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1

The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC): An Observational Measure of the Intentional Communication of Children with Autism in an Unstructured Classroom Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC) was devised to provide ecologically valid\\u000a outcome measures for a communication-focused intervention trial. Ninety-one children with autism spectrum disorder aged 6 years\\u000a 10 months (SD 16 months) were videoed during their everyday snack, teaching and free play activities. Inter-rater reliability\\u000a was high and relevant items showed significant associations with comparable items from concurrent Autism

Greg Pasco; Rosanna K. Gordon; Patricia Howlin; Tony Charman

2008-01-01

2

The Modified-Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (M-COSMIC): Evaluation of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Modified-Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (M-COSMIC) was developed as an ecologically valid measure of social-communication behaviour, delineating forms, functions, and intended partners of children's spontaneous communication acts. Forty-one children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 48-73 months were…

Clifford, Sally; Hudry, Kristelle; Brown, Laura; Pasco, Greg; Charman, Tony

2010-01-01

3

The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the…

Cassady, Jerrell C.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Adams, Cheryll M.; Cross, Tracy L.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

2004-01-01

4

Observations & Interpretations: Engaging Students in Classroom Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used to introduce or reinforce in students the importance of differentiating between observations and interpretations and quantitative and qualitative observations during classroom experimentation or demonstrations

5

Observation scheduling scheme for the Subaru telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We are now implementing scheduling software into the observation software system for Subaru telescope. The scheduling engine, SPIKE, developed at STScI is used with some modification for the Subaru telescope. An observation target list prepared by observers is converted to SPIKE Lisp codes. SPIKE

Toshiyuki Sasaki; George Kosugi; Jun A. Kawai; Toyoaki Kusumoto; Norikazu Koura; Robert Hawkins; Laurence Kramer; Anthony P. Krueger; Glenn E. Miller

2000-01-01

6

Observation scheduling scheme for Subaru telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We arenow implementing scheduling software into the observation software system for Subaru telescope. The scheduling engine,SPIKE, developed at STScI is used with some modification for the Subaru telescope. An observation target list prepared byobservers is converted to SPIKE Lisp codes. SPIKE output is inversely

Anthony P. Krueger; George Kosugi; Glenn E. Miller; Jun A. Kawai; Laurence Kramer; Norikazu Koura; Robert Hawkins; Toshiyuki Sasaki; Toyoaki Kusumoto

1996-01-01

7

Block scheduling: Instructional practices in high school science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proponents of block scheduling perceive this approach to be a 'structural lever' to invite and impel teachers to change their teaching (Marshak, 1997). This desired shift is supposed to be manifest in movement from the traditional classroom structure, focusing on the teacher as lecturer or transmitter of subject matter, to that of teacher as coach with students as active learners, engaged in a variety of activities involving them individually and collaboratively in their education (Canady & Rettig, 1995). Block scheduling changes the formal structure of the school day, but does it really change pedagogical practices in high school science classrooms? Fraser's Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) the instrument used in this study of science classes in five block-scheduled high schools in Connecticut, incorporates the tenets for an enriched classroom environment in its five scales or constructs: Participation---Extent to which students are encouraged to participate rather than be passive learners; Personalization---Emphasis on opportunities for individual students to interact with the teacher and on concern for the personal welfare and social growth of the individual; Investigation---Emphasis on the skills and processes of inquiry and their use in problem solving and investigation. Independence---Extent to which students are allowed to make decisions and have control over their own learning environment and behavior; Differentiation---Emphasis on the selective treatment of students on the basis of ability, learning style, interests, and rate of working (Fraser, 1990). The results and conclusions from this research study suggested that the block-scheduled high school science classes that participated in this research do promote, to varying degrees, those tenets that define an enriched classroom environment. Both the teachers and their classes of students perceived opportunities for Participation, Personalization, and Investigation constructs as prevalent in science instruction. However, Independence and Differentiation, although existent to some extent, were perceived to occur less by both the teachers and the students in their classes. The provision of more class time alone was not enough to drive the tenets of these two constructs significantly.

Richelsoph, Barry

8

"Keeping SCORE": Reflective Practice through Classroom Observations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom

Farrell, Thomas S. C.

2011-01-01

9

Planning and Scheduling of Earth Observing Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles and interactions of activity planning and scheduling for Earth Observing Satellites are based on factors such as mission objective, system assets and resources, system and spacecraft constraints, planning criteria, scheduling strategies, timelines, and desired level of automation and operator interaction. Activities are generalized into four categories: accomplish the mission objective, support the mission objective, manage the system resources,

D. Kaslow

2007-01-01

10

A Radical--and Practical--Approach to Classroom Allocation and Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how California State University at Fullerton improved classroom allocation and scheduling efficiency while responding to student enrollment increases and campus renovation. Steps discussed include conducting facilities audits, assessing the scheduling process, allocating smaller rooms, and studying scheduling and foot traffic patterns. (GR)

Ames, Pat

2001-01-01

11

Automated observation scheduling for the VLT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

Johnston, Mark D.

1988-01-01

12

Observations of Bullying in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and nature of bullying was assessed on the basis of observations of children's interactions in the classroom. This study was based on a systemic-developmental model of bullying and victimization. Participants were drawn from 1 public school in metropolitan Toronto. Twenty-seven children (19 boys, 8 girls) identified by teachers as aggressive and nonaggressive were targeted for filming. The 27

Rona S. Atlas; Debra J. Pepler

1998-01-01

13

Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2003-01-01

14

A Mass Observation Study of Student and Teacher Behaviour in British Primary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large scale observational study by educational psychologists of 141 UK primary classrooms used a partial interval time-sampling observational schedule to record the frequency and type of verbal behaviour of teachers and whether students were "on-task" (following the teacher's directions) or "off-task" (not following the teacher's directions).…

Apter, Brian; Arnold, Christopher; Swinson, Jeremy

2010-01-01

15

Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

1988-01-01

16

SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is NASA's next generation airborne astronomical observatory, and will commence operations in 2005. The facility consists of a 747-SP modified to accommodate a 2.5 meter telescope. SOFIA is expected to fly an average of 140 science flights per year over its 20 year lifetime. Depending on the nature of the instrument used during flight, 5-15 observations per flight are expected. The SOFIA telescope is mounted aft of the wings on the port side of the aircraft and is articulated through a range of 20deg to 60deg of elevation. The telescope has minimal lateral flexibility; thus, the aircraft must turn constantly to maintain the telescope's focus on an object during observations. A significant problem in future SOFIA operations is that of scheduling flights in support of observations. Investigators are expected to propose small numbers of observations, and many observations must be grouped together to make up single flights. Flight planning for the previous generation airborne observatory, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was done by hand; planners had to choose takeoff time, observations to perform, and decide on setup-actions (called "dead-legs") to position the aircraft prior to observing. This task frequently required between 6-8 hours to plan one flight The scope of the flight planning problem for supporting GI observations with the anticipated flight rate for SOFIA makes the manual approach for flight planning daunting. In response, we have designed an Automated Flight Planner (AFP) that accepts as input a set of requested observations, designated flight days, weather predictions and fuel limitations, and searches automatically for high-quality flight plans that satisfy all relevant aircraft and astronomer specified constraints. The AFP can generate one candidate flight plan in 5-10 minutes, of computation time, a feat beyond the capabilities of human flight planners. The rate at which the AFP can generate flights enables humans to assess and analyze complex tradeoffs between fuel consumption, estimated science quality and the percentage of scheduled observations. Due to the changing nature of SOFIA scheduling problems, this functionality will play a crucial role in optimizing science and minimizing costs during operations. In the full paper, we will summarize the technical challenges that have been met in order to build this system. These include: design of the search algorithm, design of appropriate heuristics and approximations, and reduction in the size of the search space. We will also describe technical challenges that are currently being addressed, including the extension of the existing approach to handle new solution criteria. Finally, we will describe a variety of cultural challenges that the astronomical community must address in order to successfully use SOFIA, and describe how the AFT can be used to address some of these challenges. Specifically, many of the intended science users are accustomed to using ground-based or space-based observatories; we will identify some differences that arise due to the nature of airborne observatories, and how the AFT can be extended to provide useful services to ease these cultural differences.

Frank, Jeremy

2005-01-01

17

Reasonable Evaluation Expectancies for Supervisors Observing Classroom Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation expectations for supervisors observing teacher effectiveness in the classroom are discussed. The classroom observer can identify and describe teaching effectiveness. A trained supervisor should have many frameworks for observing teachers based on the needs of the teacher, type of lesson, and maturity of the students. The use of…

McIntire, Ronald G.

18

Multi-Telescope Observing: the LCOGT Network Scheduler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is developing a worldwide network of fully robotic optical telescopes dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Observatory automation, longitudinal spacing of the sites, and a centralised network scheduler enable a range of observing modes impossible with traditional manual observing from a single location. These include continuous coverage of targets across sites, simultaneous observing with multiple resources, and cadenced time-series monitoring without diurnal gaps. The network also provides resource redundancy, with the potential for observations to be rescheduled in response to changing weather conditions. The scheduling model supports a wide variety of observing programs, which typically have very different constraints, goals, contingencies and timescales. Heterogeneous requests in a networked observing environment present specific, unusual challenges for telescope scheduling that do not arise with single-resource schedulers. Here, we discuss the design of the LCOGT network scheduler. We outline the scheduler's modular architecture, describe the implementation of its components, and highlight its current and planned capabilities.

Saunders, E.; Lampoudi, S.

19

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2004-01-01

20

WVU Facilities Planning and Scheduling Event and General Purpose Classroom Scheduling Guidelines  

E-print Network

and Expectations Scheduling priority will be given in the following order: 1) Credited courses and final exams over academic and University events separate from credited courses ­ study sessions, make up exams, lectures Guidelines A. There are no "guaranteed" spaces for special events other than credited academic courses

Mohaghegh, Shahab

21

Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

1996-01-01

22

Validation of a classroom observation code for hyperactive children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Devised a classroom observation code that would identify hyperactive children reliably. A 14-category observation code was used to record the classroom behavior of 60 6–12 yr old children referred to an outpatient clinic for hyperactivity and 60 same-sex normal children. The overall mean phi coefficient for interval agreement was .76, indicating adequate interobserver reliability. Ss referred for hyperactivity had significantly

Howard Abikoff; Rachel Gittelman-Klein; Donald F. Klein

1977-01-01

23

Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the utility of expert systems techniques for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling and describes a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

Miller, Glenn; Cohen, William; Rosenthal, Don; Johnston, Mark

1987-01-01

24

SOFIA's Choice: Scheduling Observations for an Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne observatory. The problem is more complex than traditional scheduling problems in that it incorporates complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time of a mobile observatory, as well as traditional temporal constraints and optimization criteria. We describe the problem, its proposed solution and the empirical validation of that solution.

Frank, Jeremy; Kurklu, Elif; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

25

Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

2009-01-01

26

SOFIA's Choice: Automating the Scheduling of Airborne Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne telescope. Given a set of prioritized observations to choose from, and a wide range of complex constraints governing legitimate choices and orderings, how can we efficiently and effectively create a valid flight plan which supports high priority observations? This problem is quite different from scheduling problems which are routinely solved automatically in industry. For instance, the problem requires making choices which lead to other choices later, and contains many interacting complex constraints over both discrete and continuous variables. Furthermore, new types of constraints may be added as the fundamental problem changes. As a result of these features, this problem cannot be solved by traditional scheduling techniques. The problem resembles other problems in NASA and industry, from observation scheduling for rovers and other science instruments to vehicle routing. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In 2 we describe the observatory in order to provide some background. In 3 we describe the problem of scheduling a single flight. In 4 we compare flight planning and other scheduling problems and argue that traditional techniques are not sufficient to solve this problem. We also mention similar complex scheduling problems which may benefit from efforts to solve this problem. In 5 we describe an approach for solving this problem based on research into a similar problem, that of scheduling observations for a space-borne probe. In 6 we discuss extensions of the flight planning problem as well as other problems which are similar to flight planning. In 7 we conclude and discuss future work.

Frank, Jeremy; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

27

An Observational Study of Social Processes in Microcomputer Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This observational study examined student and teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors in microcomputer classrooms in a high school where most of the students are Black, Hispanic, or Asian, and almost half of them are classified as economically disadvantaged. A total of 125 students in grades 9 to 12 were observed, with 47 students in marketing, 18…

Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

28

Evaluation of Handheld Computers for Direct Systematic Classroom Observation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through this study the authors evaluate outcomes associated with the use of handheld computers by interventionists in improving the efficiency of direct systematic classroom observation. Information from observations is used by interventionists for treatment planning and evaluation. In this study, interventionists were trained to use personal…

Bahr, Michael W.; Gouwens, Donald A.; Schuh, Genevieve

2012-01-01

29

Classroom observation: desirable conditions established by teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher observation is regarded as an essential procedure in the teacher training process. However, the vast majority of observation experiences have a top-down approach, as they are usually established by experts such as university teaching staff or school inspectors working for the administration. With a bottom-up approach in mind, this paper examines the attitudes of a wide range of teachers

David Lasagabaster; Juan Manuel Sierra

2011-01-01

30

The Contextual Application of Observation Schedules Within Naturalistic Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen teachers from grades one through twelve and sixty pupils were sampled using a contextual approach to the investigation of teachers' verbal and nonverbal behavior. Pupils were categorized as accepting, concerned, indifferent, or rejecting by their respective teachers, and the student-initiated question frame was selected as a suitable and…

Brooks, Douglas M.

31

Observation instrument of play behaviour in a classroom setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature and

Louise Berkhout; Joop Hoekman; Sieneke M. Goorhuis-Brouwer

2011-01-01

32

Observation Instrument of Play Behaviour in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature…

Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

2012-01-01

33

Observation instrument of play behaviour in a classroom setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature and

Louise Berkhout; Joop Hoekman; Sieneke M. Goorhuis-Brouwer

2012-01-01

34

The ISI Classroom Observation System: Examining the Literacy Instruction Provided to Individual Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom

Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Schatschneider, Christopher

2009-01-01

35

Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre: observation scheduler and sequencer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational strategy is a critical path in any large survey. The planning of a night requires the knowledge of the fields observed, the quality of the data already secured, and the ones still to be observed to optimize scientific returns. Finally, field maximum altitude, sky distance/brightness during the night and meteorological data (cloud coverage and seeing) have to be taken into account in order to increase the chance to have a successful observation. To support the execution of the J-PAS project at the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory, we have prepared a scheduler and a sequencer (SCH/SQ) which takes into account all the relevant mentioned parameters. The scheduler first selects the fields which can be observed during the night and orders them on the basis of their figure of merit. It takes into account the quality and spectral coverage of the existing observations as well as the possibility to get a good observation during the night. The sequencer takes into account the meteorological variables in order to prepare the observation queue for the night. During the commissioning of the telescopes at OAJ, we expect to improve our figures of merit and eventually get to a system which can function semi-automatically. This poster describes the design of this software.

Ederoclite, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Moles, M.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín-Franch, A.; Yanes Díaz, A.; Gruel, N.; Varela, J.; Chueca, S.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; López-Sainz, A.; Chioare Díaz-Martín, M.

2013-05-01

36

Applying Squeaky-Wheel Optimization Schedule Airborne Astronomy Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We apply the Squeaky Wheel Optimization (SWO) algorithm to the problem of scheduling astronomy observations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, an airborne observatory. The problem contains complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time at which the observation begins, telescope elevation limits, special use airspace, and available fuel. Solving the problem requires making discrete choices (e.g. selection and sequencing of observations) and continuous ones (e.g. takeoff time and setting up observations by repositioning the aircraft). The problem also includes optimization criteria such as maximizing observing time while simultaneously minimizing total flight time. Previous approaches to the problem fail to scale when accounting for all constraints. We describe how to customize SWO to solve this problem, and show that it finds better flight plans, often with less computation time, than previous approaches.

Frank, Jeremy; Kuerklue, Elif

2004-01-01

37

Observations of AA Tau requested to schedule XMM-Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dr. Hans Moritz Guenther (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has requested nightly observations of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau in order to schedule x-ray observations with XMM-Newton that have been planned for between 2013 August 15 and September 15. The purpose of the AAVSO observations is to determine whether AA Tau is at a suitable magnitude for the satellite observations. Taurus is difficult to observe during this time period but that is exactly why AAVSO assistance is needed! AA Tau is a morning object, and also, many of the professional ground-based telescopes are offline because of the US southwest monsoon season. Since it is critical to know the brightness of AA Tau, AAVSO observations will be truly essential. Nightly visual and snapshot (not more than once per night) observations beginning now and continuing through September 20 are needed. Coverage beginning ahead of the XMM window is requested because there is a one- to two-week lead time for the target to be inserted into the telescope schedule. Continuing the nightly observations a few days beyond the end of the XMM window will give better optical context for the x-ray data. AA Tau ranges between ~12.8V and ~16.1V; since December 2011 or earlier it has been at ~14.5V. The most recent observation in the AAVSO International Database shows it at 14.779V on 2013 Feb 5 (J. Roe, Bourbon, MO). Dr. Guenther writes, "AA Tau is surrounded by a thick accretion disk which is seen nearly edge-on. For decades the light curve of AA Tau showed regular eclipsing events when the accretion funnel rotated through the line of sight. However, earlier this year J. Bouvier and his group found that this behavior changed dramatically: AA Tau now seems to be deeply absorbed all the time (V band 14.5 mag). In collaboration with this group we will perform X-ray observations of AA Tau with the XMM-Newton satellite." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plo! tter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

Waagen, Elizabeth O.

2013-08-01

38

Observing Science Classrooms: Observing Science Perspectives from Research and Practice. 1984 AETS Yearbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in nine separate chapters are nine studies involving the direct observation of science classrooms. Eight of the nine chapters are based on qualitative data collection techniques which typically aim for depth of insight and understanding. Studies included are: "Critical Barriers to the Understanding of Elementary Science: Learning about…

Anderson, Charles W., Ed.

39

Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

2014-06-01

40

Activity Schedules: Helping Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in General Education Classrooms Manage Transition Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Activity schedules" are a promising educational strategy to support transitions for students with autism. An activity schedule is a visual support system that combines photographs, images, or drawings in a sequential format to represent a targeted sequence of the student's day. Activity schedules provide predictability throughout the student's…

Banda, Devender R.; Grimmett, Eric; Hart, Stephanie L.

2009-01-01

41

Observed Classroom Behavior of Children with ADHD: Relationship to Gender and Comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in the observed classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403 boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7–10, was compared (a) to observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex, and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD deviated significantly from classroom norms on 15\\/16

Howard B. Abikoff; Peter S. Jensen; L. L. Eugene Arnold; Betsy Hoza; Lily Hechtman; Simcha Pollack; Diane Martin; Jose Alvir; John S. March; Stephen Hinshaw; Benedetto Vitiello; Jeffrey Newcorn; Andrew Greiner; Dennis P. Cantwell; C. Keith Conners; Glen Elliott; Laurence L. Greenhill; Helena Kraemer; William E. Pelham Jr; Joanne B. Severe; James M. Swanson; Karen Wells; Tim Wigal

2002-01-01

42

Variability of Attention Processes in ADHD: Observations from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongruent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children…

Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Alderson, R. Matt; Timko, Thomas M., Jr.; DuPaul, George J.

2009-01-01

43

Observation Scheduling for a Network of Small-Aperture Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several years, a system for accepting, servicing and returning the results from a large number of imaging requests has been developed for use with automated optical telescopes. One of the primary goals of this project is to increase the accessibility of astronomy to school, college and university students. A key component of this system is a request scheduling engine, which produces schedules for each telescope for its current night. This engine is dynamic, adjusting schedules to accommodate new requests and rescheduling failed requests on a time scale of the order of ten minutes. If a telescope is unavailable for an extended period, imaging requests will be reallocated to other telescopes in the network. Various models of dynamic scheduling are considered, and the current implementation is explored with a number of numerical experiments.

Duncan, A. R.

2007-06-01

44

Viewing Student Affect and Learning through Classroom Observation and Physical Sensors  

E-print Network

Viewing Student Affect and Learning through Classroom Observation and Physical Sensors Toby Dragon are linked to student learning. This involves quantitative field observations in the classroom in which agents on both affective and motivational outcomes based factors (e.g., gender, ethnicity). Lack

Burleson, Winslow S.

45

A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings were obtained of teachers’ teaching practices,

Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen; Eve Kikas; Eija Pakarinen; Kaili Trossmann; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Helena Rasku-Puttonen; Martti Siekkinen; Jari-Erik Nurmi

2012-01-01

46

Bringing Real-time Astronomical Observations into the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sonoma State University Education and Public Outreach group (SSU E/PO) coordinates the Global Telescope Network (GTN) - an informal association of scientists, students, individuals and observatories interested in supporting NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) and Swift missions, as well as the joint ESA/NASA XMM-Newton mission. Partners and associates in the GTN obtain and reduce ground based observations for objects related to the primary science goals for these missions and work together with NASA mission scientists to conduct multi-wavelength studies of exotic objects such as monstrous black holes, and highly-magnetized neutron stars and white dwarfs. The Global Telescope Network provides hands-on classroom activities and engaging instructional materials for a range of levels and interests, including Cookie Cutter Photometry and Jelly Bean Spectroscopy. We also provide mentoring in research practices, telescope use, data analysis and other educational resources. Examples of ongoing research projects will be presented, and the educational resources available through the GTN will be discussed.

Cominsky, L.

2006-12-01

47

Observations of Effective Teacher-Student Interactions in Secondary School Classrooms: Predicting Student Achievement with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary. After accounting for prior…

Allen, Joseph; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori; Lun, Janetta; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

2013-01-01

48

Student, Teacher, and Observer Perceptions of the Classroom Environment Before and after the Transition to Junior High School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student and teacher perceptions of the classroom environment were assessed during mathematics instruction in 117 sixth grade elementary school classrooms and the following year in 138 seventh grade junior high school classrooms. Observer perceptions were collected in a subset of these classrooms. As hypothesized, after the transition students were given fewer opportunities for input, interaction and cooperation; whole class task

Harriet Feldlaufer; Carol Midgley; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

1988-01-01

49

Research for the Classroom: Analyzing Classroom Literacy Events--What Observing Classroom Conversations about Popular Culture Can Reveal about Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ms. Mayer, a recently retired English language arts teacher, frequently used strategies described in John Golden's book "Reading in the Dark: Using Film as a Tool in the English Classroom." In this book, Golden suggests that ELA teachers "reverse the order: use a film clip to practice the reading and analytical skills that we want our students to…

Garland, Kathy

2012-01-01

50

A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy  

PubMed Central

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

2013-01-01

51

A dynamic scheduling method of Earth-observing satellites by employing rolling horizon strategy.  

