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1

An Investigation of Independent Child Behavior in the Open Classroom: The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule (CAOS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule was developed and field tested for study of independent child behavior in the open classroom. Eight Head Start classrooms were used for field testing, six of which used the Tucson Early Education Model curriculum and two of which, for comparison, used local curricula. Procedures involved observing and…

Goldupp, Ocea

2

The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC): An Observational Measure of the Intentional Communication of Children with Autism in an Unstructured Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC) was devised to provide ecologically valid outcome measures for a communication-focused intervention trial. Ninety-one children with autism spectrum disorder aged 6 years 10 months (SD 16 months) were videoed during their everyday snack, teaching and free play…

Pasco, Greg; Gordon, Rosanna K.; Howlin, Patricia; Charman, Tony

2008-01-01

3

A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN OBSERVATION SCHEDULE DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY THE TEACHER-CLASSROOM VARIABLES WHICH FACILITATE PUPIL CREATIVE GROWTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH WAS TO CONDUCT A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE DENNY, RUSCH, IVES CLASSROOM OBSERVATION SCHEDULE DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY THE COMPLEX OF TEACHER AND PUPIL BEHAVIORS WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO PUPIL GAIN IN CREATIVITY. INTERRELATIONS OF PUPIL GAINS IN CREATIVITY WITH TEACHER PUPIL BEHAVIOR VARIABLES WERE ANALYZED. THE SAMPLE WAS…

DENNY, DAVID A.

4

Observation Scheduling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

2011-01-01

5

The differentiated classroom observation scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the DCOS was developed to examine the impact of differentiated classroom practices for gifted

Jerrell C. Cassady; Kristie L. Speirs Neumeister; Cheryll M. Adams; Tracy L. Cross; Felicia A. Dixon; Rebecca L. Pierce

2004-01-01

6

Helping Children Understand Routines and Classroom Schedules. What Works Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have documented that schedules and routines influence children's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Predictable and consistent schedules in preschool classrooms help children feel secure and comfortable. Also, schedules and routines help children understand the expectations of the environment and reduce the frequency of behavior…

Ostrosky, M. M.; Jung, E. Y.; Hemmeter, M. L.; Thomas, D.

7

Observations of Teachers' Classroom Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advantages of using classroom observation as another measure of teacher performance include: (1) It is applicable to jobs where performance measures based on outcomes are hard to develop or where outcomes cannot be assigned to an individual person; (2) It ensures that important aspects of performance that go beyond measured outcomes, such as how…

Milanowski, Anthony T.; Prince, Cynthia D.; Koppich, Julia

2007-01-01

8

Observations & Interpretations: Engaging Students in Classroom Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used to introduce or reinforce in students the importance of differentiating between observations and interpretations and quantitative and qualitative observations during classroom experimentation or demonstrations

9

Block scheduling: Instructional practices in high school science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proponents of block scheduling perceive this approach to be a 'structural lever' to invite and impel teachers to change their teaching (Marshak, 1997). This desired shift is supposed to be manifest in movement from the traditional classroom structure, focusing on the teacher as lecturer or transmitter of subject matter, to that of teacher as coach with students as active learners, engaged in a variety of activities involving them individually and collaboratively in their education (Canady & Rettig, 1995). Block scheduling changes the formal structure of the school day, but does it really change pedagogical practices in high school science classrooms? Fraser's Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) the instrument used in this study of science classes in five block-scheduled high schools in Connecticut, incorporates the tenets for an enriched classroom environment in its five scales or constructs: Participation---Extent to which students are encouraged to participate rather than be passive learners; Personalization---Emphasis on opportunities for individual students to interact with the teacher and on concern for the personal welfare and social growth of the individual; Investigation---Emphasis on the skills and processes of inquiry and their use in problem solving and investigation. Independence---Extent to which students are allowed to make decisions and have control over their own learning environment and behavior; Differentiation---Emphasis on the selective treatment of students on the basis of ability, learning style, interests, and rate of working (Fraser, 1990). The results and conclusions from this research study suggested that the block-scheduled high school science classes that participated in this research do promote, to varying degrees, those tenets that define an enriched classroom environment. Both the teachers and their classes of students perceived opportunities for Participation, Personalization, and Investigation constructs as prevalent in science instruction. However, Independence and Differentiation, although existent to some extent, were perceived to occur less by both the teachers and the students in their classes. The provision of more class time alone was not enough to drive the tenets of these two constructs significantly.

Richelsoph, Barry

10

Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

Schoen Giddings, Linda

11

Classroom Observation Techniques. IDEA Paper No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques for observing the classroom behavior of teachers and students are examined. These techniques provide a framework for analyzing and understanding classroom interaction, for making decisions about what should be happening, and for changing instructional behavior when it is necessary. The observation methods allow collection, analysis, and…

Acheson, Keith A.

12

Observing of chain-schedule stimuli.  

PubMed

A classical-conditioning account of the processes maintaining behavior under chained schedules entails a backward transmission of conditioned-reinforcement effects. Assessing this process in traditional chain schedules is limited because the response maintained by stimulus onset accompanied by each link in a chain schedule may also be maintained by the primary reinforcer. In the present experiment, an observing response was used to measure the conditioned-reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with a three-link chain variable-time (VT) food schedule, and resistance-to-change tests (extinction and prefeeding) were implemented to examine if a backward transmission of reinforcement effects occur. Four pigeons served as subjects. Observing was maintained by the production of stimuli correlated with links of a three-link chain VT schedule with the middle-link stimulus maintaining the highest rate of observing, followed by the initial-link stimulus and the terminal-link stimulus maintaining the lowest observing rate. Results from resistance-to-change tests of extinction and prefeeding were not supportive of a backward transmission of reinforcement effects and in general, the pattern of resistance-to-change was forward. Based on past and current research, it appears that a backward pattern of relative rate decreases in responses maintained by stimuli correlated with a chain schedule due to disruption (i.e., extinction and prefeeding) is not a ubiquitous process that is evident within different chain-schedule arrangements. PMID:24582929

Slezak, Jonathan M; Anderson, Karen G

2014-06-01

13

A Radical--and Practical--Approach to Classroom Allocation and Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how California State University at Fullerton improved classroom allocation and scheduling efficiency while responding to student enrollment increases and campus renovation. Steps discussed include conducting facilities audits, assessing the scheduling process, allocating smaller rooms, and studying scheduling and foot traffic patterns. (GR)

Ames, Pat

2001-01-01

14

Automated observation scheduling for the VLT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

Johnston, Mark D.

1988-01-01

15

Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. ABSTRACT We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well un- derstood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis

Al Globus; James Crawford; Jason Lohn; Anna Pryor

2003-01-01

16

Observing with HST IV: Improvements in Observation Planning and Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning and scheduling Hubble Space Telescope observations is a formidable task. During the course of a year tens of thousands of exposures are taken on several thousand targets. Many observations are linked to others via scientific ``special requirements'' specified by the observer in the proposal. All observations are subject to numerous observing constraints such as Sun avoidance, occultation by the Earth, and spacecraft roll and power constraints. At the beginning of the HST mission, planning and scheduling work concentrated on the correct implementation and execution of observations. In Cycles 2 and 3 a major effort to increase the productivity of the observatory (while retaining quality) was begun and increased HST observation efficiency by about 50%. In Cycle 4, a major effort is underway to further improve the planning and scheduling process, in order to achieve stability in the observing program long-range plan, to improve the system's flexibility and responsiveness to change, and to increase visibility into the HST observing schedule as it evolves. This paper will describe the basis for these improvements, including the long-range planning criteria and timescales, the process of planning and scheduling and how changes will be supported. We will also describe the major observing constraints and how they are handled by the planning and scheduling system. Finally, we will discuss how recent advances in networking technology have made it possible to dramatically increase the ability of HST proposers to view the long- and short-range HST observing plans. Using a client program such as Mosaic or Lynx, an astronomer will be able to access a World Wide Web (WWW) server at the STScI to provide convenient access to HST observing proposals and their implementation status, and both the long-range and short-term observing schedules.

Miller, Glenn; Blacker, Brett; Giuliano, Mark; Kinzel, Wayne; McElroy, Doug; Moler, Palle; Reinhart, Merle; Ross, Brian; Shea, Molly; Stanley, Peg; Suchkov, Anatoly; Surdej, Jean; Wissler, Steve

1994-05-01

17

Classroom Observations of Three Behavior Management Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three approaches to classroom management--assertive discipline, cooperative learning, and behavior management/mastery learning theory--are described. Assertive discipline was observed in a fifth-grade class taught by a teacher who would not allow students to interfere with her teaching or another child's learning. The assertive discipline approach…

Martinez, Christine R.

18

Enhancing Classroom Performance: A Review of Reinforcement Schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade the application of elementary principles of behavior have become a standard in the classroom teacher's repertoire of behavior change strategies. Unfortunately, the application of more advanced principles of behavior derived through basic behavioral research lies as an untapped resource for classroom teachers. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the use of systematic procedures to deliver

David L. Lee; Phillip J. Belfiore

1997-01-01

19

HEAO-A nominal scanning observation schedule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HEAO-A observatory, scheduled for launch in late June 1977, will spend most of its orbital lifetime in a scanning mode, spining from 0.03 to 0.1 rpm about an axis aligned with the sun. The dates of availability in the scan band are given for a list of 248 X-ray sources. Celestial maps of source locations and scan planes, and examples of the nighttime elevation of available sources are presented. This document is intended to aid ground-based observers in planning coordinated observations with HEAO-A.

Fishman, G. J.; Stone, R. L.

1977-01-01

20

Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

1988-01-01

21

Mixed Discrete and Continuous Algorithms for Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the problem of scheduling astronomy observations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, an airborne telescope. The problem requires maximizing the number of requested observations scheduled subject to a mixture of discrete and continuous constraints relating the feasibil- ity of an astronomical observation to the position and time at which the obser- vation begins, telescope elevation limits, Special

Jeremy Frank; Elif Kürklü

2005-01-01

22

Learning about Teachers' Literacy Instruction from Classroom Observations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to contribute to efforts to improve methods for gathering and analyzing data from classroom observations in early literacy. The methodological approach addresses current problems of reliability and validity of classroom observations by taking into account differences in teachers' uses of instructional actions…

Kelcey, Ben; Carlisle, Joanne F.

2013-01-01

23

The "Classroom Systems Observation Scale": Development of an Instrument To Assess Classrooms Using a Systems Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of the Classroom Systems Observation Scale (CSOS), which assesses preschool through sixth grade classroom functioning from a systems perspective using a theoretical framework based on the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems. Discusses influences of home environment and parental support on learning; and…

Fish, Marian C.; Dane, Elizabeth

2000-01-01

24

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2004-01-01

25

The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: The Observers' Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make the most efficient use of telescope time, the NRAO is implementing a Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DSS aims to match observing projects to the weather and other observing conditions, without sacrificing observers' interactive control of their experiments. To meet this goal, the DSS schedules people, not observing scripts. Each observer can then attend to the observation, control the telescope, and modify the observing program, if necessary, in real time. Observing under the DSS is often done remotely, by necessity. Every day, the DSS generates a new schedule for the 24-hour period beginning one day hence. Observers therefore must be prepared to run observations with 24 to 48 hours notice. Being available and ready to observe on short notice requires that observers adopt a new mindset, unlike their experiences with other telescopes. While it may be an inconvenience for some, the benefits of the DSS are substantial, the primary one being that astronomers are almost assured of observing in appropriate weather and getting high quality data. The DSS gives observers the opportunity to black out time ranges to avoid for scheduling, so the telescope schedule can fit around other demands. In addition to the scheduling algorithms, the DSS team has developed a set of software tools to help observers manage their projects, to notify observers of scheduling news, and to help observers anticipate when their projects will get scheduled. In this contribution we will report observers' experiences from the first tests of the GBT DSS, which took place from June 1 to September 30, 2008.

Braatz, J.; Balser, D. A.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Harnett, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Shelton, A.

2009-09-01

26

Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

1996-01-01

27

Classroom Observation Code for Hyperactive Children: A Replication of Validity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results confirm previous findings that the revised State University of New York at Stony Brook observation code is a valid instrument for quantifying and discriminating the classroom behavior of children referred because of hyperactive behavior. (Author)

Abikoff, Howard; And Others

1980-01-01

28

An Observational Study of Print Literacy in Canadian Preschool Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of print literacy in preschool classrooms. There were seven preschool teachers\\u000a working in central Canada who were observed over three sessions. The process of analytic induction was used to formulate categories\\u000a based on interviews, classroom observations and documents. The following categories were identified from the data: book engagement\\u000a and availability,

Jacqueline Lynch

2011-01-01

29

Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

30

SOFIA's Choice: Automating the Scheduling of Airborne Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne telescope. Given a set of prioritized observations to choose from, and a wide range of complex constraints governing legitimate choices and orderings, how can we efficiently and effectively create a valid flight plan which supports high priority observations? This problem is quite different from scheduling problems which are routinely solved automatically in industry. For instance, the problem requires making choices which lead to other choices later, and contains many interacting complex constraints over both discrete and continuous variables. Furthermore, new types of constraints may be added as the fundamental problem changes. As a result of these features, this problem cannot be solved by traditional scheduling techniques. The problem resembles other problems in NASA and industry, from observation scheduling for rovers and other science instruments to vehicle routing. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In 2 we describe the observatory in order to provide some background. In 3 we describe the problem of scheduling a single flight. In 4 we compare flight planning and other scheduling problems and argue that traditional techniques are not sufficient to solve this problem. We also mention similar complex scheduling problems which may benefit from efforts to solve this problem. In 5 we describe an approach for solving this problem based on research into a similar problem, that of scheduling observations for a space-borne probe. In 6 we discuss extensions of the flight planning problem as well as other problems which are similar to flight planning. In 7 we conclude and discuss future work.

Frank, Jeremy; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

31

Applying Squeaky Wheel Optimization Schedule Airborne Astronomy Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the Squeaky Wheel Optimization (SWO) algcrithm to the problem of scheduling astronomy observations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, an airborne observatory. The problem contains complex con- straints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time at which the observation begins, telescope elevation limits, special use airspace, and available fuel. Solving the problem

Jeremy Frank; Elif Kiirklii

32

Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

2009-01-01

33

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks; conditions where stochastic algorithms are often e ective. However, there are many such algo-rithms and the best one to use is not obvious. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel op-timization and

Al Globus; James Crawford; Jason D. Lohn; Anna Pryor

2004-01-01

34

Quality in Kindergarten Classrooms: Observational Evidence for the Need to Increase Children's Learning Opportunities in Early Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Using observational data gathered in 730 kindergarten classrooms in 6 states, the present study focuses on the quality of children's learning opportunities in kindergarten classrooms. Findings show that overall, children experience moderate to low levels of quality in the areas of classroom organization and instructional support…

La Paro, Karen M.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Locasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Pianta, Robert C.; Bryant, Donna; Early, Dianne; Clifford, Richard; Barbarin, Oscar; Howes, Carollee; Burchinal, Margaret

2009-01-01

35

Differences between the Classrooms of Expert and Novice Teachers on the Dimensions of the "Classroom Systems Observation Scale."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether differences exist between classrooms of expert and novice teachers on the cohesion, communication, and flexibility dimensions of the "Classroom Systems Observation Scale" (CSOS). Principals identified 10 expert and 10 novice elementary school teachers from 8 public and private schools. A 50-minute classroom

O'Connor, Evelyn A.; Fish, Marian C.

36

A Factor Analysis of Selected Classroom Observation Systems. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The specific purposes of this study were to identify new and unique dimensions of teaching and to identify the commonalities of several existing classroom observation systems. The objectives or anticipated outcomes were to: (a) increase interpretation and cross validation of research using different observation systems and more efficient…

Samph, Thomas; White, Sally A.

37

For the Classroom: Observing the Social Behavior of Guppies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guppies serve as a hardy, inexpensive, yet interesting species for classroom observation. Through a series of observations of individual males, groups of males, and males with females, students discover the signals male guppies use to set up social structure and to court females. (Author/DC)

Wier, Elizabeth

1981-01-01

38

Observation Instrument of Play Behaviour in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature…

Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

2012-01-01

39

The Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (PL-ADOS) is a semistructured observation scale designed for use as a diagnostic tool for children less than 6 years old who are not yet using phrase speech and are suspected of having autism. The PL-ADOS takes approximately 30 minutes to administer and is appropriate for use with this population because of its emphasis on

Pamela C. DiLavore; Catherine Lord; Michael Rutter

1995-01-01

40

Selecting, Scheduling and Carrying Out Observing Programmes at SALT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the manner in which Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) observations are carried out, from the observation proposal process to the final distribution of data to the SALT users. As a background, the general operational model for SALT is also described. In addition I discuss the main top-level design and performance characteristics of both the telescope and instruments, which informs the nature of SALT observing programmes and leads to a natural selection of competitive science projects. Since SALT is a 100% queue-scheduled and service-observing telescope, there is a significant level of flexibility regarding how observations are undertaken. A single observation block can involve different instruments and modes, including calibrations. To support the often complex manner in which observations can be configured, a set of observation proposal and planning tools have been developed for both users and support staff, and these are described in this paper. SALT users can plan their observations using these tools and submit their proposals over the internet in two phases. The Phase~1 proposal contains the scientific and technical justification and target information, but only a basic description of the instrumental and observation configurations. Following approval of the proposals, the Phase~2 proposal is completed which contains all of the details of every observing block, including configurations, exposure times, signal-to-noise requirements, time windows (if applicable), total block observation time and calibration requirements. How SALT observations are undertaken, monitored and reduced is also described.

Buckley, David A. H.

2013-01-01

41

The Influence of Teacher Experience on the Elementary Classroom System: An Observational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a systems perspective to determine whether differences exist between classrooms of expert (n=35) and novice (n=35) teachers on the cohesion, communication, and flexibility dimensions of the Classroom Systems Observation Scale (CSOS). A 50-minute observation using the CSOS was conducted in elementary school classrooms in New York…

O'Connor, Evelyn A.; Fish, Marion C.; Yasik, Anastasia E.

2004-01-01

42

Prediction of Observing Conditions for DES Exposure Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delivered sky brightness and atmospheric seeing are two important factors in the optimal scheduling of observations in large observing programs, but are less well studied than spherical astronomy. In the Dark Energy Survey (DES), planning software needs to optimize over the requirements of each of its science programs. For example, observing cadence is the primary factor in supernova detection, whereas seeing is the most important factor in weak lensing measurements. Delivered sky brightness is an important factor in filter and field selection for all programs. I describe models for the short timescale (5 minute) evolution of seeing and delivered sky brightness, and parametrize and test these models using data from CTIO and Apache Point Observatory.

Neilsen, E. H., Jr.

2012-09-01

43

The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS): A New Instrument to Characterize University STEM Classroom Practices  

PubMed Central

Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change.

Smith, Michelle K.; Jones, Francis H. M.; Gilbert, Sarah L.; Wieman, Carl E.

2013-01-01

44

Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom

Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

2014-01-01

45

Characteristics of Open Education: Results from a Classroom Observation Rating Scale and a Teacher Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A classroom observation rating scale, based upon a recent analysis of the literature and conceptually verified by open education advocates, effectively differentiated British and American open classrooms from American traditional classrooms. The influence of socio-economic settings was also demonstrated. For the three comparison groups, more…

Evans, Judith T.

46

Learning from Animated Classroom Exemplars: The Case for Guiding Student Teachers' Observations with Metacognitive Prompts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student teachers learned about teaching principles with the help of an instructional program that included classroom animation exemplars, where expert teachers demonstrate how to apply teaching principles to a classroom scenario. Some students learned by solely observing the classroom animations, whereas others were presented with the expert's…

Moreno, Roxana

2009-01-01

47

The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Motivation and Classroom Practice in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results are presented from a mixed-method investigation into the effects of Block Schedule on student self-efficacy, attitude, and instructional practices within the context of mathematics. Students exposed to block schedule showed no change in attitude toward mathematics, whereas those on a traditional schedule demonstrated a significant…

Biesinger, Kevin D.; Crippen, Kent J.; Muis, Krista R.

2008-01-01

48

Observing with HST V: Improvements to the Scheduling of HST Parallel Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent improvements to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ground system have significantly increased the frequency of pure parallel observations, i.e. the simultaneous use of multiple HST instruments by different observers. Opportunities for parallel observations are limited by a variety of timing, hardware, and scientific constraints. Formerly, such opportunities were heuristically predicted prior to the construction of the primary schedule (or calendar), and lack of complete information resulted in high rates of scheduling failures and missed opportunities. In the current process the search for parallel opportunities is delayed until the primary schedule is complete, at which point new software tools are employed to identify places where parallel observations are supported. The result has been a considerable increase in parallel throughput. A new technique, known as ``parallel crafting,'' is currently under development to streamline further the parallel scheduling process. This radically new method will replace the standard exposure logsheet with a set of abstract rules from which observation parameters will be constructed ``on the fly'' to best match the constraints of the parallel opportunity. Currently, parallel observers must specify a huge (and highly redundant) set of exposure types in order to cover all possible types of parallel opportunities. Crafting rules permit the observer to express timing, filter, and splitting preferences in a far more succinct manner. The issue of coordinated parallel observations (same PI using different instruments simultaneously), long a troublesome aspect of the ground system, is also being addressed. For Cycle 5, the Phase II Proposal Instructions now have an exposure-level PAR WITH special requirement. While only the primary's alignment will be scheduled on the calendar, new commanding will provide for parallel exposures with both instruments.

Taylor, D. K.; Vanorsow, D.; Lucks, M.; Henry, R.; Ratnatunga, K.; Patterson, A.

1994-12-01

49

Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

2014-06-01

50

Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe work in progress concerning multi- instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algo- rithms in scheduling

Al Globus; James Crawford; Jason Lohn; Robert Morris

2002-01-01

51

Observing Science Classrooms: Observing Science Perspectives from Research and Practice. 1984 AETS Yearbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in nine separate chapters are nine studies involving the direct observation of science classrooms. Eight of the nine chapters are based on qualitative data collection techniques which typically aim for depth of insight and understanding. Studies included are: "Critical Barriers to the Understanding of Elementary Science: Learning about…

Anderson, Charles W., Ed.

52

S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

1994-01-01

53

Improving Method-in-Use through Classroom Observation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Method-in-use (Nunn, Describing classroom interaction in intercultural curricular research and development, University of Reading, 1996, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 37: 23-42, 1999) is a description of the method actually being enacted through classroom interaction in a particular context. The description is…

Nunn, Roger

2011-01-01

54

Variability of Attention Processes in ADHD: Observations from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongruent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children…

Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Alderson, R. Matt; Timko, Thomas M., Jr.; DuPaul, George J.

2009-01-01

55

Classroom Observation Data: Is It Valid? Is It Generalizable? A Compendium of Methodological Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issues discussed in these four papers concern the validity and generalizability of classroom observation instruments. These issues have been studied and are reported here in an attempt to better define the limits to which classroom observation instruments can be used in researching relationships between teacher behavior and student outcome.…

Borich, Gary; And Others

56

A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings…

Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Trossmann, Kaili; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

57

Observations of Effective Teacher-Student Interactions in Secondary School Classrooms: Predicting Student Achievement with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary. After accounting for prior…

Allen, Joseph; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori; Lun, Janetta; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

2013-01-01

58

A model, a heuristic and a decision support system to solve the earth observing satellites fleet scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating an observation schedule is an important part of the earth observing satellites fleet management process. Even for a short term schedule already dozens of earth observing requests requiring several satellites have to be scheduled respecting complex constraints involving multidimensional resource capacities as well as request preferences. This paper first presented the earth observing satellites fleet scheduling problem, then formulated

Pei Wang; Peng Gao; Yuejin Tan

2009-01-01

59

Research for the Classroom: Analyzing Classroom Literacy Events--What Observing Classroom Conversations about Popular Culture Can Reveal about Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ms. Mayer, a recently retired English language arts teacher, frequently used strategies described in John Golden's book "Reading in the Dark: Using Film as a Tool in the English Classroom." In this book, Golden suggests that ELA teachers "reverse the order: use a film clip to practice the reading and analytical skills that we want our students to…

Garland, Kathy

2012-01-01

60

A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy  

PubMed Central

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.

Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

2013-01-01

61

Evaluation of DRO Schedules To Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…

Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael

2003-01-01

62

Observation of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD) Problems in Three Natural Classroom Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Observation studies of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) problems in natural classroom situations are costly and relatively rare. Aims: The study enquired how teacher ratings are anchored in actual student classroom behaviours, and how the behaviour of children with ADHD problems differs from their…

Lauth, G. W.; Heubeck, B. G.; Mackowiak, K.

2006-01-01

63

Psychometrics and Observations: Issues in a Dual Approach to the Study of Classroom Learning Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthropological methods of classroom observation were combined with the results of student responses to three questionnaires in a study of classroom learning environments. The questionnaires were: Learning Environment Inventory, Class Activities Questionnaire, and ALP (Authenticity, Legitimacy, Productivity) Ethos Instrument. Although the…

Cichon, Donald J.; Olson, George E.

64

Comparing Vignette Instruction and Assessment Tasks to Classroom Observations and Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing body of research on the use of vignettes in teacher education courses suggests that vignette-based instruction and assessment tasks may represent a viable alternative to traditional forms of scaffolded instruction and reflective essays following classroom observations, thereby creating a bridge between college and K-12 classrooms for…

Jeffries, Carolyn; Maeder, Dale W.

2011-01-01

65

Engaging Instruction in Middle School Classrooms: An Observational Study of Nine Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observations of instructional practices, teacher interviews, and classroom artifacts were collected in 9 sixth-grade classrooms in 2 middle schools to determine teaching practices associated with student engagement (i.e., being on task, doing thoughtful assignments). The teachers used a variety of instructional practices, with some teachers…

Raphael, Lisa M.; Pressley, Michael; Mohan, Lindsey

2008-01-01

66

Concurrent Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale for Elementary School--Observer Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an initial investigation of the concurrent validity of a new assessment, the Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS version 2.0) for Elementary School--Observer Form. The CSS assesses teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies. In the present study, the CSS is compared to the Classroom Assessment Scoring…

Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

67

Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college classrooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

68

Mathematical Observations: The Genesis of Mathematical Discovery in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos identifies the "Primitive Conjecture" as the first stage in the pattern of mathematical discovery. In this article, I am interested in ways of reaching the "Primitive Conjecture" stage in an undergraduate classroom. I adapted Realistic Mathematics Education methods in an…

Beaugris, Louis M.

2013-01-01

69

Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social…

Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.

2011-01-01

70

Looking for attributes of powerful teaching for numeracy in tasmanian K-7 classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the development and use of a classroom observation reflection tool designed to measure the extent to which pedagogies acknowledged in the literature as contributing to effective teaching of mathematics for numeracy are present in classrooms. The observation schedule was used in conjunction with a record of classroom activity to examine numeracy pedagogies in a sample of Tasmanian classrooms from Kindergarten to Year 7. Low levels of intellectual challenge in highly socially supportive classrooms were typical.

Beswick, Kim; Swabey, Karen; Andrew, Rob

2008-04-01

71

The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers' Competence in Classroom Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children's interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability,…

Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

2010-01-01

72

Occasions and the Reliability of Classroom Observations: Alternative Conceptualizations and Methods of Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student-teacher interactions are dynamic relationships that change and evolve over the course of a school year. Measuring classroom quality through observations that focus on these interactions presents challenges when observations are conducted throughout the school year. Variability in observed scores could reflect true changes in the quality of…

Meyer, J. Patrick; Cash, Anne H.; Mashburn, Andrew

2011-01-01

73

Teacher cognitive functioning as a factor in observed variety and level of classroom teaching behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the literature suggests a relationship between life-long development of formal reasoning schema and performance in professional education careers. The study investigated implications of cognitive development of preservice teachers as it relates to their classroom teaching performance. Ninety-one seniors involved in a field-oriented teacher education program were given classroom responsibilities which included teaching a science unit. Formal thinking abilities were assessed using two types of developmental level tasks, performance on traditional type Piagetian tasks and recognition of formal thought approaches in solving educational tasks. Professional behaviors were assessed using observational ratings of classroom instructional and planning activities. Subjects assessed as formal operational, 30% of sample, using Piagetian performance tasks, had significantly higher facility in performing model classroom teaching behaviors than transitional or concrete subjects. Higher recognition ability of formal thought approaches to teaching was not related to facility in performing classroom teaching when compared to performance on Piagetian tasks. The relationship held up in seven of eight broad teaching behavior categories observed in classroom instruction. The results supported a general portrait of teaching behavior specifically related to teachers of differing cognitive functional levels. Implications for professional training programs are discussed.

Sunal, Dennis W.; Sunal, Cynthia

74

Generalizability of Classroom Behavior Problem and On-Task Scores from the Direct Observation Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used generalizability theory to investigate the dependability of systematic observations of students' problem behavior and on-task behavior in classrooms. The Direct Observation Form (McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) was used with a sample of 24, 6- to-11-year-old children attending 18 different elementary schools. The participants…

Volpe, Robert J.; McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Hintze, John M.

2009-01-01

75

Classroom Observation Ability among Pre-Service Music Educators in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom observation ability of pre-service music teachers in Greece (N = 62). Two groups of undergraduates, one near the beginning and one near the end of a two-year course sequence in teaching methods that included in-class and in-school training in observation ("juniors" and "seniors",…

Androutsos, Polyvios; Humphreys, Jere T.

2010-01-01

76

Systematic Observations: Relating Theory and Practice in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of the five papers in this booklet, "Using Systematic Observation and Analysis of Teaching" by Bob Burton Brown, presents suggestions for the development of inservice education programs to train school staff members in the use of observational systems and lists suggested uses of such systems. In "Theoretical Bases of Observational

Brown, Bob Burton; And Others

77

Dynamic scheduling and planning parallel observations on large Radio Telescope Arrays with the Square Kilometre Array in mind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduling, the task of producing a time table for resources and tasks, is well-known to be a difficult problem the more resources are involved (a NP-hard problem). This is about to become an issue in Radio astronomy as observatories consisting of hundreds to thousands of telescopes are planned and operated. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which Australia and New Zealand bid to host, is aiming for scales where current approaches -- in construction, operation but also scheduling -- are insufficent. Although manual scheduling is common today, the problem is becoming complicated by the demand for (1) independent sub-arrays doing simultaneous observations, which requires the scheduler to plan parallel observations and (2) dynamic re-scheduling on changed conditions. Both of these requirements apply to the SKA, especially in the construction phase. We review the scheduling approaches taken in the astronomy literature, as well as investigate techniques from human schedulers and today's observatories. The scheduling problem is specified in general for scientific observations and in particular on radio telescope arrays. Also taken into account is the fact that the observatory may be oversubscribed, requiring the scheduling problem to be integrated with a planning process. We solve this long-term scheduling problem using a time-based encoding that works in the very general case of observation scheduling. This research then compares algorithms from various approaches, including fast heuristics from CPU scheduling, Linear Integer Programming and Genetic algorithms, Branch-and-Bound enumeration schemes. Measures include not only goodness of the solution, but also scalability and re-scheduling capabilities. In conclusion, we have identified a fast and good scheduling approach that allows (re-)scheduling difficult and changing problems by combining heuristics with a Genetic algorithm using block-wise mutation operations. We are able to explain and eradicate two problems in the literature: The inability of a GA to properly improve schedules and the generation of schedules with frequent interruptions. Finally, we demonstrate the scheduling framework for several operating telescopes: (1) Dynamic re-scheduling with the AUT Warkworth 12m telescope, (2) Scheduling for the Australian Mopra 22m telescope and scheduling for the Allen Telescope Array. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability of the presented scheduling framework to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA, in construction) and the SKA. In particular, during the development phase of the SKA, this dynamic, scalable scheduling framework can accommodate changing conditions.

Buchner, Johannes

2011-12-01

78

The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers' Competence in Classroom Interactions  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed.

Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

2012-01-01

79

Windows into the Classroom: Observing and Evaluating Beginning Teachers' Developing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An observation study examined four dimensions of beginning teacher practice that had been heavily emphasized in the first year of a partial internship program and that typically pose problems for first year teachers. These dimensions included: (1) literacy instruction; (2) instructional planning; (3) positive classroom environments and management;…

Whittaker, Andrea; Markowitz, Nancy Lourie; Latter, Jody

80

Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms: Validating a Direct Observation Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their study's…

Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

2010-01-01

81

Observing Students in Classroom Settings: A Review of Seven Coding Schemes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of coding schemes are available for direct observational assessment of student classroom behavior. These instruments have been used for a number of assessment tasks including screening children in need of further evaluation for emotional and behavior problems, diagnostic assessment of emotional and behavior problems, assessment of…

Volpe, Robert J.; DiPerna, James C.; Hintze, John M.; Shapiro, Edward S.

2005-01-01

82

Preservice Science Teachers' Concerns through Classroom Observations and Student Teaching: Special Focus on Inquiry Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a picture of how preservice science teachers? instructional concerns changed during a yearlong science methods program spanning initial classroom observations through student teaching. Another goal of this study was to determine the teachers? ideas about inquiry teaching and the influence of their methods…

Lotter, Christine

2004-01-01

83

Assessing Social Communication in the Classroom: Observing Manner and Duration of Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a new construct for coding the social communicative performance of school-aged children as they interact with peers and teachers in the classroom. The Social Communication Coding System (SCCS) allows clinicians a way of describing how children actually spend their time during the school day by observing ongoing behaviors…

Olswang, Lesley B.; Coggins, Truman E.; Svensson, Liselotte

2007-01-01

84

Classroom Observation of Students and Teachers (COST): A Multiple Payoff Approach to Inservice Training. A Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This group of papers was presented as part of a symposium entitled "Classroom Observation of Students and Teachers (COST): A Multiple Payoff Approach to Inservice Training." The first paper, "Films for Inservice Teacher Training: A Miniworkshop," outlines the rationale and development of the film series of which the film, Consequences of Behavior,…

Knowling, Wynn; And Others

85

Observing Teaching Practice: Assessing Competence in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I draw on my experiences as a Teaching Practice Observer for various Colleges of Further Education and Adult Education establishments across South West England from 1994-2002. I discuss the essential lesson components that observers need to attend to when evaluating candidates. These include the candidate's diversity of…

Mansell, Ray

2013-01-01

86

Use of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in a Clinical Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) as it is commonly used in clinical practice. ADOS classifications were compared to final diagnoses given by a multidisciplinary team to 584 children referred for evaluation for possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical…

Molloy, Cynthia A.; Murray, Donna S.; Akers, Rachel; Mitchell, Terry; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

2011-01-01

87

A Replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Revised Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study replicated the module comparability and predictive ability of the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in an independent dataset of children with autism. Results indicated that the revised ADOS algorithms improved module comparability and predictive validity for autistic children than the earlier…

Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Joseph, Robert; Carter, Alice; Hepburn, Susan; McMahon, William; Rodier, Patricia; Hyman, Susan L.; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally; Landa, Rebecca; Spence, M. Anne; Osann, Kathryn; Flodman, Pamela; Volkmar, Fred; Hollander, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

2008-01-01

88

Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

2011-01-01

89

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Revised Algorithms for Improved Diagnostic Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Modules 1-3 item and domain total distributions were reviewed for 1,630 assessments of children aged 14 months to 16 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or with heterogeneous non-spectrum disorders. Children were divided by language level and age to yield more homogeneous cells. Items were…

Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

2007-01-01

90

Reliability and Validity of the Classroom Observations of Student-Teacher Interactions (COSTI) for Kindergarten Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the technical adequacy and potential uses of an observation system used to measure the quality of literacy instruction in kindergarten classrooms. The Classroom Observations of Student-Teacher Interactions (COSTI) documents the frequency of four student-teacher interactions during beginning reading instruction: explicit…

Smolkowski, Keith; Gunn, Barbara

2012-01-01

91

The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: An Administrative Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the possible use of structured classroom walk-through observations as a strategy to improve teaching and learning. A wide variety of programs and initiatives have recently been implemented across the country to improve student achievement. One such initiative is classroom walk-through observations.…

Weller, Mark J.

2010-01-01

92

Observations on SOFIA Observation Scheduling: Search and Inference in the Face of Discrete and Continuous Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We did cool stuff to reduce the number of IVPs and BVPs needed to schedule SOFIA by restricting the problem. The restriction costs us little in terms of the value of the flight plans we can build. The restriction allowed us to reformulate part of the search problem as a zero-finding problem. The result is a simplified planning model and significant savings in computation time.

Frank, Jeremy; Gross, Michael; Kuerklu, Elif

2003-01-01

93

Studying the Orange Peel Schedule as a Candidate Observation Plan for SIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Interferometry Mission will conduct multiple observations of stars and other astronomical objects to obtain positions, proper motions and parallax information, and ultimately to search for extrasolar planets. The observation sequence for each object will be conducted over the life of the mission (5-10 yr) and the time intervals between observations of an object may vary in a logarithmic or other manner. Where cadence issues are not of concern, objects may be observed at various intervals and all such objects that can be observed within a small (approx. 7.5 degree radial) region of the sky may, for scheduling efficiency, be observed sequentially within that region on a periodic basis. In addition, an astrometric reference grid will be generated by observing, at periodic intervals, a set of known astrometrically stable stars spread uniformly over the celestial sphere. In order to balance competing requirement of observing cadence constraints, grid observation periodicity, and observation efficiency, as well as the desire to maximize the science return over the life of the mission, intensive studies of the "Orange Peel" scheduling plan are being examined. This paper presents an analysis of how well this approach addresses the overall goals of SIM, especially in the areas of parallax measurement and observational cadence efficiency.

Schwartz, A.; Boden, A.; Wehrle, A. E.

2004-12-01

94

A Study of the Relationship between Observed and Reported Use of a Cappella Singing in the Elementary General Music Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate any relationship between observed and reported use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine teachers' practical perspectives influencing the use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. From a total of 50…

Baker, Valerie Anne

2010-01-01

95

Supervisor Use of Observation Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the supervisory use of one observational system -- Observation Schedule and Record, Form 5V (OScAR 5V). OScAR 5V refers to a series of observation schedules to develop techniques for obtaining an objective, quantitative record of observed classroom behavior that could be scored on dimensions of teacher behavior. Under this…

Medley, Donald M.

96

A knowledge-based expert system for scheduling of airborne astronomical observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KAOS (Kuiper Airborne Observatory Scheduler) is a knowledge-based expert system developed at NASA Ames Research Center to assist in route planning of a C-141 flying astronomical observatory. This program determines a sequence of flight legs that enables sequential observations of a set of heavenly bodies derived from a list of desirable objects. The possible flight legs are constrained by problems of observability, avoiding flyovers of warning and restricted military zones, and running out of fuel. A significant contribution of the KAOS program is that it couples computational capability with a reasoning system.

Nachtsheim, P. R.; Gevarter, W. B.; Stutz, J. C.; Banda, C. P.

1986-01-01

97

Validation of a Clinically Sensitive, Observational Coding System for Parenting Behaviors: The Parenting Clinical Observation Schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The psychometric properties of a newly developed, clinicallysensitive, observational measure of parenting behavior, the Parenting Clinical Observational System (P-COS), are presented. The P-COS expands on existing observational coding systems by integrating qualitative and quantitative aspects of parenting behavior to directly inform clinical decision-making with parents of young children with disruptive behaviors. Design. Reliability and validity data were examined in

Carri Hill; Katie Maskowitz; Barbara Danis; Lauren Wakschlag

2008-01-01

98

Classroom Use and Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

Fink, Ira

2002-01-01

99

Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm  

PubMed Central

The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible.

Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

2012-01-01

100

Study and Demonstration of Planning and Scheduling Concepts for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (CU/LASP) along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) designed, implemented, tested, and demonstrated a prototype of the distributed, hierarchical planning and scheduling system comtemplated for the Earth Observing System (EOS) project. The planning and scheduling prototype made use of existing systems: CU/LASP's Operations and Science Instrument Support Planning and Scheduling (OASIS-PS) software package; GSFC's Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE); and JPL's Plan Integrated Timeliner 2 (Plan-It-2). Using these tools, four scheduling nodes were implemented and tied together using a new communications protocol for scheduling applications called the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL). An extensive and realistic scenario of EOS satellite operations was then developed and the prototype scheduling system was tested and demonstrated using the scenario. Two demonstrations of the system were given to NASA personnel and EOS core system (ECS) contractor personnel. A comprehensive volume of lessons learned was generated and a meeting was held with NASA and ECS representatives to review these lessons learned. A paper and presentation on the project's final results was given at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Computing in Aerospace 9 conference.

Davis, Randal; Thalman, Nancy

1993-01-01

101

Responses to Interpersonal and Physically Provoking Situations: The Utility and Application of an Observation Schedule for School-Aged Students with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research describes the development and pilot testing of a new instrument, the Responses to Interpersonal and Physically Provoking Situations Schedule (RIPPS), designed to measure the reactivity of students with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in the naturalistic setting of the classroom. For this study, 29…

Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Taylor, Myra; West, John; List-Kerz, Michelle

2006-01-01

102

Observations of Academic Instruction for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability: Three States, Thirty-Nine Classrooms, One View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the validation process for alternate assessments, 39 classroom observations were conducted to gather data about current practices in providing academic instruction to students with significant intellectual disability. Using a standardized protocol, data were gathered using direct instructional observation, an Individualized Education…

Restorff, Diane E.; Abery, Brian H.

2013-01-01

103

Sex and Grade Level Differences in Ratings of Students by Teachers and Classroom Observers. Report No. 75-20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school students were ranked by teachers on scales measuring personality characteristics and teacher expectations. Classroom observers also rated the students to assess the validity of teacher rankings and to determine whether teachers and observers use the same characteristics in forming perceptions of students. Teacher rankings and…

Coulter, Cynthia L.; And Others

104

Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) schedule plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes Aerojet's methods and procedures used to control and administer contractual schedules for the EOS/AMSU-A program. Included are the following: the master, intermediate, and detail schedules; critical path analysis; and the total program logic network diagrams.

1994-01-01

105

Observing Emotional Interactions between Teachers and Students in Elementary School Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering emotional skills in the elementary (primary) school classroom can lead to improved learning outcomes, more prosocial behavior, and positive emotional development. Incorporating emotional skill development into the naturalistic and implicit teaching environment is a key feature of what is meant by the emotional climate of the classroom.…

Yan, Elizabeth M.; Evans, Ian M.; Harvey, Shane T.

2011-01-01

106

Sources of Variation That Affect the Reliability of Reading Classroom Observation Measures. Instructional Research Laboratory Technical Series #R83004.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the complexity of classroom reading observations, maintenance of measurement reliability is a concern to researchers. Sources of variation contributing to the unreliability of many measurements may be either (1) lasting and specific, (2) lasting and general, (3) temporary and specific, or (4) temporary and general. Lasting-specific sources…

Willson, Victor L.; And Others

107

The Reciprocal Category System (RCS): An Observational System Designed To Assess Teacher-Student Classroom Verbal Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Reciprocal Category System (RCS) is an observational system used to record and assess teacher-student classroom verbal interaction. The RCS is composed of nine verbal categories which are applicable to either the student or teacher (and as such are numbered differently, thus producing 18 categories) and one additional category--silence or…

Ober, Richard L.

108

Direct Observation as a Decision Method for Evaluating Inclusionary Classroom Participation of Children with Mild Hearing Impairment: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An observation code was utilized to study how children with mild to moderate hearing loss participate within inclusive classroom settings. Participation was considered as active engagement as well as following routines and directions. Prevalence of behavior, responses to practice and prompt opportunities, levels of prompting required to follow…

Borders, Christina Marie

2009-01-01

109

Predicting Student Achievement in University-Level Business and Economics Classes: Peer Observation of Classroom Instruction and Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…

Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

2012-01-01

110

Combinations of Response-Dependent and Response-Independent Schedule-Correlated Stimulus Presentation in an Observing Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pigeons pecked a response key on a variable-interval (VI) schedule, in which responses produced food every 40 s, on average. These VI periods, or components, alternated in irregular fashion with extinction components in which food was unavailable. Pecks on a second (observing) key briefly produced exteroceptive stimuli (houselight flashes)…

DeFulio, Anthony; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

2008-01-01

111

The Astronomer's Integrated Desktop: A Unified Suite of Applications for Scheduling-Block Based Observing with the GBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2003, the monitor and control software systems for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have been redesigned to make the telescope easier to use. The result is the release of the Astronomer's integrated desktop (Astrid), an observation management platform used to create and submit scheduling blocks, monitor their progress on the telescope, and provide a real time,

K. O'Neil; A. L. Shelton; N. M. Radziwill; R. M. Prestage

2006-01-01

112

The Astronomer's Integrated Desktop: A Unied Suite of Applications for Scheduling-Block Based Observing with the GBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2003, the monitor and control software systems for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have been redesigned to make the telescope easier to use. The result is the release of the As- tronomer's integrated desktop (Astrid), an observation management plat- form used to create and submit scheduling blocks, monitor their progress on the telescope, and provide a

K. O'Neil; A. L. Shelton; N. M. Radziwill; R. M. Prestage

2005-01-01

113

Scheduling satellite imagery acquisition for sequential assimilation of water level observation into flood modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based imagery has proved useful for obtaining information on water levels in flood events. Microwave frequencies are generally more useful for flood detection than visible-band sensors because of its all-weather day-night capability. Specifically, the future SWOT mission, with Ka-band interferometry, will be able to provide direct Water Level Observations (WLOs), and current and future Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can provide information of flood extent, which, when intersected with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the floodplain, provides indirect WLOs. By either means, satellite-based WLOs can be assimilated into a hydrodynamic model to decrease forecast uncertainty and further to estimate river discharge into the flooded domain. Operational scenarios can even make a combined use of imagery from different uncoordinated missions to sequentially estimate river discharge. Thus, with an increasing number of operational satellites with WLO capability, information on the relationship between satellite first visit, revisit times, and forecast performance is required to optimise the operational scheduling of satellite imagery. By using an Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) and a synthetic analysis with the 2D hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP based on a real flooding case affecting an urban area (summer 2007, Tewkesbury, Southwest UK), we evaluate the sensitivity of the forecast performance to visit parameters. As an example, we use different scenarios of revisit times and observational errors expected from the current COSMO-Skymed (CSK) constellation, with X-band SAR. We emulate a generic hydrologic-hydrodynamic modelling cascade by imposing a bias and spatiotemporal correlations to the inflow error ensemble into the hydrodynamic domain. First, in agreement with previous research, estimation and correction for this bias leads to a clear improvement in keeping the forecast on track. Second, imagery obtained early in the flood is shown to have a large influence on forecast statistics. Revisit interval is most influential for early observations. The results are promising for the future of remote sensing-based water level observations for real-time flood forecasting in complex scenarios.

García-Pintado, Javier; Neal, Jeff C.; Mason, David C.; Dance, Sarah L.; Bates, Paul D.

