee; Seo, Choyoung; Baek, Eunjoo

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the emergence of student creativity in classroom settings, specifically within two content areas: science and social studies. Fourteen classrooms in three elementary schools in Korea were observed, and the teachers and students were interviewed. The three types of student creativity emerging in the teaching and learning…

  18. Teacher Management of Elementary Classroom Social Dynamics: Associations with Changes in Student Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Madill, Rebecca A.; Zadzora, Kathleen M.; Miller, Aaron M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and students in 54 elementary school classrooms (first, third, and fifth grades) participated in a multi-method longitudinal study of classroom social dynamics. At each of three assessments within a single school year, observers rated teacher-student interaction quality, students completed sociometric assessments and reported on their…

  19. Biology Teacher's Flipped Classroom: "A Simple Thing, But It's so Powerful"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Carolyn Durley is a veteran Biology teacher who adopted the Flipped Classroom in the 2011-2012 school year, the same year as Graham Johnson adopted it for Math. They both teach in Okanagan Mission Secondary School in Kelowna , B.C. This paper offers Durley's observations regarding her adoption of Flipped Classroom. She narrates her teaching…

  20. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Critical Literacy: Pedagogical Nuances of a Second Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Pamela; Cleovoulou, Yiola

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the pedagogy and practices of an elementary school teacher who combines inquiry pedagogy and critical literacy. The authors gathered data for this analysis by conducting two interviews with a classroom teacher and observing classroom practices 12 times over a 6 month period. Through a general inductive approach to…

  1. Mark Twain in the Geography Classroom: Should We Invite Him In?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, E. Joan

    1989-01-01

    Explores the value of Mark Twain's "Life on the Mississippi" for the middle-school geography classroom. Examines the genesis of the book, investigates the authenticity of Twain's experiences, analyzes the book's content, and suggests teaching strategies. Finds the detailed geographic observations in the book quite useful for the classroom. (KO)

  2. Education for Sustainable Development: Liberation or Indoctrination? An Assessment of Faculty Members' Attitudes and Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qablan, Ahmad Mohammad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu; Khasawneh, Samer; Al-Omari, Aieman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes and classroom practices of environmental science faculty members in Jordanian universities. Mix data collection methodology was employed to collect data in this study. In addition to the developed survey, several participants' interviews and classroom observations were conducted with…

  3. Gozitan Dialects in the Classroom and Language Awareness for Learner Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri Grima, Antoinette; Buttigieg, Linda; Xerri, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Linguistic evidence shows that the dialects of Maltese present on the islands of Malta and Gozo are distinct from Standard Maltese (SM) on all linguistic levels. This article describes the dialectal reality in Gozo and inside Gozitan classrooms on the basis of data collected through classroom observation and interviews. The emphasis on the use of…

  4. Using the ICOT Instrument to Improve Instructional Technology Usage in the ABE Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Brannon W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Society for Technology (ISTE) in Education promotes the use of a specific tool--the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT)--to measure and improve the use of instructional technologies in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classrooms. The purpose of this article is to describe an application process for the use of the ICOT instrument…

  5. Seeing the Light: A Classroom-Sized Pinhole Camera Demonstration for Teaching Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prull, Matthew W.; Banks, William P.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a classroom-sized pinhole camera demonstration (camera obscura) designed to enhance students' learning of the visual system. The demonstration consists of a suspended rear-projection screen onto which the outside environment projects images through a small hole in a classroom window. Students can observe these images in a darkened…

  6. Play and Joint Attention of Children with Autism in the Preschool Special Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Connie; Kasari, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine play and joint attention in children with autism (n = 27) as compared to children with other developmental delays (n = 28) in public preschool special education classrooms. The participants were observed in their classroom environment for 2 h over 3 separate days. Results show that children with autism…

  7. The Language of Classroom Democracies: Assessing Language and Learning within the Student Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallister, Cynthia

    Anne Haas Dyson's concept of the "child collective" and Colette Daiute's concept of "youth genres" can be useful observational frameworks for better understanding classroom dynamics. In studying classrooms where children are given opportunities to collaborate, Dyson's "child collective" identifies those behaviors that children use to express their…

  8. Trout in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program experienced an amazing growth spurt. Thanks to AEP and Dominion grants and chapter fundraising efforts, we now have more than 200 classrooms throughout the state, ranging from elementary school through high school.