PubMed

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

2013-01-01

52

Self-Observation Model Employing an Instinctive Interface for Classroom Active Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a classroom, obtaining active, whole-focused, and engaging learning results from a design is often difficult. In this study, we propose a self-observation model that employs an instinctive interface for classroom active learning. Students can communicate with virtual avatars in the vertical screen and can react naturally according to the…

Chen, Gwo-Dong; Nurkhamid; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Yang, Shu-Han; Chao, Po-Yao

2014-01-01

53

Psychometrics and Observations: Issues in a Dual Approach to the Study of Classroom Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthropological methods of classroom observation were combined with the results of student responses to three questionnaires in a study of classroom learning environments. The questionnaires were: Learning Environment Inventory, Class Activities Questionnaire, and ALP (Authenticity, Legitimacy, Productivity) Ethos Instrument. Although the…

Cichon, Donald J.; Olson, George E.

54

What Classroom Observations Reveal about Reading Comprehension Instruction. Technical Report No. 106.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading and social studies instruction in 39 third- through sixth-grade classrooms in central Illinois was observed in a study designed to determine whether elementary school classrooms provide comprehension instruction. Among the findings were that practically no comprehension instruction was seen but that comprehension assessment, usually…

Durkin, Dolores

55

Features of Pre-Kindergarten Programs, Classrooms, and Teachers: Do They Predict Observed Classroom Quality and Child-Teacher Interactions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study draws from the National Center for Early Development and Learning's Multi-State Pre-Kindergarten Study to examine the extent to which program, class- room, and teacher attributes of the program ecology predict observed quality and teacher-child interactions in a sample of 238 classrooms representing 6 states' pre-kindergarten programs. Quality was assessed observationally at the global level and for specific teaching

Robert Pianta; Carollee Howes; Margaret Burchinal; Donna Bryant; Richard Clifford; Diane Early; Oscar Barbarin

2005-01-01

56

Mathematical Observations: The Genesis of Mathematical Discovery in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos identifies the "Primitive Conjecture" as the first stage in the pattern of mathematical discovery. In this article, I am interested in ways of reaching the "Primitive Conjecture" stage in an undergraduate classroom. I adapted Realistic Mathematics Education methods in an…

Beaugris, Louis M.

2013-01-01

57

Two sh Technical Report #4 Further Observations on the Key Schedule of Two sh  

E-print Network

Two#12;sh Technical Report #4 Further Observations on the Key Schedule of Two#12;sh Doug Whiting #3#12;sh is a 128-bit block cipher submitted as an AES candidate [SKW+98]. Mirza and Murphy [MM99] recently noted two interesting properties in the Two#12;sh key schedule for 128-bit keys: there is a non

Schneier, Bruce

58

Does Class Size in First Grade Relate to Children's Academic and Social Performance or Observed Classroom Processes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were…

Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Bradley, Robert; Brownwell, Celia A; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M.; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J.; Kelly, Jean F.; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J.; O'Brien, Marion; Tresch Owen, Margaret; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Robeson, Wendy W.; Spieker, Susan; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Weinraub, Marsha

2004-01-01

59

Functional Communication Training without Extinction Using Concurrent Schedules of Differing Magnitudes of Reinforcement in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders…

Davis, Dawn H.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Gama, Roberto

2012-01-01

60

Evaluation of DRO Schedules To Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…

Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael

2003-01-01

61

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2003-01-01

62

Looking for attributes of powerful teaching for numeracy in tasmanian K-7 classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the development and use of a classroom observation reflection tool designed to measure the extent to which pedagogies acknowledged in the literature as contributing to effective teaching of mathematics for numeracy are present in classrooms. The observation schedule was used in conjunction with a record of classroom activity to examine numeracy pedagogies in a sample of Tasmanian classrooms from Kindergarten to Year 7. Low levels of intellectual challenge in highly socially supportive classrooms were typical.

Beswick, Kim; Swabey, Karen; Andrew, Rob

2008-04-01

63

Generalizability of Classroom Behavior Problem and On-Task Scores from the Direct Observation Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used generalizability theory to investigate the dependability of systematic observations of students' problem behavior and on-task behavior in classrooms. The Direct Observation Form (McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) was used with a sample of 24, 6- to-11-year-old children attending 18 different elementary schools. The participants…

Volpe, Robert J.; McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Hintze, John M.

2009-01-01

64

The Reliability of Classroom Observations by School Personnel. Research Paper. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many teachers, the classroom observation has been the only opportunity to receive direct feedback from another school professional. As such, it is an indispensable part of every teacher evaluation system. Yet it also requires a major time commitment from teachers, principals, and peer observers. To justify the investment of time and resources,…

Ho, Andrew D.; Kane, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

65

On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

2013-01-01

66

Systematic Observations: Relating Theory and Practice in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of the five papers in this booklet, "Using Systematic Observation and Analysis of Teaching" by Bob Burton Brown, presents suggestions for the development of inservice education programs to train school staff members in the use of observational systems and lists suggested uses of such systems. In "Theoretical Bases of Observational

Brown, Bob Burton; And Others

67

Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

68

Does Class Size in First Grade Relate to Children's Academic and Social Performance or Observed Classroom Processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were somewhat less likely to be engaged. Teachers in smaller classes rated typical children in those classes

2004-01-01

69

Classroom Observation Data and Instruction in Primary Mathematics Education: Improving Design and Rigour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics…

Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

2014-01-01

70

Validation of Inattention/Overactivity and Aggression Ratings with Classroom Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the differential validity of teacher ratings of Inattention/Overactivity and Aggression among 48 clinic-referred boys. These ratings were correlated with observations undertaken in three different classroom settings. Results indicated that the teachers were able to differentiate significantly between these externalizing behaviors in the…

Milich, Richard; Fitzgerald, Gail

1985-01-01

71

Relationships among Student, Teacher and Observer Perceptions of Science Classrooms and Student Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines relationships among observer, teacher, and student perceptions of what was occurring in 9th grade science classrooms to better understand the inter-relationships between the different perspectives. Shows that students and teachers view their classes differently, although the factor structures had some similarity. Also concludes that…

Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Robey, Jennifer

2003-01-01

72

Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings.  

PubMed

Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired. PMID:25354126

Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M

2014-11-01

73

The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: An Administrative Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the possible use of structured classroom walk-through observations as a strategy to improve teaching and learning. A wide variety of programs and initiatives have recently been implemented across the country to improve student achievement. One such initiative is classroom walk-through observations.…

Weller, Mark J.

2010-01-01

74

Reliability and Validity of the Classroom Observations of Student-Teacher Interactions (COSTI) for Kindergarten Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the technical adequacy and potential uses of an observation system used to measure the quality of literacy instruction in kindergarten classrooms. The Classroom Observations of Student-Teacher Interactions (COSTI) documents the frequency of four student-teacher interactions during beginning reading instruction: explicit…

Smolkowski, Keith; Gunn, Barbara

2012-01-01

75

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Revised Algorithm and Standardized Severity Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4…

Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

2014-01-01

76

A Replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Revised Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study replicated the module comparability and predictive ability of the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in an independent dataset of children with autism. Results indicated that the revised ADOS algorithms improved module comparability and predictive validity for autistic children than the earlier…

Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Joseph, Robert; Carter, Alice; Hepburn, Susan; McMahon, William; Rodier, Patricia; Hyman, Susan L.; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally; Landa, Rebecca; Spence, M. Anne; Osann, Kathryn; Flodman, Pamela; Volkmar, Fred; Hollander, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

2008-01-01

77

Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

2011-01-01

78

Observations on SOFIA Observation Scheduling: Search and Inference in the Face of Discrete and Continuous Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We did cool stuff to reduce the number of IVPs and BVPs needed to schedule SOFIA by restricting the problem. The restriction costs us little in terms of the value of the flight plans we can build. The restriction allowed us to reformulate part of the search problem as a zero-finding problem. The result is a simplified planning model and significant savings in computation time.

Frank, Jeremy; Gross, Michael; Kuerklu, Elif

2003-01-01

79

Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.  

PubMed

Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined. PMID:24341926

Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

2013-12-01

80

A Study of the Relationship between Observed and Reported Use of a Cappella Singing in the Elementary General Music Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate any relationship between observed and reported use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine teachers' practical perspectives influencing the use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. From a total of 50…

Baker, Valerie Anne

2010-01-01

81

Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: the Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult\\u000a males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and\\u000a typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It can adequately discriminate\\u000a ASD from psychopathy and typical development, but is less

Jojanneke A. Bastiaansen; Harma Meffert; Simone Hein; Petra Huizinga; Cees Ketelaars; Marieke Pijnenborg; Arnold Bartels; Ruud Minderaa; Christian Keysers; Annelies de Bildt

82

Minimizing the expenditure of energy when scheduling the sequence of observations of astronomical objects from spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to solving the problem of optimal scheduling of the sequence of spacecraft reorientations during observations of astronomical objects is discussed. The approach is based on problem formalization within the framework of graph theory and reduction of the problem to routing. Examples of constructing optimal observational programs for chosen stars are given. These examples show that the proposed approach offers the possibility of a significant reduction in energy expenditures for spacecraft reorientation. The applicability of the mentioned approach to optimizing traffic routes in various subnational entities is noted.

Belyaev, M. Yu.; Legostaev, V. P.; Rulev, D. N.

2013-12-01

83

Classroom Observations of Instructional Practices and Technology Use by Elementary School Teachers and Students in an Ethnically-and Economically-Diverse School District  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to observe pre-kindergarten through fifth-grade public school classrooms to examine differences among instructional practices and technology use by teachers, students and the overall classroom. The current study...

Rollins, Kayla Braziel

2012-10-19

84

The Identity, Second Language, and the Classroom Dynamic: Participant Observation in a Beginning Korean as a Second Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the nexus between second language acquisition, identity, and the beginning second language classroom. Using a social constructionist framework, the study utilizes ethnographic methodology incorporating both narrative and autoethnographic elements. Specifically the author acted as a participant…

Diamond, Joel S.

2010-01-01

85

Obstacles and Challenges Hindering Sky Observations in a College Astronomy Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A qualitative study of an introductory college astronomy class specifically for pre-service teachers was made. This study systematically studied details of student-instructor interactions with a specific goal of finding obstacles and challenges that might hinder students making observations of the night sky. Interviews with students and the instructor, as well as classroom observations, were conducted during the entire course. Students exhibited frustration with bad weather as well as confusion about cardinal point directions. A key finding was that certain students, who hadn't kept up with assignments, were found to be fabricating sky observational data. Students used language for this fabrication of data that suggested that they thought there was nothing inappropriate. The instructor made the assignments vague enough so that the students felt they were within their right to "fudge" the data. Details of student-instructor interactions will be discussed and interpreted.

Alexander, W. R.

2005-12-01

86

Cooperative scheduling of imaging observation tasks for high-altitude airships based on propagation algorithm.  

PubMed

The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

2012-01-01

87

Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm  

PubMed Central

The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

2012-01-01

88

Twelve years of planning and scheduling the Hubble Space Telescope: process improvements and the related observing efficiency gains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last twelve years, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) planning and scheduling teams have reduced the lead time to schedule the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) five-fold while doubling the overall observing efficiency. After the launch of HST, a one-week flight calendar took 56 days to prepare, schedule, and convert to flight products; the process now begins 11 days before execution. Early observing efficiency was in the 25% range; it is now typically 50%. In this paper, the process improvements that allowed these advancements are summarized. We also discuss the most recent scheduling advancement, which allows interruption of an executing flight calendar for fast-turnaround science observations or telescope anomaly resolution within 24 hours of activation.

Adler, David S.; Taylor, David K.; Patterson, Alan P.

2002-12-01

89

Study and Demonstration of Planning and Scheduling Concepts for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (CU/LASP) along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) designed, implemented, tested, and demonstrated a prototype of the distributed, hierarchical planning and scheduling system comtemplated for the Earth Observing System (EOS) project. The planning and scheduling prototype made use of existing systems: CU/LASP's Operations and Science Instrument Support Planning and Scheduling (OASIS-PS) software package; GSFC's Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE); and JPL's Plan Integrated Timeliner 2 (Plan-It-2). Using these tools, four scheduling nodes were implemented and tied together using a new communications protocol for scheduling applications called the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL). An extensive and realistic scenario of EOS satellite operations was then developed and the prototype scheduling system was tested and demonstrated using the scenario. Two demonstrations of the system were given to NASA personnel and EOS core system (ECS) contractor personnel. A comprehensive volume of lessons learned was generated and a meeting was held with NASA and ECS representatives to review these lessons learned. A paper and presentation on the project's final results was given at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Computing in Aerospace 9 conference.

Davis, Randal; Thalman, Nancy

1993-01-01

90

Does class size in first grade relate to children's academic and social performance or observed classroom processes?  

PubMed

This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were somewhat less likely to be engaged. Teachers in smaller classes rated typical children in those classes as more socially skilled and as showing less externalizing behavior and reported more closeness toward them. Children in smaller classes performed better on literacy skills. Larger classrooms showed more group activities directed by the teacher, teachers and children interacted more often, and children were more often engaged. Lower class sizes were not of more benefit (or harm) as a function of the child's family income. First-grade class size in the range typical of present-day classrooms in the United States predicts classroom social and instructional processes as well as relative changes in social and literacy outcomes from kindergarten to first grade. PMID:15355156

Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L; Bradley, Robert; Brownwell, Celia A; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B; Clarke-Stewart, K Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J; Kelly, Jean F; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J; O'Brien, Marion; Tresch Owen, Margaret; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M; Robeson, Wendy W; Spieker, Susan; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Weinraub, Marsha

2004-09-01

91

Observing physical education teachers' need-supportive interactions in classroom settings.  

PubMed

According to self-determination theory, teachers can motivate students by supporting their psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The present study complements extant research (most of which relied on self-report measures) by relying on observations of need-supportive teaching in the domain of physical education (PE), which allows for the identification of concrete, real-life examples of how teacher need support manifests in the classroom. Seventy-four different PE lessons were coded for 5-min intervals to assess the occurrence of 21 need-supportive teaching behaviors. Factor analyses provided evidence for four interpretable factors, namely, relatedness support, autonomy support, and two components of structure (structure before and during the activity). Reasonable evidence was obtained for convergence between observed and student perceived need support. Yet, the low interrater reliability for two of the four scales indicates that these scales need further improvement. PMID:23404876

Haerens, Leen; Aelterman, Nathalie; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

2013-02-01

92

[The BASYS observation system for the analysis of aggressive behavior in classroom-settings].  

PubMed

Educational or therapeutic measures of aggressive student behavior are often based on the judgments of teachers. However, empirical studies show that the objectivity of these judgments is generally low. In order to assess aggressive behavior in classroom settings, we developed a context-sensitive observational system. The observation system exists in a version for teachers in action as well as a version for the uninvolved observer. The teacher version allows categorizing aggressive behavior while teaching. The aim is to differentiate the perception and the judgments of teachers, so that the judgments can serve as trustable diagnostic information. The version for an independent observer, in addition, contains categories to collect information about the context in which aggressions take place. The behavior observation system was tested in four field-studies in regular and special classes. The empirical results show that, after training, teachers were able to make objective observations, and that aggressive behavior depends to a large extent on situational factors. The system allows identification of problematic people-environment relationships and the derivation of intervention measures. PMID:22748725

Wettstein, Alexander

2012-01-01

93

Sex and Grade Level Differences in Ratings of Students by Teachers and Classroom Observers. Report No. 75-20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school students were ranked by teachers on scales measuring personality characteristics and teacher expectations. Classroom observers also rated the students to assess the validity of teacher rankings and to determine whether teachers and observers use the same characteristics in forming perceptions of students. Teacher rankings and…

Coulter, Cynthia L.; And Others

94

Observations of Academic Instruction for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability: Three States, Thirty-Nine Classrooms, One View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the validation process for alternate assessments, 39 classroom observations were conducted to gather data about current practices in providing academic instruction to students with significant intellectual disability. Using a standardized protocol, data were gathered using direct instructional observation, an Individualized Education…

Restorff, Diane E.; Abery, Brian H.

2013-01-01

95

Clinical use of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-second edition with children who are deaf.  

PubMed

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) was administered to eight children who are deaf and who are native American Sign Language (ASL) users with previous autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Classification on two different module selection criteria was compared based on: (1) standardized administration rules (signs not counted as equivalent to words) and (2) commonly utilized clinical administration (sign language complexity treated equivalently to spoken language complexity). Differential module selection resulted in discrepant classification in five of the eight cases (63%) and suggests that ADOS-2 via standardized test administration may result in a failure to identify autism among children who are deaf with primary communication in ASL. Two of the eight children (25%) did not exceed the cutoff for an ASD classification on either module administered despite previous ASD diagnosis. Overall results suggest that caution should be used when utilizing the ADOS-2 with children who are deaf who primarily communicate using ASL. PMID:25321853

Mood, Deborah; Shield, Aaron

2014-11-01

96

The Role of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in the Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in School and Community Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism diagnostic practices among school and clinical psychologists, particularly those using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), were examined using national survey results (N = 132). School and clinical psychologists were similar in following the Best Practice Guidelines for screening, diagnosis and assessment, School psychologists were more likely to include a school or home observation and teacher report than clinical

Natacha Akshoomoff; Christina Corsello; Heather Schmidt

97

Classroom Use of Multimedia-Supported Predict Observe Explain Tasks in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict-observe-explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a social constructivist perspective to analyse and interpret the students conversations, focussing on students articulation and justification of their own science conceptions, clarification of and critical reflection on their partners views, and negotiation of new, shared meanings. Two senior science classes participated in this interpretive study. Data sources were mainly qualitative and included audio and video recordings of students small group discussions at the computer, interviews with selected students and their teachers, classroom observations, and student surveys. Findings indicate that the computer-based POE tasks supported students peer learning conversations, particularly during the prediction, reasoning and observation stages of the POE strategy. The increased level of student control of the POE tasks, combined with the multimedia nature of the program, initiated quality peer discussions. The findings have implications for authentic, technology-mediated learning in science.

Kearney, Matthew

2004-08-01

98

[Polish version of the ADOS (autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic)].  

PubMed

The article presents the Polish version of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic (ADOS), which together with the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) is cited as the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of autism. The ADOS is a standardised, semistructured observation protocol appropriate for children and adults of differing age and language levels. It is linked to ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR criteria. The ADOS consists of four modules, ranging from module 1 for nonverbal individuals to module 4 for verbally fluent adults. The adequate inter-rater reliability for items has been established. The protocol has high discriminant validity and distinguishes children with pervasive developmental disorders from children, who are outside of the spectrum. Although it does not enable to distinguish individuals with pervasive developmental disorder, unspecified from individuals with childhood autism. The paper presents subsequent steps of the translation process of the original version into Polish, as well as a chosen adaptation strategy of the Polish version. The ADOS is a very useful tool both for clinical diagnosis and for the scientific purpose diagnosis. In this last case it is extremely important to use a standardised method. Until now, there was no standardised diagnostic tool for autism in Poland. PMID:23394018

Chojnicka, Izabela; P?oski, Rafa?

2012-01-01

99

Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) schedule plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes Aerojet's methods and procedures used to control and administer contractual schedules for the EOS/AMSU-A program. Included are the following: the master, intermediate, and detail schedules; critical path analysis; and the total program logic network diagrams.

1994-01-01

100

Simulation-based optimal sensor scheduling with application to observer trajectory planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor scheduling has been a topic of interest to the target tracking community for some years now. Recently, research into it has enjoyed fresh impetus with the current importance and popularity of applications in Sensor Networks and Robotics. The sensor scheduling problem can be formulated as a controlled Hidden Markov Model. In this paper, we address precisely this problem and

Sumeetpal S. Singh; Nikolaos Kantas; Ba-ngu Vo; Arnaud Doucet; Robin J. Evans

2007-01-01

101

Observing Emotional Interactions between Teachers and Students in Elementary School Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering emotional skills in the elementary (primary) school classroom can lead to improved learning outcomes, more prosocial behavior, and positive emotional development. Incorporating emotional skill development into the naturalistic and implicit teaching environment is a key feature of what is meant by the emotional climate of the classroom.…

Yan, Elizabeth M.; Evans, Ian M.; Harvey, Shane T.

2011-01-01

102

Frequencies of Observed Stress Behaviors in Kindergarten Children: A Comparison of Developmentally Appropriate and Inappropriate Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An initial study revealed that kindergarten children in a developmentally inappropriate classroom exhibited significantly more stress behaviors than children in a developmentally appropriate classroom. Marginal gender differences were noted. Purposes of the study were to determine whether findings from the initial study would replicate if a larger…

Burts, Diane C.; And Others

103

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Teachers' Expressed Beliefs about Music Education and Their Observed Practices in Classroom Music Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through interviews and observing day-to-day classroom practice, this study explores the beliefs of 10 music teachers in elementary schools in Vancouver and Hong Kong. The results demonstrate that the music teachers of the two localities hold similar cognitive beliefs about the essential elements of music education. However, they hold different…

Wong, Marina

2005-01-01

104

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module: A New Module of a Standardized Diagnostic Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the…

Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

2009-01-01

105

An Observational Study of Dual Display Usage in University Classroom Lectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study of how dual display screens were used in classroom lectures for university-level courses across a variety of disciplines during five academic terms over a two-year period. Our goal was to understand the pedagogical consequences of using more than a single electronic display screen to support classroom lectures. We deployed an in-house software system (MultiPresenter) in real

Joel Lanir; Kellogg S. Booth; Steven A. Wolfman

2012-01-01

106

Observing presenters' use of visual aids to inform the design of classroom presentation software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large classrooms have traditionally provided multiple blackboards on which an entire lecture could be visible. In recent decades, classrooms were augmented with a data projector and screen, allowing computer-generated slides to replace hand-written blackboard presentations and overhead transparencies as the medium of choice. Many lecture halls and conference rooms will soon be equipped with multiple projectors that provide large, high-resolution

Joel Lanir; Kellogg S. Booth; Leah Findlater

2008-01-01

107

The Science Management Observation Protocol: Using Structured Observations to Improve Teachers' Management of Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the publication of the National Science Education Standards and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy, people now have a thorough idea of what an inquiry-based teacher is, and what he or she needs to do within a classroom in order to be successful. However, one major barrier in learning how to become an effective inquiry-based science teacher…

Sampson, Victor

2004-01-01

108

The View from the Little Chair in the Corner: Improving Teacher Practice and Early Childhood Learning (Wisdom from an Experienced Classroom Observer)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a down-to-earth, heart-to-heart book about what it takes to be an exceptional early childhood teacher. The author uses her experience as a classroom observer and a developmental psychologist to create a rationale for best practice--the reasoning behind the best (worst and average) classroom practice. Cindy Rzasa Bess examines a variety of…

Bess, Cindy Rzasa

2009-01-01

109

Observed Implementation of a Science Professional Development Program for K-8 Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a teacher professional development program on the classroom teaching practices of the participants. This particular professional development program included an intensive summer institute, 8 monthly follow-up sessions, informal participant-professor mentoring and peer networking. The majority of participants were teachers (grades 4-8) in rural school districts. Qualitative and descriptive measures were used to assess the impact of this program in terms of participants' science content learned, teacher self-efficacy, classroom teaching performance and an informal program survey.

