Science.gov

Sample records for classroom observation schedule

  1. An Investigation of Independent Child Behavior in the Open Classroom: The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule (CAOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldupp, Ocea

    The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule was developed and field tested for study of independent child behavior in the open classroom. Eight Head Start classrooms were used for field testing, six of which used the Tucson Early Education Model curriculum and two of which, for comparison, used local curricula. Procedures involved observing and…

  2. Observational Findings Regarding Independent Learning Behavior. The Classroom Attitude Observational Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldupp, Ocea

    The Classroom Attitude Observational Schedule (CAOS) is designed to detect pattern shifts in a classroom during the absence of controlling adults. It is concerned with the independent learner who will continue school related tasks in a socially acceptable manner without supervision. The CAOS recording form notes activities and inappropriate…

  3. The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC): an observational measure of the intentional communication of children with autism in an unstructured classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Greg; Gordon, Rosanna K; Howlin, Patricia; Charman, Tony

    2008-11-01

    The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC) was devised to provide ecologically valid outcome measures for a communication-focused intervention trial. Ninety-one children with autism spectrum disorder aged 6 years 10 months (SD 16 months) were videoed during their everyday snack, teaching and free play activities. Inter-rater reliability was high and relevant items showed significant associations with comparable items from concurrent Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (Lord et al. 2000, J Autism Dev Disord 30(3):205-223) assessments. In a subsample of 28 children initial differences in rates of initiations, initiated speech/vocalisation and commenting were predictive of language and communication competence 15 months later. Results suggest that the use of observational measures of intentional communication in natural settings is a valuable assessment strategy for research and clinical practice. PMID:18401692

  4. Observing Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…

  5. Scheduling Results for the THEMIS Observation Scheduling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Knight, Russell; Anwar, Sadaat; Mehall, Greg; Christensen, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We describe a scheduling system intended to assist in the development of instrument data acquisitions for the THEMIS instrument, onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and compare results from multiple scheduling algorithms. This tool creates observations of both (a) targeted geographical regions of interest and (b) general mapping observations, while respecting spacecraft constraints such as data volume, observation timing, visibility, lighting, season, and science priorities. This tool therefore must address both geometric and state/timing/resource constraints. We describe a tool that maps geometric polygon overlap constraints to set covering constraints using a grid-based approach. These set covering constraints are then incorporated into a greedy optimization scheduling algorithm incorporating operations constraints to generate feasible schedules. The resultant tool generates schedules of hundreds of observations per week out of potential thousands of observations. This tool is currently under evaluation by the THEMIS observation planning team at Arizona State University.

  6. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  7. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  8. Observation scheduling scheme for the Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Kawai, Jun A.; Kusumoto, Toyoaki; Koura, Norikazu; Hawkins, Robert; Kramer, Laurence; Krueger, Anthony P.; Miller, Glenn E.

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We are now implementing scheduling software into the observation software system for Subaru telescope. The scheduling engine, SPIKE, developed at STScI is used with some modification for the Subaru telescope. An observation target list prepared by observers is converted to SPIKE Lisp codes. SPIKE output is inversely converted to Subaru commands to be executed with the observation software system. Real-time scheduling is planned to re-schedule observations by judging the weather and satisfaction conditions with the help of observation history. The scheduling software can be also used as support tools for observers to indicate an object good for the next observation.

  9. Guidance for Technology Decisions from Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…

  10. Observed Classroom Quality Profiles of Kindergarten Classrooms in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Jenni; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Pakarinen, Eija; Siekkinen, Martti; Hannikainen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to examine classroom quality profiles of kindergarten classrooms using a person-centered approach and to analyze these patterns in regard to teacher and classroom characteristics. Observations of the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support were conducted in…

  11. Observation scheduling tools for Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Hawkins, Robert; Kawai, Jun A.; Kusumoto, Toyoaki

    2004-09-01

    Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We have implemented scheduling software in the Subaru Telescope observatory software system. The scheduling engine, Spike, developed at STScI is used with some modification for Subaru Telescope. Since the last report at SPIE (Munich, 2000), new functions to Spike are implemented on 1) optimized arrangement of an observation dataset, which consists of a target object and related calibrations, and 2) flexible scheduling of standard stars selected out of a standard star list, which is fed to Spike as a part of observation datasets. Observation datasets with some necessary information, prepared by an observer, are input to the scheduling tools to be converted to Spike Lisp input forms. A schedule created by Spike is inversely converted to Subaru observation commands to be executed with the observation control system. These applications are operable with Web-based display. We present an overall structure of the scheduling tools with some samples of Subaru observation commands of target datasets and a resultant schedule.

  12. Observation scheduling with SUBARU control system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, G.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, T.; Noumaru, J.; Kawai, J.; Kidou, A.

    The control system for the SUBARU telescope is designed to consist of distributed workstations, local processors, and data acquisition computers, which are interconnected by control LANs and data LANs. The control software achieves its functionality with message-based communication. Two key processes, a scheduler and a status logger cooperating with any other processes, are designed to perform efficiency and security in observation. Control flow of observation scheduling and functionality of sub-processes which constitutes the scheduler and the status logger are described.