  9. Real-Time Ocean Data in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angela Ward

    2008-10-01

    To apply students' savvy internet skills in the science classroom--as well as capture their interest in science and investigation, and provide opportunities for authentic research--introduce them to real-time data from ocean-observing systems. Students can use data from these ocean-observing systems to discover the winds and waves from storms or to explore currents and predict marine-organism distribution. The four web-based student activities presented in this article bring the world of high-tech instruments and real-time data information to the classroom.

  10. Daytona Beach Activities Schedule

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Highlights · Daytona Beach · Activities Schedule · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach A day of fun in the sun! WHAT: Come for a day of surf, sun, and sand at world famous Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! After the beach

  11. Daytona Beach Activities Schedule

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Highlights · Daytona Beach · Activities Schedule · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach A day of fun in the sun! WHAT: Come for a day of surf, sun, and sand at world famous Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! WHEN: Saturday

  12. Scheduling semiconductor wafer fabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAWRENCE M. WEIN

    1988-01-01

    The impact that scheduling can have on the performance of semi-conductor wafer fabrication facilities is assessed. The performance measure considered is the mean throughput time (sometimes called cycle time, turnaround time or manufacturing interval) for a lot of wafers. A variety of input control and sequencing rules are evaluated using a simulation model of a representative, but fictitious, semiconductor wafer

  13. GENERAL INFORMATION Scheduling Events

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    , cash, check or credit card. Tentative catered events must be confirmed or released within ten (10GENERAL INFORMATION Scheduling Events An estimate of guests attending will be required for all equipment provided by Verde Catering. Any lost or damaged catering equipment or property

  14. Scheduling Nonlinear Computational Loads

    E-print Network

    Robertazzi, Thomas G.

    Scheduling Nonlinear Computational Loads JUI TSUN HUNG THOMAS G. ROBERTAZZI, Fellow, IEEE Stony node is nonlinear in the size of the assigned load. Optimal load allocation and speedup for simultaneous load distribution for a quadratic nonlinearity are obtained using simple equations. An iterative

  15. Rural Inservice Using Alternate Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmet, James L.

    Three small rural school districts in Montana and Wyoming used alternate school day scheduling to make time for staff and curriculum development inservice programs. The schedule of one short and four long days delivered the instructional time of 175 6-hour days each year. Benefits of alternate scheduling included time for regular inservice…

  16. Fair Scheduling in Broadcast Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paramvir Bahl; Nitin H. Vaidya

    1999-01-01

    This report considers the problems of scheduling transmissions in broadcast environments, including, wireless environments. Issues that affect the design of fair scheduling algorithms, and several alternative approaches to implementing fair scheduling in single-hop and multi-hop environments are identified.

  17. High School Schedules. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Findings are mixed on the effectiveness of various scheduling models. These models include a traditional 7 or 8 period day, a block schedule with four classes meeting one day and another four meeting the next (A/B Block), a block schedule of four classes that meet every day for a term (4x4 Block), and several hybrid models. Some findings conclude…

  18. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  19. Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

    2006-01-01

    conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

  20. Parallel Job Scheduling and Workloads

    E-print Network

    Segall, Adrian

    Parallel Job Scheduling and Workloads Dror Feitelson Hebrew University #12;Parallel Jobs · A set · On multicores: probably more dynamic #12;MPP Parallel Job Scheduling · Each job is a rectangle in processorsXtime space · Given many jobs, we must schedule them to run on available processors · This is like packing