Sinclair, Becky Barton; Naizer, Gilbert; Ledbetter, Cynthia

2011-11-01

110

Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

Walker, Karen

2006-01-01

111

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Toddler Module: A New Module of a Standardized Diagnostic Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205–223, 2000) is widely accepted as a “gold standard” diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children.\\u000a The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the\\u000a ADOS Toddler Module

Rhiannon Luyster; Katherine Gotham; Whitney Guthrie; Mia Coffing; Rachel Petrak; Karen Pierce; Somer Bishop; Amy Esler; Vanessa Hus; Rosalind Oti; Jennifer Richler; Susan Risi; Catherine Lord

2009-01-01

112

Observations for the Panicked: How to Implement a Multi-age Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advantages of multiage classrooms include improvements in student self-concept, attitudes toward school, leadership, and social skills; reduced discipline problems; and individualized instruction. Implementation problems include entrenched teacher attitudes, including overdependence on textbooks, and the extra teacher training and planning time…

Haynes, Heather L.

1996-01-01

113

Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.  

PubMed

Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed. PMID:22408136

Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

2014-05-01

114

Thursday's Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every Thursday, this NASA-created learning resource presents a new topic with the aim of providing "a lasting connection between NASA's latest research and the classroom environment." Prior lesson topics have included the recent solar eclipse, the Mars Polar Lander, and organisms that survive in extreme conditions and their implications for the possibility of extraterrestrial life. For each lesson, there are links to news reports and a range of lesson plans and activity sheets designed for different age groups. The site also contains an archive/ schedule of prior and future lessons.

115

Variable sleep schedules and outcomes in children with psychopathological problems: preliminary observations  

PubMed Central

Background Night-to-night variability in sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be a mediator of behavioral phenotype. We examined the potential association between alertness, sleep, and eating behaviors in children with ADHD and comorbid problems. Methods Sleep was monitored by actigraphy for 7 days. Questionnaires were used to assess sleep complaints, habits and food patterns by parental report, and sleep complaints and sleepiness by child report. Results The group comprised 18 children, including 15 boys, aged 9.4 ± 1.7 years, 88.9% Caucasian, who took one or multiple medications. Children slept on average for 6 hours and 58 minutes with a variability of 1 hour 3 minutes relative to the mean, and their sleepiness scores were highly variable from day to day. Most children had a normal body mass index (BMI). Sleepiness and BMI were associated with sleep schedules and food patterns, such that they accounted for 76% of variance, predominantly by the association of BMI with mean wake after sleep onset and by bedtime sleepiness, with wake after sleep onset variability. Similarly, 97% of variance was shared with eating behaviors, such as desserts and snacks, and fast food meals were associated with morning sleepiness. Conclusion Disrupted sleep and sleepiness appears to favor unhealthy food patterns and may place children with ADHD at increased risk for obesity. PMID:23616725

Spruyt, Karen; Raubuck, Danielle L; Grogan, Katie; Gozal, David; Stein, Mark A

2012-01-01

116

Development of an Observational Rating Schedule for Preschool Children's Peer-Group Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feasiblity of an observational rating scale which would provide objective, reliable and quantifiable measures of social and affective behavior was investigated. The Observation of Socialization Behavior (OSB), focusing on peer-group behavior of pre-school children and designed for use in unstructured situations was developed. Two forms of the…

Cunningham, Jo Lynn; Boger, Robert P.

117

Development and validation of standard classroom observation systems for school practitioners: Ecobehavioral Assessment Systems Software (EBASS)  

E-print Network

The development and validation of Ecobehavioral Assessment Systems Software (EBASS), a computer-assisted observational system for school practitioners, are described. Portable computers, used to support observational ...

Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Kamps, Debra; Terry, Barbara; Delquadri, Joseph

1994-01-01

118

The Future of the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching methods shaping the classroom of tomorrow, where sixth graders carry laptops and teachers work in teams. Space requirements for departmentalized vs. interdisciplinary education are examined as are the types of materials and furniture used in design classrooms for block scheduling, and differing instruction methods changing…

Butterfield, Eric

1999-01-01

119

Let's Talk about… NAC Accreditation Standard: The planned daily schedule includes a balance of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants Caregivers in an infant classroom need to follow a self-demand schedule instead of a predetermined schedule or a by-the-clock sequence of events. This is a rhythmic response that involves communicating with parents to assess what the infant's current needs might be, then observing the infant's reactions and responding appropriately to their unique individual responses. Caregivers are relaxed and responsive

Shelley Scheel

120

Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.  

PubMed

The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ? |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PMID:24341925

Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

2013-12-01

121

The View from the Back of the Classroom: A Faculty-Based Peer Observation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the peer observation program developed by faculty at California State University, Dominguez Hills, its structure and adaptations, outcomes, and recommendations for development of formative peer observation programs. The program helps reduce faculty professional isolation by providing an informal structure for discussion of teaching and…

Webb, Jamie; McEnerney, Kathleen

1995-01-01

122

The Poor at School in Canada; Observational Studies of Canadian Schools, Classrooms and Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents 8 observational studies of interaction of the poor and the Canadian school system in an effort to gather data on inequalities in education. An ad hoc committee formed by the Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF) asked the member organizations to undertake observational studies following 1 of 2 main types of designs: (1) an…

Chalmers, John W.; And Others

123

Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

2011-01-01

124

A strategy to rotate the Mars Observer orbit node line to advance the mapping schedule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Observer (MO) spacecraft was successfully launched on September 25, 1992 and will arrive at Mars on August 24, 1993. At Mars, the spacecraft will study the planet's surface, atmosphere, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In order to achieve these scientific objectives, MO will be placed in a 2 PM (descending node) sun-synchronous orbit. Upon arrival at Mars, however, the longitude of the descending node will be approximately 15 deg greater than the desired value. The baseline plan requires a 59 day `waiting' period for the correct solar orientation to occur. During this period, 28 days are required for scientific experimentation but the remaining 30.6 days potentially could be eliminated. The strategy developed in this study examined the possibility of using any `excess' Delta-V available at Mars arrival to rotate the node line to the desired value and thus allow mapping to begin earlier. A preliminary analysis completed prior to launch is described that examined the entire launch period including the required Delta-V to perform the needed nodal rotation. A more detailed study performed after launch is also summarized.

Pernicka, Henry J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

1993-01-01

125

The Cultivated Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

Schilder, Rosalind

1983-01-01

126

Observing free play in classrooms with an instrument based on video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the play behaviour of 877 children aged four to six in 47 classes of different sizes in the Netherlands. Video recordings were captured during choice (free play) time once in each class. The video recordings were analysed by trained bachelor students in education with the help of an observation instrument. In child-initiated

Louise Berkhout; Hadewych Bakkers; Joop Hoekman; Sieneke M. Goorhuis-Brouwer

2012-01-01

127

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Toddlers and Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders Based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)  

PubMed Central

Lay Abstract Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) have long been considered one of the core characteristics of autism. RRBs include a very broad category of behaviors such as preoccupation with restricted patterns of interest (e.g. having very specific knowledge about vacuum cleaners), adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines (e.g. insisting on taking a certain route to school), repetitive motor manners (e.g., hand flapping), and preoccupation with parts of objects (e.g. peering at the wheels of toy cars while spinning them). Most research on RRBs has used caregiver reports either through interviews or questionnaires; thus, the purpose of this study was to use clinicians’ observations of RRBs, made during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore & Risi, 2000) to discover how RRBs change over time in very young children who may have ASD and what other factors are related to having RRBs. The ADOS is a 45 minute long, semi-structured, standardized assessment of communication, social interaction and play, which was administered to 121 children with autism, 71 with pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), 90 with a nonspectrum disorder, and 173 children who were typically developing. Even during a relatively short-term observation in the context of an office visit, we found that RRBs occurred more frequently and were more severe in young children with autism and PDD-NOS diagnoses than children in other groups. Diagnostic group differences also emerged in the associations between RRB scores and participant characteristics (e.g. age, NVIQ scores, etc). We also examined different subtypes of RRBs and their associations with NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. Scientific Abstract Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) observed during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore & Risi, 2000) were examined in a longitudinal dataset of 455 toddlers and preschoolers (age 8–56 months) with clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; autism, n = 121 and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), n = 71), a nonspectrum disorder (NS; n = 90), or typical development (TD; n = 173). Even in the relatively brief semi-structured observations, Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analyses of the severity and prevalence of RRBs differentiated children with ASD from those with NS and TD across all ages. RRB total scores on the ADOS were stable over time for children with ASD and NS; however, typically developing preschoolers showed lower RRB scores than typically developing toddlers. Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children with PDD-NOS, NS and TD than younger children under 2 years and those with autism. Item analyses revealed different relationships between individual items and NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of RRBs as well as for the framework of ASD diagnostic criteria in future diagnostic systems. PMID:20589716

Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

2010-01-01

128

The influence of first-language bidialectism in foreign-language classrooms: observations from Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sociolinguistic phenomenon of bidialectism can significantly influence foreign-language learning. This study provides empirical evidence (drawn from the Greek Cypriot bidialectal community) for this influence and it supports the recommendation that foreign-language educators be trained in language-variation issues. The study's methodological basis consisted of observations of lessons in which English is taught as a foreign language and of students' written

Androula Yiakoumetti; Marina Mina

2011-01-01

129

Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

2013-01-01

130

Classroom interactions of teachers and elementary school Pupils as observed during a musical project in a Japanese elementary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the nature of classroom interactions in an EFL classroom context among young learners from a socio-cultural theoretical perspective. During the year 2007, a musical project was carried out at a public elementary school in Osaka, Japan; all the fifth graders, 126 students, aged 10–11, participated in the musical project. Of these, thirty-two students of class A

Rieko Nishida; Tomoko Yashima

2010-01-01

131

Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

Faia, Jean E.

1988-01-01

132

A Qualitative Participant Observation Study Investigating the Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in One High School Visual Arts Classroom Using a Social Constructivist Lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative project studied the benefits of Web 2.0 technology in one high school visual arts classroom using a participant observation stance. I examined an advanced art class through a social constructivist lens, with student’s ages from 16-18 years. I implemented several lessons teaching the students how artists display ideas within their artwork, through having the students use the blogging

Nicholas R. Napierala

2011-01-01

133

Can inspectors really improve the quality of teaching in the PCE sector? Classroom observations under the microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some years now, teachers in the post compulsory sector have been lambasted in educational circles for what some perceive as the poor quality of teaching and learning in classrooms. Such criticisms have tended to emanate from those responsible for inspecting the sector’s provision. In fact, when Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) and the ALI (Adult Learning Inspectorate) took

Matt O’Leary

2006-01-01

134

Classroom Behavior of Retarded Children Before and After Reintegration into Regular Classes. Studies in Learning Potential, Volume 3, Number 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classroom behavior of 11 segregated and 11 integrated educable mentally retarded (EMR) children, 8 to 13 years of age, was compared on a 12-category observation schedule when all EMR children were in special classes, four months after some children had been reintegrated, and at the conclusion of an academic year. The results indicated that…

Gottlieb, Jay; And Others

135

Test Review: Lord, C., Luyster, R. J., Gotham, K., & Guthrie, W. (2012). "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) Manual (Part II): Toddler Module." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition" (ADOS-2; Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012; Lord, Rutter et al., 2012), a newly updated, semistructured, standardized measure of communication, social interaction, play/imagination, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors published by Western…

McCrimmon, Adam; Rostad, Kristin

2014-01-01

136

Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps the most important skill a good teacher should possess is the ability to control students. A teacher who can devise fascinating and unique lesson plans for her classroom is useless if she can't get the kids to sit down and listen to her instructions. Unfortunately, many beginning teachers simply are not prepared to manage their classrooms effectively. Managing a classroom means you must teach your students behavior expectations, not just post your rules on the classroom wall. Classroom management becomes even more of an issue when it applies to the active nature of the science classroom.

Swango, C. J.; Steward, Sally B.

2003-01-01

137

Automated telescope scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.

1988-01-01

138

Getting It Together: Organising the Reading-Writing Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing the importance of developing a social classroom climate, this book addresses the organization of the reading/writing classroom. Nine sections: (1) present a statement of principles based on this concept of classroom organization (J. Steinle); (2) discuss scheduling the school day as an important area of teacher planning (P. Sloan and…

McVitty, Walter, Ed.; And Others

139

Different Regions, Diverse Classrooms? a Study of Primary Classrooms in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom experience is shaped by a number of factors. In this paper, we report a classroom observation study in China, illustrating regional variation in students' classroom learning experiences. Through comparing and contrasting observed classroom practices in three different regions in China (Chongqing, Hong Kong and Shanghai), the paper…

McNaught, Carmel; Lok, Beatrice; Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Song, Huan

2014-01-01

140

Craters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

141

Scheduling = CLRTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the five principal active money-making functions of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) of fuels and petrochemicals is scheduling. Scheduling of what? Processes, shipments, receipts, movements, purchases, sales, deliveries, people, computers, information, businesses and research\\/development\\/application. Scheduling is fundamental to all activities and interactions. This editorial is confined to closed-loop real-time scheduling (CLRTS) of manufacturing operations, one of the five active

Latour

1996-01-01

142

Classroom Utilization Review. Research Monograph III [and] Classroom Utilization Comparing Spring 1984 to Spring 1985. Research Monograph VII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies were conducted to analyze classroom utilization at Oklahoma City Community College for spring and fall, 1984, and spring, 1985. During all three semesters, there were 68 general purpose classroom areas, although some of the lab areas had classes scheduled in them. Study findings revealed: (1) heaviest classroom usage was between 5:30 p.m.…

Shirazi, Annmarie

143

Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

2010-01-01

144

Influences of block scheduling on secondary science teaching practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing the length of class periods has become one of the most frequently implemented recommendations from the secondary school restructuring movement. Many schools have changed to a block schedule in which the students have four 90--100 minute periods each day. The needs of science classes, such as time to set up and perform lab experiments, suggest the block schedule may be particularly appropriate for science. A case study design was used to explore the instructional and attitudinal changes that accompany the restructuring of the daily schedule. Classroom observations were conducted before and after the implementation of block scheduling to document the student-teacher interactions and the instructional strategies used by the science teachers. Teacher and student surveys were administered to obtain information about attitudes towards the block schedule as well as self-reported instructional strategies. Interviews were conducted to elicit beliefs about good teaching practices. Changes in instructional strategies and learning climate were considered within the context of teacher beliefs, state standards, and the organizational change to the school schedule. The results support other studies that have found positive attitudes toward block scheduling. Teachers in this study changed their instructional strategies, although not necessarily in line with the theorized changes. In several instances, the changes were closely aligned with the teachers' beliefs about good science instruction. Test scores and grades were not strongly influenced. Teachers met more of the state science standards and spent more time interacting with small groups during the block schedule. The results suggest teachers' beliefs about good teaching practice play an important role in the influences of restructuring efforts. The block schedule, preferred by teachers, provides an opportunity for improvement in science instruction and learning climate. How this popular form of restructuring manifests itself at the classroom level is largely a function of the individual teacher. Practical implications can be used to guide teachers and administrators in making scheduling decisions. Theoretical implications based on increased knowledge of teacher change emerge from the results. This study adds to the literature on the relationships among teacher beliefs, practices, and the process of organizational change in secondary school restructuring efforts.

Ross, Donna Louise

145

GA CLASSROOM ASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES POST-PUBLICATION REASONS YOU MAY WANT TO CHANGE A CLASSROOM ASSIGNMENT  

E-print Network

GA CLASSROOM ASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES POST-PUBLICATION REASONS YOU MAY WANT TO CHANGE A CLASSROOM and R25 (our room scheduling program), captures changes to time, day, GA room & building, and requested.e., you must enter "0000 GA RM" or request a specific room). Room assignments will be confirmed by email

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

146

DYNAMIC SCHEDULING M. C. H. Wright  

E-print Network

DYNAMIC SCHEDULING M. C. H. Wright Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley levels of dynamic schedulers: those which allocate suitable ob­ serving time, and those which adjust the observing parameters. We describe a dynamic scheduling program which determines the observ­ ing schedule

Militzer, Burkhard

147

Data for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data for the Classroom collection gathers datasets that have accompanying instructional materials or other pertinent information for using the dataset in a classroom setting for grades K-16. The data may be numerical, visual, maps, charts, tables or images. The data may be observational, remotely sensed or model data. The primary component is that there are materials supporting the use and understanding of the data either by educators or directly by students. Additionally, the dataset itself is desribed.

148

Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

Mark D. Johnston

1990-01-01

149

Classroom Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video a mathematics teacher demonstrates how she incorporates accessibility strategies into her physical classroom environment. Several details are shown about the organization and management of a math classroom with a view toward accessibility, expectations, kinesthetic involvement, and a positive environment.

Teacherline

2012-01-01

150

Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

2010-01-01

151

Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? An observational real-time study in German hospital departments  

PubMed Central

Background During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified. Methods Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer. Results Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care. Conclusion This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization. PMID:19473487

Mache, Stefanie; Scutaru, Cristian; Vitzthum, Karin; Quarcoo, David; Schoffel, Norman; Welte, Tobias; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

2009-01-01

152

Mission scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

Gaspin, Christine

1989-01-01

153

The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

2014-01-01

154

The Nonsexist Classroom. Primary Place.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents strategies to help teachers keep elementary classrooms free of sex-role stereotyping. The article explains how to set the tone, observe classroom behavior, share nonsexist lessons, provide role models, modify sexist statements, connect with parents, discuss female heroes, reverse traditional roles, use nonsexist photo files, and make role…

Taus, Kay; Spann, Mary Beth

1992-01-01

155

The system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom based physical activity  

E-print Network

The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time ...

Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Leon; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

156

SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH ON CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

ffective classroom management consists of teacher behaviors that produce high levels of stu dent involvement in classroom activi ties, minimal amounts of student behaviors that interfere with the teacher's or other students' work, and efficient use of instructional time. These criteria have the advantage of being directly observable. Classroom management should be viewed as one major dimension of effective teaching,

EDMUND T. EMMER; CAROLYN M. EVERTSON

157

Classroom Catapults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Wow, our plastic load flew 540 centimeters! This is so cool!" An interdisciplinary unit on catapults was responsible for the excitement and enthusiasm generated in the author's classroom. In their social studies class, students learned about the Middle A

Villano, Diane D.

2001-02-01

158

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Alexakos, Konstantinos

2001-03-01

159

Classroom Wildlife.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A game is used to study population control factors on a wolf pack and to explore human competition with these animals. A game board and chance cards to be photocopied for use in the classroom are provided. (DH)

Fleer, Daryl

1984-01-01

160

Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The TOF Attention Problems and DOF Intrusive scales contributed significant unique variance, over and above parent and teacher ratings, to predicting parent and teacher ratings of hyperactivity and impulsivity and predicting categorical diagnoses of ADHD-Combined type versus Non-ADHD and ADHD-Combined type versus ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive type. The TOF Oppositional and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scales contributed unique variance to predicting parent ratings of hyperactivity and impulsivity and the DOF Oppositional and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scales contributed unique variance to predicting teacher ratings of hyperactivity and impulsivity. PMID:20706918

McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

2010-01-01

161

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, students must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a mystery location. With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own map of the classroom or other school location and comparing it with their classmates' efforts.

Lippis, Matt; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2006-01-01

162

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, they must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a "mystery location." With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own maps of the classroom or other school location and comparing them with their classmates' efforts.

Institute Of Navigation And Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

163

Rethinking Teacher Evaluation in Chicago: Lessons Learned from Classroom Observations, Principal-Teacher Conferences, and District Implementation. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes findings from a two-year study of Chicago's Excellence in Teaching Pilot, which was designed to drive instructional improvement by providing teachers with evidence-based feedback on their strengths and weaknesses. The pilot consisted of training and support for principals and teachers, principal observations of teaching…

Sartain, Lauren; Stoelinga, Sara Ray; Brown, Eric R.

2011-01-01

164

Classroom Use of Multimedia-Supported Predict--Observe--Explain Tasks in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict--observe--explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a…

Kearney, Matthew

2004-01-01

165

Connellys' Classroom Cutaway  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to help classroom teachers use the educational tool of student-produced media to meet their curriculum objectives. It has been the authors' experience in three decades of utilizing this tool personally and observing other teachers utilizing this tool, across nearly all grades and course content areas, that it is very effective.…

Connelly, John; Connelly, Marilyn

2008-01-01

166

Religion in the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching of religion in the elementary classroom. Suggests activities and discusses cautions and concerns, dealing with absolutism, using religious literature, and parental rights. Compares teaching about religion with teaching for religious observance. (CMK)

Kirman, Joseph M.

2001-01-01

167

The Effects of Classroom Management on the Behaviors of Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the behaviors of the students with disabilities placed in general education classrooms differed according to the classroom management level of the teachers. The classroom management strategies of the 44 teachers were assessed by using The Proactive Classroom Management Observation Form. The…

Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Sazak-Pinar, Elif

2010-01-01

168

The LSST OCS scheduler design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

2014-08-01

169

Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

170

Caring Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies for creating caring, positive classroom environments from the start include hanging pictures of people from around the world with mirrors to promote reflection, making signs that present concepts about rights, and creating name cards for saving work in progress. Questions for teachers to ask before school begins are included. (SM)

Kreidler, William J.

1996-01-01

171

Classroom Cinema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Films can be an effective method of teaching English, the humanities, and social studies to students from the junior high school through the community college level. This book in part a guide and in part a teacher's memoir, sets forth a rationale for using films in the classroom to encourage reading, writing, thoughtful discussion, and an…

Maynard, Richard A.

172

Classroom Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

Segal, Carmit

2008-01-01

173

Classroom aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complicated interaction between individual pupils and class groups is highlighted in cases of classroom agression. The author's diagnostic-treatment model aims at examining individual aggressors partly through the use of teachers' assessments of them as members of the class group, at assessing the group's emotional climate, and at identifying the triggering-off stimuli within the group which provoke aggression. The aggressive

Brede Foy

1977-01-01

174

Jigsaw Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jigsaw Classroom is a website for the jigsaw cooperative learning technique that strives to reduce racial conflict, promote better learning, improve motivation, and increase the enjoyment of the learning experience among school children. The website includes an overview of jigsaw techniques, jigsaw history, implementing tips, related books and articles, and links on cooperative learning, school violence, and jigsaw developer Elliot Aronson.

Aronson, Elliot; Network, Social P.

175

Office of Classroom Management 2011 Annual Report  

E-print Network

) Accuracy of scheduling input by departments a. Non-conforming course sections b. Use of the 9-2 peak time period c. Projected vs. actual enrollment d. Excess course cancellation General purpose classrooms and establish trusting partnerships with individuals and departments across the institution. We must find ways

Thomas, David D.