2013-04-01

114

Observing presenters' use of visual aids to inform the design of classroom presentation software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large classrooms have traditionally provided multiple blackboards on which an entire lecture could be visible. In recent decades, classrooms were augmented with a data projector and screen, allowing computer-generated slides to replace hand-written blackboard presentations and overhead transparencies as the medium of choice. Many lecture halls and conference rooms will soon be equipped with multiple projectors that provide large, high-resolution

Joel Lanir; Kellogg S. Booth; Leah Findlater

2008-01-01

115

Teacher cognitive functioning as a factor in observed variety and level of classroom teaching behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature suggests a relationship between life-long development of formal reasoning schema and performance in professional education careers. The study investigated implications of cognitive development of preservice teachers as it relates to their classroom teaching performance. Ninety-one seniors involved in a field-oriented teacher education program were given classroom responsibilities which included teaching a science unit. Formal thinking

Dennis W. Sunal; Cynthia Sunal

1985-01-01

116

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule?Generic: AStandard Measure of Social and Communication Deficits Associated with the Spectrum of Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) is a semistructured, stan- dardized assessment of social interaction, communication, play, and imaginative use of ma- terials for individuals suspected of having autism spectrum disorders. The observational sched- ule consists of four 30-minute modules, each designed to be administered to different individuals according to their level of expressive language. Psychometric data are presented for

Catherine Lord; Susan Risi; Linda Lambrecht; Edwin H. Cook; Bennett L. Leventhal; Pamela C. Dilavore; Andrew Pickles; Michael Rutter

117

The View from the Little Chair in the Corner: Improving Teacher Practice and Early Childhood Learning (Wisdom from an Experienced Classroom Observer)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a down-to-earth, heart-to-heart book about what it takes to be an exceptional early childhood teacher. The author uses her experience as a classroom observer and a developmental psychologist to create a rationale for best practice--the reasoning behind the best (worst and average) classroom practice. Cindy Rzasa Bess examines a variety of…

Bess, Cindy Rzasa

2009-01-01

118

Observation of Classroom Social Communication: Do Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Spend Their Time Differently than Their Typically Developing Peers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders…

Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

2010-01-01

119

CHIRON TOOLS: Integrated Target Submission, Scheduling and Observing Systems for a High-Resolution Fiber-Fed Spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CHIRON spectrometer is a new high-resolution, fiber-fed instrument on the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-America Observatory (CTIO). To optimize use of the instrument and limited human resources, we have designed an integrated set of Web applications allowing target submission, observing script planning, nightly script execution and logging, and access to reduced data by multiple users. The unified and easy-to-use interface has dramatically reduced the time needed to submit and schedule observations and improved the efficiency and accuracy of nightly operations. We present our experience to help astronomers and project managers who need to plan for the scope of effort required to commission a queue-scheduled facility instrument.

Brewer, John M.; Giguere, Matthew; Fischer, Debra A.

2014-01-01

120

Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms through a Direct Observation System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is convincing evidence that many students struggle to learn mathematics proficiently. One plausible contributor to the low math achievement is the quantity and quality of learning opportunities provided in classrooms. These opportunities may fall short of addressing the learning needs of students, especially those at risk for failure in…

Doabler, Christian T.

2010-01-01

121

Observational Studies to Accelerate Process Experience in Classroom Studies: An Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software Engineering studies run in classroom environments can and have made important contributions to empirical software engineering. Because the goal of such studies is to improve the state of the practice in industry, researchers must understand and account for the differences between university students and industrial professionals. One major difference identified is the amount of training and practice that students

Jeffrey Carver; Forrest Shull; Victor R. Basili

2003-01-01

122

Observational study of classroom health and safety training in coal mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few efforts have been undertaken to date to assess the quality of mandated coal mine health and safety training for new miners and experienced miners. This study was concerned with the quality and effectiveness of existing classroom health and safety training programs. The study involved field data collection through pre- and posttesting of trainees, audiotaping class sessions, and administering short

R. M. Digman; J. T. Grasso

1982-01-01

123

Using Ocean Observing Systems Data in K-12 Classrooms: Proceedings from a Workshop Exploring the Merit and Feasibility of Developing a National Ocean Observing Systems (NOOS) Education Product  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean engineers and scientists are transforming the way we experience and understand the ocean through Integrated Ocean Observing Systems (IOOS). For the first time, there will be continuous, sustained, near-realtime, multi-dimensional data available from the oceans, collected both from within the oceans using sensors systems and above using remote sensing methodologies. These data make possible inquiry-driven questions concerning the dynamic nature of the ocean's physical, biological and chemical characteristics in both time and space. These data provide unique and meaningful access to the ocean for a broad range of users. One major expected user group is K-12 educators and their students, who will be able to explore and utilize data and information from coastal observing systems in real time from the classroom. This workshop, held in July of 2005, explored the feasability of developing a collection of resources, tools, and/or classroom applications that use National Ocean Observing Systems (NOOS) data and resources to promote ocean literacy and supplement classroom learning and understanding of the ocean environment.

124

Trajectory-Based Takeoff Time Predictions Applied to Tactical Departure Scheduling: Concept Description, System Design, and Initial Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current aircraft departure release times are based on manual estimates of aircraft takeoff times. Uncertainty in takeoff time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route streams and lead to lost throughput. However, technology exists to improve takeoff time estimates by using the aircraft surface trajectory predictions that enable air traffic control tower (ATCT) decision support tools. NASA s Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) is designed to use automated surface trajectory-based takeoff time estimates to improve en route tactical departure scheduling. This is accomplished by integrating an ATCT decision support tool with an en route tactical departure scheduling decision support tool. The PDRC concept and prototype software have been developed, and an initial test was completed at air traffic control facilities in Dallas/Fort Worth. This paper describes the PDRC operational concept, system design, and initial observations.

Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Alan

2011-01-01

125

New Directions in Open Classroom Evaluation: Situational Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material reported here was developed as part of a systematic effort to develop techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of a nationally implemented early childhood program. The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule technique has been implemented in a number of school districts as a means of assessing program implementation of the Tucson…

Rentfrow, Robert K.

126

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLASSROOM VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF STUDENT TEACHERS AND THE CLASSROOM VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF THEIR COOPERATING TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS THAT THE VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF STUDENT TEACHERS IN THE CLASSROOM DOES NOT CHANGE IN RELATION TO THE VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF THEIR COOPERATING TEACHER, A VERBAL-BEHAVIORAL MEASUREMENT OF 12 STUDENT TEACHERS AND 6 COOPERATING TEACHERS WAS UNDERTAKEN USING THE OBSERVATION SCHEDULE AND RECORD FORM 3D. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE REVEALED THAT…

FLINT, SHIRLEY HELENE

127

Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.  

PubMed

Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed. PMID:22408136

Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

2014-05-01

128

The Capabilities of the Graphical Observation Scheduling System (GROSS) as Used by the Astro-2 Spacelab Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Graphical Observation Scheduling System (GROSS) and its functionality and editing capabilities are reported on. The GROSS system was developed as a replacement for a suite of existing programs and associated processes with the aim of: providing a software tool that combines the functionality of several of the existing programs, and provides a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that gives greater data visibility and editing capabilities. It is considered that the improved editing capability provided by this approach enhanced the efficiency of the second astronomical Spacelab mission's (ASTRO-2) mission planning.

Phillips, Shaun

1996-01-01

129

Variable sleep schedules and outcomes in children with psychopathological problems: preliminary observations  

PubMed Central

Background Night-to-night variability in sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be a mediator of behavioral phenotype. We examined the potential association between alertness, sleep, and eating behaviors in children with ADHD and comorbid problems. Methods Sleep was monitored by actigraphy for 7 days. Questionnaires were used to assess sleep complaints, habits and food patterns by parental report, and sleep complaints and sleepiness by child report. Results The group comprised 18 children, including 15 boys, aged 9.4 ± 1.7 years, 88.9% Caucasian, who took one or multiple medications. Children slept on average for 6 hours and 58 minutes with a variability of 1 hour 3 minutes relative to the mean, and their sleepiness scores were highly variable from day to day. Most children had a normal body mass index (BMI). Sleepiness and BMI were associated with sleep schedules and food patterns, such that they accounted for 76% of variance, predominantly by the association of BMI with mean wake after sleep onset and by bedtime sleepiness, with wake after sleep onset variability. Similarly, 97% of variance was shared with eating behaviors, such as desserts and snacks, and fast food meals were associated with morning sleepiness. Conclusion Disrupted sleep and sleepiness appears to favor unhealthy food patterns and may place children with ADHD at increased risk for obesity.

Spruyt, Karen; Raubuck, Danielle L; Grogan, Katie; Gozal, David; Stein, Mark A

2012-01-01

130

What You See is What You Get: A Summary of Observations in Over 1000 Elementary & Secondary Classrooms. A Study of Schooling in the United States. Technical Report Series, No. 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from observations of 129 elementary, 362 junior, and 525 high school classes were analyzed to raise questions about classroom environment and classroom practices. Results gathered from four instruments are discussed: (1) physical environment inventory, which recorded classroom architectural arrangement, seating and grouping patterns,…

Sirotnik, Kenneth A.

131

Topic Interviews Accompanying Classroom Observational Study of the Teaching of DMP, 1979-81. Report from the Program on Student Diversity and Classroom Processes. Program Report 83-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In connection with the formative evaluation of the Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) curriculum, interviews were conducted with teachers in grades 1-3 at the beginning of the school year and after concluding each of the 10 topics on addition and subtraction. The topics had been especially prepared for a classroom observational study. The…

Stephens, W. M.; And Others

132

Making Differences Ordinary in Inclusive Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the need to make differences ordinary as inclusive school programs are developed and implemented. Qualities that are hallmarks of inclusive classrooms and that ensure that differences become an ordinary part of classroom practices are then addressed. These qualities ensure that supports provided in the inclusive classroom are as natural and unobtrusive as possible, arranging student schedules so

James Mcleskey; Nancy L. Waldron

2007-01-01

133

The Cultivated Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

Schilder, Rosalind

1983-01-01

134

Principals as Classroom Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author suggests five ways in which busy principals can indirectly demonstrate their classroom leadership by encouraging teacher specialization, giving teachers opportunities to present case studies of at-risk students, building a diverse intellectual climate, instituting an idea exchange, and scheduling time for teachers to openly discuss a…

Bunting, Carolyn

2007-01-01

135

Improving Classroom Learning by Collaboratively Observing Human Tutoring Videos while Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…

Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt

2009-01-01

136

Swedish Religious Education at the End of the 1960s: Classroom Observations, Early Video Ethnography and the National Curriculum of 1962  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to present a unique corpus of film-recorded classroom observations of sixth-grade classes (age 12-13) in the Swedish cities of Gothenburg, Partille and Trollhättan in the late 1960s. The material documents how RE could be taught in Swedish schools in line with the curriculum of Lgr 62 which internationally was an early…

Flensner, K. Kittelmann; Larsson, G.

2014-01-01

137

Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

2011-01-01

138

Using Videoconferencing Technology to Enhance Classroom Observation Methodology for the Instruction of Preservice Early Childhood Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To learn about and become acclimated to the environment in which they someday plan to work, preservice teachers and pre-professional daycare providers are typically required to conduct onsite observations. Traditionally, these observations require that the pre-professional spend a required number of hours studying the dynamics of the real-world…

Pickering, Lloyd E.; Walsh, Eamonn Joseph

2011-01-01

139

I Spy Something! A Practical Guide to Classroom Observations of Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claiming that observation is the first and most authentic tool for assessing young children's learning and development, this book advises educators of young children how to improve observation skills by recording children's growth and development. The book also serves as a tool to evaluate and improve early childhood programs. Specific benefits of…

Leonard, Ann Marie

140

A Descriptive Assessment of Instruction-Based Interactions in the Preschool Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study describes preschool teacher-child interactions during several commonly scheduled classroom activities in which teachers deliver instructions. An observation system was developed that incorporated measurement of evidence-based compliance strategies and included the types of instructions delivered (e.g., integral or deficient…

Ndoro, Virginia W.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Heal, Nicole A.

2006-01-01

141

Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

Faia, Jean E.

1988-01-01

142

The Relationship between Older Drivers' Performance on the Driving Observation Schedule (eDOS) and Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Research question/Objective: The Driving Observation Schedule (eDOS) was developed for use in the Candrive/Ozcandrive five-year prospective study of older drivers to observe the driving behavior of older drivers and monitor changes in driving behaviors over time. The aim of this study is to describe participants’ driving performance during the eDOS driving task and investigate the association between driving performance and cognitive measures. Methods: A subset of Ozcandrive participants (n = 144, 104 male [72%], 40 female [28%], Mean age = 81.49 years, SD = 3.58 years, Range: 76 – 96 years) completed the eDOS driving task. Participants drove to their selected destinations (up to 4 locations), with observations of driving behaviors (both inappropriate and appropriate) recorded for specific driving maneuvers: intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low speed maneuvers and maneuver-free driving. Driving behaviors (e.g. signalling, speed regulation, gap acceptance, lane position, ‘critical errors’) were scored by a trained observer and participants received an overall eDOS driving task score (Maximum = 100 points). Participants also completed a series of cognitive assessments as part of the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocols. Results: The overall eDOS driving task score was very high (M = 95.77; SD = 5.15; Range = 65.63 – 100). Detailed analyses of participants’ driving behavior revealed a high level of appropriate driving behavior (96%, n = 5,935 maneuvers), with few errors (4%, n = 252 maneuvers). While most participants’ performance on the cognitive assessments was high, some scores were below the criteria for cogntive impairment (BIC) according to conventional benchmarks: (MoCA: M = 26.56, SD = 2.12, Range = 19 – 30, % BIC = 28%; MMSE: M = 29.10, SD = 1.01, Range = 26–30, %BIC = 0%; Trails B: M = 111.66, SD = 43.53, Range = 50 – 301, %BIC = 6%). There was no significant relationship observed between participants’ overall eDOS driving task scores and age (r (144) = ?0.17, p > 0.05), and performance on various cognitive assessments including: MoCA (r (144) = 0.07, p > 0.1), MMSE (r (144) = 0.03, p > 0.5), Trail Making Test B (r (144) = 0.09, p > 0.1). Implications: Preliminary analyses of the eDOS driving task revealed a high level of appropriate driving behavior among Ozcandrive older drivers. Despite some participants’ cognitive performance suggesting impairment, participants’ overall eDOS driving task scores were not significantly related to cognitive performance. This finding is consistent with previous research suggesting some older drivers are able to compensate well for age-related cognitive impairment.

Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith; Langford, Jim; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Di Stefano, Marilyn; Macdonald, Wendy; Mazer, Barbara; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Marshall, Shawn

2013-01-01

143

Conceptualization, Measurement, and Improvement of Classroom Processes: Standardized Observation Can Leverage Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors advance an argument that placing observation of actual teaching as a central feature of accountability frameworks, teacher preparation, and basic science could result in substantial improvements in instruction and related social processes and a science of the production of teaching and teachers. Teachers' behavioral interactions with…

Pianta, Robert C.; Hamre, Bridget K.

2009-01-01

144

The Notebook Problem. Report on Observations of Problem Solving Activity in USMES and Control Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aspect of the Unified Science and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) project described in this paper was undertaken in an effort to observe the problem solving behaviors of elementary school children. The Notebook Problem consisted of presenting a student with three notebooks arranged so as to differ from each other in terms of such…

Shapiro, Bernard

145

Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

2013-01-01

146

Systematic observation of classroom behavior of retarded and autistic preschool children.  

PubMed

Two groups of 6 children, previously diagnosed as autistic and mentally retarded, were observed for seven 20-minute sessions. The following environmental parameters were manipulated: teacher-to-child ratio, presence of food reinforcement, and skill area being presented. Behavior under observation fell into 3 classes: (a) adaptive performance (percentage response and percentage correct), (b) attention, and (c) maladaptive behavior. Results suggested that (a) food reinforcement and the 1:1 teacher-to-child ratio may not generally enhance adaptive performance but may have an effect upon attention and tantrum behavior; (b) attention to task is more predictive of adaptive behavior than attention to teacher; and (c) interactions were generally lacking between the above parameters and diagnostic group, while level of functioning did show such interactions. The present results support the practice of individual behavioral assessment of autistic and retarded children. The present procedure, coupled with statistical analysis for individual subjects, may provide educational prescriptions for individual children. PMID:941936

Frankel, F; Graham, V

1976-07-01

147

The influence of first-language bidialectism in foreign-language classrooms: observations from Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sociolinguistic phenomenon of bidialectism can significantly influence foreign-language learning. This study provides empirical evidence (drawn from the Greek Cypriot bidialectal community) for this influence and it supports the recommendation that foreign-language educators be trained in language-variation issues. The study's methodological basis consisted of observations of lessons in which English is taught as a foreign language and of students' written

Androula Yiakoumetti; Marina Mina

2011-01-01

148

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination youâll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. Any experienced middle school science teacher can tell you that successful classroom management is an ongoing, evolving processâteachers need to modify their daily practices based on the observed behaviors and feedback of their students. This article describes some strategies to manage inquiry-based science classrooms effectively.

Wolfgang, Christie N.

2009-07-01

149

Scheduling Sanity in the Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of the music block schedule for elementary band, chorus, and orchestra programs has many advantages. For example, it eliminates the need to pull students from class and abates classroom teacher and music teacher friction. Solutions to other problems often encountered in scheduling are also discussed. (RM)

Curatilo, Joseph S.

1983-01-01

150

Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps the most important skill a good teacher should possess is the ability to control students. A teacher who can devise fascinating and unique lesson plans for her classroom is useless if she can't get the kids to sit down and listen to her instructions. Unfortunately, many beginning teachers simply are not prepared to manage their classrooms effectively. Managing a classroom means you must teach your students behavior expectations, not just post your rules on the classroom wall. Classroom management becomes even more of an issue when it applies to the active nature of the science classroom.

Swango, C. J.; Steward, Sally B.

2003-01-01

151

Communication Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high arithmetic rates of media processing applications require architectures with tens to hundreds of functional units, multiple register files, and explicit interconnect between functional units and register files. Communication scheduling enables scheduling to these emerging architectures, including those that use shared buses and register file ports. Scheduling to these shared interconnect architectures is difficult because it requires simultaneously allocating

Peter R. Mattson; William J. Dally; Scott Rixner; Ujval J. Kapasi; John D. Owens

2000-01-01

152

Media Equipped Classrooms: Giving Attention to the Teaching Station.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the Media Equipped Classroom (MEC), i.e., a centrally scheduled or departmentally scheduled teaching space with permanently installed media and classroom support technology designed to enhance the quality of teaching when properly utilized. Specific emphasis is given to the teaching station at the State…

Anderson, James A.; Cichocki, Ronald R.

153

Automated telescope scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.

1988-01-01

154

Classroom Planetarium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)

Ankney, Paul

1981-01-01

155

Classroom Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on classroom management, focusing on behavior modification, group management, teacher effects, management training, and planning. Five types of management skills and six principles for effective classroom organization identified by researchers are suggested for application by teachers. (PGD)

Strother, Deborah Burnett

1985-01-01

156

Classroom Communication of Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project analyzes the regular patterns of social interaction in science classrooms and the verbal and nonverbal strategies by which the science content of lessons is communicated. Based on observation and recording of 60 lessons by 20 teachers in seco...

J. L. Lemke

1982-01-01

157

Craters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

McArdle, Heather K.

1997-01-01

158

Classroom Utilization Review. Research Monograph III [and] Classroom Utilization Comparing Spring 1984 to Spring 1985. Research Monograph VII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies were conducted to analyze classroom utilization at Oklahoma City Community College for spring and fall, 1984, and spring, 1985. During all three semesters, there were 68 general purpose classroom areas, although some of the lab areas had classes scheduled in them. Study findings revealed: (1) heaviest classroom usage was between 5:30 p.m.…

Shirazi, Annmarie

159

The Master Schedule and Learning: Improving the Quality of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The master schedule determines instructional time, use of space, student grouping, and teacher role. Currently, secondary school buildings are used like factories, and teachers can spend an entire career in the same classroom. Traditional, intensified, and flexible block scheduling produces master schedules with greater flexibility, less…

Kruse, Carol A.; Kruse, Gary D.

1995-01-01

160

Parallel Block Scheduling: Accommodating Students' Diverse Needs in Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of parallel block scheduling (PBS) in inclusive classrooms as a flexible method of scheduling that addresses student grouping; time for teacher planning; and scheduling of subjects, support services, and staff. The characteristics of PBS and an elementary school that uses the system are highlighted. (Author/CR)

Snell, Martha E.; And Others

1996-01-01

161

Test Review: Lord, C., Luyster, R. J., Gotham, K., & Guthrie, W. (2012). "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) Manual (Part II): Toddler Module." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition" (ADOS-2; Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012; Lord, Rutter et al., 2012), a newly updated, semistructured, standardized measure of communication, social interaction, play/imagination, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors published by Western…

McCrimmon, Adam; Rostad, Kristin

2014-01-01

162

Influences of block scheduling on secondary science teaching practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing the length of class periods has become one of the most frequently implemented recommendations from the secondary school restructuring movement. Many schools have changed to a block schedule in which the students have four 90--100 minute periods each day. The needs of science classes, such as time to set up and perform lab experiments, suggest the block schedule may be particularly appropriate for science. A case study design was used to explore the instructional and attitudinal changes that accompany the restructuring of the daily schedule. Classroom observations were conducted before and after the implementation of block scheduling to document the student-teacher interactions and the instructional strategies used by the science teachers. Teacher and student surveys were administered to obtain information about attitudes towards the block schedule as well as self-reported instructional strategies. Interviews were conducted to elicit beliefs about good teaching practices. Changes in instructional strategies and learning climate were considered within the context of teacher beliefs, state standards, and the organizational change to the school schedule. The results support other studies that have found positive attitudes toward block scheduling. Teachers in this study changed their instructional strategies, although not necessarily in line with the theorized changes. In several instances, the changes were closely aligned with the teachers' beliefs about good science instruction. Test scores and grades were not strongly influenced. Teachers met more of the state science standards and spent more time interacting with small groups during the block schedule. The results suggest teachers' beliefs about good teaching practice play an important role in the influences of restructuring efforts. The block schedule, preferred by teachers, provides an opportunity for improvement in science instruction and learning climate. How this popular form of restructuring manifests itself at the classroom level is largely a function of the individual teacher. Practical implications can be used to guide teachers and administrators in making scheduling decisions. Theoretical implications based on increased knowledge of teacher change emerge from the results. This study adds to the literature on the relationships among teacher beliefs, practices, and the process of organizational change in secondary school restructuring efforts.

Ross, Donna Louise

163

Scheduling game  

SciTech Connect

Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

Kleck, W

1982-04-01

164

Data for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data for the Classroom collection gathers datasets that have accompanying instructional materials or other pertinent information for using the dataset in a classroom setting for grades K-16. The data may be numerical, visual, maps, charts, tables or images. The data may be observational, remotely sensed or model data. The primary component is that there are materials supporting the use and understanding of the data either by educators or directly by students. Additionally, the dataset itself is desribed.

165

Theme: Block Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Block Scheduling" (Brannon); "Block Schedule and Agricultural Education" (Rising); "Block Scheduling: A Student Perspective" (Gilham); "What Goes around Comes around" (Baker); "Accelerated Block Schedule" (Whitson); "Block Scheduling: Students Sound Off"; "Block Scheduling: Maintaining a Complete Agriculture Program" (Agnew, Masters);…

Agricultural Education Magazine, 1998

1998-01-01

166

Classroom Expernomics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Classroom Expernomics site was jointly developed by Gregory Delemeester, Associate Professor of Economics, Marietta College, and John Neral, Associate Professor of Economics, Frostburg State University. This site features the Classroom Expernomics newsletter aimed at encouraging the "use of economic experiments as teaching tools for the classroom." The newsletter has been published twice a year since the spring of 1992; all current and previous issues are available at the web site. Each newsletter contains two or three articles by various professors profiling their use of economics experiments in the classroom.