  13. Automated observation scheduling for the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

  14. Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

  15. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  16. Research Program II, Project B: An Experimental Approach to the Development of Intervention Programs for Factorially Derived Groupings of Deviant Classroom Behavior. Manual, Rating Instructions, and Coding Criteria for the Observation Schedule for Acting Out Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; And Others

    The paper describes a method of observation and data recording for use with the acting-out child in the classroom. The form is explained to provide a record of behavior, measure rate, and note consequent social responses to the child's behavior from the environment, while also monitoring the behavior of the child's peers during observation

  17. HEAO-A nominal scanning observation schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Stone, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The HEAO-A observatory, scheduled for launch in late June 1977, will spend most of its orbital lifetime in a scanning mode, spining from 0.03 to 0.1 rpm about an axis aligned with the sun. The dates of availability in the scan band are given for a list of 248 X-ray sources. Celestial maps of source locations and scan planes, and examples of the nighttime elevation of available sources are presented. This document is intended to aid ground-based observers in planning coordinated observations with HEAO-A.

  18. Classroom Observation Techniques. IDEA Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Keith A.

    Techniques for observing the classroom behavior of teachers and students are examined. These techniques provide a framework for analyzing and understanding classroom interaction, for making decisions about what should be happening, and for changing instructional behavior when it is necessary. The observation methods allow collection, analysis, and…

  19. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  20. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is NASA's next generation airborne astronomical observatory, and will commence operations in 2005. The facility consists of a 747-SP modified to accommodate a 2.5 meter telescope. SOFIA is expected to fly an average of 140 science flights per year over its 20 year lifetime. Depending on the nature of the instrument used during flight, 5-15 observations per flight are expected. The SOFIA telescope is mounted aft of the wings on the port side of the aircraft and is articulated through a range of 20deg to 60deg of elevation. The telescope has minimal lateral flexibility; thus, the aircraft must turn constantly to maintain the telescope's focus on an object during observations. A significant problem in future SOFIA operations is that of scheduling flights in support of observations. Investigators are expected to propose small numbers of observations, and many observations must be grouped together to make up single flights. Flight planning for the previous generation airborne observatory, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was done by hand; planners had to choose takeoff time, observations to perform, and decide on setup-actions (called "dead-legs") to position the aircraft prior to observing. This task frequently required between 6-8 hours to plan one flight The scope of the flight planning problem for supporting GI observations with the anticipated flight rate for SOFIA makes the manual approach for flight planning daunting. In response, we have designed an Automated Flight Planner (AFP) that accepts as input a set of requested observations, designated flight days, weather predictions and fuel limitations, and searches automatically for high-quality flight plans that satisfy all relevant aircraft and astronomer specified constraints. The AFP can generate one candidate flight plan in 5-10 minutes, of computation time, a feat beyond the capabilities of human flight planners. The rate at which the AFP can generate flights enables humans to assess and analyze complex tradeoffs between fuel consumption, estimated science quality and the percentage of scheduled observations. Due to the changing nature of SOFIA scheduling problems, this functionality will play a crucial role in optimizing science and minimizing costs during operations. In the full paper, we will summarize the technical challenges that have been met in order to build this system. These include: design of the search algorithm, design of appropriate heuristics and approximations, and reduction in the size of the search space. We will also describe technical challenges that are currently being addressed, including the extension of the existing approach to handle new solution criteria. Finally, we will describe a variety of cultural challenges that the astronomical community must address in order to successfully use SOFIA, and describe how the AFT can be used to address some of these challenges. Specifically, many of the intended science users are accustomed to using ground-based or space-based observatories; we will identify some differences that arise due to the nature of airborne observatories, and how the AFT can be extended to provide useful services to ease these cultural differences.

  1. The Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLavore, Pamela C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, a semistructured observation scale designed for diagnosis of young children suspected of having autism. Reliability studies have been positive. Comparison of scores to judgments of clinical teams indicates that the schedule discriminates between autistic and…

  2. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

  3. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: The Observers' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braatz, J.; Balser, D. A.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Harnett, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Shelton, A.

    2009-09-01

    To make the most efficient use of telescope time, the NRAO is implementing a Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DSS aims to match observing projects to the weather and other observing conditions, without sacrificing observers' interactive control of their experiments. To meet this goal, the DSS schedules people, not observing scripts. Each observer can then attend to the observation, control the telescope, and modify the observing program, if necessary, in real time. Observing under the DSS is often done remotely, by necessity. Every day, the DSS generates a new schedule for the 24-hour period beginning one day hence. Observers therefore must be prepared to run observations with 24 to 48 hours notice. Being available and ready to observe on short notice requires that observers adopt a new mindset, unlike their experiences with other telescopes. While it may be an inconvenience for some, the benefits of the DSS are substantial, the primary one being that astronomers are almost assured of observing in appropriate weather and getting high quality data. The DSS gives observers the opportunity to black out time ranges to avoid for scheduling, so the telescope schedule can fit around other demands. In addition to the scheduling algorithms, the DSS team has developed a set of software tools to help observers manage their projects, to notify observers of scheduling news, and to help observers anticipate when their projects will get scheduled. In this contribution we will report observers' experiences from the first tests of the GBT DSS, which took place from June 1 to September 30, 2008.