176

Self-Contained Classrooms. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining the ideal academic setting in which students can be successful continues to be one of the primary goals of educators. Is there a best classroom structure in which students can be successful? Although there is research on the academic gains in the block schedule and in traditional departmentalized settings, both of which are common in…

Walker, Karen

2009-01-01

177

Comparison of Final Grades between a Traditional Classroom and Learning Community Classroom at Northeast Wisconsin Technical College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines courses in the marketing program at Northeast Wisconsin Technical College to compare the academic performance of students in traditional and learning community classroom settings. Two sections of students, a traditional 17-week course and a block scheduled 5-week course, served as the sample in the study. The block scheduling

Van Beek, Dianne

178

A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

Morris, Robert

1996-01-01

179

Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

2010-01-01

180

Ecology and Development in Classroom Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon observer participation in a first grade classroom, we present a systemic functional analysis of classroom communication located in relation to social semiotics, cultural historical activity theory, and ecological psychology, relating context to meaning making. Two years of observation include field notes, student assessments, audio…

Barowy, William; Smith, Jeanne Elser

2008-01-01

181

Discourse in the Production of Classroom Knowledge: Reading Lessons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically examines the "English ethnographic tradition's" view that classroom instruction transmits propositional knowledge. Uses observed classroom discourse to argue that instruction in fact produces knowledge, both propositional and "how-to". (MCG)

Heap, James L.

1985-01-01

182

The Classroom Animal: Crickets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

Kramer, David C.

1985-01-01

183

Scientist in the Classroom: Highlights of a Plasma Outreach Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General Atomics education program ``Scientist in the Classroom'' now in its third year, uses scientists and engineers to present ``Plasma the fourth state of matter,'' to students in the classroom. A program goal is to make science an enjoyable experience while showing students how plasma plays an important role in their world. A fusion overview is presented, including topics on energy and environment. Using hands-on equipment, students manipulate a plasma discharge using magnets, observe its spectral properties and observe the plasma in a fluorescent tube. In addition, they observe physical properties of liquid nitrogen, and use an infrared camera to observe radiant heat energy. Several program benefits are; it costs less than facility tours, is more flexible in scheduling, and is adaptable for grades 2--adult. The program has doubled in coverage since last year, with over 2200 students at 20 schools visited by 8 scientists. Increased participation by the DIII-D staff in this program has been achieved by enlisting them to bring the program to their children's school.

Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

2000-10-01

184

Childhood Immunization Schedule  

MedlinePLUS

... If you prefer, you can make a schedule without a name. Related Pages Current Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children Disclaimer: This immunization schedule is based on the ...

185

The Electronic Classroom. New Classrooms without Walls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how teachers can take advantage of the Internet to create classroom projects. The process involves locating collaborating partners via the World Wide Web, then determining which projects would be worthwhile to students. Presents guidelines for organizing a classroom project, discusses classroom considerations, examines teacher…

Barron, Ann E.; Ivers, Karen S.

1998-01-01

186

Classroom Discipline. Research Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in classroom discipline tends to show that discipline is a by-product of effective instruction and classroom management. The five publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography explore aspects of the complex classroom environment that relate to student discipline. Walter Doyle's chapter on "Classroom Organization and…

Bielefeldt, Talbot

1989-01-01

187

Hey, There's a Forest in that Classroom!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a prolonged visit to an elementary classroom, this author was inspiredto share his reflections on the effective combination of creative scienceteaching approaches he observed. In particular, the author highlights the unusual classroom environment, the use of thematic elements, and the hands-on teaching approach.

Coppedge, Ginny; Page, Scott

2004-03-01

188

Classroom Teachers' Reflections on Teaching Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore preservice classroom teacher reflection in a physical education teaching and learning environment and to describe how the teachers' reflections related to their practices. Two preservice classroom teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected using observations, journals, documents, and…

Tsangaridou, Niki

2005-01-01

189

Improving the Teacher's Awareness of Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emphasis in this paper is on developing teacher awareness of how nonverbal communication fits into the classroom setting. Various positive and negative aspects of this phase of communication in the classroom are explored. A classroom teacher is observed closely by students every day, and her/his attitude, feelings, mood or state of mind,…

Kachur, Donald; And Others

190

The Gender Gap and Classroom Interactions: Reality and Rhetoric?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the gender gap in classroom interactions between teachers and students in eight English secondary schools, focusing on the views of teaching staff, the perspectives of Year 11 students, and observations of teacher-student interaction in the classroom. Suggests that boys and girls are treated differently in many classrooms. (CMK)

Younger, Michael; Warrington, Molly; Williams, Jacquetta

1999-01-01

191

Teaching On-Task and On-Schedule Behaviors to High-Functioning Children with Autism Via Picture Activity Schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a two-component teaching package (graduated guidance and visual activity schedules) in teaching young students with autism to increase on-task and on-schedule behavior. Four children enrolled in a resource-based classroom in a public elementary school served as participants. An A—B—A—B withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a

Linley C. Bryan; David L. Gast

2000-01-01

192

Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic for the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Greek Sample with a Wide Range of Intellectual Abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), the Autism Diagnostic\\u000a Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and DSM-IV clinical diagnosis, in a Greek sample of 77 children and adolescents, referred for the\\u000a assessment of a possible pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and presenting a wide range of cognitive abilities. The agreement\\u000a of the ADOS-G and the ADI-R with the clinical diagnosis

Katerina Papanikolaou; Elena Paliokosta; Giorgos Houliaras; Sofia Vgenopoulou; Eleni Giouroukou; Artemios Pehlivanidis; Vlassis Tomaras; Ioannis Tsiantis

2009-01-01

193

Protocols for distributive scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

1993-01-01

194

Home-Oreinted Preschool Education: Handbook for Mobile Classroom Teachers and Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is one of seven publications designed to implement the Home-Oriented Preschool Education (HOPE) Program, which uses televised, mobile classroom, and parent instruction to educate 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. It describes ways to help the teacher and aide equip the mobiel classroom, schedule its visits, enroll the children, and prepare…

Little, Mabel; And Others

195

Raising Beetles in a Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

Hackett, Erla

196

[Focus: Speech in the Classroom].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal is devoted to the art of teaching in the field of speech communication. Articles collected in this issue address topics in the development of speech communication courses at the higher-education level and include the following titles: "Classroom as Process: A Dramatistic Observational Model for Speech Communication Teachers,""Taking…

Williams, Donald E., Ed.; Taylor, K. Phillip, Ed.

1974-01-01

197

The effect of mathematical games on on-task behaviours in the primary classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenge for primary classroom teachers is to maintain students' engagement with learning tasks while catering for their diverse needs, capabilities and interests. Multiple pedagogical approaches are employed to promote on-task behaviours in the mathematics classroom. There is a general assumption by educators that games ignite children's on-task behaviours, but there is little systemically researched empirical data to support this claim. This paper compares students' on-task behaviours during non-digital game-playing lessons compared with non-game-playing lessons. Six randomly selected grade 5 and 6 students (9-12 year olds) were observed during ten mathematics lessons. A total of 2,100 observations were recorded via an observational schedule and analysed by comparing the percentage of exhibited behaviours. The study found the children spent 93 % of the class-time exhibiting on-task engagement during the game-playing lessons compared with 72 % during the non-game-playing lessons. The game-playing lessons also promoted greater incidents of student talk related to the mathematical task (34 %) compared with the non-game-playing lessons (11 %). These results support the argument that games serve to increase students' time-on-task in mathematics lessons. Therefore, it is contended that use of games explicitly addressing the mathematical content being taught in a classroom is one way to increase engagement and, in turn, potential for learning.

Bragg, Leicha A.

2012-12-01

198

Teaching and Student Achievement in Science: A Comparison of Three Different Schedule Types.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of block scheduling on teacher practice and student achievement. Sought to recognize the professional lives of teachers as a context for both change and stability. Investigates two questions: (1) How does one type of block schedule reform change science classroom practice within specific subjects; and (2) How does this reform…

Veal, William R.

2000-01-01

199

A Study of Sex Equity in Classroom Interaction. Final Report: Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first volume of a two-volume report on the study of sex equity in classroom interaction presents findings of previous studies of classroom interaction, methods used in the study, observations of classroom interactions, possible causes of sex segregation, sex differences in classroom leadership, and intervention implementation effects. The…

Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Harris, Abigail M.

200

Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

2012-01-01

201

Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

2014-01-01

202

Classroom Solar Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students engage in an ongoing investigation to find patterns of sunlight and shadow in a classroom (or any room that gets sunlight) at different times of the day and different times of the year. Students look for repeating patterns, keep a log to describe and sketch observations of when and where certain easily recognized patters appear and turn the room into a solar calendar that may survive into the future for other classes to use. Part 1 of this activity requires occasional note-taking and casual observation over the course of a day. Part 2 requires 30-60 minutes to create the calendar record, then casual observation and note-taking throughout the school year. The lesson plan includes a math extension activity and background information about the Sun Dagger at Chaco Canyon. This activity is the third lesson in the Ancient Eyes Look to the Skies curriculum guide.

203

Tips from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six classroom tips for language teachers focus on creating a congenial classroom environment, integrating listening and reading skills, teaching idioms from tabloid newspapers, cooperative learning in honors courses, grammar games, and teaching culture through personalized automobile license plate messages. (MDM)

Hess, Natalie; And Others

1995-01-01

204

Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling  

DOEpatents

A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-25

205

Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

Soukakou, Elena P.

2012-01-01

206

Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

2008-01-01

207

Virtual Classroom Discussions versus Traditional Classroom Discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author of this paper designs, develops, and teaches online courses. This paper examines the students' constructive sociocultural interaction in which learning occurs. This paper compares the classroom discussions in virtual and traditional classrooms and analyses the virtual communication in greater detail according to their content.

Beate Baltes

2002-01-01

208

Competition in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

Jameson, Daphne

2007-01-01

209

Reinforcement learning in scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

1994-01-01

210

The effect of task structure, practice schedule, and model type on the learning of relative and absolute timing by physical and observational practice  

E-print Network

conditions. Experiment 2 compared variable (700, 900, and 1100 ms overall time) with constant practice (900 ms overall time). Observers of constant practice models learned the relative timing better than no-practice control participants, but not as well...

Black, Charles Beyer

2004-11-15

211

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations in Traditional Schedulers  

E-print Network

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations in Traditional Schedulers David. Gibson Carnegie Mellon University garth.gibson@cs.cmu.edu Abstract We describe extensions to lottery present in traditional non- real time process schedulers. Lottery scheduling enables flexible control over

212

Creating a Positive Classroom Culture: Minute by Minute  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a peek into high school math teacher Ali Wright's typical school day, which includes time-tested strategies that she uses to build a positive culture in her classroom. Scheduled timeframes and activities include before school starts, five minutes before class, during announcements, during class, last five minutes of class,…

Wright, Ali

2014-01-01

213

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule  

SciTech Connect

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

Bisping, L.E.

1991-01-01

214

Dimensions of Classroom Instruction: A Programmatic Approach to the Description of the Classroom Environment. Planning Report No. 5076.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ongoing research project, Dimensions of Classroom Instruction (DCI) is described. The primary data source is a study of reading in nine second-grade classrooms using such observation techniques as categorical observation, ethnographic observation, and videotaping. Three major objectives for the project are stated: 1) developing methods of…

Clements, R. O.

215

Dosing Schedules for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses—the schedule—that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

2014-01-01

216

Master Classrooms: Classroom Design with Technology in Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is changing the classroom requiring new design features and considerations to make the classroom flexible and interactive with the teaching process. The design of a Master Classroom, a product of the Classroom Improvement Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is described. These classrooms are specially-equipped to…

Conway, Kathryn

217

Scientific Observations: A Schoolyard BioBlitz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a classroom and field activity where students learn about and practice scientific observations in the classroom and then complete a field activity by making and recording scientific observations on school grounds.

Michet, Joanne

218

Classroom Creature Culture: Algae to Anoles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living organisms are important classroom resources and require appropriate, responsible care. This anthology of articles from NSTA's award-winning journal Science and Children provides the basics about collecting, investigating, and caring for plants and animals in classroom settings. From daddy longlegs to box turtles, from duckweed to butterflies, emphasis is placed on responsible observation, respect for living beings, and the individual needs of nature's many creatures. Also makes an excellent complement to ecological studies.

1994-01-01

219

Classroom Contextual Effects on Children's Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the effects of age, sex, and context of preschool classrooms on children's play. In Study 1, observed 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds playing in art, blocks, and replica play areas in their age-graded classrooms. Results suggested that children's play was related to Age × Play Area interactions. These relations were not independent of children's sex-related self-selection into the play areas

A. D. Pellegrini; Jane C. Perlmutter

1989-01-01

220

Noncontingent Reinforcement: A Further Examination of Schedule Effects during Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted 2 studies to determine whether dense and thin NCR schedules exert different influences over behavior and whether these influences change as dense schedules are thinned. In Study 1, we observed that thin as well as dense NCR schedules effectively decreased problem behavior exhibited by 3 individuals. In Study 2, we compared the effects…

Wallace, Michelle D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

2012-01-01

221

The range scheduling aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

1991-01-01

222

Scalable Multimedia Disk Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multimedia disk scheduling algorithm, termed Cascaded-SFC, is presented. The Cascaded-SFC multime- dia disk scheduler is applicable in environments where mul- timedia data requests arrive with different quality of service (QoS) requirements such as real-time deadline and user pri- ority. Previous work on disk scheduling has focused on op- timizing the seek times and\\/or meeting the real-time dead- lines.

Mohamed F. Mokbel; Walid G. Aref; Khaled M. Elbassioni; Ibrahim Kamel

2004-01-01

223

Using Games in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author of this one-page article describes the pedagogical benefits of using math games in the classroom. She analyzes the game context in terms of the kinds of learning that takes place, the behaviors that students exhibit, and the social-emotional experience of students. She concludes by recommending strategies for effective introduction and management of games. [While the author's observations were in the context of geometry games, they generalize to most topics.

Hatch, Gillian

2005-09-01

224

Interactive dynamic aircraft scheduling  

E-print Network

Introducing recent advances in computer technology to improve aircraft scheduling is investigated. Incorporating interactive graphics, modern database manipulation techniques, and decision support algorithms, the computer ...

Deckwitz, Thomas Anthony

1984-01-01

225

The Classroom Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

Science and Children, 1986

1986-01-01

226

Considering the Chalkless Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares some personal reflections on several years of integrating educational technology into mathematics courses while retaining the direct interaction strengths of the traditional classroom.

Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A.

2010-01-01

227

Child behavior and emotional problems in Jamaican classrooms: a multimethod study using direct observations and teacher reports for ages 6–11  

Microsoft Academic Search

International research on children's problems relies heavily on parent and teacher ratings. Such ratings are helpful to professionals who assess children but are subjected to biases emerging from adults’ personal involvement with the children they rate, and their own cultural experiences. This study investigated whether ratings of teachers versus observers on Jamaican children ages 6–11 differed according to informant, urban

Michael Canute Lambert; Marieva Puig; Mikhail Lyubansky; George T Rowan; Martin Hill; Beth Milburn; Stanley D Hannah

2001-01-01

228

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations Traditional Schedulers  

E-print Network

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations Traditional Schedulers David Petrou Carnegie Mellon University garth.gibson@cs.cmu.edu Abstract We describe extensions to lottery scheduling in traditional non­ real time process schedulers. Lottery scheduling enables flexible control over relative

229

Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

2007-01-01

230

Enhancing the Novice Teacher's Success in Handling Classroom Discipline Problems: Use of Video Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate students developed a videotape to provide novice teachers with observation and practice in handling classroom discipline problems. Videotape content came from students' own classroom experience and provided solutions to problems using students' own observations of successful classroom management. The videotape proved to be a useful…

Doyle, Kathleen; And Others

1994-01-01

231

Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

2012-01-01

232

Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

1977-01-01

233

A Schedule Management Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe a scheduling technique which was used in the repair of an aircraft carrier. The paper presents the scheduling technique employed; how it was developed; its simplicity of design; its visibility, and its utilization....

V. E. Cooke

1973-01-01

234

Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Planning for Cometary Observations with the Green Bank Telescope and Its Application to Chemistry Classroom Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will describe the development of a Python program as a further expansion of a previous mathematical model3 designed to simulate cometary data collected by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The program allows for user interaction to change parameters such as the comet's distance from the sun, the rate of production of gaseous outflows, lifetime of these gaseous particles and maximum limit for how many gas particles are generated. Furthermore this paper will present results of how students can write their own Python programming code to manipulate these parameters to generate velocity profiles of the out gassed chemical species. Students should be enlightened that Science can be cross disciplinary. Several concepts in Chemistry: sublimation, electromagnetic spectrum, quantum mechanics, gas behavior and chemical kinetics play an important role in the formation of a comet cloud and how that cloud could be observed using radio astronomy. Chemical species such as HCN, CS and HCO+1 have been observed in cometary clouds. The chemical composition of the cloud and its size are a function of its distance from the sun and the radial location from the center of the comet cloud. High-school students at the Louisiana School for Math, Science and the Arts, LA will learn Python programming language to create a mathematical model of a cometary cloud. The students will have formulated models for rate of sublimation, rate of photo-dissociation, and velocity of gas particles as the fundamental framework to determine frequencies and intensities of the molecular spectra. The students will be able to manipulate their code to create various comet cloud scenarios as it might be observed by the GBT.

Hynes, Christopher; Lockman, F. J.; Lovell, A.

2010-01-01

235

Managing Classroom Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools need to meet unique problems through the development of special classroom management techniques. Factors which contribute to classroom problems include lack of supervision at home, broken homes, economic deprivation, and a desire for peer attention. The educational atmosphere should encourage creativity for both the student and the…

Long, James D.

236

The Caring Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a safe place in which to learn is vital to providing all students with equal opportunity. The Caring Classroom is a model for using adventure techniques to create a classroom community. It begins at the formation stage of group development by addressing cooperation issues such as using put-ups instead of put-downs, using active listening,…

Frank, Laurie S.

237

Effective Learning in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses an important and seldom addressed issue: learning. Not teaching, not performance, not "work": this book really is about learning, what makes learning effective and how it may be promoted in classrooms. The authors take the context of the classroom seriously, not only because of its effects on teachers and pupils, but because…

Watkins, Chris; Carnell, Eileen; Lodge, Caroline M.

2007-01-01

238

Promoting Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses: (1) that participation in a course providing theory and practice in the classroom use of technology promotes its use and results in gained competence in technology use; and (2) that functional relations exist among the availability of technology in the classroom, technology utilization, and…

Rosenfeld, Barbara; Martinez-Pons, Manuel

2005-01-01

239

Evangelism in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is frequently said that evangelism or proselytizing has no place in the classroom. The purpose of this essay is to counter this generalization and to explore the nature of legitimate religious influence in the classroom. In doing so I will offer some criteria to help us determine what is and what is not acceptable by way of religious persuasion…

Thiessen, Elmer John

2013-01-01

240

The virtual classroom experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern technology creates an imperative for increasingly diverse classroom experiences. Both students and faculty can benefit from the constant technological advances occurring today. Students expect their educational experience to include the use of current technology, multimedia presentations of subject content, and engaging learning interactivity. A dramatic benefit can be achieved by the use of diverse tools, such as a classroom

Barbara Bernal Thomas

2003-01-01

241

Frontloading Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

2010-01-01

242

Creating Better Classroom Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the perspective that the quality of teacher-made, small classroom tests has not improved, and may have declined in recent years. This decline may be due to the fact that teachers have come to believe that the kinds of objective items used in national standardized tests are the only item types appropriate for classroom use.…

Gulliksen, Harold

243

Competition in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that teacher use of competition in the classroom may lead to anxiety, aggression, or a decrease in self-concept among students and that learning to compete is not so important in a postindustrial society. Advocates cooperative classroom activities. (SJL)

Napier, Erv

1981-01-01

244

Speaking in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

McBain, Robert

2011-01-01

245

Science teachers' understanding and use of instructional strategies within the 4 x 4 block schedule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary purpose of this researcher was to investigate how science teachers engage students under the 4 x 4 block schedule and how the teachers' understanding of how they use instructional strategies influenced their lessons. As an inquiry-based approach has been adopted by the National Science Standards, research has suggested that block scheduling provides more time for teachers to incorporate varied strategies such as inquiry-based and cooperative learning teaching which have philosophical roots in a social constructivist philosophy. This research investigated the questions: What instructional strategies do science teachers use to engage students on the 4 x 4 block schedule? How do science teachers understand their use of instructional strategies? The methodology was qualitative in nature and involved a multiple case study of three high school science teachers at a large rural county high school. Data sources included pre-observation interviews, classroom observations, post-observation interviews, and the collection of documents and artifacts such as lesson plans, student hand-outs, worksheets, laboratory exercises, homework and other document(s) the teacher used to prepare for or implement a lesson. The evidence observed in this study, suggests that the strategies used by these three science teachers remain mostly didactic in nature. Although the teachers reported in the interview phase of this research that they use a wide variety of strategies, what was observed within the 4 x 4 block structure was the use of different didactic strategies, not different holistic strategies. Although the teachers were aware of more holistic strategies such as inquiry-based and cooperative learning, they were not adopted nor adapted within the lesson. The three teachers used strategies that were consistent with their scientific realist views concerning the nature of science. These scientific realist philosophies are antithetical to a social constructivist approach to teaching and learning, which is what the National Research Council suggests science teachers adopt.

Grosshans, Kurt

246

Classroom Management and Students' Perceptions of Classroom Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of classroom management and the impact of classroom climate on student academic achievement has been independently documented by scholars. Less is currently know regarding the relationship linking classroom management and climate. Therefore, the purpose of this quasi experimental study was to explore the influence of classroom

Ratzburg, Susan A.

2010-01-01

247

Teachers’ practical knowledge about classroom management in multicultural classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in creating a positive working atmosphere in their multicultural classrooms. Twelve teachers were selected

Jan van Tartwijk; Perry den Brok; Ietje Veldman; Theo Wubbels

2009-01-01

248

Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Delivered by Teachers for Reducing Problem Behavior in Special Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules on the disruptive behavior of 4 students in special education classrooms were studied. Attention provided on FT schedules in the context of a multiple-baseline design across participants substantially decreased all students' challenging behavior. Disruptive behavior was maintained at levels…

Tomlin, Michelle; Reed, Phil

2012-01-01

249

NASA Schedule Management Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

2011-01-01

250

Operating Systems: CPU Scheduling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the University of Bridgeport provides the context and explanation for CPU scheduling mechanisms. It includes a rationale for context switching along with with pseudocode, and it explains the difference between non-preemptive versus preemptive scheduling. It offers visuals that could be incorporated into lectures analyzing various scheduling algorithms including first in first out (FIFO), round-robin, priority-based, shortest job first (SJF), and multilevel feedback queues. It includes an assignment as well as an online slideshow presentation. This site is applicable for technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses.

2009-08-10

251

Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

Gnagey, William J.

252

Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Quality of care for preschool children in inclusive and noninclusive classrooms was examined in two studies. In Study 1, comparisons across a large sample of classrooms (N = 1, 313) showed that inclusive classrooms were higher than noninclusive classrooms in global quality as well as on two dimensions of quality…

Hestenes, Linda L.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Shim, Jonghee; Hegde, Archana V.