1992-01-01

167

Classroom Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a report of a middle-school teacher's study of classroom management. The teacher/researcher was interested in how some of the techniques in the Kovalik Integrated Thematic Instruction model of training would influence the teacher/researcher's classroom management; the effects of direct instruction within a community circle; the…

Dinsmore, Terri Sue

168

Classroom Screening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classroom screening device was developed by the Circle Preschool First Chance Project, a government-funded program to integrate handicapped children into regular classroom activities, for use in preschools, nursery schools, Head Start centers and other agencies working with young children. It is designed to give a gross measure of a child's…

Alpha Plus Corp., Piedmont, CA.

169

Spike: AI scheduling for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spike scheduling system, developed for scheduling astronomical observations for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is described. Spike is an activity-based AI scheduler which incorporates innovative approaches to constraint representation and reasoning and scheduling search. Although developed for space telescope scheduling, the Spike system was designed around a general scheduling-constraint framework that can be applied to other domains. Techniques for

Mark D. Johnston

1990-01-01

170

Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? An observational real-time study in German hospital departments  

PubMed Central

Background During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified. Methods Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer. Results Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care. Conclusion This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization.

Mache, Stefanie; Scutaru, Cristian; Vitzthum, Karin; Quarcoo, David; Schoffel, Norman; Welte, Tobias; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

2009-01-01

171

Teaching Practices and Elementary Classroom Peer Ecologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom

Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2011-01-01

172

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Alexakos, Konstantinos

2001-03-01

173

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, they must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a "mystery location." With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own maps of the classroom or other school location and comparing them with their classmates' efforts.

Institute Of Navigation And Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

174

Classroom Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, students must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a mystery location. With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own map of the classroom or other school location and comparing it with their classmates' efforts.

Lippis, Matt; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2006-01-01

175

A Day in Third Grade: A Large-Scale Study of Classroom Quality and Teacher and Student Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observations of 780 third-grade classrooms described classroom activities, child-teacher interactions, and dimensions of the global classroom environment, which were examined in relation to structural aspects of the classroom and child behavior. 1 child per classroom was targeted for observation in relation to classroom quality and teacher and…

Elementary School Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

176

Examining the Effect of Classroom Practices on Shorthand Enrollments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that certain instructional practices may be one reason for decreasing shorthand enrollments, the author suggests that shorthand teachers examine their classroom techniques in order to improve student learning. Some specific steps in scheduling dictation and transcription are given. (MF)

Brendel, LeRoy A.

1978-01-01

177

Individualization of Instruction: Flexible Scheduling. Education Monograph No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible modular scheduling is discussed as a means for achieving individualized instruction in the classroom. Scheduling, in general, is presented as a compromise among four elements: a) individualizing the educational program for each student, b) utilizing available facilities, c) utilizing available staff, and d) capitalizing on staff…

Berg, L. L.; And Others

178

Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The TOF Attention Problems and DOF Intrusive scales contributed significant unique

Stephanie H. McConaughy; Valerie S. Harder; Kevin M. Antshel; Michael Gordon; Ricardo Eiraldi; Levent Dumenci

2010-01-01

179

The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: A New Scheduling Paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is implementing a new Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) designed to maximize the observing efficiency of the telescope while ensuring that none of the flexibility and ease of use of the GBT is harmed and that the data quality of observations is not adversely affected. To accomplish this, the GBT DSS is implementing a dynamic scheduling system which schedules observers, rather than running scripts. The DSS works by breaking each project into one or more sessions which have associated observing criteria such as RA, Dec, and frequency. Potential observers may also enter dates when members of their team will not be available for either on-site or remote observing. The scheduling algorithm uses those data, along with the predicted weather, to determine the most efficient schedule for the GBT. The DSS provides all observers at least 24 hours notice of their upcoming observing. In the uncommon (< 20%) case where the actual weather does not match the predictions, a backup project, chosen from the database, is run instead. Here we give an overview of the GBT DSS project, including the ranking and scheduling algorithms for the sessions, the scheduling probabilities generation, the web framework for the system, and an overview of the results from the beta testing which were held from June - September, 2008.

O'Neil, K.; Balser, D.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Condon, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; Shelton, A.; Braatz, J.; Harnett, J.; Maddalena, R.; Mello, M.; Sessoms, E.

2009-09-01

180

Culture Orientation and Sociometry of the Classroom: A Possible Relationship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a study that examined the relationship between classroom orientation and sociometric patterns within the classroom are presented in this paper. Methodology involved observation of 12 classrooms in Ontario and administration of two survey instruments to 20 fourth-year students. Classroom orientations were categorized as cooperative,…

Epp, Juanita Ross; Hajnal, Vivian

181

A Zebra in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the care and breeding of zebra fish, suggests various experiments and observations easily performed in a classroom setting, and provides some ideas to further student interest and exploration of these organisms. (DDR)

Leake, Devin; Morvillo, Nancy

1998-01-01

182

Jigsaw Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jigsaw Classroom is a website for the jigsaw cooperative learning technique that strives to reduce racial conflict, promote better learning, improve motivation, and increase the enjoyment of the learning experience among school children. The website includes an overview of jigsaw techniques, jigsaw history, implementing tips, related books and articles, and links on cooperative learning, school violence, and jigsaw developer Elliot Aronson.

Aronson, Elliot; Network, Social P.

183

Classroom Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a technician for the Continuing Education department at Confederation College, the author was approached by an Academic Support Strategist from college's Learning Centre who was looking for a solution for one of her students. She was working with a hard-of-hearing student, and at the time, they were sitting together in the classrooms, sharing a…

Donlon, Joe

2007-01-01

184

Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

2007-01-01

185

Classroom Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Australian Antarctic Division, Classroom Antarctica gives dozens of downloadable Adobe Acrobat files that allow students to discover this unique continent. Subjects include the history of the scientific research undertaken on Antarctica, surviving its climate, its biological ecosystem, the land's physical characteristics and affects on climate, and much more.

1969-12-31

186

Smart Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

2006-01-01

187

Using ocean observing systems data in K-12 classrooms: proceedings from a workshop exploring the merit and feasibility of developing a National Ocean Observing Systems (NOOS) education product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean engineers and scientists are transforming the way we experience and understand the ocean through the Integrated Ocean Observing Systems (IOOS). For the first time, there will be continuous, sustained, near-real time, multidimensional data available from the oceans, collected both from within the oceans using sensors systems and above using remote sensing methodologies. These data make possible inquiry-driven questions concerning

J. McDonnell; L. Hotaling; G. I. Matsumoto; C. Parsons; B. Meeson; R. Bell

2005-01-01

188

Comparison of Final Grades between a Traditional Classroom and Learning Community Classroom at Northeast Wisconsin Technical College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines courses in the marketing program at Northeast Wisconsin Technical College to compare the academic performance of students in traditional and learning community classroom settings. Two sections of students, a traditional 17-week course and a block scheduled 5-week course, served as the sample in the study. The block scheduling

Van Beek, Dianne

189

A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

Morris, Robert

1996-01-01

190

The Classroom Animal: Crickets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

Kramer, David C.

1985-01-01

191

Observational Methods in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ASCD Supervision Council established three regional conferences to (1) assure that supervisors in elementary and secondary education would have the opportunity for self-renewal through a wide variety of meaningful experiences, and (2) help supervisors and curriculum workers develop skills and competencies that could be shared with teachers.…

Beegle, Charles W., Ed.; Brandt, Richard M., Ed.

192

Schedule Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Schedule risk assessments determine the likelihood of finishing on time. Each task in a schedule has a varying degree of probability of being finished on time. A schedule risk assessment quantifies these probabilities by assigning values to each task. Thi...

G. Smith

2003-01-01

193

The Electronic Classroom. New Classrooms without Walls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how teachers can take advantage of the Internet to create classroom projects. The process involves locating collaborating partners via the World Wide Web, then determining which projects would be worthwhile to students. Presents guidelines for organizing a classroom project, discusses classroom considerations, examines teacher…

Barron, Ann E.; Ivers, Karen S.

1998-01-01

194

Science Laboratory Interaction Categories (SLIC): An Instrument to Observe and Analyze the Various Parameters of Activity-Centered and Vocational Education Classrooms. Technical Report 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument is presented for recording and analyzing student and teacher behavior in laboratory or activity-centered vocational education classrooms. The instrument uses categories of behavior, such as: (1) asks extended thought questions, (2) shows or illustrates, and (3) management of lesson, for teachers; and categories such as: (1) asks…

Kyle, William C., Jr.; And Others

195

The Relative Effects of Classroom Instruction and Subsequent Observational Learning on the Acquisition of Questioning Behavior by Pre-Service Elementary Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents procedures, results, and conclusions of a study designed to compare the effects of classroom instruction with that of a videotape model presentation of a behavior to be acquired, on teacher performance under simulated conditions. The subjects were 33 female elementary education majors at the University of Texas. Results indicated that the…

Koran, John J.

1969-01-01

196

Classroom Discipline. Research Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in classroom discipline tends to show that discipline is a by-product of effective instruction and classroom management. The five publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography explore aspects of the complex classroom environment that relate to student discipline. Walter Doyle's chapter on "Classroom Organization and…

Bielefeldt, Talbot

1989-01-01

197

Classroom Management. Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In learning-centered classrooms, the emphasis of classroom management shifts from maintaining behavioral control to fostering student engagement and self-regulation as well as community responsibility. This brief describes classroom management in "learning centered" classrooms, where practices are consistent with recent research knowledge about…

National Education Association Research Department, 2006

2006-01-01

198

Course Scheduling Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Course Scheduling Support System is designed to facilitate manual generation of the faculty course schedule. It aids in assigning faculty to courses a nd assigning each course section to a time block. It captures historic and current scheduling information in an organized manner making information needed to create new schedules more readily available. The interaction between user and database

Roy Levow; Jawad Khan; Sam Hsu

2006-01-01

199

Schedule Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schedule risk assessments determine the likelihood of finishing on time. Each task in a schedule has a varying degree of probability of being finished on time. A schedule risk assessment quantifies these probabilities by assigning values to each task. This viewgraph presentation contains a flow chart for conducting a schedule risk assessment, and profiles applicable several methods of data analysis.

Smith, Greg

2003-01-01

200

Hey, There's a Forest in that Classroom!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a prolonged visit to an elementary classroom, this author was inspiredto share his reflections on the effective combination of creative scienceteaching approaches he observed. In particular, the author highlights the unusual classroom environment, the use of thematic elements, and the hands-on teaching approach.

Coppedge, Ginny; Page, Scott

2004-03-01

201

A Measure of Teacher Classroom Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on an observation instrument and data obtained over 2 years as part of the national evaluation of project Follow Through. Data was collected from 70 kindergarten and first grade classrooms involved 7 different experimental programs and including 2 comparison (control) classrooms. The primary instrument used to measure teacher…

Soar, Robert S.

202

Classroom Teachers' Reflections on Teaching Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore preservice classroom teacher reflection in a physical education teaching and learning environment and to describe how the teachers' reflections related to their practices. Two preservice classroom teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected using observations, journals, documents, and…

Tsangaridou, Niki

2005-01-01

203

Teacher Awareness of Classroom Dyadic Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyadic interactions between teachers and students were recorded in 30 classrooms with each classroom being observed for one day. At the end of the day teachers were told the number of contacts they had with individual students and were asked to estimate the percentages that were a) response opportunities, in which the child attempts to answer a…

Martin, Roy; Keller, Albert

204

Protocols for distributive scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

1993-01-01

205

Aspects of job scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

Phillips, K.

1976-01-01

206

Alternative Feedback Approaches for Improving Student Teachers' Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three approaches for providing feedback for improving the classroom instruction of preservice teachers are feedback from pupils, systematic feedback from classroom observation, and self-analysis of classroom lessons. These approaches provide student teachers, cooperating teachers and supervisors with data for improving the preservice teaching…

Freiberg, H. Jerome; Hersholt, C. Waxman

1988-01-01

207

Influences on children's competence in early childhood classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the contributions of classroom context (activity settings, teacher behavior, contact with peers and teachers) to children's cognitive and social competence in early childhood classrooms. One-hundred fourteen children (61 girls; Mage = 51.7 months) were observed in their early childhood classrooms during free play time. Children's cognitive and social competence were measured by

Susan Kontos; Amanda Wilcox-Herzog

1997-01-01

208

Effective Factors in Interactions within Japanese EFL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom interactional patterns depend on some contextual, cultural and local factors in addition to the methodologies employed in the classroom. In order to delineate such factors, the focus of classroom interaction research needs to shift from the observables to the unobservables like teachers' and learners' psychological states and…

Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

2013-01-01

209

A Multi-Instrument Examination of Preschool Classroom Quality and the Relationship between Program, Classroom, and Teacher Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: A statewide study of preschool classroom quality was conducted using 3 distinct classroom observation measures in order to inform a statewide quality rating system. Findings suggested that Tennessee preschool classrooms were approaching "good" quality on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and provided…

Denny, Joanna Hope; Hallam, Rena; Homer, Karen

2012-01-01

210

Constructivism and Block Scheduling: Making the Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student-centered learning practices associated with constructivism could benefit from the increased class time that block scheduling offers. But, in this article, the author observes, too often block scheduling is adopted as an end in itself, not as a tool to facilitate a specific pedagogical approach. The author expands on his observation in…

Hackmann, Donald G.

2004-01-01

211

GLOBE Assessment Classroom Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GLOBE Classroom Assessment site provides sample student assessment tools and frameworks to provide teachers and students with evidence about progress on NASA's Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program goals. GLOBE Assessment has three main components: (1) GLOBE Assessment Standards - Broad overview of assessment indexing to standards and frameworks that specify commonly referenced science content areas and inquiry strategies (2) GLOBE Assessment Tools - Templates, rubrics, and guided exemplars to tailor your assessments. Exemplars are designed to assess students' deep understanding of GLOBE framework strategies. (3) GLOBE Assessment Alignment - Materials from GLOBE Conference 2001 Alignment Binder which provided tools to link GLOBE to National and State standards.

1999-01-01

212

Scheduling Scholarship: Promoting Faculty Engagement in Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campuses can reinvigorate faculty by helping them make time for sustained, in-depth professional development. Scheduling scholarship in the form of on-going, long-term faculty learning communities (FLCs) link work in the classroom with research and reflection. The benefits of FLCs to two-year colleges include decreased isolation, intellectual…

Lightner, Robin; Sipple, Susan

2013-01-01

213

Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling  

DOEpatents

A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-25

214

Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

2012-01-01

215

A Study of Sex Equity in Classroom Interaction. Final Report: Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first volume of a two-volume report on the study of sex equity in classroom interaction presents findings of previous studies of classroom interaction, methods used in the study, observations of classroom interactions, possible causes of sex segregation, sex differences in classroom leadership, and intervention implementation effects. The…

Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Harris, Abigail M.

216

Raising Beetles in a Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

Hackett, Erla

217

Fundamentals of Shiftwork Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is designed for use by managers, supervisors, shiftwork schedulers and employees. It defines the principles and components of a method of shiftwork scheduling for regular, cyclic shifts that can minimize fatigue effects in the workplace, the r...

J. C. Miller

2006-01-01

218

Tips from the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four tips for use in the English-as-a-Second-Language classroom are highlighted: Mr. Bean in the Classroom; Defining Your Future; Coin Questions; Our Futures: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. (Author/VWL)

Epstein, Jim; Ashcraft, Nikki; Clarke, Paul M.; Wolf, Grant S.

1999-01-01

219

Adapting Classroom Schemata.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses schema theory in relation to the language classroom. Argues that as teachers themselves are former learners, the schemata they have developed both inside and outside the classroom will provide them assumptions about how people learn. (Author/VWL)

Littlewood, William

1999-01-01

220

Cameras in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the following uses for a video camera in the science classroom: video presentations, microscope work, taping and/or monitoring experiments, analyzing everyday phenomena, lesson enhancement, field trip alternative, and classroom management. (PR)

Steinman, Richard C.

1993-01-01

221

Reinforcement learning in scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

1994-01-01

222

Schedule Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schedule Risk Assessment needs to determine the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. Task in a schedule should reflect the "most likely" duration for each task. IN reality, each task is different and has a varying degree of probability of finishing within or after the duration specified. Schedule risk assessment attempt to quantify these probabilities by assigning values to each task. Bridges the gap between CPM scheduling and the project's need to know the likelihood of "when".

Smith, Greg

2003-01-01

223

Bulk Scheduling With the DIANA Scheduler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from the research and development of a Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) scheduling engine, to be used primarily for data intensive sciences such as physics analysis, are described. In Grid analyses, tasks can involve thousands of computing, data handling, and network resources. The central problem in the scheduling of these resources is the coordinated management of computation and data at multiple locations and not just data replication or movement. However, this can prove to be a rather costly operation and efficient sing can be a challenge if compute and data resources are mapped without considering network costs. We have implemented an adaptive algorithm within the so-called DIANA Scheduler which takes into account data location and size, network performance and computation capability in order to enable efficient global scheduling. DIANA is a performance-aware and economy-guided Meta Scheduler. It iteratively allocates each job to the site that is most likely to produce the best performance as well as optimizing the global queue for any remaining jobs. Therefore it is equally suitable whether a single job is being submitted or bulk scheduling is being performed. Results indicate that considerable performance improvements can be gained by adopting the DIANA scheduling approach.

Anjum, Ashiq; McClatchey, Richard; Ali, Arshad; Willers, Ian

2006-12-01

224

Online interval scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the online interval scheduling problem,in which a set of intervals of the positive realline is presented to a scheduling algorithm in orderof start time. Upon seeing each interval, thealgorithm must decide whether or not to "schedule" it. Overlapping intervals may not be scheduledtogether. We give a strongly 2-competitivealgorithm for the case in which intervals mustbe one of two

Richard J. Lipton; Andrew Tomkinst

1994-01-01

225

Petri Net Based Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Timed Petri nets can be used to model and analyze scheduling problems. To support the modeling of scheduling problems, we provide a method to map tasks, resources, and constraints onto a timed Petri net. By mapping scheduling problems onto Petri nets, we ...

W. M. P. van der Aalst

1995-01-01

226

The effect of mathematical games on on-task behaviours in the primary classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenge for primary classroom teachers is to maintain students' engagement with learning tasks while catering for their diverse needs, capabilities and interests. Multiple pedagogical approaches are employed to promote on-task behaviours in the mathematics classroom. There is a general assumption by educators that games ignite children's on-task behaviours, but there is little systemically researched empirical data to support this claim. This paper compares students' on-task behaviours during non-digital game-playing lessons compared with non-game-playing lessons. Six randomly selected grade 5 and 6 students (9-12 year olds) were observed during ten mathematics lessons. A total of 2,100 observations were recorded via an observational schedule and analysed by comparing the percentage of exhibited behaviours. The study found the children spent 93 % of the class-time exhibiting on-task engagement during the game-playing lessons compared with 72 % during the non-game-playing lessons. The game-playing lessons also promoted greater incidents of student talk related to the mathematical task (34 %) compared with the non-game-playing lessons (11 %). These results support the argument that games serve to increase students' time-on-task in mathematics lessons. Therefore, it is contended that use of games explicitly addressing the mathematical content being taught in a classroom is one way to increase engagement and, in turn, potential for learning.

Bragg, Leicha A.

2012-12-01

227

Classroom Solar Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students engage in an ongoing investigation to find patterns of sunlight and shadow in a classroom (or any room that gets sunlight) at different times of the day and different times of the year. Students look for repeating patterns, keep a log to describe and sketch observations of when and where certain easily recognized patters appear and turn the room into a solar calendar that may survive into the future for other classes to use. Part 1 of this activity requires occasional note-taking and casual observation over the course of a day. Part 2 requires 30-60 minutes to create the calendar record, then casual observation and note-taking throughout the school year. The lesson plan includes a math extension activity and background information about the Sun Dagger at Chaco Canyon. This activity is the third lesson in the Ancient Eyes Look to the Skies curriculum guide.

228

Classroom Strategies: Classroom Management Systems. Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom management is defined as procedures for arranging the classroom environment so that children learn what the teacher wants to teach them in the healthiest and most effective way possible. The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory presents a discussion of these procedures as they relate to social controls and components of…

Speiss, Madeleine F.; And Others

229

Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

2008-01-01

230

Analysing Bilingual Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper analyses and evaluates spoken discourse in the bilingual classroom at Damascus University. It looks at the mechanism of classroom interaction: the use of questions, initiations, repetitions and expansions. Although this paper deals with classroom interaction at Damascus University, it is believed that the results arrived at may…

Hasan, Ali S.

2006-01-01

231

Competition in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

Jameson, Daphne

2007-01-01

232

Cockroaches in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome the Madagascar hissing cockroach into your classroom--they are not your average pest! This article describes the basic biology of this relatively tame creature, and how to set up and care for a classroom colony. It includes a list of suggested inquiry-centered classroom activities that you and your students will find both educational and fun!

Moseley, Christine; Wagler, Ron

2005-03-01

233

Classroom Age Composition and Developmental Change in 70 Urban Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multilevel modeling approach was used to investigate the influence of age composition in 70 urban preschool classrooms. A series of hierarchical linear models demonstrated that greater variance in classroom age composition was negatively related to development on the Child Observation Record (COR) Cognitive, Motor, and Social subscales. This was…

Moller, Arlen C.; Forbes-Jones, Emma; Hightower, A. Dirk

2008-01-01

234

Observing Objects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on materials and their composition includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

235

Dishabituation Produces Interactions during Multiple Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McSweeney and Weatherly (1998) argued that differential habituation to the reinforcer contributes to the behavioral interactions observed during multiple schedules. The present experiment confirmed that introducing dishabituators into one component of a multiple schedule increases response rate in the other, constant, component. During baseline,…

McSweeney, Frances K.; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Murphy, Eric S.; Isava, Duane M.

2004-01-01

236

Scheduling multiprocessor tasks to minimize schedule length  

SciTech Connect

The problem considered in this paper is the deterministic scheduling of tasks on a set of identical processors. However, the model presented differs from the classical one by the requirement that certain tasks need more than one processor at a time for their processing. This assumption is especially justified in some microprocessor applications and its impact on the complexity of minimizing schedule length is studied. First the authors concentrate on the problem of nonpreemptive scheduling. In this case, polynomial-time algorithms exist only for unit processing times. The authors present two such algorithms of complexity O(n) for scheduling tasks requiring an arbitrary number of processors between 1 and k at a time where k is a fixed integer. The case for which k is not fixed is shown to be NP-complete. Next, the problem of preemptive scheduling of tasks of arbitrary length is studied. First an algorithm for scheduling tasks requiring one or k processors is presented. Its complexity depends linearly on the number of tasks. Then, the possibility of a linear programming formulation for the general case is analyzed.

Blazewicz, J.; Drabowski, M.; Weglarz, J.

1986-05-01

237

Long range science scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are scheduled with the assistance of a long-range scheduling system (SPIKE) that was developed using artificial intelligence techniques. In earlier papers, the system architecture and the constraint representation and propagation mechanisms were described. The development of high-level automated scheduling tools, including tools based on constraint satisfaction techniques and neural networks is described. The performance of these tools in scheduling HST observations is discussed.

Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

1991-01-01

238

Teaching Writing in Canadian Middle Grades Classrooms: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of interview research examining writing instruction and assessment practices in 216 Grades 4-8 classrooms across the 10 Canadian provinces and 2 (of 3) territories. Researchers found that participating teachers scheduled daily time for writing, either in language arts classes or through integrating writing…

Peterson, Shelly Stagg; McClay, Jill Kedersha; Main, Kristin

2010-01-01

239

Master Classrooms: Classroom Design with Technology in Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is changing the classroom requiring new design features and considerations to make the classroom flexible and interactive with the teaching process. The design of a Master Classroom, a product of the Classroom Improvement Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is described. These classrooms are specially-equipped to…

Conway, Kathryn

240

Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

1988-01-01

241

The range scheduling aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

1991-01-01

242

Integrated operating schedule  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe McGuire Nuclear Station's integrated operating schedule and to show how such a management tool can improve the efficiency of an operating nuclear station. An operating schedule requires the objectivity of a completely independent group to be fully effective. It requires full management support, especially during initial implementation, to ensure that all groups use the schedule. Station groups and management agree that the operating schedule has become an important catalyst for the much-needed intergroup communication required to make a plant run reliably and efficiently.

Broome, R.D.; Sechrist, K.D.; Shaw, E.G.

1987-01-01

243

Comparative pharmacokinetics of plasma- and albumin-free recombinant factor VIII in children and adults: the influence of blood sampling schedule on observed age-related differences and implications for dose tailoring  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Dose tailoring of coagulation factors requires reliably estimated and reproducible pharmacokinetics (PK) in the individual patient. Objectives: To investigate the contribution of both biological and methodological factors to the observed variability of factor VIII (FVIII) PK, with the focus on differences between children and adults, and to examine the implications for dosing. Patients: Data from 52 1–6-year-old and 100 10–65-year-old patients with hemophilia A (FVIII ? 2 IU dL?1) in three clinical studies were included. Results: In vivo recovery was lower, weight-adjusted clearance was higher and FVIII half-life was on average shorter in children than in adults. However, a reduced blood sampling schedule for children was estimated to account for up to one half of the total observed differences. Intrapatient variance in PK was smaller than interpatient variance in 10–65-year-olds. Age and ratio of actual to ideal weight only showed weak relationships with PK parameters. Variance in PK caused large variance in the calculated dose required to maintain a target FVIII trough level during prophylactic treatment. Conclusion: Differences in blood sampling schedules should be taken into account when results from different PK studies are compared. However, even with this consideration, PK cannot be predicted from observable patient characteristics but must be determined for the individual. Because the influence of reducing the blood sampling was minor in comparison to the true variance between patients, a reduced blood sampling protocol can be used. Low intrapatient variability supports the use of PK measurements for dose tailoring of FVIII.

BJORKMAN, S; BLANCHETTE, V S; FISCHER, K; OH, M; SPOTTS, G; SCHROTH, P; FRITSCH, S; PATRONE, L; EWENSTEIN, B M; COLLINS, P W

2010-01-01

244

Mapping the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn the importance of maps and scale as they work together to create a map of the classroom. The printable four-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about maps and their classroom and a worksheet with step-by-step directions for creating a scale and determining the size and relative location of objects in the classroom.

245

Mapping the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover the importance of maps and scale as they work together to create a map of the classroom. The printable four-page PDF handout includes: a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about what they already know about maps and their classroom; and a worksheet with step-by-step directions for creating a scale and determining the size and relative location of objects in the classroom.

History, American M.

2001-01-01

246

The Classroom Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

Science and Children, 1986

1986-01-01

247

Considering the Chalkless Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares some personal reflections on several years of integrating educational technology into mathematics courses while retaining the direct interaction strengths of the traditional classroom.

Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A.

2010-01-01

248

Coordination of Production Schedules with Shipping Schedules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scheduling logistics operations in a multi-echelon production system requires planning and coordinating production and transportation decisions for all facilities in a system. In this paper we show how these decisions can be made in an actual multi-facili...

W. L. Maxwell J. A. Muckstadt

1979-01-01

249

Performance analysis of Coupling Scheduler for MapReduce\\/Hadoop  

Microsoft Academic Search

For MapReduce\\/Hadoop, map and reduce phases exhibit fundamentally distinguishing characteristics. Additionally, these two phases admit complicated and tight dependency on each other, causing the repeatedly observed starvation problem with the widely used Fair Scheduler. To mitigate this problem, we design Coupling Scheduler, which, among other new features, jointly schedules map and reduce tasks by coupling their progresses, different from existing

Jian Tan; Xiaoqiao Meng; Li Zhang

2012-01-01

250

Noncontingent Reinforcement: A Further Examination of Schedule Effects during Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted 2 studies to determine whether dense and thin NCR schedules exert different influences over behavior and whether these influences change as dense schedules are thinned. In Study 1, we observed that thin as well as dense NCR schedules effectively decreased problem behavior exhibited by 3 individuals. In Study 2, we compared the effects…

Wallace, Michelle D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

2012-01-01

251

Trimester Schedule. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do a trimester schedule? With the advent of block scheduling, many high schools conducted research on utilizing that plan in a trimester format. There appeared to be three issues that most schools faced: (1) How to provide substantive instructional time that was not fragmented?; (2) How does the school climate contribute positively to…

Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

2012-01-01

252

Reinforcement Learning in Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guide...

T. G. Dietterich D. Ok W. Zhang P. Tadepalli

1994-01-01

253

Polynomial complete scheduling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the problem of finding an optimal schedule for a set of jobs is polynomial complete even in the following two restricted cases. (1) All jobs require one time unit. (2) All jobs require one or two time units, and there are only two processors. As a consequence, the general preemptive scheduling problem is also polynomial complete. These

Jeffrey D. Ullman

1973-01-01

254

Disk Scheduling Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the invention of the movable head disk, people have improved I\\/O performance by intelligent scheduling of disk accesses. We have applied these techniques to systems with large memories and potentially long disk queues. By viewing the entire buffer cache as a write buffer, we can improve disk bandwidth utilization by applying some traditional disk scheduling tech- niques. We have

Margo Seltzer; Peter Chen; John Ousterhout

1990-01-01

255

Using Games in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author of this one-page article describes the pedagogical benefits of using math games in the classroom. She analyzes the game context in terms of the kinds of learning that takes place, the behaviors that students exhibit, and the social-emotional experience of students. She concludes by recommending strategies for effective introduction and management of games. [While the author's observations were in the context of geometry games, they generalize to most topics.

Hatch, Gillian

2005-09-01

256

DSN Resource Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

2007-01-01

257

Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

2013-01-01

258

Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

2012-01-01

259

Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

2007-01-01

260

Exploration of instruction, assessment, and equity in the middle school science classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine equitable practices of middle school science teachers questionnaire responses, classroom observations, teacher interviews, and assessment artifacts were examined to discover relationships between classroom instruction, assessment practices, and equity. Teachers in middle school science classrooms in six different schools completed a National Center for Education Statistics questionnaire, offered assessment artifacts, and participated in interviews. Observers using a

Donna A. Szpyrka

2001-01-01

261

Developing and Validating the Classroom Literacy Environmental Profile (CLEP): A Tool for Examining the “Print Richness” of Early Childhood and Elementary Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the development, field testing, and validation of the Classroom Literacy Environment Profile (CLEP) are described. In the first phase, characteristics of print-rich classroom environments were identified, defined, and organized into categories through a review of the literature, classroom observations, and teacher focus groups. In the second phase of the project, categories and themes interpreted from phase one

Mary E. Wolfersberger; D. Ray Reutzel; Richard Sudweeks; Parker C. Fawson

2004-01-01

262

Developing and Validating the Classroom Literacy Environmental Profile (CLEP): A Tool for Examining the "Print Richness" of Early Childhood and Elementary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, the development, field testing, and validation of the Classroom Literacy Environment Profile (CLEP) are described. In the first phase, characteristics of print-rich classroom environments were identified, defined, and organized into categories through a review of the literature, classroom observations, and teacher focus groups. In…

Wolfersberger, Mary E.; Reutzel, D. Ray; Sudweeks, Richard; Fawson, Parker C.

2004-01-01

263

Extending the Classroom "Vineland"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An improved method for the assessment of Social Development of secondary school students is described. For those with Social Development difficulties, the "Vineland Classroom" Edition can be used and interpreted to provide an Adaptive Behaviour Composite score. Prior to the present development, the "Classroom" Edition was only applicable to…

King, Michael G.

2007-01-01

264

Frontloading Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

2010-01-01

265

For the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four games for use in the foreign language classroom are described. The first, "A Shopping Game," by Gordon Hartig, is played on a game board in the German classroom and provides practice in producing sentences with the preposition "in," which in some instances takes the dative and in others takes the accusative. A diagram of the game board is…

Hartig, Gordon; And Others

1978-01-01

266

Differentiating Classroom Guidance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To differentiate is to make different, distinct, or specialized (Costello, 1994). Differentiation has become popular in education as an instructional philosophy aimed at equitably meeting the learning needs of all students in the classroom. Differentiated planning and delivery of classroom guidance is also necessary for appropriate school…

Akos, Patrick; Cockman, Caroline R.; Strickland, Cindy A.

2007-01-01

267

Creating the Multiage Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School restructuring movements have gained a great deal of national attention. This guidebook addresses the multi-age classroom movement, in which a mixed-age group of children stays with a given teacher for a number of years. The work provides a complete design for the mixed-age primary classroom, from philosophy and rationale to sample lesson…

Stone, Sandra J.

268

Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.

2007-02-11

269

Copyrights and the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A copyright infringement suit involving duplication of material for classroom use without permission or acknowledgement and related cases are discussed with reference to the fair use privilege, the Copyright Act of 1976, and congressional guidelines. Generally, fair use has been rejected as a blanket defense in classroom copying. (MJL)

Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

1983-01-01

270

Is Your Classroom Exciting?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways for making classrooms fun, including giving children opportunities to work together, moving things around, letting children learn to set their own controls, setting up the classroom so students can experiment and discover together, and providing bonuses or incentives for the child who is falling behind. (CR)

Grambo, Gregory

1997-01-01

271

Preventive Classroom Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter of "Helping Teachers Manage Classrooms" presents strategies and processes that teachers can use to establish well-managed classrooms. These recommendations are based on the results of year-long descriptive studies of the management methods used by third grade teachers and by seventh and eighth grade English and mathematics teachers.…

Evertson, Carolyn M.; Emmer, Edmund T.

272

The Welcoming Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for creating a welcoming classroom environment, including: decorating the room by hanging students' names from the ceiling; making a classroom community puzzle involving each student; and developing a variety of welcoming bulletin boards. A reproducible sheet includes cut-out shapes to make an underwater-theme bulletin board that…

Instructor, 2001

2001-01-01

273

Sociolinguistics in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are three areas of interest in the topic of sociolinguistics in the classroom. First, the study of sociolinguistics is the interest of the professional linguist; second, the application of sociolinguistic principles is or should be the concern of all professional people who care about what goes on in the classroom, especially the teacher;…

Dumas, Bethany K.

274

Classroom Assessment in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then provide…

Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

2011-01-01

275

Defining Authentic Classroom Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commonly advocated best practice for classroom assessment is to make the assessments authentic. Authentic is often used as meaning the mirroring of real-world tasks or expectations. There is no consensus, however, in the actual definition of the term or the characteristics of an authentic classroom assessment. Sometimes, the realistic component…

Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.; Allen, Justin P.

2012-01-01

276

Evangelism in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is frequently said that evangelism or proselytizing has no place in the classroom. The purpose of this essay is to counter this generalization and to explore the nature of legitimate religious influence in the classroom. In doing so I will offer some criteria to help us determine what is and what is not acceptable by way of religious persuasion…

Thiessen, Elmer John

2013-01-01

277

NASA Schedule Management Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

2011-01-01

278

Scientific Observations: A Schoolyard BioBlitz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a classroom and field activity where students learn about and practice scientific observations in the classroom and then complete a field activity by making and recording scientific observations on school grounds.

Michet, Joanne

279

Operating Systems: CPU Scheduling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the University of Bridgeport provides the context and explanation for CPU scheduling mechanisms. It includes a rationale for context switching along with with pseudocode, and it explains the difference between non-preemptive versus preemptive scheduling. It offers visuals that could be incorporated into lectures analyzing various scheduling algorithms including first in first out (FIFO), round-robin, priority-based, shortest job first (SJF), and multilevel feedback queues. It includes an assignment as well as an online slideshow presentation. This site is applicable for technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses.

2009-08-10

280

NCI-Frederick PHL - Scheduling  

Cancer.gov

Services Price List Courier Services & Shipment Procedures Scheduling Contact Information Related Links Establishing an Account PHL Forms PHL Portal Scheduling Project scheduling will depend on the type, scope and size of the project. Detailed information

281

Treating Non-Retentive Encopresis with Rewarded Scheduled Toilet Visits  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effects of rewarded scheduled toilet sits on non-retentive encopretic behavior of an elementary-school student receiving services for serious emotional disturbance. A multidisciplinary team implemented the 8-week intervention using a multiple baseline across settings design. The results showed an increase in sitting on the toilet and a decline in encopretic episodes in both school and home settings. These findings support the use of a behavioral intervention for children with significant behavioral disorders within a classroom setting.

Boles, Richard E; Roberts, Michael C; Vernberg, Eric M

2008-01-01

282

Research on Harassment Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A physiological and behavioral monitoring system was developed for the laboratory simulation and analysis of harassment effects. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated by experimentation in which the effects of four harassment schedules were exami...

D. I. Tepas M. A. B. Vianello

1964-01-01

283

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

284

Immunization Schedules for Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Immunization Schedule. 2014 version expected February 28, 2014. Spanish Version (en español) Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 ... the CDC Also available in multiple languages including Spanish Technical content reviewed by the CDC Related Pages ...

285

Schedule Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schedule Risk Assessment (SRA) determines the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. This viewgraph presentation introduces the prerequisites, probability distribution curves, special conditions, calculations, and results analysis for SRA.

Smith, Grego

2004-01-01

286

Distributed network scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed Network Scheduling is the scheduling of future communications of a network by nodes in the network. This report details software for doing this onboard spacecraft in a remote network. While prior work on distributed scheduling has been applied to remote spacecraft networks, the software reported here focuses on modeling communication activities in greater detail and including quality of service constraints. Our main results are based on a Mars network of spacecraft and include identifying a maximum opportunity of improving traverse exploration rate a factor of three; a simulation showing reduction in one-way delivery times from a rover to Earth from as much as 5 to 1.5 hours; simulated response to unexpected events averaging under an hour onboard; and ground schedule generation ranging from seconds to 50 minutes for 15 to 100 communication goals.

Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

2004-01-01

287

Distributed network scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate missions where communications resources are limited, requiring autonomous planning and execution. Unlike typical networks, spacecraft networks are also suited to automated planning and scheduling because many communications can be planned in advance.

Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

2005-01-01

288

Fee schedule analysis.  

PubMed

Simply stated, the fee schedule is th single most important financial tool within the medical practice. And contrary to general consensus, what a practice charges has a dynamic impact on future allowable calculations. A medical practice is no different from any other business in this respect; and, as with other industries, the fee schedule should reflect the value of the practice's services. Neglecting the fee schedule or, even worse, allowing payors to dictate the value of those services is tantamount to failure. Through the use of analytics by applying sound econometric models, such as true costs, market dynamics, competitive factors, and value-based pricing, the healthcare organization will optimize its revenue potential. While these concepts may sound foreign to some, the fact is, they are well within reach. Through the application of basic business techniques, every practice has the ability to develop and maintain a fee schedule that will meet or exceed its financial needs. PMID:17974090

Cohen, Frank D

2007-01-01

289

NASA Television Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online television schedule provides listings of NASA's televised programming, including mission coverage, educational shows, and historical programs. A link is provided to a list of organizations that transmit NASA television to the World Wide Web.

290

Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Quality of care for preschool children in inclusive and noninclusive classrooms was examined in two studies. In Study 1, comparisons across a large sample of classrooms (N = 1, 313) showed that inclusive classrooms were higher than noninclusive classrooms in global quality as well as on two dimensions of quality…

Hestenes, Linda L.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Shim, Jonghee; Hegde, Archana V.

2008-01-01

291

Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

Gnagey, William J.

292

Scheduling an active camera to observe people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote identification of people is an important capability for security systems. Automatically controlling a pan-tilt-zoom camera is an effective way to collect high resolution video or images of people in an unconstrained environment. Often there will be more people in an area than cameras available. The cameras must then divide their time among the people in order to view everyone.

Cash J. Costello; Christopher P. Diehl; Amit Banerjee; Hesky Fisher

2004-01-01

293

Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Delivered by Teachers for Reducing Problem Behavior in Special Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules on the disruptive behavior of 4 students in special education classrooms were studied. Attention provided on FT schedules in the context of a multiple-baseline design across participants substantially decreased all students' challenging behavior. Disruptive behavior was maintained at levels…

Tomlin, Michelle; Reed, Phil

2012-01-01

294

Social Context in Mathematics Classrooms: Social Critical and Sociolinguistic Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was conceptualized within the social critical perspective to investigate the effect of gender and socioeconomic background on the students' classroom communication and the hidden curriculum. Year 9 mathematics classrooms in two single-sex private schools were observed during the course of learning one chapter from the same textbook. One…

Atweh, Bill; And Others

295

Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

Shagoury, Ruth

2009-01-01

296

Contrasts in Classroom Technology Use Between Beginning and Experienced Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too often, technology integration has been measured through self-report surveys of use and outcomes (Bielefeldt, 2002). While these studies can be valuable, they are also limited. This study is a field test of an instrument designed to measure technology integration that adds the rare element of direct classroom observation. This study compares student uses of technology in the classrooms of

Keith Wetzel; Ron Zambo; Joseph Ryan

2007-01-01

297

Do Prekindergarten Teachers Design Their Classrooms to Enhance Early Literacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children develop language and early literacy interactions that are the building blocks for future skilled reading. This study was designed to evaluate the early childhood classroom to determine teachers? knowledge of early literacy. Based on the Literacy Environment Checklist (LEC) of the Early Literacy and Language Classroom Observation

LoRusso, Jo Ann D.

2010-01-01

298

The Classroom Assessment Scoring System: Findings from the Prekindergarten Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on teacher-child relationships, classroom environments, and teaching practices provided the rationale for constructing a system for observing and assessing emotional and instructional elements of quality in early childhood educational environments: the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). The CLASS provides a framework for…

La Paro, Karen M.; Pianta, Robert C.; Stuhlman, Megan

2004-01-01

299

Responsible Use of Live Animals in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying animals in the classroom enables students to develop skills of observation and comparison, a sense of stewardship, and an appreciation for the unity, interrelationships, and complexity of life. This article offers guidelines for working with live animals in the science classroom or laboratory.

Roy, Ken

2004-01-01

300

Marital satisfaction and family stress as predictors of classroom behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between parents' perceptions of marital satisfaction and family stress and their third grade children's classroom behavior. Twenty-one married couples completed questionnaires during home visits. Behavior observations were made from videotapes of children recorded in their classroom during lunch and group academic periods on each of three days. Frequencies of peer

Chloee K. Poag; Robert Cohen; Scott W. Henggeler; Mary B. Summerville; Glen E. Ray

1992-01-01

301

Dialogical Patterns of Interaction in Pre-School Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study set out to identify and examine dialogic educational interactions in Finnish pre-school classrooms. Video recordings of five observed pre-school classrooms that had shown a high or moderate quality of instructional support in literacy, maths and science studies were transcribed for micro-scale qualitative content analysis. Three…

Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Siekkinen, Martti

2012-01-01

302

Teacher-Student Interactions in Desegregated Classrooms in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the state of desegregation and integration in South African schools 11 years after the demise of Apartheid. Three classrooms in three desegregating schools with different histories and race profiles were visited. Overall, each classroom was visited on 10 occasions over a period of 2 weeks. Direct observation was the main data…

Vandeyar, Saloshna; Killen, Roy

2006-01-01

303

How Teachers Manage Their Work in Inclusive Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated how rural teachers managed their work in inclusive classrooms. Interviews and observations developed the theory of selective adaptation, which suggests teachers can be classified as technicians, strategists, or improvisers according to the extent to which they selectively adapt classroom practices. A relationship existed between the…

O'Donoghue, Thomas A.; Chalmers, Ron

2000-01-01

304

A Behavior Game for the Reduction of Inappropriate Classroom Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group-contingency behavior game significantly decreased disruptive classroom behavior after five weeks. The classroom observers gradually phased themselves out of the program, while training the teacher to continue the game unaided. Further analysis of the relative influences of peer pressure and competition v social reinforcement is needed. (CP)

Hegerle, Dana R.; And Others

1979-01-01

305

Mixing Block and Traditional Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Boone, North Carolina, Watauga High School has developed an alternative schedule that blends traditional and block schedules. This composite schedule originated in the late 1990s when their faculty members and administrators were struggling to determine if the school should change to a full block schedule. The board of education encouraged…

Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

2005-01-01

306

Classroom Organization: Understanding the Context in Which Children Are Expected to Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a study on classroom organization, carried out in 2000 in kindergartens in Hong Kong. The findings contribute to understandings of current cross-cultural studies on classroom organization. Half-day session classroom observations of nine kindergarten teachers from three schools in Hong Kong were carried out. Data sources included…

Li, Yuen Ling

2006-01-01

307

Laptop Computers in the Elementary Classroom: Authentic instruction with at?risk students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study investigated the integration of laptop computers into an elementary classroom in a low socioeconomic status (SES) school. Specifically, the research examined classroom management techniques and aspects of authentic learning relative to the student projects and activities. A mixed methods approach included classroom observations, interviews with the teacher, interviews with the students, and analysis of student projects. The

Kate Kemker; Ann E. Barron; J. Christine Harmes

2007-01-01

308

Laptop Computers in the Elementary Classroom: Authentic Instruction with At-Risk Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study investigated the integration of laptop computers into an elementary classroom in a low socioeconomic status (SES) school. Specifically, the research examined classroom management techniques and aspects of authentic learning relative to the student projects and activities. A mixed methods approach included classroom observations,…

Kemker, Kate; Barron, Ann E.; Harmes, J. Christine

2007-01-01

309

Progress in Language Classroom Research: Evidence from "The Modern Language Journal," 1916-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews topical and methodological trends in the past 85 years of research on language classrooms in "The Modern Language Journal." Focus is on empirical investigations into oral classroom instruction in post-secondary classes, which include comparisons of language teaching methodology, observational procedures in classrooms, examinations of…

Chaudron, Craig

2001-01-01

310

Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

2009-01-01

311

Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using…

Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

2013-01-01

312

Children's Agreement on Classroom Social Networks: Cross-Level Predictors in Urban Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informed by research on interpersonal perception, peer relationships, and classroom climate, this study examines predictors of children's agreement with classmates on their classroom social networks. Social network data, peer nominations of positive behavior, and classroom observations were collected from 418 second-grade to fourth-grade children…

Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Sahu, Neha

2012-01-01

313

Traveling Tags: The Informal Literacies of Mexican Newcomers in and out of the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents tagging as one of several informal literacy practices used by newcomer Mexican youth in a Midwest school and classroom setting. Specifically, it details how tagging travels into the classroom. Using the tool of interactional ethnography to analyze videotaped classroom observation data of an English Learner Science setting, I…

Bruna, Katherine Richardson

2007-01-01

314

Implementation of the Stallings Classroom Management Staff Development Demonstration Project in Putnam County, West Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of the Stallings Classroom Management Staff Development Model is to help teachers change so that they can manage their classrooms more effectively. In this model, classroom observations and specific recommendations for teaching behaviors are made for each teacher, and a series of teacher training sessions helps them to change…

Sullivan, Debra K.; And Others

315

Coming Out of Their Shell: The speech and writing of two young bilinguals in the classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the speech and writing of two young bilingual children in a classroom context. After summarising the diverse contexts in which such children learn, we present four sets of data: the informants' written texts, following a classroom activity (observing and handling tortoises); partial transcripts of a classroom feedback session in which they address the whole class; of their

Tim Parke; Rose Drury

2000-01-01

316

Goodness of Fit Between Children and Classrooms: Effects of Child Temperament and Preschool Classroom Quality on Achievement Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child temperament differentially predicted academic school readiness depending on the quality of classroom interactions for 179 Head Start preschoolers. Teachers rated children's temperament as overcontrolled, resilient, or undercontrolled in the fall and reported on children's language\\/literacy and math skills continuously throughout the year. Observations of classroom emotional and instructional

Virginia E. Vitiello; Olga Moas; Heather A. Henderson; Daryl B. Greenfield; Pelin M. Munis

2012-01-01

317

Evaluation of nursing faculty through observation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess current use and faculty perceptions of classroom observation as a method of faculty evaluation in schools of nursing. Baccalaureate schools of nursing were surveyed to determine current use of classroom observation and its worth from the perception of administrators and faculty. Although most schools used classroom observation as a method of faculty evaluation, further clarification and research is needed in the following areas: purpose of classroom observation; number of observations necessary; weight given to classroom observation in relation to other evaluation methods; and tools used. PMID:9796866

Crawford, L H

1998-10-01

318

Stargazing in Your Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When taking students outside to see the stars is not an option, teachers can bring the stars inside the classroom. These instructions for building a portable planetarium also include suggestions for cross-cultural and social studies connections.