2008-01-01

253

Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

2009-01-01

254

Cross-Sex Collaborative Learning in Elementary Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured naturalistic observations, representing about 1,400 hours of classroom behavior, and student surveys were analyzed to determine: (a) the extent to which small group instruction was used in elementary school classrooms, (b) the academic conditions under which small group instruction was used, and (c) the effects of small group instruction on student attitudes and perceptions, particularly those related to gender

Marlaine E. Lockheed; Abigail M. Harris

1984-01-01

255

Teacher–student interactions in desegregated classrooms in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the state of desegregation and integration in South African schools 11 years after the demise of Apartheid. Three classrooms in three desegregating schools with different histories and race profiles were visited. Overall, each classroom was visited on 10 occasions over a period of 2 weeks. Direct observation was the main data gathering technique. The main findings were

Saloshna Vandeyar; Roy Killen

2006-01-01

256

Learning Gender Roles in Three Urban U. S . Kindergarten Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three U.S. kindergarten classrooms in two large Mid-western cities (Minneapolis and Cincinnati) are the context for this study of gender roles. Of particular interest are the patterns of social relations established in same sex groups of children in these classrooms. Data include field notes and transcriptions of audiotaped interactions gathered during more than 90 hours of observation across the three

Kathryn M. Borman; Patricia OReilly

1987-01-01

257

Gender interaction in mathematics classrooms: Reflection and transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, studies done on gender in Botswana's classrooms at the junior secondary level, are reported. The initial studies were more quantitative in nature, and dealt with questioning as part of classroom interaction. The studies revealed other gender related issues however, which were observed in more detail later. With the participating teachers, the findings were discussed and a plan

James K. Taole; Marlies Zonneveld; Lebohang Letsie-Taole

1995-01-01

258

Preparing for an Uncertain Future: Lessons from a Florentine Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observations of an elementary school in Florence (Italy) show the strengths and weaknesses of the Italian school system and its implications for education in the United States. The homogeneity of values and culture that characterize the Italian classroom are in marked contrast to the classroom of a U.S. city. (SLD)

Garner, Roberta

1991-01-01

259

Marital satisfaction and family stress as predictors of classroom behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between parents' perceptions of marital satisfaction and family stress and their third grade children's classroom behavior. Twenty-one married couples completed questionnaires during home visits. Behavior observations were made from videotapes of children recorded in their classroom during lunch and group academic periods on each of three days. Frequencies of peer

Chloee K. Poag; Robert Cohen; Scott W. Henggeler; Mary B. Summerville; Glen E. Ray

1992-01-01

260

Mathematics and Science Learning Opportunities in Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results…

Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine

2014-01-01

261

Flipping the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent trend in education is the "flipped" or "reversed" classroom. In this educational model, students view videos of the lectures as their homework and class time is used for activities and solving problems that might have been assigned as homework in a traditional classroom. Although far from an expert on flipping the classroom, I can see some merit in the idea. When students watch the videos at home, they can start and restart the lecture as often as they like. The lectures are also available for review before the exam. Class time can be used for higher-order questioning, experiments, and problem solving.

2012-11-01

262

Flipping the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent trend in education is the ``flipped'' or ``reversed'' classroom. In this educational model, students view videos of the lectures as their homework and class time is used for activities and solving problems that might have been assigned as homework in a traditional classroom. Although far from an expert on flipping the classroom, I can see some merit in the idea. When students watch the videos at home, they can start and restart the lecture as often as they like. The lectures are also available for review before the exam. Class time can be used for higher-order questioning, experiments, and problem solving.

Riendeau, Diane

2012-11-01

263

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

264

Scheduling in STAPL  

E-print Network

distributed fashion and a collection of pViews to abstract details of the data distribution. STAPL algorithms are written in terms of PARAGRAPHs which are high level descriptions of task dependence graphs. Scheduling plays a very important role...

Sharma, Shishir

2013-05-07

265

Time Schedule Preliminary  

E-print Network

#12;I · Time Schedule Preliminary Autumn Quarter 1985 Prer:egistration: May 21-24, 28 ... ;:,~ . ~ ·.. ',' ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 6 Full-time Student 'Rcq~ent (veteran's benefits, Social Security , benefits, intemation~ students

Kaminsky, Werner

266

Scheduling Techniques for Packet Routing, Load Balancing and Disk Scheduling  

E-print Network

Scheduling Techniques for Packet Routing, Load Balancing and Disk Scheduling by Matthew Andrews B for Packet Routing, Load Balancing and Disk Scheduling by Matthew Andrews Submitted to the Department and disk scheduling. A fundamental problem in the design of packet­switched communication networks

Andrews, Matthew

267

Static SchedulingStatic Scheduling Synchronous communication with a fixed  

E-print Network

22 Static SchedulingStatic Scheduling Synchronous communication with a fixed number of tokens transferred çBalance equations determine repetitions çPeriodic schedule is computed statically 11 Synchronous çPeriodic schedules are computed statically 1 -1 0 0 2 -3 � 3 3 2 = 0 0 5 -7 0

268

Scheduling Efficiency of Distributed Greedy Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of distributed scheduling in wireless networks subject to simple collision constraints. In a network depletion problem with an initial traffic load and no further arrivals, we define the scheduling efficiency to be the ratio between the number of time slots required to deplete the network under an optimal centralized scheduling scheme and a distributed greedy scheduling

Xinzhou Wu; R. Srikant

2006-01-01

269

An analysis of the relationship of teachers' reported use of classroom management strategies on types of classroom interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an investigation to determine teachers' reported use of classroom management strategies and their relationship to teacher and student interactions are presented. We interviewed 20 teachers to determine how they developed and used classroom management strategies, and then observed the interactions of these teachers with children with serious behavior disorders (SBD). Results identified two groups of teachers: one

Susan L. Jack; Richard E. Shores; R. Kenton Denny; Philip L. Gunter; Terry DeBriere; Paris DePaepe

1996-01-01

270

Children's Agreement on Classroom Social Networks: Cross-Level Predictors in Urban Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informed by research on interpersonal perception, peer relationships, and classroom climate, this study examines predictors of children's agreement with classmates on their classroom social networks. Social network data, peer nominations of positive behavior, and classroom observations were collected from 418 second-grade to fourth-grade children…

Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Sahu, Neha

2012-01-01

271

Progress in Language Classroom Research: Evidence from "The Modern Language Journal," 1916-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews topical and methodological trends in the past 85 years of research on language classrooms in "The Modern Language Journal." Focus is on empirical investigations into oral classroom instruction in post-secondary classes, which include comparisons of language teaching methodology, observational procedures in classrooms, examinations of…

Chaudron, Craig

2001-01-01

272

Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using…

Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

2013-01-01

273

Assistant Teachers in Head Start Classrooms: Comparing to and Working with Lead Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The purpose of the present study is to examine the degree to which assistant and lead teachers work together in Head Start classrooms in 3 domains: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support. Pairs of lead and assistant teachers from 14 Head Start classrooms were simultaneously observed for 1 morning to…

Curby, Timothy W.; Boyer, Caroline; Edwards, Taylor; Chavez, Catharine

2012-01-01

274

Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

2013-01-01

275

Educators' Use of Cognitively Challenging Questions in Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Classroom Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This study investigated the complexity of teacher questions in 14 preschool classrooms serving economically disadvantaged 4-year-olds. The purposes were to explore the frequency and complexity of teacher questions and to determine the extent to which question types varied for different classroom contexts. Using teacher utterances from 24-min transcripts of videotaped classroom observations, we used a logistic regression framework

Susan L. Massey; Khara L. Pence; Laura M. Justice; Ryan P. Bowles

2008-01-01

276

Traveling Tags: The Informal Literacies of Mexican Newcomers in and out of the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents tagging as one of several informal literacy practices used by newcomer Mexican youth in a Midwest school and classroom setting. Specifically, it details how tagging travels into the classroom. Using the tool of interactional ethnography to analyze videotaped classroom observation data of an English Learner Science setting, I…

Bruna, Katherine Richardson

2007-01-01

277

Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

2009-01-01

278

Chandra mission scheduling on-orbit experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduling observatory time to maximize both day-to-day science target integration time and the lifetime of the observatory is a formidable challenge. Furthermore, it is not a static problem. Of course, every schedule brings a new set of observations, but the boundaries of the problem change as well. As spacecraft ages, its capabilities may degrade. As in-flight experience grows, capabilities may expand. As observing programs are completed, the needs and expectations of the science community may evolve. Changes such as these impact the rules by which a mission scheduled. In eight years on orbit, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Mission Planning process has adapted to meet the challenge of maximizing day-to-day and mission lifetime science return, despite a consistently evolving set of scheduling constraints. The success of the planning team has been achieved, not through the use of complex algorithms and optimization routines, but through processes and home grown tools that help individuals make smart short term and long term Mission Planning decisions. This paper walks through the processes and tools used to plan and produce mission schedules for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Nominal planning and scheduling, target of opportunity response, and recovery from on-board autonomous safing actions are all addressed. Evolution of tools and processes, best practices, and lessons learned are highlighted along the way.

Bucher, Sabina; Williams, Brent; Pendexter, Misty; Balke, David

2008-07-01

279

For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

Current, 1979

1979-01-01

280

Toys in The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of chemical concepts can be easily illustrated in a more friendly way to children by using toys as teaching tools in the classroom. Some of the examples illustrated are shrinking toys, drinking birds and hand boiler.

Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.

2005-01-01

281

View from My Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the philosophy of a high school chemistry teacher, providing examples through classroom experiences, with emphasis on the use of demonstrations as instructional aids. Specific stoichiometry and conductometric titration demonstrations are discussed. (CS)

Harris, Sidney P.

1980-01-01

282

Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

2014-01-01

283

Critters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

1984-01-01

284

Frontloading Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new

Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

2010-07-01

285

The Classroom Space Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Classroom Space project aimed at revitalizing science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. (Author/YDS)

Verbickas, Sarah

2002-01-01

286

Frontiers in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides examples of ways to use the television show "Scientific American Frontiers" in the classroom. Outlines a range of approaches and discusses some motivational techniques to engage students. (DDR)

Coyne, Janet Smith

1998-01-01

287

Floor Plan Your Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guides the learner, step-by-step, in creating a scale floor plan of a classroom. The instructions include sample drawings of student work. The activity includes: sketching a map of the classroom; measuring the room and calculating the area and perimeter; creating a scale drawing; and drafting a CAD (computer-aided design) floor plan. The lesson provides students with hands-on, real world practice solving problems of measurement, ratio, and scale.

2003-01-01

288

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

289

Solar Powered Classroom  

SciTech Connect

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-13

290

Mixing Block and Traditional Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Boone, North Carolina, Watauga High School has developed an alternative schedule that blends traditional and block schedules. This composite schedule originated in the late 1990s when their faculty members and administrators were struggling to determine if the school should change to a full block schedule. The board of education encouraged…

Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

2005-01-01

291

Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss or argue scientific issues as the national science curriculum stipulates. We found that traditional assessment methods, such as tests, examinations and assignments were the most common methods used to assess and grade students' learning. Different aspects of knowledge stipulated in the national Swedish curriculum, such as lifelong learning, stimulation to students' creativity, curiosity as well as their wish to explore and convert new ideas into action, and find solutions to problems, were restricted by teachers' discourses. The observed teachers' learning and assessment practices constrain students' agency leading to students' silence consequently hindering students' development.

Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

2014-06-01

292

Self-Learning Disk Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of disk I\\/O schedulers is affected by many factors, such as workloads, file systems, and disk systems. Disk scheduling performance can be improved by tuning scheduler parameters, such as the length of read timers. Scheduler performance tuning is mostly done manually. To automate this process, we propose four self-learning disk scheduling schemes: change-sensing Round-Robin, feedback learning, per-request learning, and

Yu Zhang; Bharat Bhargava

2009-01-01

293

Thread scheduling for multiprogrammed multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a user-level thread scheduler for shared-memory multiprocessors, and we analyze its performance under multiprogramming. We model multiprogramming with two scheduling levels: our scheduler runs at user-level and schedules threads onto a fixed collection of processes, while below, the operating system kernel schedules processes onto a fixed collection of processors. We consider the kernel to be an adversary, and

Nimar S. Arora; Robert D. Blumofe; C. Greg Plaxton

1998-01-01

294

Constraint-based scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

Zweben, Monte

1991-01-01

295

SPANR planning and scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.

Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry

2001-07-01

296

Analysis of the integration of the physician rostering problem and the surgery scheduling problem.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the Integrated Physician and Surgery Scheduling Problem (IPSSP) as a new approach for solving operating room scheduling problems where staff rosters for the physicians are integrated in the optimization. A mixed integer linear programming formulation is created based on the most frequently observed objective and restrictions of the surgery scheduling and the physician rostering problem in the literature. We analyze schedules by relaxing both surgery and physician related constraints. We then measure the implications of setting these physician preferences on the surgery schedule. Our experiments show two main interesting insights for physician roster schedulers as well as operating theatre scheduling managers. PMID:24850055

Van Huele, Christophe; Vanhoucke, Mario

2014-06-01

297

Children's Engagement in Different Classroom Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple case study is reported aiming at identifying the degree of taking part and of being engaged in classroom activities for children with and without reading and writing difficulties/dyslexia. The aim was also to investigate the accordance between "effective literacy teaching" and children's expressed interest and observed taking part and…

Sandstrom Kjellin, Margareta; Granlund, Mats

2006-01-01

298

Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

Rothing, Ase

2008-01-01

299

Hydrogen and Palladium Foil: Two Classroom Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In these two classroom demonstrations, students observe the reaction between H[subscript 2] gas and Pd foil. In the first demonstration, hydrogen and palladium combine within one minute at 1 atm and room temperature to yield the non-stoichiometric, interstitial hydride with formula close to the maximum known value, PdH[subscript 0.7]. In the…

Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

2009-01-01

300

Children's Interactions in Traditional and Nontraditional Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the development of a classroom interaction observation instrument, this report presents the results of a comparative study of group interaction in contrasting educational environments (open and traditional) with children of different socioeconomic backgrounds (middle and lower classes). Additionally, problems of adequately assessing…

Ross, Sylvia; And Others

301

Outline: CPU Scheduling Mechanisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint slide show from an instructor with the Departmentof Computer Science at Florida State University offers an in-depth lecture notes for CPU scheduling mechanisms. Most notably, this presentation includes diagrams and logical flowcharts of CPU processes which would make the material easier to understand for instructors or students engaged in technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses. It provides an overview of scheduling criteria and explanation and comparison of first-come-first-served, shortest-job-next, priority and non-preemptive priority, deadline, real-time, compared with round robin CPU scheduling. Mathematical models and formulas are included along with efficiency graphs. The presentation also covers process thread context, context switching, and multilevel queues.

Liu, Xiuwen

2009-08-05

302

Remote Observational Techniques in Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community.

Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

2002-09-01

303

Scheduling with genetic algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

1994-01-01

304

Sex and Gender in the College Classroom: A Quantitative Analysis of Faculty–Student Interactions and Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students and instructors from 24 classrooms across 8 departments at a major university were observed in this study to (a) assess for sex differences in faculty–student interactions and in students' perceptions of their college classroom environment, (b) compare student perceptions of their college classroom interaction patterns with observed faculty–student interactions, and (c) assess a variety of demographic characteristics together to

Kristine L. Brady; Richard M. Eisler

1999-01-01

305

Determining the Impact of Block Scheduling on Leadership Involvement in the FFA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Block scheduling was established in response to educational reform measures and is the restructuring of the school day in longer class increments with fewer number of classes per day. The FFA, an intra-curricular component of the agricultural education, provides leadership opportunities and involvement within the classroom setting. This study…

Dunigan, Anne H.; Hoover, Tracy S.

2007-01-01

306

Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)--what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the…

Sterling, Donna R.

2009-01-01

307

Classroom Teachers and Classroom Research. JALT Applied Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers leads classroom language teachers through the process of developing and completing a classroom research project. Arranged in four sections, they include: "Language Teaching and Research" (David Nunan); "Where Are We Now? Trends, Teachers, and Classroom Research" (Dale T. Griffee); "First Things First: Writing the Research…

Griffee, Dale T., Ed.; Nunan, David, Ed.

308

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination you'll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. An

Wolfgang, Christie N.

2009-07-01

309

Online scheduling in grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses nonclairvoyant and non- preemptive online job scheduling in Grids. In the applied basic model, the Grid system consists of a large number of identical processors that are divided into several machines. Jobs are independent, they have a fixed degree of parallelism, and they are submitted over time. Further, a job can only be executed on the processors

Andrei Tchernykh; Ramin Yahyapour

2008-01-01

310

Online scheduling Frederic Vivien  

E-print Network

When the job is released When the job completes Offline (Clairvoyant) Online Non-clairvoyant online #12) Hypotheses Job may be preempted One machine (1 | pmtn | ???) #12;Evaluating the quality of an online schedule An online algorithm has a competitive factor if and only if Whatever the set of jobs T1, ..., Tn Online

Marchal, Loris

311

Daytona Beach Activities Schedule  

E-print Network

Highlights · Daytona Beach · Activities Schedule · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach A day of fun in the sun! WHAT: Come for a day of surf, sun, and sand at world famous Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! After the beach

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

312

Scheduling semiconductor wafer fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact that scheduling can have on the performance of semi-conductor wafer fabrication facilities is assessed. The performance measure considered is the mean throughput time (sometimes called cycle time, turnaround time or manufacturing interval) for a lot of wafers. A variety of input control and sequencing rules are evaluated using a simulation model of a representative, but fictitious, semiconductor wafer

LAWRENCE M. WEIN

1988-01-01

313

Round Robin Schedules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a computer program written in BASIC that covers round-robin schedules for team matches in competitions. The program was originally created to help teams in a tennis league play one match against every other team. Part of the creation of the program involved use of modulo arithmetic. (MP)

Iannone, Michael A.

1983-01-01

314

"Creative" Work Schedules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

Blai, Boris

315

An integrated scheduling and program management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated scheduling and program management system is being developed for the MMT Observatory (MMTO), Arizona, USA. A systems engineering approach is used to combine existing and new relational databases, spreadsheets, file storage systems, and web-based user interfaces into a single unified system. An overview of software design, data management, user interfaces, and techniques for performance assessment is presented. Goals of this system include streamlined data management and an optimized user experience. The MMTO has over a dozen different telescope configurations, including three secondary mirrors and a wide range of observing instruments. Scheduling is complex for the varying telescope configurations, limited available observing time, and appropriate astronomic conditions (e.g., lunar phase) for each science project. Scheduled telescope configurations can be used to perform safety checks of actual configuration during telescope operations. Programmatic information is automatically input into nightly telescope operator (TO) logs by the system. The TO's provide additional information into the system on telescope usage, observing conditions (e.g., weather conditions), and observatory closure (e.g., from instrument malfunction or inclement weather). All of this information is synthesized to assess telescope and observatory performance. Web interfaces to the system can be used by observers to submit information, such as travel plans, instrumentation requirements, and observing catalogs. A service request (SR) (i.e., trouble report) system has also been developed for tracking operational issues. The specific needs of the MMTO have been met through in-house software development of this integrated scheduling and program management system.

Porter, D.; Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.

2012-09-01

316

Integrating Queueing Theory and Scheduling for Dynamic Scheduling Problems  

E-print Network

Integrating Queueing Theory and Scheduling for Dynamic Scheduling Problems Daria Terekhov dterekho and conference papers (Terekhov, Tran, & Beck, 2010; Terekhov, Tran, Down, & Beck, 2012). The work in Section 4

Down, Doug

317

Dynamic airline scheduling and robust airline schedule de-peaking  

E-print Network

Demand stochasticity is a major challenge for the airlines in their quest to produce profit maximizing schedules. Even with an optimized schedule, many flights have empty seats at departure, while others suffer a lack of ...

Jiang, Hai, 1979-

2006-01-01

318

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agriculture in the Classroom Web site(last mentioned in the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has recently been updated. One of the current features, Listening to the Prairie - Farming in Nature's Image, is a useful resource which has many lesson plans and classroom activities for all grades and can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. These lesson plans explore subjects like how energy passes through food webs, where our food comes from, how agriculture affects our lives, and soil and erosion. This is a useful site that focuses on a subject that many urban students may not normally be exposed to.

2002-01-01

319

Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inverted classroom is a course design model in which students' initial contact with new information takes place outside of class meetings, and students spend class time on high-level sense-making activities. The inverted classroom model is so called because it inverts or "flips" the usual classroom design where typically class…

Talbert, Robert

2014-01-01

320

Group Cohesiveness and Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores group cohesiveness, class discussion, and group size in relation to classroom environment and the cognitive-personal growth outcomes of classroom learning. Implications are drawn from the research on cohesiveness for teachers who employ open classroom techniques. (Author/SJL)

Stancato, Frank A.

1979-01-01

321

Teacher attitudes about classroom conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research was designed to investigate the possible relationship between the attitudes, teachers have about the condition of their classrooms when the classrooms were independently assessed. Previous research reported teachers in unsatisfactory classrooms felt frustrated and neglected to such an extent that they sometimes reported they were willing to leave the teaching profession. This paper aims to address

Glen I. Earthman; Linda K. Lemasters

2009-01-01

322

Teacher Attitudes about Classroom Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research was designed to investigate the possible relationship between the attitudes, teachers have about the condition of their classrooms when the classrooms were independently assessed. Previous research reported teachers in unsatisfactory classrooms felt frustrated and neglected to such an extent that they sometimes reported they…

Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

2009-01-01

323

Flipping the classroom (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a flipped classroom, students watch or listen to the lecture at home and do homework in the classroom. The classroom becomes much more interactive and the educator has ample opportunity to provide individualized guidance when it's most needed. The watch-at-home content can include recorded lectures, demonstration videos, adaptive quizzes, or anything in between. Come share your experiences developing \\

Barry Brown

2012-01-01

324

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination you'll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. Any experienced middle school science teacher can tell you that successful classroom management…

Wolfgang, Christie Nicole

2009-01-01

325

Mainstreaming the Regular Classroom Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents activities, suggested by regular classroom teachers, to help prepare the regular classroom student for mainstreaming. The author points out that regular classroom children need a vehicle in which curiosity, concern, interest, fear, attitudes and feelings can be fully explored, where prejudices can be dispelled, and where the…

Kahn, Michael

326

GALAXY Classroom: Television for Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive learning service for elementary grades, "GALAXY Classroom," offers enrichment opportunities to classrooms. Students communicate via fax in response to questions posed in satellite transmitted segments. The primary market for "GALAXY Classroom" is the at-risk student. Sidebars describe costs and current offerings. (SLW)

Graumann, Peter

1994-01-01

327

Classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence.  

PubMed

Classroom context and school engagement are significant predictors of academic achievement. These factors are especially important for academically at-risk students. Grounded in an ecological systems perspective, this study examined links between classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement among early adolescents. We took a multidimensional approach to the measurement of classroom context and school engagement, incorporating both observational and self-reported assessments of various dimensions of classroom context (instruction quality, social/emotional climate, and student-teacher relationship) and school engagement (psychological and behavioral engagement). Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we tested whether school engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement among 5th grade students, and whether these pathways were the same for students with previous achievement difficulties identified in 3rd grade. Participants included 1,014 children (50% female) in 5th grade (mean age = 11). The majority of the participants were white (77%) and 23% were children of color. Results indicated that psychological and behavioral engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement for students without previous achievement difficulties. However, for students with previous achievement difficulties psychological and behavioral engagement did not mediate the link between classroom context and academic achievement. These results suggest that improving classroom quality may not be sufficient to improve student engagement and achievement for students with previous achievement difficulties. Additional strategies may be needed for these students. PMID:21400208

Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie

2011-12-01

328

Scheduling Efficiency of Distributed Greedy Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of distributed scheduling in wireless networks subject to simple collision constraints. We define the efficiency of a distributed scheduling algorithm to be the largest number (fraction) such that the throughput under the distributed scheduling policy is at least equal to the efficiency multiplied by the maximum throughput achievable under a centralized policy. For a general interference

Xinzhou Wu; R. Srikant; James R. Perkins

2007-01-01

329

Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

Zoch, David R.

1991-01-01

330

Occupancy Simulation Schedule Appendix C -Occupancy Simulation Schedule  

E-print Network

Appendix C ­ Occupancy Simulation Schedule #12;C.1 Appendix C - Occupancy Simulation Schedule Figure C.1 and Figure C.2 present the load simulation and occupancy schedules for the lab homes highly insulating windows demonstration. The bases for occupancy simulation were data and analysis developed

331

Simulation of an Optimum Multilevel Dynamic Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CPU scheduling has valiant effect on resource utilization as well as overall quality of the system. Round Robin algorithm performs optimally in time shared systems, but it performs more number of context switches, larger waiting time and larger response time. In order to simulate the behavior of various CPU scheduling algorithms and to improve Round Robin scheduling algorithm using dynamic time slice concept, in this paper we produce the implementation of new CPU scheduling algorithm called An Optimum Multilevel Dynamic Round Robin Scheduling (OMDRRS), which calculates intelligent time slice and warps after every round of execution. The results display the robustness of this software, especially for academic, research and experimental use, as well as proving the desirability and efficiency of the probabilistic algorithm over the other existing techniques and it is observed that this OMDRRS projects good performance as compared to the other existing CPU scheduling algorithms.

Goel, Neetu; B. Garg, R.

2013-08-01

332

Scheduling a C-Section  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Pregnancy > C-section > Scheduling a c-section C-section A cesarean section is the birth of ... It's been added to your dashboard . Scheduling a c-section Cesarean birth (also called c-section) is ...

333

Integrated production and maintenance scheduling  

E-print Network

. This on-line information can be utilized to make more informed decisions about the production and maintenance scheduling problem. The integrated maintenance and production scheduling problem on a single machine is formulated for the single and multiple job...

Whitaker, Laura Oakes

2012-06-07

334

Optimizing an Absolute Gravimeter Comparison Schedule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1980 various groups have executed comparisons of absolute gravimeters for the purpose of determining the accuracy of operational meters. While the final method of processing data and estimating meter accuracy has varied from comparison to comparison, one common fact has persisted - two meters can not observe gravity at both the same time and the same place. With this simple fact in mind, and despite variations in the final method of data processing, it has always been necessary to develop an efficient observation schedule for a comparison. Such a schedule must obviously depend on the number of meters in attendance and number of observing piers available. But other factors must be considered, such as how many observations each meter is required to make, how many times a meter compares to another meter and how many times a meter compares to itself - all of which effect the conditioning of the equation system. Finding the most efficient schedule with the greatest conditioning of the equation system is a problem of optimization. The number of possible combinations for even small numbers of meters and piers grows exponentially out of computational possibility if a brute force method is used. This talk discusses an efficient solution to forming such an optimized schedule, and a fast computer program which makes use of this solution.

Smith, D. A.; Saleh, J.; Eckl, M. C.

2013-12-01

335

Irrigation scheduling of almond trees with trunk diameter sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plant indicators may be the ideal method for irrigation scheduling but it is hampered by the dynamic nature of plant water status and by the lack of suitable indicators, relative to established scheduling methods based on atmospheric and soil observations. A study was conducted in an almond orchard located in the San Joaquin Valley of California during

D. A. Goldhamer; E. Fereres

2004-01-01

336

Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Civeit, Thomas

2013-01-01

337

Classroom Contexts for Creativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various factors influence the development of creative potential, including everything from individual differences to the kinds of experiences and opportunities that creators experience throughout the lifespan. When it comes to nurturing creativity in the classroom, the learning environment is one of the most important factors--determining, in…

Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.

2014-01-01

338

Inviting Positive Classroom Discipline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Invitational theory addresses the total educational environment and culture of the classroom and school, focusing on the people, places, policies, programs, and processes that constitute any school culture. Invitational teaching is a process for communicating caring and appropriate messages to nurture the realization of student potential as well…

Purkey, William Watson; Strahan, David B.

339

Managing Classroom Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why classroom management is important; how behavior difficulties should be viewed as opportunities to instruct; and primary, secondary, and tertiary intervention techniques. Concludes that with adequate planning and implementation of a behavior plan, the student's behavior will change for the better. (SG)

Martella, Ronald C.; Nelson, J. Ron

2003-01-01

340

Optimizing Classroom Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since students are facing an ever-increasing number of stressful personal, social, and emotional problems, classroom guidance must be made an integral part of the middle school's guidance program. This should be accomplished through a well-integrated, overall strategy incorporating daily homeroom advisement, guidance-related units,…

Stewart, William J.

1993-01-01

341

Leading Classroom Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom discourse is a valuable teaching and learning tool. Discussions allow students to improve their communication and reasoning skills in mathematics and help teachers assess students' understanding of mathematical ideas. To get the greatest benefit from discussion, teachers must elicit student thinking, listen carefully to their ideas,…

Gonzalez, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.

2013-01-01

342

Tips from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven articles on classroom icebreakers are compiled: "Picture Stories and Other Opportunities" (Joy Egbert, Deborah Hanley, Rosemary Delaney); "Hey, What's Your Name" (Janet Leamy); "Surprise!" (Lynne Burgess); "Memory Game" (Sally Winn); "Picturesque" (Margaret Beiter); "The Name Game" (Jeanne-Marie Garcia); "Exercise the Body--And the Mind…

TESOL Journal, 1993

1993-01-01

343

Icebreakers for Classroom Synergy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintaining a high "synergy" classroom, when the total effect of the people in an environment seems to be greater than the sum of the effort of the individuals, requires a commitment to a cooperative learning environment and hard work. Here are some learning activities designed to provide students with "synergy" all year long. (Author/RK)

Abruscato, Joseph; Hassard, Jack

1977-01-01

344

Poetry in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue focus on the use of poetry for study in classrooms at all levels. Titles and authors of the articles include (1) "Summoning the Poem: Several Roads to Xanadu" by Ben F. Nelms; (2) "ABC's of Reading and Writing Poetry in Junior High" by Barbara Arnold; (3) "Invitations" by Elizabeth D. Nelms; (4) "Teaching Poetry…

Wyman, Linda, Ed.

1984-01-01

345

Injuries in Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

Obeng, Cecilia

2009-01-01

346

Tips from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four short articles are combined: "Adding Discourse-Level Practice to Sentence-Level Exercises" (Eric S. Nelson); "Presenting Picture Books in the ESL Classroom" (Lijun Shen); "Role Playing in a Large Class" (Ellen Rosen); and "Calvin and Hobbes and Other Icons of Americana" (Daniel J. Conrad). (Contains seven references.) (LB)

TESOL Journal, 1993

1993-01-01

347

In the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen conference papers on classroom techniques for second language teaching are presented, including: "Cooperative Learning at the Post-Secondary Level in Japan" (Steve McGuire, Patricia Thornton, David Kluge); "Shared Inquiry Fosters Critical Thinking Skills in EFL Students" (Carol Browning, Jerold Halvorsen, Denise Ahlquist); "Story Grammar:…

1997

348

Creating a Smart Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom system that was built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC. In the hope that other educators might find his department's experience useful, this author, David Domermuth (the department's coordinator of manufacturing) describes the system,…

Domermuth, David

2005-01-01

349

Creating a Smart Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State university. The system consists of three basic components: a home theater combo, a tablet PC, and a digital projector, costing a total of $7,300, or $8,800 if a podium, screen, and projector mount are purchased. The…

Domermuth, David

2005-01-01

350

Opening the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We argue that information systems educators--and others in similarly dynamic professional disciplines--could benefit from an alternative infrastructure for learning. We present an "open classroom" model of education which expands upon Ferris' (2002) collaborative partnership model of education by integrating "open" technologies such as Wiki and…

Watson, Richard T.; Boudreau, Marie-Claude; York, Paul T.; Greiner, Martina; Wynn, Donald E.

2008-01-01

351

Flipping the Classroom Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I received many emails following the first column on flipping the classroom. Many of my local colleagues also approached me at our physics alliance, Physics Northwest. Teachers are very interested in this new pedagogy. As I result, I wanted to share some more videos to inspire you.

Riendeau, Diane

2013-02-01

352

The Classroom Traffic Jam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

Edwards, Arthur W.

1977-01-01

353

Creating a Differentiated Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who differentiate their instruction begin by developing a broad and thorough understanding of their students, all of whom enter classrooms with varying interests, readiness levels, talents, and knowledge. Gathering this data about students and using it to purposefully implement differentiated practices can be time consuming and…

Keck, Susan; Kinney, Scott C.

2005-01-01

354

Cockroaches in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

2005-01-01

355

Classroom Idea-Sparkers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four Idea-Sparkers that were submitted by Jason McKinney, a graduate student at Southern Mississippi University and a 1st-grade teacher at Pisgah Elementary in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. First is entitled, "Raceway in the Classroom." This activity can help increase children's fluency and ability to identify numerous sight…

Kieff, Judith

2007-01-01

356

Drama in Your Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains articles offering new perceptions of creative drama in the elementary school basic English program. Creative dramatics is viewed as the core of a child's imagining, improvising, and languaging processes. Articles included are "Drama in the Classroom" by Sister Marie P. Hardy; "The Ray Bradbury Dramatic Workshop" by Dan…

Tiedt, Iris M., Ed.

357

The Network Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the role of new computer communications technologies in education focuses on modern networking systems, including fiber distributed data interface and Integrated Services Digital Network; strategies for implementing networked-based communication; and public online information resources for the classroom, including Bitnet, Internet,…

Maule, R. William

1993-01-01

358

The Engineered Adjustment Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the curriculum, behavioral modification program, summer activities, and parent involvement in the Papillion (Nebraska) Title III elementary level "engineered classroom" program for emotionally disturbed students. Noted is program initiation after parents and teachers became upset over poor academic progress and behaviors of an…

Spilker, George

359

Flexible Classroom Furniture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

Kim Hassell,

2011-01-01

360

Photography in Pink Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of photography provides many opportunities to attack the assumption of universal heterosexuality, which is central to our society, in order to provide space for other sexualities such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. This article is based on many years of lecturing in art schools and focuses on the classroom teaching of…

Ashburn, Liz

2007-01-01

361

LOGO in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles and features reprinted from "The Computing Teacher" begins with an outline (the table of contents) of a 20-session course, "Logo in the Classroom," by Shirley Torgerson, Mary Kay Kriley, and Janet Stone. The text of the first session and a student exercise sheet are also provided. Five articles included in the…

The Computing Teacher, 1985

1985-01-01

362

Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

Simpson-Beck, Victoria

2011-01-01

363

Research for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research upholds the significance of formative assessments in the classroom. Formative assessments are relevant to theory and practice; they offer positive possibilities with respect to both policy and pedagogy. At the policy level, formative assessments offer a means to minimize the negative effects of highstakes testing. The culture of…

Gorlewski, Julie, Ed.

2008-01-01

364

Injuries in preschool classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take when an

Cecilia Obeng

2009-01-01

365

Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

Mathews, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

366

Strategies in Classroom Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching—always a challenging profession —has, in today's complex society, become even more difficult. Large classes, sophisticated students, legal constraints, all compound the problems of dealing with student misbehavior. Today's teacher must be well-prepared to deal with problems, this author believes. He outlines six strategies that constitute a basic plan for classroom management.

Robert L. Shrigley

1979-01-01

367

Classroom management and disaffection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on aspects of the Norwich Area Schools Consortium (NASC) cross-school Classroom Management and Disaffection research project undertaken as part of the NASC programme. It documents the dual interwoven ‘stories’ of teacher engagement in research as a learning expand the substantive research undertaken. The project took place in two stages, the focus of the second stage emerging from

Barbara Zamorski; Terry Haydn

2002-01-01

368

Inquiry in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) As schools scramble to restructure in the hope of thwarting failure, administrators often appropriate money for outside experts who counsel on professional development as well as outside magic-pill programs for student achievement. High-stakes testing remains the arbiter. Perhaps the use of the best practice of inquiry, or classroom

Stohl, Christina

2010-01-01

369

Beyond the Classroom...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Student Developmental Transcript, a formal written record that documents learning useful in employment gained beyond the classroom through involvement in the cocurricular life of the institution. Describes cocurricular life as consisting of clubs, organizations, part-time employment, and other experiences outside confines of academic…

Hofmann, Kurt; And Others

1988-01-01

370

The Electronic Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of telecommunications in establishing the electronic classroom in distance education is illustrated. Using a computer-based doctoral program and the UNIX operating system as an example, how a personal computer and modem may be combined with a telephone line for instructional delivery is described. A number of issues must be addressed in…

Mizell, Al P.; Centini, Barry M.

371

Classroom influences on bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between estimates of teachers' management of the class, the social structure of the class and bullying otherswas investigated by questionnaires answered by 2,002 pupils and 99 teachers in Norwegian primary schools. A path analysis demonstrated that the social structure of the class had a direct impact on bullying behaviour. Classroom management had a direct impact on the prevalence

Erling Roland; David Galloway

2002-01-01

372

Composition: Classroom Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue present a variety of teaching methods to enhance writing instruction. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Writing for Real World Audiences in the Classroom?" (James P. Beck); (2) "Copycatting: Learning to Write by Imitating" (Mary Ann Stemper); (3) "The Journal" (Ellen Byers); (4)…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

1982-01-01

373

Idea Bank: Classroom Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever struggled with trying to motivate your students to learn science? If your answer is a resounding "yes!"-- the implementation of a class newsletter may be the solution. A class newsletter project can improve student self-confidence and motivate students to learn science. This article describes how to incorporate this effective strategy into your science classroom.

O'Connor, Mackenzie

2005-02-01

374

Cable in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable in the Classroom (CIC) is the cable industry's education foundation and has been active in the fields of media and information literacy for more than fifteen years. This article explains media literacy and its connection to information literacy, details CIC's work in these areas, and describes related resources available on CIC's Web site (http:\\/\\/www.ciconline.org). Finally, the article examines digital

Frank Gallagher; Kat Stewart

2011-01-01

375

Classroom of the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

Monte, Denise; Hupper, Mary L.; Scheifele, Peter

2000-03-01

376

Windows into Art Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John Matthews; Paul…

Grauer, Kit, Ed.

1995-01-01

377

The Special Educator's Toolkit: Everything You Need to Organize, Manage, and Monitor Your Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overwhelmed special educators: Reduce your stress and support student success with this practical toolkit for whole-classroom organization. A lifesaver for special educators in any K-12 setting, this book-and-CD set will help teachers expertly manage everything, from schedules and paperwork to student supports and behavior plans. Cindy Golden, a…

Golden, Cindy

2012-01-01

378

The Classroom Flow and Engagement Experiences of Western Australian Rural and Remote Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper commences with a brief examination of non-metropolitan student engagement and participation in schooling. It then describes how student engagement in classroom learning was conceptualised utilising Flow Theory. The key elements in this conception were subsequently used to construct an interview schedule. The characteristics of the…

Cavanagh, Rob

2014-01-01

379

Employing the Power of Technology to Change the Concept of the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nova Southeastern University (NSU) is constantly striving to expand the concept of the classroom and fulfill the mission of the university, which includes serving the educational needs of employed professionals, regardless of their schedules and distance from the central campus. "Distant learners" include those whose job demands, family…

Kontos, George; And Others

380

Tools for Hybrid Instruction - Classroom and Distance Instruction in Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education in this country must evolve in order to meet the learning needs of students that have difficulty acquiring degrees due to the scheduling and geographical constraints of the traditional classroom. Current approaches to this challenge are known collectively as \\

John Sigle; Jeff Key; Adrienne Critcher; Jamie Prince

2004-01-01

381

Investigating One Science Teacher’s Inquiry Unit Through an Integrated Analysis: The Scientific Practices Analysis (SPA)-Map and the Mathematics and Science Classroom Observation Profile System (M-SCOPS)  

E-print Network

perspectives. Based on students’ cognitive processes, Chinn and Malhotra contrasted the authentic inquiry form with the simple inquiry task, which is more prevalent in contemporary classrooms. Etheredge and Rudnitsky (2003) described inquiry... can be divided into five types depending on the levels of student-teacher interactions and participation: (1) traditional hands-on, (2) structured, (3) guided, (4) student-directed, and (5) student research. Authentic scientific research...

Yoo, Dawoon

2012-10-19

382

Auction Protocols for Decentralized Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized scheduling is the problem of allocating resources to alternative possible uses over time, where competing uses are represented by autonomous agents. Market mech- anisms use prices derived through distributed bidding protocols to determine schedules. We investigate the existence of equilibrium prices for some general classes of scheduling problems, the quality of equilibrium solutions, and the behavior of an ascending

Michael P. Wellman; William E. Walsh; Peter R. Wurman; Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason

1998-01-01

383

F1.5 Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, a continually increasing number of research efforts have investigated the application of evolutionary computation techniques for the solution of scheduling problems. Scheduling problems can pose extremely complex combinatorial optimization problems. The necessity to satisfy various kinds of constraint makes the scheduling task even more difficult. The major portion of this section is devoted to a

Ralf Bruns

384

FlexMod Scheduling Redux  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

Murray, Shannon

2008-01-01

385

NASA launch schedule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a record-setting launch schedule for 1984—10 space shuttle flights (see Table 1), 10 satellite deployments from the space shuttle in orbit and 12 unmanned missions using expendable launch vehicles. Also scheduled is the launch on March 1 for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of Landsat D?, the nation's second earth resources satellite.The launch activity will begin February 3 with the launch of shuttle mission 41-B using the orbiter Challenger. Two communications satellites will be deployed from 41-B: Westar-VI, for Western Union, and Palapa B-2 for the government of Indonesia. The 8-day mission will feature the first shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the first flight of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, a self-contained, propulsive backpack that will allow astronauts to move about in space without being tethered to the spacecraft.

Bell, Peter M.

386

Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Civeit, Thomas

387

Social-Cognitive Play Patterns in Same-Age and Mixed-Age Preschool Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical propositions and some research findings suggest that children may acquire unique adaptational advantages through mixed-age socialization. To further examine these claims, children's social-cognitive modes of play and peer responses to them were observed in two classrooms of 3-year-olds, in two classrooms of 4-year-olds, and in two mixed-age classrooms of 3- and 4-year-olds. Observations were conducted during 10 5-minute

Nina S. Mounts; Jaipaul L. Roopnarine

1987-01-01

388

Classroom and playground interaction of students with and without disabilities.  

PubMed

The classroom and playground behaviors of students with disabilities, in an integrated classroom, are frequently cited as reasons for rejection of these students by their regular-class peers. We compared the classroom and playground behavior of 95 students with mild disabilities with that of 95 students without disabilities, age and sex matched, and enrolled in the same classes. The children, age 8-13 years, attended state government elementary schools. Behaviors were observed using a time-sampling method with nine categories of behavior in each setting. The behavior of both groups of students was in many ways similar, regardless of the presence of disabilities. PMID:2149552

Roberts, C; Pratt, C; Leach, D

389

Marine sediments in the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present context of global climatic change, studies of the past natural climate variability is critical for the knowledge of the Earth climate mechanism. One of the major climatic reservoir is the ocean which covers more than 70% of the surface of the earth. It exchanges moisture and heat with the atmosphere and plays an important role in the climatic changes at different latitudes. The marine sediments are therefore archives of the past oceanographic/climatic changes. These marine sediments are collected as long cores penetrating into the sediment and therefore giving access to the progressive climatic changes with time. Marine sediments are classically composed of skeleton of micro-organisms and of terrigenous fraction. The main micro-organisms used as tracers of paleoclimatic changes are foraminifera. Their species change with the properties of the water mass in which they live (in particular temperature and salinity). With the aim of showing the students in a classroom how to recognize these species and to reconstruct the past oceanographic changes, "real" sediment has been taken during different cruises in different oceanic basins. We will present here the type of sediments available and the type of analysis/observation which can be made in a class. We will show how to perform the preparation of the samples and what are the possible observations through a binocular microscope. The students will then be able to extract information from their own observation about climate: its variations over time and through the differences between the areas of coring operations. In order to allow this activity to be introduced into your class, a program of distribution of these marine sediments will be proposed and will be presented. A registration form will be available. A limited number of proposals will be accepted and a report of their activity in the classroom will be mandatory a few months after the distribution of samples.

Van Toer, Aurelie; Le Divenah, Claudie

2013-04-01

390

A Comparison of Self-Monitoring with and without Reinforcement to Improve On-Task Classroom Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we analyzed the effects of a self-monitoring and self-monitoring plus reinforcement intervention on classroom behavior. A typically-developing high school student demonstrating difficulty staying on-task during classroom instruction was observed in three classroom settings associated with high levels of off-task behavior. During…

Davis, Tonya N.; Dacus, Sharon; Bankhead, Jenna; Haupert, Megan; Fuentes, Lisa; Zoch, Tamara; Kang, Soyeon; Attai, Shanna; Lang, Russell

2014-01-01

391

Classroom Research--The Teacher as a Researcher in the Foreign Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways that language teachers can identify, analyze, and solve the problems in their classrooms are discussed in terms of a model for action research. The model suggests that teachers should develop a plan of action, act to implement the plan, observe the effects of action, and reflect on these effects. (LB)

Steiner, Judy

1992-01-01

392

Dosing schedules for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: considerations for policy makers.  