Rios, Jos�

2003-05-01

319

View from My Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the philosophy of a high school chemistry teacher, providing examples through classroom experiences, with emphasis on the use of demonstrations as instructional aids. Specific stoichiometry and conductometric titration demonstrations are discussed. (CS)

Harris, Sidney P.

1980-01-01

320

Forensics Science Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These classroom activities on forensics science from the University of Colorado at Boulder were designed to help students understand the process of scientific investigation and develop better laboratory and data-collection techniques.

Leslie Leinwand (University of Colorado at Boulder;)

2010-05-28

321

For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

Current, 1979

1979-01-01

322

Critters in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

1984-01-01

323

Toys in The Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of chemical concepts can be easily illustrated in a more friendly way to children by using toys as teaching tools in the classroom. Some of the examples illustrated are shrinking toys, drinking birds and hand boiler.

Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.

2005-01-01

324

Culture in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four approaches to utilizing and addressing cultural differences in the classroom: multicultural education, anti-bias curriculum, global education, and international education. Presents diversity education techniques in terms of direct communication (explicit), indirect communication (implicit), cultural information resources available…

Levy, Alison

1997-01-01

325

Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

1980-01-01

326

Pneumococcal vaccination in europe: schedule adherence.  

PubMed

Nonadherence to recommended pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) schedules may have implications for protection against pneumococcal disease. In this commentary, we have assessed adherence to the recommended dosing schedules (the completion of the primary PCV and booster series) in different European countries. We found that adherence with the PCV schedule was lower than that for diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and that higher adherence was observed in countries where PCV vaccination is recommended and funded. Adherence with the booster dose is often lower than that with the primary series completion, and it is often given after the recommended age. These data highlight the need to encourage timely vaccination of children with PCV, in line with local immunization schedules. There is no single solution to improve adherence; actions need to be tailored to the context of individual countries through initiatives at the national, regional, and local levels and should target different stakeholders. PMID:24746990

Gervaix, Alain; Ansaldi, Filippo; Brito-Avô, António; Azzari, Chiara; Knuf, Markus; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Tuerlinckx, David; Tin Htar, Myint Tin; Syrogiannopoulos, George A

2014-05-01

327

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27

328

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

329

Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

1991-01-01

330

Historic Pittsburgh Census Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to know more about the residents of 19th century Pittsburgh? Then you're in luck, the Historic Pittsburgh Census Schedule lets you do just that. Hosted by the University of Pittsburgh's Digital Research Library, the schedules found on this website include census data collected from 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880. Visitors can search the census schedule by individual name, street, or even city of birth, occupation, or gender. It's a rather nifty way to learn about the cultural and geographical milieu of the Steel City during this period of dramatic growth. Historians and geographers will find it particularly useful and it's easy to see how spending time on the site could be a regular part of their research. The site also includes access to other components of the Historic Pittsburgh site, such as Maps, Finding Aids, and a Chronology of key events from the city's unique history.

331

Outline: CPU Scheduling Mechanisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint slide show from an instructor with the Departmentof Computer Science at Florida State University offers an in-depth lecture notes for CPU scheduling mechanisms. Most notably, this presentation includes diagrams and logical flowcharts of CPU processes which would make the material easier to understand for instructors or students engaged in technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses. It provides an overview of scheduling criteria and explanation and comparison of first-come-first-served, shortest-job-next, priority and non-preemptive priority, deadline, real-time, compared with round robin CPU scheduling. Mathematical models and formulas are included along with efficiency graphs. The presentation also covers process thread context, context switching, and multilevel queues.

Liu, Xiuwen

2009-08-05

332

Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

2009-01-01

333

Scheduling with genetic algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

1994-01-01

334

NASA revises shuttle schedule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new schedule for Space Shuttle missions and expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) calls for a 7-month delay in sending up the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA was forced to put off launching the telescope until February 1990 to keep the Magellan and Galileo missions within their narrow launch windows. The first post-Challenger shuttle launch is now scheduled for late this month. Discovery's most recent delays were due to a hydrogen leak discovered July 29 that has still not been corrected and an engine valve malfunction during an August 4 test fire.

Wainger, Lisa A.

335

Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss or argue scientific issues as the national science curriculum stipulates. We found that traditional assessment methods, such as tests, examinations and assignments were the most common methods used to assess and grade students' learning. Different aspects of knowledge stipulated in the national Swedish curriculum, such as lifelong learning, stimulation to students' creativity, curiosity as well as their wish to explore and convert new ideas into action, and find solutions to problems, were restricted by teachers' discourses. The observed teachers' learning and assessment practices constrain students' agency leading to students' silence consequently hindering students' development.

Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

2014-06-01

336

Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times of the aircraft. Findings from these initial experiments indicate that it is possible to schedule arrivals into Anchorage with minimal delays under low-visibility conditions with less disruption to high-cost, international flights.

Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

2012-01-01

337

Supporting students' strategic competence: a case of a sixth-grade mathematics classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematics education research has documented several classroom practices that might influence student self-regulation. We know little, however, about the ways these classroom practices could be structured in real classroom settings. In this exploratory case study, we purposefully selected a sixth-grade mathematics teacher who had participated in a professional development program focussed on NCTM standards and SRL in the mathematics classroom for extensive classroom observation. The purpose was to explore how and to what extend she structured classroom practices to support strategic competence in her students. Four features of classroom practices were found as evidence for how strategic competence was potentially supported in this classroom: (a) allowing autonomy and shared responsibility during the early stages of learning, (b) focusing on student understanding, (c) creating contexts for students to learn about strategic learning and to exercise strategic behaviour, and (d) helping students to personalise strategies by recognising their ideas and strategic behaviours.

Özdemir, ?. Elif Yetkin; Pape, Stephen J.

2012-06-01

338

On Rigorous Transaction Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class of transaction scheduling mechanisms in which the transaction serialization order can be determined by controlling their commitment order, is defined. This class of transaction management mechanisms is important, because it simplifies transaction management in a multidatabase system environment. The notion of analogous execution and serialization orders of transactions is defined and the concept of strongly recoverable and rigorous

Yuri Breitbart; Dimitrios Georgakopoulos; Marek Rusinkiewicz; Abraham Silberschatz

1991-01-01

339

Guaranteeing the Course Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is an event administrators, faculty, staff, and students dread every semester--the course cancellation meeting, when it is decided which low enrollment classes will be canceled. No one wins. Students are left scrambling to make last-minute adjustments to their schedules, and administrators are forced to cancel low-enrollment classes even though…

Carroll, Jonathan; Campbell, Lea

2008-01-01

340

Generalized Elastic Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic task model proposed by Buttazzo, et. al. (9) is a powerful model for adapting real-time systems in the presence of uncertainty. This paper generalizes the existi ng elastic scheduling approach in several directions. It reve als that the original task compression algorithm in (9) in fact solves a quadratic programming problem that seeks to min- imize the sum

Thidapat Chantem; Xiaobo Sharon Hu; Michael D. Lemmon

2006-01-01

341

Scheduling Advisory. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More and more high schools are implementing Advisory programs for a variety of reasons: personalization, academics & study skills, life success skills, self-knowledge, addressing the concern about students feeling "lost" in the high school setting, first line of contact for the parents, and portfolios. But finding a way to schedule advisory can…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

342

Driver scheduling problem modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drivers Scheduling Problem (DSP) consists of selecting a set of duties for vehicle drivers, for example buses, trains, plane or boat drivers or pilots, for the transportation of passengers or goods. This is a complex problem because it involves several constraints related to labour and company rules and can also present different evaluation criteria and objectives. Being able to

Rita Portugal; Helena Ramalhinho-Lourenço; José P. Paixao

2006-01-01

343

Synchronization of Work Schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do people work intermittently and why do they synchronize their work schedules? A group of interacting workers who differ in tastes is analyzed. A lifetime labor supply model is developed which combines tiring, rhythmic changes in the environment, and interactions among workers arising from communication and coordination. A multiplicity of synchronized equilibria arises. These equilibria can be ranked according

Yoram Weiss

1996-01-01

344

CMS multicore scheduling strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue "Moore's Law" style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison; the Cms Collaboration

2014-06-01

345

Variations in Sleep Schedules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This sleep research explored the effect of total sleep loss, sleep stage deprivation, gradual sleep reduction, and the effect of varying the sleep/wake schedule. While subjects are unable to function effectively without sleep, the type of sleep obtained i...

L. C. Johnson P. Naitoh J. M. Moses A. Lubin

1977-01-01

346

Determining the Impact of Block Scheduling on Leadership Involvement in the FFA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Block scheduling was established in response to educational reform measures and is the restructuring of the school day in longer class increments with fewer number of classes per day. The FFA, an intra-curricular component of the agricultural education, provides leadership opportunities and involvement within the classroom setting. This study…

Dunigan, Anne H.; Hoover, Tracy S.

2007-01-01

347

Implementation of a Posted Schedule to Increase Class-Wide Interobserver Agreement Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the impact of an antecedent intervention in the form of a daily posted schedule on the interobserver agreement (IOA) assessment of educational goals implemented within a classroom at a private school serving individuals with disabilities. During baseline, the percentage of academic goals with interobserver agreement…

Doucette, Stefanie; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.; Maguire, Helena; Marquardt, Heidi

2012-01-01

348

Reframing Resistance in the English Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During an observation of a novice teacher in a high school English classroom, one of the authors (Amy Vetter) was reminded that all students are capable of resistance. After attempting to engage students in what she considered to be a thought-provoking anticipation guide and discussion-starter for "Fallen Angels" by Walter Dean Myers, several…

Vetter, Amy; Reynolds, Jeanie; Beane, Heather; Roquemore, Katie; Rorrer, Amanda; Shepherd-Allred, Katie

2012-01-01

349

Hydrogen and Palladium Foil: Two Classroom Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In these two classroom demonstrations, students observe the reaction between H[subscript 2] gas and Pd foil. In the first demonstration, hydrogen and palladium combine within one minute at 1 atm and room temperature to yield the non-stoichiometric, interstitial hydride with formula close to the maximum known value, PdH[subscript 0.7]. In the…

Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

2009-01-01

350

Teacher Research in the Socioconstructivist Art Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who frame the curriculum around purposeful playful activities that allow children to work at their own pace and allow children to make choices rather than be coerced into their work are indirectly committed to becoming researchers in their own classrooms. The art teacher-researcher is a participant observer of what goes on in the…

Pitri, Eliza

2006-01-01

351

Dialogic teaching in the primary science classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research on dialogue between teachers and pupils during primary school science lessons, using talk from two classrooms to provide our examples. We consider whether teachers use dialogue to make education a cumulative, continuing process for guiding the development of children's understanding. Case studies of two teachers, using observational data taken from a larger data set, are used

Neil Mercer; Lyn Dawes; Judith Kleine Staarman

2009-01-01

352

Beginning Teachers: Beliefs and Classroom Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the research of a national collaborative consortium formed to investigate how the perceptions, beliefs and classroom performances of beginning secondary science teachers relate to their philosophies of teaching and their content pedagogical skills. Finds that teachers possessed a wide range of philosophies, and that observers' reports of…

Simmons, Patricia E.; Emory, Allen; Carter, Tim; Coker, Teresa; Finnegan, Brian; Crockett, Denise; Richardson, Lon; Yager, Robert; Craven, John; Tillotson, John; Brunkhorst, Herbert; Twiest, Mark; Hossain, Kazi; Gallagher, James; Duggan-Haas, Don; Parker, Joyce; Cajas, Fernando; Alshannag, Qasim; McGlamery, Sheryl; Krockover, Jerry; Adams, Paul; Spector, Barbara; LaPorta, Tom; James, Bob; Rearden, Kristin; Labuda, Kay

1999-01-01

353

Evaluating College Classroom Teaching Effectiveness. PREP-34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, adapted from "Development of an Instrument to Evaluate College Classroom Teaching Effectiveness" by W. W. Ronan, puts the emphasis on the "student" evaluation of teaching performance. Two reasons given for this are: (1) The students are in direct relationship with teachers and can and do observe actual teaching and all its behavioral…

Ronan, W. W.

354

Poetry and Science in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science and poetry are both ways of knowing about the world and they can be combined and integrated in classroom instruction. In the most productive educational theories, both science and writing are seen as methods of creating meaning. Science is treated as the process of examining individual pieces of data and observation to form…

King, Robert

1990-01-01

355

Scheduling Techniques of ESP2 (Expert Scheduling Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mission Analysis Division of the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a robust automatic scheduler which can produce detailed schedules for the multi-step activities required for payload operati...

J. P. Jaap E. K. Davis

1988-01-01

356

The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

Rich, Steve

2000-01-01

357

Modelling in the Mathematics Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experience with modeling as a teaching technique in the mathematics classroom as opposed to mathematical modeling. Offering models in the mathematics classroom is a good idea. Presents fundamental ideas for creating an effective learning environment with models. (WRM)

Lee, Clare

2000-01-01

358

Cognition and Communication Patterns in Classrooms for Deaf Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a new observational schedule--Cognitive Verbal Nonverbal Observation System, used in the evaluation of a New York Title I project, CREED III (Cooperative Research Endeavors in Education of the Deaf)--Inservice Teacher Training in Cognition, are presented and compared with findings of other observational schedules in schools for the…

Wolff, Sydney

1977-01-01

359

Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

1992-01-01

360

Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

Zoch, David R.

1991-01-01

361

The Elephant in the Classroom: The Impact of Misbehavior on Classroom Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research discussed here is based on a one year study of 34 second and fourth grade teachers and their 588 students. Data were collected in 40 minute observational segments; six unannounced observations took place in each teacher's classroom for a total of 240 minutes per teacher. The data were analyzed in SPSS as quantitative data. Half of the…

Ratcliff, Nancy J.; Jones, Cathy R.; Costner, Richard H.; Savage-Davis, Emma; Hunt, Gilbert H.

2010-01-01

362

Classroom listening assessment: strategies for speech-language pathologists.  

PubMed

Emphasis on classroom listening has gained importance for all children and especially for those with hearing loss and special listening needs. The rationale can be supported from trends in educational placements, the Response to Intervention initiative, student performance and accountability, the role of audition in reading, and improvement in hearing technologies. Speech-language pathologists have an instrumental role advocating for the accommodations that are necessary for effective listening for these children in school. To identify individual listening needs and make relevant recommendations for accommodations, a classroom listening assessment is suggested. Components of the classroom listening assessment include observation, behavioral assessment, self-assessment, and classroom acoustics measurements. Together, with a strong rationale, the results can be used to implement a plan that results in effective classroom listening for these children. PMID:23081792

Johnson, Cheryl DeConde

2012-11-01

363

Comets in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a partnership with the Rochester (New York) City School District to enhance their space science curriculum through teacher training seminars designed to increase teachers' knowledge of astronomy. On 1 April 1998, we facilitated the third grade science in-service program. We presented background science information on the Moon and demonstrated hands-on activities that teachers could transfer to their classrooms. During the 1998-99 school year, we visited several middle schools within the school district to facilitate the ``Comet in the Classroom'' program with sixth grade teachers. ``Comets in the Classroom'' presents background knowledge about comets and explains several hands-on activities regarding comets and their travels through the inner solar system. This work is funded through NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Sciences (IDEAS) program.

Goetz, J. A.; Pipher, J. L.; Kort, E.

1999-05-01

364

Analysis of the integration of the physician rostering problem and the surgery scheduling problem.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the Integrated Physician and Surgery Scheduling Problem (IPSSP) as a new approach for solving operating room scheduling problems where staff rosters for the physicians are integrated in the optimization. A mixed integer linear programming formulation is created based on the most frequently observed objective and restrictions of the surgery scheduling and the physician rostering problem in the literature. We analyze schedules by relaxing both surgery and physician related constraints. We then measure the implications of setting these physician preferences on the surgery schedule. Our experiments show two main interesting insights for physician roster schedulers as well as operating theatre scheduling managers. PMID:24850055

Van Huele, Christophe; Vanhoucke, Mario

2014-06-01

365

Community-Aware Scheduling Protocol for Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much work has been done to exploit the effectiveness and efficiency of job scheduling upon distributed computational--resources. With regard to existing resource topology and administrative constraints, scheduling approaches are designed for different hierarchic layers, for example, scheduling for job queues of local resource management systems (local scheduling), and scheduling for job queues of high level schedulers (also known as meta-schedulers

Ye Huang; Amos Brocco; Nik Bessis; Pierre Kuonen; Béat Hirsbrunner

2010-01-01

366

A Microfiche Reader for Classroom Demonstration of Biological Tissue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method for teaching introductory biology courses using a microfiche reader to view tissue samples. Uses a microfiche reader as an overhead projector to further magnify and project biological images for students to observe in the classroom. (SAH)

Smutzer, Gregory; Hastings, Lloyd

2000-01-01

367

Becoming Galileo in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galileo's contributions are so familiar as to be taken for granted, obscuring the exploratory process by which his discoveries arose. The wonder that Galileo experienced comes alive for undergraduates and teachers that I teach, when they find themselves taking Galileo's role by means of their own explorations. These classroom journeys include: sighting through picture frames to understand perspective, watching the night sky, experimenting with lenses and motion, and responding to Galileo's story. In teaching, I use critical exploration, the research pedagogy developed by Eleanor Duckworth that arose historically from both the clinical interviewing of Jean Piaget and B"arbel Inhelder and the Elementary Science Study of the 1960s. During critical explorations, the teacher supports students' investigations by posing provocative experiences while interactively following students' emergent understandings. In the context of Galileo, students learned to observe carefully, trust their observations, notice things they had never noticed before, and extend their understanding in the midst of pervasive confusion. Personal investment moved students to question assumptions that they had never critically evaluated. By becoming Galileo in today's classroom, we found the ordinary world no less intriguing and unsettling to explore, as the historical world of protagonists in Galileo's Dialogue.

Cavicchi, Elizabeth

2011-04-01

368

Single-Machine Bicriteria Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Machine scheduling and multicriteria optimization: an introduction; Complexity of single-machine bicriteria scheduling: a survey; Minimizing maximum promptness and maximum lateness on a single machine; Polynomial-time algorithms for single-machi...

H. Hoogeveen

1992-01-01

369

HSTS: Integrating Planning and Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the traditional approach to managing complex systems, planning and scheduling are two very distinct phases. However, in a wide variety of applications this strict separation is not possible or beneficial. During scheduling it is often necessary to make...

N. Muscettola

1993-01-01

370

Classroom Design Manual. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual identifies the essential design elements of modern, high quality learning environments and includes discussions on facility programming, management, utilization, evaluation, and planning for future technology. Classrooms examined include general purpose classrooms, lecture halls, seminar rooms, and specialized classrooms such as…

Allen, Robert L.; Bowen, J. Thomas; Clabaugh, Sue; DeWitt, Beth B.; Francis, JoAllen; Kerstetter, John P.; Rieck, Donald A.

371

Managing Inquiry-Based Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though it may seem that classroom management comes naturally to some teachers, upon closer examination you'll probably discover that preparation and adaptation are more important than any innate ability when it comes to successful classroom management. Any experienced middle school science teacher can tell you that successful classroom management…

Wolfgang, Christie Nicole

2009-01-01

372

An integrated scheduling and program management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated scheduling and program management system is being developed for the MMT Observatory (MMTO), Arizona, USA. A systems engineering approach is used to combine existing and new relational databases, spreadsheets, file storage systems, and web-based user interfaces into a single unified system. An overview of software design, data management, user interfaces, and techniques for performance assessment is presented. Goals of this system include streamlined data management and an optimized user experience. The MMTO has over a dozen different telescope configurations, including three secondary mirrors and a wide range of observing instruments. Scheduling is complex for the varying telescope configurations, limited available observing time, and appropriate astronomic conditions (e.g., lunar phase) for each science project. Scheduled telescope configurations can be used to perform safety checks of actual configuration during telescope operations. Programmatic information is automatically input into nightly telescope operator (TO) logs by the system. The TO's provide additional information into the system on telescope usage, observing conditions (e.g., weather conditions), and observatory closure (e.g., from instrument malfunction or inclement weather). All of this information is synthesized to assess telescope and observatory performance. Web interfaces to the system can be used by observers to submit information, such as travel plans, instrumentation requirements, and observing catalogs. A service request (SR) (i.e., trouble report) system has also been developed for tracking operational issues. The specific needs of the MMTO have been met through in-house software development of this integrated scheduling and program management system.

Porter, D.; Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.

2012-09-01

373

Quantifying ADHD classroom inattentiveness, its moderators, and variability: a meta-analytic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Most classroom observation studies have documented significant deficiencies in the classroom attention of children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to their typically developing peers. The magnitude of these differences, however, varies considerably and may be influenced by contextual, sampling, diagnostic, and observational differences. Methods: Meta-analy- sis of 23 between-group classroom observation studies using weighted regression, publication bias, goodness of

Michael J. Kofler; Mark D. Rapport; R. Matt Alderson

2008-01-01

374

Transportation Baseline Schedule  

SciTech Connect

The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

2000-01-01

375

Using schedule variance as the only measure of schedule performance  

SciTech Connect

Caution must be exercised when considering the use of schedule variance (SV) as the sole means of determining if a particular scope of work is ahead or behind the schedule. This article examines a pair of cases in which a baseline schedule is established for a scope of work with a corresponding budget spread over that schedule. Both cases display scenarios of actual performance in the field that led to erroneous conclusions when SV was the only measure used for schedule performance. 1 ref., 5 figs.