PubMed

Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses-the schedule-that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

Whitney, Cynthia G; Goldblatt, David; O'Brien, Katherine L

2014-01-01

393

Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

2012-02-01

394

Bringing Social Media to the Writing Classroom: Classroom Salon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new IText technology called Classroom Salon. The goal of Classroom Salon is to bring some of the benefits of social media—the expression of personal identity and community—to writing classrooms. It provides Facebook-like features to writing classes, where students can form social networks as annotators within the drafts of their peers. The authors discuss how the technology

David Kaufer; Ananda Gunawardena; Aaron Tan; Alexander Cheek

2011-01-01

395

Classroom Management in the Art Room.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates how elementary students tend to behave differently in the art classroom than in the content area classrooms. Addresses how art teachers can develop the appropriate skills to promote classroom management in the art classroom. Provides 12 classroom management hints. (CMK)

Larochelle, Linda

1999-01-01

396

The classroom space project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom Space is a national education project funded by PPARC and run by the University of Leicester, in collaboration with the National Space Centre. It aims to revitalize science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. The comprehensive classroom resources-which are available to download free of charge from the project website www.classroomspace.org.uk-are all linked to the National Curriculum and are fully self-contained. The materials are developed through partnership between space scientists, teachers and education professionals. The project was launched at the ASE Annual Meeting in January, and this paper summarizes the motivation for the project and its development, as well as looking forward to ideas for an extension to the project for which funding has been confirmed.

Verbickas, Sarah

2005-11-28

397

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Agriculture in the Classroom initiative is designed to "improve agricultural literacy." The organization's work is supported by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which works to develop the classroom programs, including fact sheets, lesson plans, and interactive activities. Visitors can make their way through five sections on the homepage, including State Programs, Teacher Center, and Student Center. In the Teacher Center, visitors will find lesson plans, state agricultural facts, and current and back issues of "AgroWorld." This publication brings together helpful information for students and teachers seeking to learn about integrated science, Earth systems, and family and consumer science. Moving along, the Student Center includes fun activities for younger children in the Kids' Zone, such as games that allow students to learn about farm activities and the world of agricultural science.

398

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Interviews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes the technique of using interviews to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. Interviews enable instructors to judge the extent of understanding students have developed with respect to a series of well-focused, conceptually-related scientific ideas. This site provides an overview of this assessment instrument including information about how to use classroom interviews to their maximum benefit. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Smith, Mike U.; Southerland, Sherry A.; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

399

C-SPAN Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The C-SPAN in the classroom website is geared toward teachers of political science - or specifically U.S. Government. The site is split into six segments: Principles of Government, the Constitution, Political Participation and each of the three branches of government. Each of these sections features video clips, and questions for class discussion. Free site membership is available, but not required to use the site. Some additional content and services are available with membership.

2006-11-25

400

Sustainable Seas Classroom Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multimedia approach promotes ocean exploration and conservation. Underwater expeditions to National Marine Sanctuaries provide case studies and data for lesson plans. Topics include: biological oceanography; ocean regions and habitats; physical ocean process; human links to and impacts on the ocean; applications of oceanography. Virtual expeditions link the classroom experience with the individual National Marine Sanctuaries, research methods and technology, and researchers' experiences. Free, on-line teacher workshops feature top ocean researchers and policy makers.

401

Early Childhood: Learning to Observe Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests: (1) activities to enhance interest during observations of animals in the elementary science classroom; (2) possible questions to ask during these observations; and (3) sources for observing animals such as pet stores and farms, as well as bringing pets into the classroom. (DS)

McIntyre, Margaret, Ed.

1981-01-01

402

Science Beyond the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking science education beyond the classroom provides learning opportunities and experiences for students that just aren't available within school walls, and Science Beyond the Classroom has a wealth of ideas on how to do it successfully. These carefully selected articles from the NSTA journals Science Scope and Science and Children were gathered into a compendium because of the value of informal science education in providing access to those experiences and in tapping into student interests. Science Beyond the Classroom provides an overview of information and ideas--many of them include step-by-step, teacher-tested instructions and guidelines--that can be easily modified and adapted by teachers and others--scout leaders, club sponsors, parents, and home schoolers among them--who want to nurture enthusiasm for science. An introduc�tion providing background and ideas for using the articles and a list of additional articles and web sites leads each of the five sections: � Extending Science Learning Beyond the Curriculum: Projects and Challenges � Extending Science Learning Beyond the School Building Walls: Using Local Sites � Extending Science Learning Beyond the School Day: Clubs, Camps and Science Expositions � Extending Science Learning to the Family: Take-Home Projects and Family Science Events � Extending Science Learning to Informal Institutions: Museums, Zoos, and Other Field Trips With its potential for engaging student interest, this book aims also at encouraging more students to enter academic fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

2008-01-01

403

Coordinated Science Campaign Scheduling for Sensor Webs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future Earth observing missions will study different aspects and interacting pieces of the Earth's eco-system. Scientists are designing increasingly complex, interdisciplinary campaigns to exploit the diverse capabilities of multiple Earth sensing assets. In addition, spacecraft platforms are being configured into clusters, trains, or other distributed organizations in order to improve either the quality or the coverage of observations. These simultaneous advances in the design of science campaigns and in the missions that will provide the sensing resources to support them offer new challenges in the coordination of data and operations that are not addressed by current practice. For example, the scheduling of scientific observations for satellites in low Earth orbit is currently conducted independently by each mission operations center. An absence of an information infrastructure to enable the scheduling of coordinated observations involving multiple sensors makes it difficult to execute campaigns involving multiple assets. This paper proposes a software architecture and describes a prototype system called DESOPS (Distributed Earth Science Observation Planning and Scheduling) that will address this deficiency.

Edgington, Will; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer; Williams, Jenny; Carlson, Jean; Fleming, Damian; Wood, Terri; Yorke-Smith, Neil

2005-01-01

404

2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.  

SciTech Connect

This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01

405

Subject Matter Constraints on the Ecology of Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ecological concepts of activity structure and activity segments were central to this examination of observational data attained in a three-week period from 18 fifth-grade math classes and 17 fifth-grade social studies classes in school districts in the greater Chicago region. Classroom observations were conducted by pairs of observers: one…

Stodolsky, Susan S.

406

Development of a Standardized Measure of Classroom Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample research observation measure and its preparation into a written observer training package for use in evaluating children within or across classrooms is described. The Planned Activity Check (PLA-Check) measure, a time-sample observation of children's participation is planned activities; was used. A training manual based upon the PLA-Check…

Cataldo, Michael F.; Risley, Todd R.

407

Communication Strategies Used by High School English Language Learners in Multilingual Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, twenty-five high school English language learners were observed in their classrooms in a New York City public school while they worked in small groups. All observations were video recorded or done by the researcher while in the classrooms. The videos were then transcribed. Communication strategies that the participants used were…

Spromberg, Sarah

2011-01-01

408

A Classroom of Polymer Factories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

1998-01-01

409

Classroom implementation of the practices learned in the Master of Chemistry Education program by the School District of Philadelphia's high school chemistry teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory case study utilizing quantitative and qualitative methodologies intended to ascertain the extent and differences of implementation of research-based instructional practices, learned in an intensive 26-month professional development, in their urban classrooms. Both the extent and differences in the implementation of practices were investigated in relation to the lesson design and implementation, content, and classroom culture aspects of research-based practices. Additionally, this research includes the concerns of the teachers regarding the factors that helped or hindered the implementation of research-based practices in their classrooms. Six graduates of the Master of Chemistry Education Program who were teaching a chemistry course in a high school in the School District of Philadelphia at the time of the study (2006-8), were the case. The teachers completed a concerns questionnaire with closed and open-ended items, and rated their perceptions of the extent of implementation of the practices in their urban classrooms. Additionally, the teachers were observed and rated by the researcher using a reform-teaching observation protocol and were interviewed individually. Also, the teachers submitted their lesson plans for the days they were observed. Data from these sources were analyzed to arrive at the findings for this study. The research findings suggest that the group of teachers in the study implemented the research-based practices in their classrooms to a low extent when compared to the recommended practices inherent to the MCE Program. The extents of implementation of the practices differed widely among the teachers, from being absent to being implemented at a high level, with inconsistent levels of implementation from various data sources. Further, the teachers expressed the depth of knowledge (gained in the MCE Program), formal laboratory exercises and reports, administrative support, self-motivated students, and group/collaborative work as several factors that enabled or would have enabled the implementation of practices. Among the many factors that hindered the implementation of the practices in their urban classrooms were, the core curriculum and pacing schedule, followed by test preparation, administrative paper-work, large class-size, students not prepared for student-centered work, poor math and reading skills of students, students' lack of motivation, unsupportive department head, unresponsive administration, and lack of resources.

Jayaraman, Uma Devi

410

Editor's Roundtable: Classroom management � la Goldilocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom management is a difficult balancing act. Like Goldilocks, teachers should sample all the classroom management techniques available to them to find the ones that are "just right" for their classroom. Therefore, teachers must quickly establish a c

Liftig, Inez

2009-07-01

411

The Application of Artificial Intelligence to Astronomical Scheduling Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As artificial intelligence (AI) technology has moved from the research laboratory into more and more widespread use, one of the leading applications in astronomy has been to high-profile observation scheduling. The Spike scheduling system was developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) for the purpose of long-range scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Spike has been in daily operational use at STScI since well before HST launch in April 1990. The system has also been adapted to schedule other missions: one of these missions (EUVE) is currently operational, while another (ASTRO-D) will be launched in February 1993. Some other future space astronomy missions (XTE, SWAS, and AXAF) are making tentative plans to use Spike. Spike has proven to be a powerful and flexible scheduling framework with applicability to a wide variety of problems.

Johnston, Mark D.

1993-01-01

412

Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

2013-01-01

413

Models of Classroom Management as Applied to the Secondary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulty managing behavior in the classroom is frequently cited as a source of frustration for teachers and a common reason why new teachers leave the profession (Ingersoll 2001, 2003). Concerted attention to issues of classroom management is important to the health of education; attention to these issues at the middle and secondary education…

Malmgren, Kimber W.; Trezek, Beverly J.; Paul, Peter V.

2005-01-01

414

Assessing the Classroom Environment of the Virtual Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study was conducted in order to determine whether a virtual classroom can be assessed, and whether it can be done using already proven techniques for classroom environment assessment. Study participants were 20 graduate students in education enrolled in three different courses offered at a distance via the World Wide Web. Each of the…

Powers, Susan M.; Davis, Michaeleen; Torrence, Eileen

415

Creating a Conducive Classroom Environment: Classroom Management Is the Key  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating a classroom environment which is conducive to learning is one of the most important things a teacher can do. This becomes even more crucial as students enter classrooms with their cell phones, pagers, and beepers. Additionally, many students are tardy for class, leave early, or may not appear in class on numerous occasions. Therefore,…

Findley, Bev; Varble, Dale

2006-01-01

416

Classroom Interactions: Gender of Teacher, Gender of Student, and Classroom Subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

An observational study investigated the effects of gender of teacher, gender of student, and classroom subject (mathematics vs. English literature\\/language) on teacher–student interactions. A total of 597 high school students (294 males and 303 females) and 36 teachers (28 males and 8 females) were observed in either 18 mathematics classes or 18 literature\\/language classes. Students and teachers were predominately Caucasian,

Jim Duffy; Kelly Warren; Margaret Walsh

2001-01-01

417

Scheduling Algorithm for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm that applies a new mechanism in order to generate scheduling which allows for evaluation of the quality of solutions that are obtained in the job shop scheduling problem (JSSP). In this research, the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the makespan as an objective function. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed algorithm

Marco Antonio Cruz-Chávez; Martín G. Martínez-Rangel; J. A. Hernandez; José Crispín Zavala-Díaz; Ocotlán Díaz-Parra

2007-01-01

418

An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education programs and the stress of testing on everyone involved in high-stakes testing.

Marchette, Frances Lenora

419

Slime: Classroom Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Education Resource Center has provided this hands on lab activity created by Andrew Nydam and Debbie Goodwin. The activity demonstrates property change due to crosslinking in slime formed from mixing PVA and Borax solution. This lab will teach the students the important concepts of plastic flow vs. elastic flow, hydrogen bonding, and viscosity. This pdf document provides instructions for the instructor, recommendations to ensure the experiment goes smoothly for both students and teacher, and an evaluation packet for the students to complete once the lab is finished. All in all, this is a fun and education tool for any high school or community college science classroom.

Goodwin, Debbie; Nydam, Andrew

2010-08-06

420

The Physics Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Study Works Online and written by science teacher Tom Henderson, The Physics Classroom is an online physics tutorial written for high school physics students. Through individual lessons and accompanying quizzes, this very informative site includes a physics tutorial that covers everything from Newton's Laws to Refraction. The Multimedia Physics Studio portion of the site gives excellent animations and movies that allow students to reinforce their learning by visualizing what is being discussed. One of the available QuickTime movies shows a simplified roller coaster doing loops and illustrates the varying kinetic and potential energy throughout the ride.

Henderson, Tom

2007-04-17

421

Communication Contrasts in Classroom Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research study was undertaken to determine class-room behavior and communication gap based on gender differences. The research was concerned with student perceptions of the classroom behaviors of both male and female students and professors alike. The research was conceived to be beneficial in identifying gender stereotypes of images about classmates and professors.An assessment of gender differences during Training sessions

Salim Qureshi

1996-01-01

422

Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

2011-01-01

423

Information Gap in Communicative Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In traditional, grammar-oriented second language classrooms, the most common classroom procedure is for the teacher to ask the student a question for which the answer is already known to both. Because no real information is exchanged, this is not a communicative practice. It is alien to the real communicative needs of students, involves no…

Liao, Xiaoqing

424

Acoustical evaluation of preschool classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made of the acoustical environments in the Berwick Preschool, Vancouver, in response to complaints by the teachers. Reverberation times (RT), background noise levels (BNL), and in-class sound levels (Leq) were measured for acoustical evaluation in the classrooms. With respect to the measured RT and BNL, none of the classrooms in the preschool were acceptable according to the criteria relevant to this study. A questionnaire was administered to the teachers to assess their subjective responses to the acoustical and nonacoustical environments of the classrooms. Teachers agreed that the nonacoustical environments in the classrooms were fair, but that the acoustical environments had problems. Eight different classroom configurations were simulated to improve the acoustical environments, using the CATT room acoustical simulation program. When the surface absorption was increased, both the RT and speech levels decreased. RASTI was dependent on the volumes of the classrooms when the background noise levels were high; however, it depended on the total absorption of the classrooms when the background noise levels were low. Ceiling heights are critical as well. It is recommended that decreasing the volume of the classrooms is effective. Sound absorptive materials should be added to the walls or ceiling.

Yang, Wonyoung; Hodgson, Murray

2003-10-01

425

Nurturing Spirituality in Secular Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1999 the New Zealand secular school curriculum has included a statement on fostering children's spirituality in classrooms. This statement defines spirituality in a broad fashion and includes reference to Maori (indigenous New Zealander) views on spirituality. The implications of this for classroom teachers have not been researched in this…

Fraser, Deborah; Grootenboer, Peter

2004-01-01

426

Classroom Furniture: The Mod Squad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first article in a six-part series on the elements of a collaborative classroom: furniture, social media, video/web conferencing tools, collaborative software, interactive devices, and mobile devices. With most universities facing tight budgets, convincing administrators to invest in expensive new classrooms is a challenge. Many higher…

Raths, David

2012-01-01

427

Toward More Just Classroom Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address issues of equity with young children, early childhood educators must become interventionists. They must reconsider how they interact with children to identify the subtle ways that power structures classroom life and shapes children's identities. It is important to attend to the materials in the classroom to ensure that they are…

Young Children, 2010

2010-01-01

428

Science beyond the Classroom Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been many years of innovation in primary science education. Surprisingly, however, most of this has taken place within the confines of the classroom. What primary science has not yet done with universal success is step outside the classroom boundaries to use the school grounds for teaching and learning across all aspects of the science…

Feasey, Rosemary; Bianchi, Lynne

2011-01-01

429

Fight Obesity in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

Bratsis, Michael E.

2012-01-01

430

Classroom Management: Implications for Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom management may be the most fundamental and most difficult task the teacher performs. A search of the literature reveals at least five rather different definitions of classroom management that represent particular philosophical approaches: 1) the authoritarian approach, 2) the permissive approach, 3) the behavior modification approach, 4)…

Garza, Gonzalo

431

Mentoring in the Art Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring in classrooms allows teachers the opportunity to be motivational tools in the lives of students while operating as role models. The current research shows that mentoring in the art classroom provides stimulation and the momentum to students who are less motivated with creative assignments. The first part of this study looks at the…

Green, Denise; Mitchell, Timothy; Taylor, Patrick

2011-01-01

432

Photography in the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are some ideas for using photography in the elementary classroom. Justification for using photography in the classroom includes student interaction with the photography materials, building teacher-student rapport, the potential for integration into different areas of elementary curriculum, and support for the developmental theorists'…

Thompson, Lowell

1980-01-01

433

Effective Communication in Multicultural Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research tries to determine effective intercultural classroom communication in the American higher education setting. Theories on classroom communication and intercultural communication (Uncertainty Reduction and Communication Accommodation) are used to build the framework. Subjects were four professors from three different academic…

Liao, Xiaofan

434

Negotiating Critical Literacies in Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book brings together accounts of educators who have sought to make a difference in the lives of their students through literacy education--from university classrooms in the United States, England, and South Africa, to policy and curriculum development in Singapore and Australia. The literacy classrooms explored in the book range from the…

Comber, Barbara, Ed.; Simpson, Anne, Ed.

435

Sharing Power in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that be sharing power in the classroom teachers allow the development of participatory classrooms in which all students can thrive. Examines participatory teaching and critical pedagogy, components of the participatory learning experience, manifestations of participatory teaching, an application of the language experience approach,…

Richard-Amato, Patricia

2002-01-01

436

Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom" is a groundbreaking collection of essays by leading scholars, who examine and respond to the tension that many educators face in valuing student creativity but believing that they cannot support it given the curricular constraints of the classroom. Is it possible for teachers to nurture creative development…

Beghetto, Ronald A., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.

2010-01-01

437

The Saga of Relocatable Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Capistrano (California) Unified School District's use of portable classrooms to solve overenrollment problems while complying with Governor Wilson's directive to reduce class size in primary grades. When evaluating the merits of relocatable classrooms, school leaders should consider acquisition and use, identification of responsible…

Fleming, James A.

1997-01-01

438

Bringing Globalization into the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the most effective resources for bringing the concept of globalization into the classroom is through the personal and professional experiences of the classroom teacher, the personal experiences of students from diverse cultures, the inclusion of curriculum activities with a global context, and the involvement of guest speakers with global…

Billings, Nancy Carter

2006-01-01

439

Classroom Interaction, Satellite-Interposed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pan-Pacific Educational and Communication Experiments by Satellite (PEACESAT) project for interconnecting classroom of colleges in the Pacific Basin was tried for the first time in June and July, 1971, between two campuses of the University of Hawaii. The experimenters found that while classroom interconnection by satellite produces some…

Byers, Burton H.

440

Satellite Technologies in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on ways of using satellite imagery obtained from the Internet, to enhance classroom learning. Discusses satellite deployment; classroom applications, including infrared imagery, high-resolution photography, and global positioning satellites; and use of satellite data for hands-on activities, including cartography, city and community…

Portz, Stephen M.

1999-01-01

441

A disk head scheduling simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disk head scheduling is a standard topic in undergraduate operating systems courses. Disk drives were once fairly simple devices with little intelligence. Disk head scheduling and bad block mapping were done exclusively by operating systems. As disk drives became larger and faster, they took on some of these tasks. Modern drives often have a large cache and hide their internal

Steven Robbins

2004-01-01

442

Agent-based project scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent technology offers a new way of thinking about many of the classic problems in operations research. Among these are problems such as project scheduling subject to resource constraints. In this paper, we develop and experimentally evaluate eight agent-based algorithms for solving the multimode, resource-constrained project scheduling problem. Our algorithms differ in the priority rules used to control agent access

Gary Knotts; Moshe Dror; Bruce C. Hartman

2000-01-01

443

Chemotherapy Operations Planning and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapy Operations Planning and Scheduling Turkcan et al. Chemotherapy operations planning and scheduling in oncology clinics is a complex problem due to several factors such as the cyclic nature of chemotherapy treatment plans, the high variability in resource requirements (treatment time, nurse time, pharmacy time) and the multiple clinic resources involved. Treatment plans are made by oncologists for each patient

Ayten Turkcan; Bo Zeng; Mark Lawley

2012-01-01

444

Advanced planning and scheduling technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research on the core technology in advanced planning and scheduling (APS) systems that are currently the state-of-art in supply chain planning and optimisation. Further research is needed to enable the opportunities given, especially the area of combined planning and scheduling. Mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methods have been successfully applied to solve diverse problems, such as planning

Kenn Steger-Jensen; Hans-Henrik Hvolby; Peter Nielsen; Izabela Nielsen

2011-01-01

445

Optimal Crane Scheduling Iiro Harjunkoski  

E-print Network

1 Optimal Crane Scheduling Ionu Aron Iiro Harjunkoski John Hooker Latife Genç Kaya March 2007 #12;2 Problem · Schedule 2 cranes to transfer material between locations in a manufacturing plant. ­ For example, copper processing. ­ Cranes move on a common track. ­ Cranes cannot move past each other. · One crane can

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

446

Production Functions and Cost Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Production functions, such as the Cobb-Douglas and CES, underly cost schedules used to model firms in micro-economics. The models illustrate this link and show the relation between long and short run cost schedules. Uses calculus (Langrangians) and online diagrams.

Wiens, Elmer

2007-03-02

447

Multiprocessor Scheduling with Availability Constraints  

E-print Network

) the end of the last downtime or the end of the optimal schedule. For problems where the optimal schedule ends after the last downtime, and when the downtimes represent fixed jobs, the maximum completion time of FFDL Multifit is within 3 2 or ( 3 2+ 1 2k...

Grigoriu, Liliana

2010-07-14

448

A REVIEW OF SCHEDULING PROBLEMS IN RADIOTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the radiotherapy patient scheduling problem of minimising waiting times. Like many other service industry problems, radiotherapy patient scheduling may be solved by first modelling and formulating it into a shop scheduling problem. Over the years, these shop scheduling models have been researched and solved using various approaches. This paper typifies radiotherapy patient scheduling into a job shop

T. Kapamara; K. Sheibaniy; D. Petrovic; Coventry CV

449

Job Scheduling in HPC systems Julita Corbalan  

E-print Network

03/12/2007 1 Job Scheduling in HPC systems Julita Corbalan EEAP Job Scheduling for HPC systems-levels ­ Meta-scheduling · Performance evaluation · Some existing queuing systems Job Scheduling for HPC systems of queued jobs Job Scheduling for HPC systems Julita Corbalan #12;03/12/2007 2 Definitions · Jobs can

Corbalan, Julita

450

Young Scientist in Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bringing space exploration recent results and future challenges and opportunities to the knowledge of students has been a preoccupation of educators and space agencies for quite some time. The will to foster student’s interest and reawaken their interest for science topics and in particular research is something occupying the minds of educators in all corners of the globe. But the challenge is growing literally at the speed of light. We are in the age of “Big Data”. Information is available, opportunities to build smart algorithms flourishing. The problem at hand is how we are going to make use of all this possibilities. How can we prepare students to the challenges already upon them? How can we create a scientifically literate and conscious new generation? They are the future of mankind and therefore this is a priority and should quickly be recognized as such. Empowering teachers for this challenge is the key to face the challenges and hold the opportunities. Teachers and students need to learn how to establish fruitful collaboration in the pursuit of meaningful teaching and learning experiences. Teachers need to embrace the opportunities this ICT world is offering and accompany student’s path as tutors and not as explorers themselves. In this training session we intend to explore tools and repositories that bring real cutting edge science to the hands of educators and their students. A full space exploration will be revealed. Planetarium Software - Some tools tailored to prepare an observing session or to explore space mission’s results will be presented in this topic. Participants will also have the opportunity to learn how to plan an observing session. This reveals to be an excellent tool to teach about celestial movements and give students a sense of what it means to explore for instance the Solar System. Robotic Telescopes and Radio Antennas - Having planned an observing session the participants will be introduced to the use of robotic telescopes, a very powerful tool that allows educators to address a diversity of topics ranging from ICT tools to the Exploration of our Universe. Instead of using traditional methods to teach about certain subjects for instance: stellar spectra, extra-solar planets or the classification of galaxies, they can use these powerful tools. Among other advantages a clear benefit of such tool is that teachers can use telescopes during regular classroom hours, provided they choose one located in the opposite part of the planet, where it is night time. Participants will also have the opportunity to use one of the radio antennas devoted for education from the EUHOU Consortium (European Hands-on Universe). A map of the arms of our galaxy will be built during the training session. Image Processing - After acquiring the images participants will be introduced to Salsa J, an image processing software that allows educators to explore the potential of astronomical images. The first example will be a simple measurement task: measuring craters on the Moon. Further exploration will guide them from luminosity studies to the construction of colour images, from making movies exhibiting the circular motion of the Sun to Jupiter Moons dance around the planet. e-learning repositories - In the ICT age it is very important that educators have support and know where to find meaningful and curriculum adapted resources for the construction of modern lessons. Some repositories will be presented in this session. Examples of such repositories are: Discover the Cosmos and EUHOU or a congregator of such repositories with quite advanced possibilities to support the work of teachers, the Open Discovery Space portal. This type of sessions are being successfully implemented by the Galileo Teacher Training Program team in Portugal under the scope of the EC funded GO-LAB project. This is a project devoted to demonstrate innovative ways to involve teachers and students in e-Science through the use of virtual labs, that simulate experiments, in order to spark young people’s interest in science and in following scie

Doran, Rosa

451

Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

Brown, Estevancio

2010-01-01

452

Toward the virtual classroom  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) encourages its employees to remotely attend classes given by Stanford University, University of California at Davis, and the National Technological University (NTU). To improve the quality of education for LLNL employees, we are cooperating with Stanford University in upgrading the Stanford Instructional Television Network (SITN). A dedicated high-speed communication link (Tl) between Stanford and LLNL will be used for enhanced services such as videoconferencing, real time classnotes distribution, and electronic distribution of homework assignments. The new network will also allow students to take classes from their offices with the ability to ask the professor questions via an automatically dialed telephone call. As part of this upgrade, we have also proposed a new videoconferencing based classroom environment where students taking remote classes would feel as though they are attending the live class. All paperwork would be available in near real time and students may converse normally with, and see, other remote students as though they were all in the same physical location. We call this the Virtual Classroom.'' 1 ref., 6 figs.

Pihlman, M.; Dirks, D.H.

1990-01-03

453

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems #  

E-print Network

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems # Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate­fair CPU scheduling algorithm

Chandra, Abhishek

454

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems  

E-print Network

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate­fair CPU scheduling algorithm

Chandra, Abhishek

455

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems  

E-print Network

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate-fair CPU scheduling algorithm

Chandra, Abhishek

456

Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint Propagation techniques. A simulation platform, an analysis tool and different test case scenarios for CTA were developed to test the performance of the scheduler and are also described.

Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

2014-08-01

457

Present and future hydropower scheduling in Statkraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statkraft produces close to 40 TWH in an average year and is one of the largest hydropower producers in Europe. For hydropower producers the scheduling of electricity generation is the key to success and this depend on optimal use of the water resources. The hydrologist and his forecasts both on short and on long terms are crucial to this success. The hydrological forecasts in Statkraft and most hydropower companies in Scandinavia are based on lumped models and the HBV concept. But before the hydrological model there is a complex system for collecting, controlling and correcting data applied in the models and the production scheduling and, equally important, routines for surveillance of the processes and manual intervention. Prior to the forecasting the states in the hydrological models are updated based on observations. When snow is present in the catchments snow surveys are an important source for model updating. The meteorological forecast is another premise provider to the hydrological forecast and to get as precise meteorological forecast as possible Statkraft hires resources from the governmental forecasting center. Their task is to interpret the meteorological situation, describe the uncertainties and if necessary use their knowledge and experience to manually correct the forecast in the hydropower production regions. This is one of several forecast applied further in the scheduling process. Both to be able to compare and evaluate different forecast providers and to ensure that we get the best available forecast, forecasts from different sources are applied. Some of these forecasts have undergone statistical corrections to reduce biases. The uncertainties related to the meteorological forecast have for a long time been approached and described by ensemble forecasts. But also the observations used for updating the model have a related uncertainty. Both to the observations itself and to how well they represent the catchment. Though well known, these uncertainties have thus far been handled superficially. Statkraft has initiated a program called ENKI to approach these issues. A part of this program is to apply distributed models for hydrological forecasting. Developing methodologies to handle uncertainties in the observations, the meteorological forecasts, the model itself and how to update the model with this information are other parts of the program. Together with energy price expectations and information about the state of the energy production system the hydrological forecast is input to the next step in the production scheduling both on short and long term. The long term schedule for reservoir filling is premise provider to the short term optimizing of water. The long term schedule is based on the actual reservoir levels, snow storages and a long history of meteorological observations and gives an overall schedule at a regional level. Within the regions a more detailed tool is used for short term optimizing of the hydropower production Each reservoir is scheduled taking into account restrictions in the water courses and cost of start and stop of aggregates. The value of the water is calculated for each reservoir and reflects the risk of water spillage. This compared to the energy price determines whether an aggregate will run or not. In a gradually more complex energy system with relatively lower regulated capacity this is an increasingly more challenging task.

Bruland, O.

2012-12-01

458

Scheduling algorithms for arbitrary communication networks  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of designing scheduling schemes for networks with arbitrary topology and scheduling constraints. We address the optimality of scheduling schemes for packet networks in terms of throughput, delay and ...

Jagabathula, Srikanth

2008-01-01

459

The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

2012-01-01

460

Supporting Classroom Activities with the BSUL System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the…

Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Nobuji A.; Paredes J., Rosa G.; San Martin, Gerardo Ayala; Yano, Yoneo

2008-01-01

461

Classroom Management: What Does Research Tell Us?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews studies that focus on classroom management. The aim of classroom management is twofold. The first is to establish a quiet and calm environment in the classroom so that the pupils can take part in meaningful learning in a subject. The second aim is that classroom management contributes to the pupils' social and moral…

Postholm, May Britt

2013-01-01

462

Second Language Classroom Research. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of second (or foreign) language classroom research is to answer important questions about the learning and teaching of foreign languages. This kind of research collects data from genuine language classrooms or from experimental settings sometimes established to replicate what takes place in the classroom. Classroom research can focus…

Nunan, David

463

Trout in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program experienced an amazing growth spurt. Thanks to AEP and Dominion grants and chapter fundraising efforts, we now have more than 200 classrooms throughout the state, ranging from elementary school through high school.

Heath, Thomas

2014-05-01

464

Remind: Safe Classroom Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not just for teachers! This handy app allows organizers of all kinds to send safe, easy, and free one-way messages to groups and individuals. Phone numbers are kept private. Teachers, coaches, club leaders, and others use the service to schedule reminders, assignments, homework, assessments, and motivational messages directly to studentsâÂÂ, parentsâÂÂ, and group membersâ phones. This app is designed for iPhone and iPad users running iOS 6.0 or later.

2014-08-28

465

Teaching Teamwork to Adolescents With Autism: The Cooperative Use of Activity Schedules  

PubMed Central

We used a multiple baseline design to assess the effects of prompting and reinforcement to teach three pairs of adolescents with autism to use photographic activity schedules to cooperatively complete a multistep vocational task (e.g., cleaning a kitchen). Baseline data indicated that despite being competent schedule followers, participants did not coordinate their actions to complete the schedule cooperatively. Following intervention, we observed an increase in cooperative schedule following. All prompts were removed and the schedule of reinforcement was thinned to the end of the task for two of the three pairs. We discuss the results in terms of increasing the collaborative work skills of individuals with autism. PMID:22532901

White, Erin Richard; Hoffmann, Barbara; Hoch, Hannah; Taylor, Bridget A

2011-01-01

466

Preliminary design of condenser cleansing schedule  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the operations of a fossil power plant for a 5-year period revealed a year-round trend of operating inefficiently due to elevated condenser back pressure, particularly during the summer months. A further 5-month longitudinal study between May and September of an individual condenser unit revealed a positive correlation between increasing inlet-circulating water temperature and above-design condenser back pressure. Moreover, condenser cleansing resulted in a return to approximately the design operating condition. A physical analysis of increased heat-rate and lost power generation from inefficient condenser back pressure was accomplished. Based on these observations and economic analysis, a preliminary cleansing schedule for periods of increasing circulating water temperature was derived. Further studies are planned to validate the proposed cleansing schedule.

Warberg, J.; Foraker, E.K. [Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States); Civera, A.G.; Daley, M.L. [Allen Steam Plant, Memphis, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

467

Ozone removal by occupants in a classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone concentrations were measured in a classroom with and without occupants, with the purpose to quantify effects on indoor O3 concentrations. The teacher and 24 11-year old pupils each removed O3 at a rate, first order in O3, corresponding to a rate constant of (2.5 ± 0.6) × 10-5 s-1 in the present locality and to a deposition velocity of 0.45 cm s-1. The O3-removal caused by the occupants was approximately 2.6 times larger than that of the available surfaces belonging to the classroom and its furniture. Observation of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 4-oxopentanal at maximum concentrations of 0.2 ppb and 0.7 ppb, respectively, suggested squalene from human skin oil as a reactive, ozone-consuming substance. There are indications of a source of 4-oxopentanal in the classroom, even some time after the pupils left for the day. The work presented is important for a proper description of indoor exposure, both to ozone itself and some of its reaction products when trying to quantify relations between exposure and health effects.

Fischer, Andreas; Ljungström, Evert; Langer, Sarka

2013-12-01

468

AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

1991-01-01

469

Privacy-Enhanced Event Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Event schedulers, well-known from groupware and social software, typically share the problem that they disclose detailed availability patterns,of their users. This paper,distin- guishes event scheduling,from,electronic voting and,proposes,a privacy-enhanced,event scheduling scheme. Based on superposed sending and Diffie?Hellman key agreement, it is designed to be efficient enough,for practical implementations,while requiring minimal,trust in a central entity. Protocols to enable,dynamic joining and,leaving of participants

Benjamin Kellermann; Rainer Bohme

2009-01-01

470

Research Ship Information and Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unusual resource for Research Ship Information and Schedules is maintained by the University of Delaware's Ocean Information Center (OCEANIC). Complete with a searchable database of schedules and characteristics of deep-water scientific research vessels, this site is an excellent example of the range of eclectic and specialized information available on the Web. Information on facilities, research capabilities, layouts, schedules, and much more is organized by country and ship name; for US research vessels, information is also listed by agency and institution. Other features include links to a staggering array of related research ship information sites.

1999-01-01

471

Teacher Management of Elementary Classroom Social Dynamics: Associations with Changes in Student Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and students in 54 elementary school classrooms (first, third, and fifth grades) participated in a multi-method longitudinal study of classroom social dynamics. At each of three assessments within a single school year, observers rated teacher-student interaction quality, students completed sociometric assessments and reported on their…

Gest, Scott D.; Madill, Rebecca A.; Zadzora, Kathleen M.; Miller, Aaron M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2014-01-01

472

Interactive whiteboards, interactivity and play in the classroom with children aged three to seven years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current use of interactive whiteboards in the teaching and learning of children aged three to seven years in Wales, UK. It considers both teachers’ and children’s reflections regarding the use of this ‘novel’ technology. Observations in 30 classrooms with interactive whiteboards (IWB) and interviews with teachers and children from these classroom settings are analysed to develop

Alex Morgan

2010-01-01

473

Play and Joint Attention of Children with Autism in the Preschool Special Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine play and joint attention in children with autism (n = 27) as compared to children with other developmental delays (n = 28) in public preschool special education classrooms. The participants were observed in their classroom environment for 2 h over 3 separate days. Results show that children with autism…

Wong, Connie; Kasari, Connie

2012-01-01

474

Cognitive Apprenticeship in Computer-Mediated Feedback: Creating a Classroom Environment to Increase Feedback and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study of 1 teacher and 10 students in an Advanced Placement English class explores the role of computer-mediated feedback in the creation of a classroom learning environment that was supported through hybrid learning experiences. Data sources included classroom observations, online conversations, interviews with 10 high…

Boling, Erica C.; Beatty, Jeanine

2010-01-01

475

Voices on Word Matters: Learning about Phonics and Spelling in the Literacy Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extending the editors' system for word study, this book presents essays by scholars and practitioners who explore letter and word learning in a variety of reading, writing, and language contexts in the primary classroom, with articles that range from detailed observations of individual readers and writers to full-scale analyses of classroom

Fountas, Irene C., Ed.; Pinnell, Gay Su, Ed.

476

Education for Sustainable Development: Liberation or Indoctrination? An Assessment of Faculty Members' Attitudes and Classroom Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes and classroom practices of environmental science faculty members in Jordanian universities. Mix data collection methodology was employed to collect data in this study. In addition to the developed survey, several participants' interviews and classroom observations were conducted with…

Qablan, Ahmad Mohammad; Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu; Khasawneh, Samer; Al-Omari, Aieman

2009-01-01

477

An Eco-Behavioral Analysis of Children's Engagement in Urban Public School Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this study was to identify particular group configurations and teacher behaviors that co-occurred with children's active engagement in public school early childhood classrooms for 4-year-olds. Children (N=138, 52% boys) were observed using a time sampling method in 12 classrooms in 12 urban schools serving students from…

Powell, Douglas R.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; File, Nancy; Kontos, Susan

2008-01-01

478

Impression Formation and Classroom Design: The Impact of Spatial Arrangement and Neatness on Judgments of Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine the impact of classroom arrangement (open versus traditional) and tidiness (messy versus neat) on observers' expectations about a teacher. A heterogeneous sample of college students was shown color slides of vacant elementary classrooms varying in terms of these two dimensions and asked to indicate their…

Weinstein, Carol S.; Woolfolk, Anita E.

479

Behavioral and Achievement Correlates of Social Interaction Variables in the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to report a behavioral observation validation of a multiple social interaction measurement instrument entitled the "Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory." This instrument measures social interaction in the elementary classroom as derived from self-report, peer judgments and teacher expectations. It provides an…

Barclay, James R.; And Others

480

Speaking Correctly: Error Correction as a Language Socialization Practice in a Ukrainian Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses a language socialization approach to explore the role of Ukrainian language instruction in the revitalization of Ukrainian as the national language. Based on 10 months ethnographic observation and videotaping of classroom interaction in two fifth-grade Ukrainian language and literature classrooms, it focuses on corrective feedback…

Friedman, Debra A.

2010-01-01

481

Finding balance: impact of classroom management conceptions on developing teacher practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sociocultural perspective on teacher learning was used to investigate how three beginning teachers’ conceptions of classroom management affected their developing teaching practices. Students were followed from student teaching through their first 2 years of teaching. Data sources included interviews, classroom observations, and teacher education portfolios. Although all three teachers shared common conceptions of management as establishing positive learning environments,

Susan D. Martin

2004-01-01

482

A Computer-in-the-Loop Approach for Detecting Bullies in the Classroom  

E-print Network

A Computer-in-the-Loop Approach for Detecting Bullies in the Classroom Juan F. Mancilla, USA, {mancill1,wenpu1,eyal,espelage}@illinois.edu Abstract. Bullying is a social phenomenon in the classroom (bully, victim, or bystander) are observable through social interactions within a game designed

Amir, Eyal

483

Biology Teacher's Flipped Classroom: "A Simple Thing, But It's so Powerful"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carolyn Durley is a veteran Biology teacher who adopted the Flipped Classroom in the 2011-2012 school year, the same year as Graham Johnson adopted it for Math. They both teach in Okanagan Mission Secondary School in Kelowna , B.C. This paper offers Durley's observations regarding her adoption of Flipped Classroom. She narrates her teaching…

Pearson, George

2012-01-01

484

Teacher Consultation and Coaching within Mental Health Practice: Classroom and Child Effects in Urban Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Method: Thirty-six classrooms within 5 urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to…

Cappella, Elise; Hamre, Bridget K.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Henry, David B.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

2012-01-01

485

Online Poetry Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Poetry is one of the oldest forms of human expression, and can be found in almost every part of the world, manifesting itself to express every type of emotion, whether it be hope, sadness, or exuberance. This persuasive and helpful Web site was developed by the Academy of American Poets in order to provide both professional development for high school English teachers and a virtual teaching community that offers free access to poetry resources, including poems and classroom-tested curricula. The curriculum section includes 17 teaching plans, along with a teacher forum area where colleagues can share ideas about what works (and what doesn't) in terms of teaching poetry. A section titled What to Teach includes lists of poems that are ideal to teach to students, and a number of fine themed online exhibits that address movements such as the Harlem Renaissance, the Modernist poets, and the general development of American poetry in the 20th century.

Poets, Academy O.

486

The Social Network Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

Bunus, Peter

487

Newseum: Digital Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you can't get to the Newseum in Washington, D.C., you'll definitely want to check out its Digital Classroom. Created to help bring the "First Amendment to life for students," the site contains primary sources, interactives, videos, and lesson plans for everyone. From the homepage, visitors can make their way through areas that include Modules, Video Lessons, Primary Sources, and Standards of Learning. The Video Lessons area contains twelve different wonderful programs, including "The Berlin Wall and the Press" and "The Digital Revolution." Moving on, the Modules provide a thoughtful look at how the First Amendment shaped the civil rights movement and the 2012 Election. Finally, the site includes a rich Primary Sources area which includes newspaper front pages from the Civil War along with 30 artifacts from the struggle to secure women's rights in the United States.

488

Neuroscience & the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neuroscience continues to attract a range of scientists and researchers, and more and more schools are incorporating at least a basic discussion of this area of science into their curriculum. This educational series produced by the Science Media Group at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics along with several other organizations offers 42 video segments for classroom use. The website also includes an online textbook, a glossary, and a course guide. The program titles include "Measuring Emotional Response to Physics," "Music and Emotion," and "Empathy." Visitors shouldn't miss the "Success Story" area, as they can learn about researchers who have made substantial contributions to neuroscience. Overall, it's an impressive collection of educational materials, and one that is well worth passing along to fellow educators.

2012-01-27

489

The Physics Classroom: Ohm's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial on Ohm's Law, part of The Physics Classroom tutorial collection, provides a conceptual foundation for understanding one of the most powerful formulas in physics. Multiple circuit diagrams and tables illustrate the relationships among voltage, current, and resistance before users explore the mathematics. The author includes two quizzes for users to gauge their own understanding and perform simple calculations related to resistance. This page is part of The Physics Classroom, a comprehensive set of interactive tutorials, labs, and simulations for students of introductory physics. The Physics Classroom is one of the ComPADRE digital library collections.

Henderson, Tom

2010-06-22

490

Spitzer Operations: Scheduling the Out Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spitzer Warm Mission operations have remained robust and exceptionally efficient since the cryogenic mission ended in mid-2009. The distance to the now exceeds 1 AU, making telecommunications increasingly difficult; however, analysis has shown that two-way communication could be maintained through at least 2017 with minimal loss in observing efficiency. The science program continues to emphasize the characterization of exoplanets, time domain studies, and deep surveys, all of which can impose interesting scheduling constraints. Recent changes have significantly improved on-board data compression, which both enables certain high volume observations and reduces Spitzer's demand for competitive Deep Space Network resources.

Mahoney, William A.; Effertz, Mark J.; Fisher, Mark E.; Garcia, Lisa J.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Mannings, Vincent; McElroy, Douglas B.; Scire, Elena

2012-01-01

491

DUAL EMPLOYMENT REVISED SCHEDULE REQUEST NAME: ____________________________________________________ EMPLID: ______________________________  

E-print Network

DUAL EMPLOYMENT REVISED SCHEDULE REQUEST NAME: _______________________ DUAL EMPLOYMENT DATES: ____________________ TO ______________________ TIMES: __________________ AM SCHEDULE. IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CLEMSON UNIVERSITY DUAL EMPLOYMENT POLICY, ALL HOURS MISSED WHILE

Bolding, M. Chad

492

Planning and Scheduling for Success.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of ...

I. Manzanera

1994-01-01

493

robust passenger oriented airline scheduling  

E-print Network

coordinated through a flight schedule, comprised of flight legs between ... integrating the planning phases is a big challenge: dynamics and competitive behaviours, .... demand forecast quality for a particular departure date improves as it ...

Luis

2010-10-29

494

Lesson 18: Courses, Schedule, Routine  

E-print Network

go to games.] 2. Ratiba yako ni gani semesta hii? [What is your schedule this semester?] a). Semesta this semester is:] 3. Unafanya kosi gani semesta hii?; Semesta hii unafanya kosi gani? [What courses are you

495

On parallel machine scheduling 1  

E-print Network

On parallel machine scheduling 1 machines with setup times. The setup has to be performed by a single server. The objective is to minimize even for the case of two identical parallel machines. This paper presents a pseudopolynomial

Magdeburg, Universität

496

Evaluation of the Paperless Classroom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Paperless Classroom project explored the use of advanced technology to develop and demonstrate an interface to the large amounts of technical information available in electronic form. A prototype system was developed and field-tested at the AEGIS Trai...

B. A. Morris

1995-01-01

497

Rap Music in the Classroom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the background of rap music, its definition, its themes and messages, and rap as a blend of language and music. Offers ideas for its use in the classroom as a way to motivate and instruct students. (SR)

Anderson, Edward

1993-01-01

498

Laura Candler's Classroom Management Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains links to information on effective classroom management strategies. Laura provides suggestions on developing and managing teams as well as building whole class community. She includes printables that support her management strategies.

2011-01-01

499

Dust in the Primary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the use of a commercial computer software package, "Dust," to enhance mathematical learning in the classroom. Samples of mathematics problems presented in this game which is a simulation of an adventure in outer space are presented. (CW)

Pritchard, Alan

1990-01-01

500

Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management  

E-print Network

disabilities, including autism, intellectual disability, and traumatic brain injury were of interest in this study. Further, this study was designed to determine how the teachers learned to expertly manage their inclusive classrooms. Eight teachers met criteria...

Montague, Marcia

2011-02-22