Short, J.W. (MK Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company, TN (United States))

1993-10-01

376

Auction Protocols for Decentralized Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized scheduling is the problem of allocating resources to alternative possible uses over time, where competing uses are represented by autonomous agents. Market mechanisms use prices derived through distributing bidding protocols to determine schedules. We investigate the existence of equilibrium prices for some general classes of scheduling problems, the quality of equilibrium solutions, and the behavior of an ascending auction

Michael P. Wellman; William E. Walsh; Peter R. Wurman; Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason

2001-01-01

377

FlexMod Scheduling Redux  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

Murray, Shannon

2008-01-01

378

Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

2006-01-01

379

Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

Surloff, Andrew

2008-01-01

380

High School Schedules. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings are mixed on the effectiveness of various scheduling models. These models include a traditional 7 or 8 period day, a block schedule with four classes meeting one day and another four meeting the next (A/B Block), a block schedule of four classes that meet every day for a term (4x4 Block), and several hybrid models. Some findings conclude…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

381

Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

Creighton, Peggy Milam

2008-01-01

382

Classroom Management: Beliefs of Preservice Teachers and Classroom Teachers Concerning Classroom Management Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that preservice teachers and experienced teachers share a concern for classroom management, this study compared the beliefs of classroom teachers, intern teachers, and senior level practicum students regarding classroom management styles. Participating in the study were 43 early childhood and 44 elementary education preservice teachers, and…

Laut, John

383

Networking the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "CQ Researcher" examines the theme of computer networking in the classroom and discusses uses past and present. It begins with an essay by Christopher Conte that discusses: "Does computer networking really enhance learning? Are teachers adequately prepared to take advantage of computer networking? Will computer networking promote…

Stencel, Sandra, Ed.; And Others

1995-01-01

384

The CAS Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA) Computer Algebra System (CAS)Pilot study (2001-2005) is monitoring the use of CAS in senior secondary mathematics. This article explores the author's experiences in the CAS classroom and delineates changes in teaching style, as a result of the introduction of CAS into the senior mathematics…

Garner, Sue

2004-01-01

385

Elementary Classroom Web Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children's literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support…

Baker, Elizabeth A.

2007-01-01

386

The Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

Thomas, Dorothy E.

387

Your Outdoor Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

Hinman, Laurie

2005-01-01

388

Poetry in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue focus on the use of poetry for study in classrooms at all levels. Titles and authors of the articles include (1) "Summoning the Poem: Several Roads to Xanadu" by Ben F. Nelms; (2) "ABC's of Reading and Writing Poetry in Junior High" by Barbara Arnold; (3) "Invitations" by Elizabeth D. Nelms; (4) "Teaching Poetry…

Wyman, Linda, Ed.

1984-01-01

389

Marine Mammal Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' guides developed by Sea World featuring marine mammal educational materials for K-12. 14 different topics covered including sharks, wetlands, whales, birds, and much more. Several feature activities for all grade levels. Each guide includes goals and objectives, information, vocabulary, a bibliography, and classroom activities. Activities strive to integrate science, mathematics, geography, art, and language. Orca guide is in Spanish.

390

Photography in Pink Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of photography provides many opportunities to attack the assumption of universal heterosexuality, which is central to our society, in order to provide space for other sexualities such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. This article is based on many years of lecturing in art schools and focuses on the classroom teaching of…

Ashburn, Liz

2007-01-01

391

Classroom multiplayer presential games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the promising results of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) for educational purposes, this paper maps the essential concepts behind MMOGs, into the classroom context. Since the number of students in this context is not massive and play takes place within a single room rather than on the Internet, we have changed the terms ldquomassivelyrdquo and ldquoonlinerdquo to ldquoclassroomrdquo and

Miguel Nussbaum; Heinz Susaeta; Felipe Jimenez; Ignacio Gajardo; Juan José Andreu; M. Villalta; J. Nordlinger

2009-01-01

392

Robots in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational robots are defined, their essential characteristics and features are outlined, and their educational applications and what makes them run are discussed. Classroom experiences with five educational robots--Topo, Rhino XR-2, RB5X, Hero I and Tasman Turtle--are described. (MBR)

Marsh, George; Spain, Tom

1984-01-01

393

In the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers five reading activities for classroom use, including "Poetry in Motion" (Janet Millar Grant); "Book-a-Mania" (Maria Ramirez Zirkelback); "Signs of Life" (Karl A. Matz); "Football and Reading Do Mix!" (Cindy Visser); and "Poetry-of-the-Month Club" (Steven Schneider). (MG)

French, Michael P.; Danielson, Kathy Everts

1991-01-01

394

Global Classroom Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook for teachers contains resources and learning activities to help middle and high school age students learn about Boston as an international and multicultural city. The materials can easily be adapted by teachers for use with elementary students. Staff of the Global Classroom Project developed the sourcebooks. For the past two years…

Ruelius, Andrea

395

Ag in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ag in the Classroom is a resource for teachers who teach about agriculture. Information is provided about grants for teaching agriculture, links for resources, conferences, and a teacher page. The teachers page contains downloadable issues of Acres of Agventures, Ag Mags for kids, many agriculture lessons, kits for teachers available to loan, and a 4 Kids Only page.

2007-03-22

396

Cockroaches in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

2005-01-01

397

Classroom of the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

Monte, Denise; Hupper, Mary L.; Scheifele, Peter

2000-03-01

398

The Classroom Traffic Jam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

Edwards, Arthur W.

1977-01-01

399

Injuries in Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

Obeng, Cecilia

2009-01-01

400

Windows into Art Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John Matthews; Paul…

Grauer, Kit, Ed.

1995-01-01

401

Composition: Classroom Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue present a variety of teaching methods to enhance writing instruction. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Writing for Real World Audiences in the Classroom?" (James P. Beck); (2) "Copycatting: Learning to Write by Imitating" (Mary Ann Stemper); (3) "The Journal" (Ellen Byers); (4)…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

1982-01-01

402

[Science Modules: Classroom Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one in a series of science modules (Appendix A) designed for use in a science methods course research project at Central Michigan University, emphasizes classroom management skills. All of the modules are part of a project aimed at developing, evaluating, and revising competency-based materials for use in science methods education for…

Oana, Robert G.; Eiszler, Charles F.

403

Creating a Classroom Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for elementary school teachers discusses the stages of social reasoning and suggests methods for establishing a classroom and school-wide community to aid students in social reasoning and self-governance. The document contains five sections. Section one focuses on the stages of social reasoning according to William Damon: premoral…

Nicholes, Daniel R.; Kubelick, Cheryl L.

404

Caring as Classroom Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When planning for the new school year, K-2 teachers might consider the benefits of creating a caring classroom. Caring has the potential to not only encourage thoughtful social studies practice, but to also enhance it. The best K-2 teachers also recognize the importance of caring in the development of responsible citizens. Such teachers plan and…

Johnson, Chrystal S.; Thomas, Adrian T.

2009-01-01

405

Inquiry in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) As schools scramble to restructure in the hope of thwarting failure, administrators often appropriate money for outside experts who counsel on professional development as well as outside magic-pill programs for student achievement. High-stakes testing remains the arbiter. Perhaps the use of the best practice of inquiry, or classroom

Stohl, Christina

2010-01-01

406

Animals in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

Roy, Ken

2011-01-01

407

The Electronic Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) is experimenting with a special multimedia classroom designed around cutting-edge electronic equipment that allows faculty to use computer and audiovisual technology together. Initially used most in sciences and mathematics, faculty from other disciplines are joining in. The facility encourages development of new…

Watkins, Beverly T.

1991-01-01

408

Fluency in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers two distinct approaches to oral reading instruction that can easily be incorporated into primary-grade literacy curricula. It enables teachers to go beyond the conventional "round-robin" approach by providing strong instructional support and using challenging texts. Grounded in research and classroom experience, the book explains…

Kuhn, Melanie R., Ed.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J., Ed.

2007-01-01

409

Designing the Electronic Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an increasingly technological environment, traditional teaching presentation methods such as the podium, overhead, and transparencies are no longer sufficient. This document serves as a guide to designing and planning an electronic classroom for "bidirectional" communication between teacher and student. Topics include: (1) determining whether…

Adams, Laural L.

410

Assessment and Classroom Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains. The perceptions of students and their role in self?assessment are considered alongside analysis of the strategies used by teachers and the formative strategies incorporated in

Paul Black; Dylan Wiliam

1998-01-01

411

Idea Bank: Classroom Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever struggled with trying to motivate your students to learn science? If your answer is a resounding "yes!"-- the implementation of a class newsletter may be the solution. A class newsletter project can improve student self-confidence and motivate students to learn science. This article describes how to incorporate this effective strategy into your science classroom.

O'Connor, Mackenzie

2005-02-01

412

Classroom Management That Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to find the best classroom management strategies to use when teaching in an elementary school setting. I wanted to conduct the best possible management tools for a variety of age groups as well as meet educational standards. Through my research I found different approaches in different grade levels is an important…

Cleve, Lauren

2012-01-01

413

Classrooms as Lexical Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the vocabulary available in English-as-a-Second-Language classes in which teachers have made a strong commitment to a communicative approach to language teaching. Provides an account of problems that were encountered in an attempt to establish a rich lexical environment in one classroom. (Author/VWL)

Meara, Paul; Lightbown, Patsy M.; Halter, Randall H.

1997-01-01

414

Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

Mathews, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

415

Transforming Classroom Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents viable alternatives to classroom grading, explaining how to design grading systems that are both precise and efficient. It provides educators with a thorough grounding in grading research and theory. After clarifying the basic purposes of grades, the book discusses what should be included in them, how to use a rubric-based…

Marzano, Robert J.

416

Flipping the Classroom Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I received many emails following the first column on flipping the classroom. Many of my local colleagues also approached me at our physics alliance, Physics Northwest. Teachers are very interested in this new pedagogy. As I result, I wanted to share some more videos to inspire you.

Riendeau, Diane

2013-02-01

417

Wait-time, classroom discourse, and the influence of sociocultural factors in science teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wait-time, a variable related to questioning in a teaching-learning situation, has been found to have implications for the inquiry mode of science teaching especially in Western classroom environments. Aside from the fact that the literature is very sparse in this area about what obtains in developing countries, nothing appears to be available with regard to how wait-time interacts with the sociocultural factors within non-Western science classrooms. In a non-Western country such as Nigeria where most science programs in schools are inquiry-oriented, do teachers take notice of, and effectively use, wait-time in the teaching-learning process? Are science teachers able to effectively use the mediating role of sociocultural factors in science teaching in a traditional environment which expects children to be seen only and not heard? The main purpose of this study was to investigate the wait-time of Nigerian integrated science teachers in relation to the amount of students' participation in inquiry. This study also investigated the relationship between wait-time and sociocultural attitudinal factors prevalent in traditional societies. The instruments used for data collection were the Hough's Observational Schedule and a modified version of the Socio-Cultural Environment Scale (SCES); a stop-watch was used to measure the wait-time of audio-recorded integrated science lessons of 37 integrated science teachers from selected junior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The results showed that the average wait-time TT and wait-time ST of the integrated science teachers was 3.0 seconds and 0.7 seconds, respectively. The study reported the amount of student participation in the student-teacher classroom discourse to be very low. Wait-time was also shown to have a strong relationship with sociocultural factors of authoritarianism, goal structure, societal expectation, and traditional worldview. The pedagogical and curricular implications of the results have been highlighted.

Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Olajide, Janet O.

418

Implementing Block Scheduling: A Concern-Based Model of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study focused primarily on building-level leadership by observing how principals in 12 high schools (11 public and 1 Catholic) engaged in planning a structural change from a traditional schedule with 45-minute periods to the 90-minute periods of a block schedule. Using a concerns-based model of change, principals' behaviors and teachers'…

Salvaterra, Mary E.; Adams, Don C.

419

CRI planning and scheduling for space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer Resources International (CRI) has many years of experience in developing space planning and scheduling systems for the European Space Agency. Activities range from AIT/AIV planning over mission planning to research in on-board autonomy using advanced planning and scheduling technologies in conjunction with model based diagnostics. This article presents four projects carried out for ESA by CRI with various subcontractors: (1) DI, Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems is an on-going research project; (2) GMPT, Generic Mission Planning Toolset, a feasibility study concluded in 1993; (3) OPTIMUM-AIV, Open Planning Tool for AIV, development of a knowledge based AIV planning and scheduling tool ended in 1992; and (4) PlanERS-1, development of an AI and knowledge-based mission planning prototype for the ERS-1 earth observation spacecraft ended in 1991.

Aarup, Mads

1994-01-01

420

Bringing Classroom Utilization Reporting Up-to-Date. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose, audience, methodology, and statistics of classroom utilization reports used at the University of Colorado, Boulder, are examined with a view toward an evolving report on a schedule of classes. Utilization reports from the past decade are examined in terms of information attributes discussed by Kleijnen (1980). A computer-generated…

Smith, John D.

421

The Effects of Fixed-Time Escape on Inappropriate and Appropriate Classroom Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have explored the effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement on escape-maintained behavior of students in a classroom setting. We measured the effects of an FT schedule on the disruptive and appropriate academic behaviors of 2 junior high students in a public school setting. Results demonstrated that FT escape from tasks resulted in a…

Waller, Rachael D.; Higbee, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

422

The Morning Message in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidelines for Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Morning Message is a commonly implemented activity in early childhood settings, appearing as a part of the daily schedule in many classrooms. However, there is limited research on what are the most effective ways to use the Morning Message to promote print awareness. The goal of this paper is to present suggested guidelines for implementing…

Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

2011-01-01

423

Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Civeit, Thomas

2013-01-01

424

From Perception to Practice: The Impact of Teachers' Scoring Experience on Performance-based Instruction and Classroom Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the impact of experience scoring the Maryland School Performance Assessment tasks on teachers' instructional and classroom assessment practice. Interview data, questionnaires, classroom observation, and classroom artifacts from approximately 5 teacher-scorers demonstrated that teachers' appropriation of performance-based instruction may be…

Goldberg, Gail Lynn; Roswell, Barbara Sherr

2000-01-01

425

Perceptions of randomized security schedules.  

PubMed

Security of infrastructure is a major concern. Traditional security schedules are unable to provide omnipresent coverage; consequently, adversaries can exploit predictable vulnerabilities to their advantage. Randomized security schedules, which randomly deploy security measures, overcome these limitations, but public perceptions of such schedules have not been examined. In this experiment, participants were asked to make a choice between attending a venue that employed a traditional (i.e., search everyone) or a random (i.e., a probability of being searched) security schedule. The absolute probability of detecting contraband was manipulated (i.e., 1/10, 1/4, 1/2) but equivalent between the two schedule types. In general, participants were indifferent to either security schedule, regardless of the probability of detection. The randomized schedule was deemed more convenient, but the traditional schedule was considered fairer and safer. There were no differences between traditional and random schedule in terms of perceived effectiveness or deterrence. Policy implications for the implementation and utilization of randomized schedules are discussed. PMID:24131225

Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S

2014-04-01

426

Scheduling algorithms for multihop radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aew algorithms for transmission scheduling in multi- hop broadcast radio networks are presented. Both link scheduling and broadcast scheduling are considered. In each instance, sched- uling algorithms are given that improve upon existing algorithms both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it is shown that tree networks can be scheduled optimally, and that arbitrary networks can be scheduled so that the schedule

Subramanian Ramanathan; Errol L. Lloyd

1993-01-01

427

The Effect of Teacher's Questioning Behavior on EFL Classroom Interaction: A Classroom-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: After the failure of several important methods comparison studies in the 1960s, the influence of interaction analysis stimulated interest in foreign language classroom processes. More careful observational studies gradually revealed which process variables were of interest. Also, there has been much research on teacher talk, with a…

Shomoossi, Nematullah

1997-01-01

428

The classroom space project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom Space is a national education project funded by PPARC and run by the University of Leicester, in collaboration with the National Space Centre. It aims to revitalize science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. The comprehensive classroom resources-which are available to download free of charge from the project website www.classroomspace.org.uk-are all linked to the National Curriculum and are fully self-contained. The materials are developed through partnership between space scientists, teachers and education professionals. The project was launched at the ASE Annual Meeting in January, and this paper summarizes the motivation for the project and its development, as well as looking forward to ideas for an extension to the project for which funding has been confirmed.

Verbickas, Sarah

2005-11-28

429

SMM Observations of Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year I have participated in a series of team telecons to I plan our observation of Saturn with SMM. The observation, scheduled for this month (September), was canceled and a new observation is being planned for 2002.

Schnopper, Herbert; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

430

Sustainable Seas Classroom Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multimedia approach promotes ocean exploration and conservation. Underwater expeditions to National Marine Sanctuaries provide case studies and data for lesson plans. Topics include: biological oceanography; ocean regions and habitats; physical ocean process; human links to and impacts on the ocean; applications of oceanography. Virtual expeditions link the classroom experience with the individual National Marine Sanctuaries, research methods and technology, and researchers' experiences. Free, on-line teacher workshops feature top ocean researchers and policy makers.

431

C-SPAN Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The C-SPAN in the classroom website is geared toward teachers of political science - or specifically U.S. Government. The site is split into six segments: Principles of Government, the Constitution, Political Participation and each of the three branches of government. Each of these sections features video clips, and questions for class discussion. Free site membership is available, but not required to use the site. Some additional content and services are available with membership.

2006-11-25

432

CIESE Online Classroom Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers of all grades can use these projects to enhance their science curriculum through use of the Internet. Many projects utilize real time data, others draw from primary/historical information sources. In collaborative projects, students from around the world contribute data for comparison. Each project includes a brief description, teacher guide, standards, classroom activities, data source links, even online help. Many projects focus on water, water quality, weather, oceanography topics. Undergraduate science education is also featured.

433

My Favorite Classroom Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a new kind of session for an AAS meeting: very short presentations of favorite classroom demonstrations. It is INFORMAL - no advance registation or abstracts. However, if you want to do a demo, PLEASE EMAIL aased@aas.org IN ADVANCE, telling the name of your demo and how long it takes. This is so we don't overfill the half-hour experimental

D. Duncan

1998-01-01

434

The Hubble Exoplanet Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a status report on the Hubble Exoplanet Classroom, an interactive website designed to engage 8-12th grade students in physical science concepts using the exciting field of exoplanet studies. Addressing national teaching standards, the webpage allows educators to enhance their physical science, physics, and astronomy curriculum with student-driven lessons. The webpage records students' performance on lessons and quizzes and compiles the results, which can be accessed by the instructor using a secure website.

Stevens, Laura; Carson, J.; Ruwadi, D.; Low, K.; Jordan, S.; Schneider, G.

2013-01-01

435

The Virtual Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual schooling offers students the opportunity to enroll in a science course not taught at their home school or school district, interact with expert instructors in a particular field, and gain access to subject matter they may have otherwise missed (i.e., teenage moms, home-schooled students, expelled students, etc.). This chapter examines best teaching practices emerging within this new field and showcases specific examples of how various technologies are used within virtual science classrooms.

Ferdig, Rick; Dana, Tom

2008-01-01

436

Exclusive Preference Develops Less Readily on Concurrent Ratio Schedules with Wheel-Running than with Sucrose Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggested that allocation of responses on concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement was less sensitive to schedule differences than typically observed with more conventional reinforcers. To assess this possibility, 16 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent FR FR schedules of reinforcement and the schedule

Belke, Terry W.

2010-01-01

437

Current trends in deterministic scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling is concerned with allocating limited resources to tasks to optimize certain objective functions. Due to the popularity\\u000a of the Total Quality Management concept, on-time delivery of jobs has become one of the crucial factors for customer satisfaction.\\u000a Scheduling plays an important role in achieving this goal. Recent developments in scheduling theory have focused on extending\\u000a the models to include

Chung-Yee Lee; Lei Lei; Michael Pinedo

1997-01-01

438

Science Beyond the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking science education beyond the classroom provides learning opportunities and experiences for students that just aren't available within school walls, and Science Beyond the Classroom has a wealth of ideas on how to do it successfully. These carefully selected articles from the NSTA journals Science Scope and Science and Children were gathered into a compendium because of the value of informal science education in providing access to those experiences and in tapping into student interests. Science Beyond the Classroom provides an overview of information and ideas--many of them include step-by-step, teacher-tested instructions and guidelines--that can be easily modified and adapted by teachers and others--scout leaders, club sponsors, parents, and home schoolers among them--who want to nurture enthusiasm for science. An introduc�tion providing background and ideas for using the articles and a list of additional articles and web sites leads each of the five sections: � Extending Science Learning Beyond the Curriculum: Projects and Challenges � Extending Science Learning Beyond the School Building Walls: Using Local Sites � Extending Science Learning Beyond the School Day: Clubs, Camps and Science Expositions � Extending Science Learning to the Family: Take-Home Projects and Family Science Events � Extending Science Learning to Informal Institutions: Museums, Zoos, and Other Field Trips With its potential for engaging student interest, this book aims also at encouraging more students to enter academic fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

2008-01-01

439

1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

US Bonneville Power Administration

1993-10-01

440

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule  

SciTech Connect

Title 44 United States Code, Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules.

Not Available

1992-03-01

441

Coordinated Science Campaign Scheduling for Sensor Webs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future Earth observing missions will study different aspects and interacting pieces of the Earth's eco-system. Scientists are designing increasingly complex, interdisciplinary campaigns to exploit the diverse capabilities of multiple Earth sensing assets. In addition, spacecraft platforms are being configured into clusters, trains, or other distributed organizations in order to improve either the quality or the coverage of observations. These simultaneous advances in the design of science campaigns and in the missions that will provide the sensing resources to support them offer new challenges in the coordination of data and operations that are not addressed by current practice. For example, the scheduling of scientific observations for satellites in low Earth orbit is currently conducted independently by each mission operations center. An absence of an information infrastructure to enable the scheduling of coordinated observations involving multiple sensors makes it difficult to execute campaigns involving multiple assets. This paper proposes a software architecture and describes a prototype system called DESOPS (Distributed Earth Science Observation Planning and Scheduling) that will address this deficiency.

Edgington, Will; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer; Williams, Jenny; Carlson, Jean; Fleming, Damian; Wood, Terri; Yorke-Smith, Neil

2005-01-01

442

Scheduling with alternatives: a link between process planning and scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to develop and evaluate effective, computationally efficient procedures for scheduling jobs in a large-scale manufacturing system involving, for example, over 1000 jobs and over 100 machines. The main performance measure is maximum lateness; and a useful lower bound on maximum lateness is derived from a relaxed scheduling problem in which preemption of jobs is

Alexander Weintraub; Denis Cormier; Thom Hodgson; Russell King; James WIlson; Andrew Zozom

1999-01-01

443

Editor's Roundtable: Classroom management � la Goldilocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom management is a difficult balancing act. Like Goldilocks, teachers should sample all the classroom management techniques available to them to find the ones that are "just right" for their classroom. Therefore, teachers must quickly establish a c

Liftig, Inez

2009-07-01

444

5 Keys to Effective Classroom Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When new teachers walk into their first classroom, they take on many new responsibilities, including establishing and enforcing classroom rules. Five simple guidelines can help new teachers develop an effective classroom management that reflects their teaching style.

Kode, Kimberly

2010-08-01

445

Verifiable Classroom Voting: Where Cryptography Meets Pedagogy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we propose - and have implemented - the first verifiable classroom voting system. The subject of secure classroom voting has so far received almost no attention from the security community. Though several commercial classroom voting systems...

C. Shepherd D. Clarke F. Hao

2013-01-01

446

The Physics Classroom: Shockwave Physics Studios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection by features interactive Shockwave activities that simulate a variety of physical situations. Students manipulate variables and observe the outcome on the physical system being modeled. Topics include graphing motion, free body diagrams, projectile motion, uniform circular motion, gravitation, orbital motion, time dilation, wave patterns, light refraction, lenses, and more. This resource is part of The Physics Classroom web site, a growing collection of resources for teachers and learners of introductory physics.

Henderson, Tom

2011-04-18

447

Job scheduling on a hypercube  

SciTech Connect

The author studies the scheduling of independent jobs on hypercube multiprocessors. He assumes that the hypercube system supports space-sharing for multiprogramming, i.e., a hypercube is partitioned into subcubes and each job is assigned to a dedicated subcube and many jobs can be running simultaneously without interfering with each other. Then the problem of how to schedule a set of jobs so that they can be finished as early as possible becomes important. He investigates two kinds of scheduling algorithms for the problem. The first one is nonpreemptive scheduling, i.e., no job is allowed to be interrupted during its execution. In this case, the problem is NP-Complete. He proposes an approximation algorithm called LDF, which generates a schedule with a finish time less than twice that of an optimal schedule. Compared with the earlier proposed algorithm, his algorithm is simpler and has almost the same performance. More importantly, his LDF algorithm can achieve this performance without knowing the job processing times, which may be hard to obtain in practice. Also he proves a lower bound result which implies that it is unlikely to find simple heuristic algorithms that can perform much better than the existing algorithms including LDF. The second kind is preemptive scheduling, i.e., a job can be preempted during its execution and rescheduled later. He develops a feasibility algorithm that runs in O (n log n) time and generates a schedule with at most min{l brace}n-2, 2{sup m}-1{r brace} preemptions. It can generate a feasible schedule for the given job set if there exists one. This improvement is important because many scheduling algorithms depend on a feasibility algorithm as a building block. Furthermore, based on an advanced search technique, he presents an algorithm that can find the optimal schedule in O(n{sup 2} log {sup 2}n) time.

Zhu, Yahui.

1990-01-01

448

Integrating Quantitative and Ethnographic Methods to Describe the Classroom. Report No. 5083.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debate between proponents of ethnographic and quantitative methodology in classroom observation is reviewed, and the respective strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches are discussed. These methodologies are directly compared in a study that conducted simultaneous ethnographic and quantitative observations on nine classrooms. It is…

Malitz, David; And Others

449

Assessment from a Sociocultural Perspective: Narratives from a First Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on observations of classroom conversation as an approach to assessment of relationships between a teacher's teaching and pupils' learning and identity-development processes. Detailed observation notes from two conventional conversation situations from a first grade classroom are written down as narratives and analysed within a…

Fottland, Helg; Matre, Synnove

2005-01-01

450

Teacher and Pupil Characteristics in the Perception of the Creativity of Classroom Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 600 8th-grade pupils in 25 classrooms in Eastern Slovakia evaluated their math and Slovak language classes for creativity on the Origin-Pawn Questionnaire. Results were correlated with teacher observations by trained observers. Results are discussed in terms of classroom activity patterns and climate differences related to activity…

Furman, Anton

1998-01-01

451

Development of a Standardized Measure of Classroom Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample research observation measure and its preparation into a written observer training package for use in evaluating children within or across classrooms is described. The Planned Activity Check (PLA-Check) measure, a time-sample observation of children's participation is planned activities; was used. A training manual based upon the PLA-Check…

Cataldo, Michael F.; Risley, Todd R.

452

Active Classroom Participation in a Group Scribbles Primary Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key stimulus of learning efficacy for students in the classroom is active participation and engagement in the learning process. This study examines the nature of teacher-student and student-student discourse when leveraged by an interactive technology--Group Scribbles (GS) in a Primary 5 Science classroom in Singapore which supports rapid…

Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

2011-01-01

453

Models of Classroom Management as Applied to the Secondary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulty managing behavior in the classroom is frequently cited as a source of frustration for teachers and a common reason why new teachers leave the profession (Ingersoll 2001, 2003). Concerted attention to issues of classroom management is important to the health of education; attention to these issues at the middle and secondary education…

Malmgren, Kimber W.; Trezek, Beverly J.; Paul, Peter V.

2005-01-01

454

Classroom implementation of the practices learned in the Master of Chemistry Education program by the School District of Philadelphia's high school chemistry teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory case study utilizing quantitative and qualitative methodologies intended to ascertain the extent and differences of implementation of research-based instructional practices, learned in an intensive 26-month professional development, in their urban classrooms. Both the extent and differences in the implementation of practices were investigated in relation to the lesson design and implementation, content, and classroom culture aspects of research-based practices. Additionally, this research includes the concerns of the teachers regarding the factors that helped or hindered the implementation of research-based practices in their classrooms. Six graduates of the Master of Chemistry Education Program who were teaching a chemistry course in a high school in the School District of Philadelphia at the time of the study (2006-8), were the case. The teachers completed a concerns questionnaire with closed and open-ended items, and rated their perceptions of the extent of implementation of the practices in their urban classrooms. Additionally, the teachers were observed and rated by the researcher using a reform-teaching observation protocol and were interviewed individually. Also, the teachers submitted their lesson plans for the days they were observed. Data from these sources were analyzed to arrive at the findings for this study. The research findings suggest that the group of teachers in the study implemented the research-based practices in their classrooms to a low extent when compared to the recommended practices inherent to the MCE Program. The extents of implementation of the practices differed widely among the teachers, from being absent to being implemented at a high level, with inconsistent levels of implementation from various data sources. Further, the teachers expressed the depth of knowledge (gained in the MCE Program), formal laboratory exercises and reports, administrative support, self-motivated students, and group/collaborative work as several factors that enabled or would have enabled the implementation of practices. Among the many factors that hindered the implementation of the practices in their urban classrooms were, the core curriculum and pacing schedule, followed by test preparation, administrative paper-work, large class-size, students not prepared for student-centered work, poor math and reading skills of students, students' lack of motivation, unsupportive department head, unresponsive administration, and lack of resources.

Jayaraman, Uma Devi

455

Effectiveness of Instruction Performed through Activity Schedules on Leisure Skills of Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influences of instruction performed through activity schedules on engaging-in the schedule skill and fulfilling the activity skills of pre-school children with autism; along with investigating the influence of schedule observation and instruction on children's engagement in activities. Participants were three male…

Cuhadar, Selmin; Diken, Ibrahim H.

2011-01-01

456

Nurse Scheduling Using Harmony Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research an adaption of Harmony Search Al- gorithm (HSA) for Nurse Scheduling Problem (NSP) is presented. Nurse scheduling problem is a task of assigning shifts to nurses for the duties that have to carry out. The difficulty of handling this problem is due to the high number of constraints to be satisfied. Thus, we are proposing an adaptation

Mohammed A. Awadallah; Ahamad Tajudin Khader; Mohammed Azmi Al-Betar; Asaju La'aro Bolaji

2011-01-01

457

Reduced Schedule Pediatric Residency Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national experience with reduced-schedule residency training during the last 10 years is reviewed. Data on University of Rochester Hospital pediatric residents who chose a reduced-schedule training option between 1977 and 1984 are discussed. (Author/MLW)

Schaff, Eric A.; Hoekelman, Robert A.

1984-01-01

458

Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the advantages of the structured interview in psychiatric research and goes on to describe the details of development of a structured interview Schedule (IPIS) suitable for an Indian setting. The Schedule is described, as well as the results of interinvestigator reliability tests. Possible uses of the instrument and the necessary further developments are outlined.

R. L. Kapur; Malavika Kapur; G. M. Carstairs

1974-01-01

459

Scheduling Guide for Program Managers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide concerns key tools used by program managers and their teams to plan, schedule, and control the work to be accomplished. These include bar charts, milestone charts, line-of-balance charts, and network-based systems. Descriptions of scheduling te...

D. D. Acker J. S. Baumgartner M. B. Patterson

1986-01-01

460

Wasted resources in gang scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang scheduling (the scheduling of a number of interacting threads to run simultaneously on distinct processors) can leave processors idle if the sizes of the gangs do not match the number of available processors. Given an optimal offline algorithm it is shown that the wasted processing power can range from 0% to 50%, depending on the distribution of gang sizes.

D. G. Feitelson; L. Rudolph

1990-01-01

461

Processor Scheduling for Multiprocessor Joins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of practical algorithms is presented to schedule join execution in a shared-memory multiprocessor environment. The algorithms are based on page connectivity graphs and determine when to read each data page into memory and how to schedule page joins on the available processors. The goal is to overlap page reads with parallel join execution in such a way that

Marguerite C. Murphyt; Doron Rotem

1989-01-01

462

Daily Aircraft Routing and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the daily aircraft routing and scheduling problem (DARSP). It consists of determining daily schedules which maximize the anticipated profits derived from the aircraft of a heterogeneous fleet. This fleet must cover a set of operational flight legs with known departure time windows, durations and profits according to the aircraft type. We present two models for

Guy Desaulniers; Jacques Desrosiers; Yvan Dumas; Marius M. Solomon; François Soumis

1997-01-01

463

Fair Scheduling through Packet Election  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of designing scheduling algorithm for input queued switch that is both fair as well as throughput optimal. The significant body of literature developed over the past two decades for scheduling algorithm is primarily concerned with throughput and delay, but not fairness. One of the reason for such a state of affair is the

Srikanth Jagabathula; Vishal Doshi; Devavrat Shah

2008-01-01

464

Scheduling IT Staff at a Bank: A Mathematical Programming Approach  

PubMed Central

We address a real-world optimization problem: the scheduling of a Bank Information Technologies (IT) staff. This problem can be defined as the process of constructing optimized work schedules for staff. In a general sense, it requires the allocation of suitably qualified staff to specific shifts to meet the demands for services of an organization while observing workplace regulations and attempting to satisfy individual work preferences. A monthly shift schedule is prepared to determine the shift duties of each staff considering shift coverage requirements, seniority-based workload rules, and staff work preferences. Due to the large number of conflicting constraints, a multiobjective programming model has been proposed to automate the schedule generation process. The suggested mathematical model has been implemented using Lingo software. The results indicate that high quality solutions can be obtained within a few seconds compared to the manually prepared schedules.

Labidi, M.; Mrad, M.; Gharbi, A.; Louly, M. A.

2014-01-01

465

Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

Brown, Estevancio

2010-01-01

466

Scheduling Software for Complex Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preparing a vehicle and its payload for a single launch is a complex process that involves thousands of operations. Because the equipment and facilities required to carry out these operations are extremely expensive and limited in number, optimal assignment and efficient use are critically important. Overlapping missions that compete for the same resources, ground rules, safety requirements, and the unique needs of processing vehicles and payloads destined for space impose numerous constraints that, when combined, require advanced scheduling. Traditional scheduling systems use simple algorithms and criteria when selecting activities and assigning resources and times to each activity. Schedules generated by these simple decision rules are, however, frequently far from optimal. To resolve mission-critical scheduling issues and predict possible problem areas, NASA historically relied upon expert human schedulers who used their judgment and experience to determine where things should happen, whether they will happen on time, and whether the requested resources are truly necessary.

2006-01-01

467

Scheduling of taxanes: a review.  

PubMed

The taxanes are widely used in the cytotoxic treatment of many solid tumours. Their optimal scheduling, however, remains unconfirmed. Here we review the development of both paclitaxel and docetaxel to identify evidence influencing the choice of schedule. Early work with paclitaxel identified that it exhibits non-linear pharmacokinetics which has important clinical implications. Paclitaxel has been administered with a wide range of infusion times, especially 3-weekly and recently weekly schedules. Clinical activity of a weekly schedule appears at least non-inferior, and, in certain circumstances superior, to the 3-weekly schedule, with improved tolerability. Similarly, docetaxel has been investigated for 3-weekly versus weekly schedule, reporting equivalent efficacy and improved side effect profile for weekly dosing with regards myelosuppression. Both paclitaxel and docetaxel are often used with the monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab and bevacizumab. It would appear that in this setting, activity may be again improved by administering the taxane weekly, especially in combination with trastuzumab. A further recent development is the use of nab-paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel; this Cremaphor EC-free preparation allows shorter infusion times without premedication. Benefits of a weekly schedule with this newer drug are also emerging from the limited randomised data. Whether the possibly greater efficacy of weekly paclitaxel in particular reflects a biological effect of more frequent exposure of cancer cells to the cytotoxic is less clear as this schedule also allows a higher dose intensity to be delivered. Nevertheless, that after more than 20 years, weekly administration has emerged as the optimal schedule, especially for paclitaxel. In practice, the choice of schedule is a balance between the better tolerability (and possibly efficacy) of weekly treatment balanced against the inconvenience for both the patient and clinic of more frequent visits for chemotherapy. PMID:20406166

Woodward, Emma J; Twelves, Chris

2010-08-01

468

The Physics Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed for high school physics students by Glenbrook South High School in Glenview, Illinois, the Physics Classroom Tutorial offers clear and concise details of the basic physics topics. The website, modeled like an online physics book, contains a series of main categories, which are divided into lessons and sub-lessons. Within the sub-lessons, students can find helpful diagrams, animations, and a short quiz to evaluate their understanding of the topics. Because this site offers comprehensive materials, all introductory physics students are sure to obtain a better understanding of the subject by visiting the site.

469

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agriculture in the Classroom (AITC) is a program supported by the United States Department of Agriculture to promote increased agricultural literacy. The AITC website provides resources for teachers including suggestions for science fair projects, virtual tours, agricultural literacy quizzes, effective teaching strategies. There is also a directory of reviewed resources, including lesson plans, webquests, DVDs, maps, posters, and other items. The student's page features an interactive presentation with career information, ideas for science fair projects, opinion features on agricultural issues, games, webquests, and an interactive map with links to downloadable fact sheets about agriculture in each state.

470

Slime: Classroom Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Education Resource Center has provided this hands on lab activity created by Andrew Nydam and Debbie Goodwin. The activity demonstrates property change due to crosslinking in slime formed from mixing PVA and Borax solution. This lab will teach the students the important concepts of plastic flow vs. elastic flow, hydrogen bonding, and viscosity. This pdf document provides instructions for the instructor, recommendations to ensure the experiment goes smoothly for both students and teacher, and an evaluation packet for the students to complete once the lab is finished. All in all, this is a fun and education tool for any high school or community college science classroom.

Goodwin, Debbie; Nydam, Andrew

2010-08-06

471

The Physics Classroom: Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains an in-depth tutorial on the properties and behavior of waves, suitable for beginning students of physics. It features multiple animations to accompany the text, plus self-guided question-and-answer sets. Included is a discussion of the nature and anatomy of waves, how wave energy is transported, and an overview of standing waves and harmonic patterns. This item is part of The Physics Classroom, a web-based collection of tutorials for high school physics students.

Henderson, Tom

2009-02-12

472

Making Reliability Arguments in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliability methodology needs to evolve as validity has done into an argument supported by theory and empirical evidence. Nowhere is the inadequacy of current methods more visible than in classroom assessment. Reliability arguments would also permit additional methodologies for evidencing reliability in classrooms. It would liberalize methodology…

Parkes, Jay; Giron, Tilia

2006-01-01

473

Satellite Technologies in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on ways of using satellite imagery obtained from the Internet, to enhance classroom learning. Discusses satellite deployment; classroom applications, including infrared imagery, high-resolution photography, and global positioning satellites; and use of satellite data for hands-on activities, including cartography, city and community…

Portz, Stephen M.

1999-01-01

474

Society and the Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of essays on sociocultural factors in the second language classroom includes: "Autonomy and Ideology in the English Language Classroom" (Hywel Coleman); "Safe-Talk: Collusion in Apartheid Education" (J. Keith Chick); "English Language Education in Japan" (Virginia LoCastro); "Shadow Puppets and Language Lessons: Interpreting…

Coleman, Hywel, Ed.

475

Bringing Globalization into the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the most effective resources for bringing the concept of globalization into the classroom is through the personal and professional experiences of the classroom teacher, the personal experiences of students from diverse cultures, the inclusion of curriculum activities with a global context, and the involvement of guest speakers with global…

Billings, Nancy Carter

2006-01-01

476

The Press in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author lists four learning objectives for use of newspapers in the classroom. Also included are brief summaries of newspaper use in the classrooms of the United States, Sweden, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, France, England, Mali, Congo-Brazzaville, and Togo. (DE)

Topuz, Hifzi

1974-01-01

477

Preparing teachers for inclusive classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective teaching skills consist of high levels of student engagement based on good classroom and time management skills; the ability to scaffold learning that is adapted to students' current levels of understanding; cognitively engaging students in higher-order thinking; and encouraging and supporting success. The research reported here suggests that in elementary classrooms, effective teaching skills are effective for all students,

Anne Jordan; Eileen Schwartz; Donna McGhie-Richmond

2009-01-01

478

Hazard Maps in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

Cross, John A.

1988-01-01

479

Learning outside the Primary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Learning Outside the Primary Classroom," the educationalist and writer Fred Sedgwick explores in a practical way the many opportunities for intense learning that children and teachers can find outside the confines of the usual learning environment, the classroom. This original work is based on tried and tested methods from UK primary schools.…

Sedgwick, Fred

2012-01-01

480

Blueprint for the Interactive Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview and discusses the objectives of the "Blueprint for the Interactive Classroom" (BIC), a project, developed by the Audiovisuele (AV) Dienst of them Katholieke Universiteit (KU) of Leuven (Belgium), that will provide operational blueprints for installing and using tele-teaching classrooms and learning environments. (PEN)

Vanbuel, Mathy

1998-01-01

481

Setting Up the Multicultural Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, presented in four chapters, provides activities to train teachers to set up a multicultural classroom. In Section I the activity acquaints the participant with six types of classroom areas: private area, individual free-work area with seating, learning center with surfaces for sitting work, learning centers without surfaces for sitting…

Tanaka, Masako N.

482

Acoustical evaluation of preschool classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made of the acoustical environments in the Berwick Preschool, Vancouver, in response to complaints by the teachers. Reverberation times (RT), background noise levels (BNL), and in-class sound levels (Leq) were measured for acoustical evaluation in the classrooms. With respect to the measured RT and BNL, none of the classrooms in the preschool were acceptable according to the criteria relevant to this study. A questionnaire was administered to the teachers to assess their subjective responses to the acoustical and nonacoustical environments of the classrooms. Teachers agreed that the nonacoustical environments in the classrooms were fair, but that the acoustical environments had problems. Eight different classroom configurations were simulated to improve the acoustical environments, using the CATT room acoustical simulation program. When the surface absorption was increased, both the RT and speech levels decreased. RASTI was dependent on the volumes of the classrooms when the background noise levels were high; however, it depended on the total absorption of the classrooms when the background noise levels were low. Ceiling heights are critical as well. It is recommended that decreasing the volume of the classrooms is effective. Sound absorptive materials should be added to the walls or ceiling.

Yang, Wonyoung; Hodgson, Murray

2003-10-01

483

Classroom Furniture: The Mod Squad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first article in a six-part series on the elements of a collaborative classroom: furniture, social media, video/web conferencing tools, collaborative software, interactive devices, and mobile devices. With most universities facing tight budgets, convincing administrators to invest in expensive new classrooms is a challenge. Many higher…

Raths, David

2012-01-01

484

The Saga of Relocatable Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Capistrano (California) Unified School District's use of portable classrooms to solve overenrollment problems while complying with Governor Wilson's directive to reduce class size in primary grades. When evaluating the merits of relocatable classrooms, school leaders should consider acquisition and use, identification of responsible…

Fleming, James A.

1997-01-01

485

Speech Perception in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how poor room acoustics can make speech inaudible and presents a speech-perception model demonstrating the linkage between adequacy of classroom acoustics and the development of a speech and language systems. It argues both aspects must be considered when evaluating barriers to listening and learning in a classroom.…

Smaldino, Joseph J.; Crandell, Carl C.

1999-01-01

486

Classroom Implementation. Issues in Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, second in a series on issues in assessment, seeks to describe an initiative supported by Finger Lakes Community College (New York) to use classroom assessment techniques (CATs) in different academic areas and to present an overview of some assessment approaches that have been used in the classroom. Papers include: (1) "Enhancing…

Malinowski, Patricia A., Ed.

487

Resource allocation and scheduling in cloud computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing is a platform that hosts applications and services for businesses and users to accesses computing as a service. In this paper, we identify two scheduling and resource allocation problems in cloud computing. We describe Hadoop MapReduce and its schedulers, and present recent research efforts in this area including alternative schedulers and enhancements to existing schedulers. The second scheduling

Eman Elghoneimy; Othmane Bouhali; Hussein Alnuweiri

2012-01-01

488

Distraction of Symbolic Behavior in Regular Classrooms  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students’ abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student’s capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students’ shifts from the use of “non-symbolic” to “symbolic” behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11–13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?observational data about variations in students’ symbolic behavior in relation to contextual factors in regular classroom. The main conclusion to be drawn from the results is that the observational procedure used in this study seems to have a potential to be used to explore the interaction between contextual factors and more complex student behavior such as cognition and the pragmatic use of language in regular classroom.

Billinger, Stefan

2012-01-01

489

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-03-01

490

Research Ship Information and Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unusual resource for Research Ship Information and Schedules is maintained by the University of Delaware's Ocean Information Center (OCEANIC). Complete with a searchable database of schedules and characteristics of deep-water scientific research vessels, this site is an excellent example of the range of eclectic and specialized information available on the Web. Information on facilities, research capabilities, layouts, schedules, and much more is organized by country and ship name; for US research vessels, information is also listed by agency and institution. Other features include links to a staggering array of related research ship information sites.

1999-01-01

491

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-12-01

492

Implementation of Opportunistic Scheduling for Robotic Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this thesis is to combine computerized vision and artificial intelligence programming in an application of robotic assembly that will use opportunistic scheduling. Opportunistic scheduling is making a schedule based on current opportunities. A...

A. W. Butler

1990-01-01

493

21 CFR 1308.49 - Emergency scheduling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Emergency scheduling. 1308.49 Section 1308.49 ...Hearings § 1308.49 Emergency scheduling. Pursuant to 21 U.S...from the effective date of the order scheduling the substance, except that...

2013-04-01

494

49 CFR 33.34 - Preferential scheduling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preferential scheduling. 33.34 Section 33.34 Transportation Office of...SYSTEM Placement of Rated Orders § 33.34 Preferential scheduling. (a) A person must schedule operations,...

2013-10-01

495

15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preferential scheduling. 700.14 Section 700.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade...SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A person must schedule operations,...

2013-01-01

496

Seeing Eye to Eye: Predicting Teacher-Student Agreement on Classroom Social Networks  

PubMed Central

This study examines the association between classroom characteristics and teacher-student agreement in perceptions of students’ classroom peer networks. Social network, peer nomination, and observational data were collected from a sample of second through fourth grade teachers (N=33) and students (N=669) in 33 classrooms across five high poverty urban schools. Results demonstrate that variation in teacher-student agreement on the structure of students’ peer networks can be explained, in part, by developmental factors and classroom characteristics. Developmental increases in network density partially mediated the positive relationship between grade level and teacher-student agreement. Larger class sizes and higher levels of normative aggressive behavior resulted in lower levels of teacher-student agreement. Teachers’ levels of classroom organization had mixed influences, with behavior management negatively predicting agreement, and productivity positively predicting agreement. These results underscore the importance of the classroom context in shaping teacher and student perceptions of peer networks.

Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise; Wagner, Caroline; Atkins, Marc S.

2010-01-01

497

Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

498

Supporting Classroom Activities with the BSUL System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the students interact among each other and with the professor

Hiroaki Ogata; Nobuji A. Saito; Rosa G. J. Paredes; Gerardo Ayala San Martin; Yoneo Yano

2008-01-01

499

Classroom Communication Apprehension and Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise of distance education classrooms in colleges and universities call for attention to the difference in communicative strategies need from a regular classroom. This study examined the concept of classroom communication apprehension (CCA) and the distance classroom. Ninety-two students from three different classes participated in this study.…

Marshall, Rodney

500

Supporting Talk? Partnership Teachers in Classroom Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on classroom discourse has too long constructed the classroom as a place of one teacher and many pupils. This paper challenges this view by investigating classroom discourse in two-teacher classrooms. Specifically, it presents a case study of an English as an additional language teacher and geography teacher working together in the…

Creese, Angela

2006-01-01