  4. A Mass Observation Study of Student and Teacher Behaviour in British Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apter, Brian; Arnold, Christopher; Swinson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    A large scale observational study by educational psychologists of 141 UK primary classrooms used a partial interval time-sampling observational schedule to record the frequency and type of verbal behaviour of teachers and whether students were "on-task" (following the teacher's directions) or "off-task" (not following the teacher's directions).…

  5. Altering Schedules of Reinforcement for Improved Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Ronnie N.; Apfel, Cathy H.

    1976-01-01

    A variable interval schedule of reinforcement was used with five behavior disordered boys (7-13 years old) to improve attending and study behavior of the children during the communicative skills period. (SBH)

  6. Scheduling of VLBI satellite observations for an improved ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellerschmied, Andreas; Böhm, Johannes; Neidhardt, Alexander; Haas, Rüdiger; Kodet, Jan; Plank, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Observations of Earth orbiting satellites with the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique provide a variety of new possibilities and promote the integration of different geodetic techniques, which is one of the main purposes of GGOS, the Global Geodetic Observing System of the IAG. Promising applications can be found e.g. in the field of inter-technique frame ties, having the potential to improve future realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Although several test observations to GNSS satellites have been carried out in recent years, this approach is still far away from being applied operationally. Difficulties already start at the observation planning level, with the standard VLBI scheduling software not being prepared to include satellites as observation targets in the required control files. The newly developed satellite scheduling module of the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) for the planning of satellite observations with VLBI antennas offers a solution to this. It allows the user to prepare schedules for selected satellites, which are simultaneously visible from a chosen station network. The generated schedule files in the current VEX format provide the possibility to carry out actual satellite observations with standard geodetic antennas, e.g. of the IVS network. The antennas can be controlled directly with the issued schedule files by commanding sequences of discrete celestial positions, without the requirement of modifications in the antenna control intended for satellite tracking. In January 2014 several successful test observations to GLONASS satellites were carried out on the baseline Onsala-Wettzell based on schedules generated with VieVS. Correlations of the recorded data showed that the observations - and therefore the scheduling with VieVS - were successful. The next step is to update the new software for the possibility to combine observations to satellites and to quasars in one schedule. The development of convenient scheduling software in the form of the new VieVS module is important to promote further research and development in this specific field.

  7. Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory Interaction Observation Schedule (SCIOS): A System for Analyzing Teacher-Pupil Interaction in the Affective Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemis, Katherine A.; Liberty, Paul G.

    The Southwestern Cooperative Interaction Observation Schedule (SCIOS) is a classroom observation instrument designed to record pupil-teacher interaction. The classification of pupil behavior is based on Krathwohl's (1964) theory of the three lowest levels of the affective domain. The levels are (1) receiving: the learner should be sensitized to…

  8. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  9. Increasing Completion of Classroom Routines through the Use of Picture Activity Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kamille J.; DiCarlo, Cynthia F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers spend the first few days of school teaching routines to children that will help transitions in the classroom between different activities. When children have difficulty, they move more slowly and/or require teacher prompting. A picture activity schedule intervention (Breitfelder in Teach Except Child Plus 4(5):2-15, 2008; Bryan and Gast…

  10. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Cohen, William; Rosenthal, Don; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the utility of expert systems techniques for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling and describes a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  11. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Rosenthal, Don; Cohen, William; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The utility of expert systems techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling is discussed and a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system is described. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  12. SOFIA's Choice: Scheduling Observations for an Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Kurklu, Elif; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne observatory. The problem is more complex than traditional scheduling problems in that it incorporates complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time of a mobile observatory, as well as traditional temporal constraints and optimization criteria. We describe the problem, its proposed solution and the empirical validation of that solution.

  13. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  14. SOFIA's Choice: Automating the Scheduling of Airborne Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne telescope. Given a set of prioritized observations to choose from, and a wide range of complex constraints governing legitimate choices and orderings, how can we efficiently and effectively create a valid flight plan which supports high priority observations? This problem is quite different from scheduling problems which are routinely solved automatically in industry. For instance, the problem requires making choices which lead to other choices later, and contains many interacting complex constraints over both discrete and continuous variables. Furthermore, new types of constraints may be added as the fundamental problem changes. As a result of these features, this problem cannot be solved by traditional scheduling techniques. The problem resembles other problems in NASA and industry, from observation scheduling for rovers and other science instruments to vehicle routing. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In 2 we describe the observatory in order to provide some background. In 3 we describe the problem of scheduling a single flight. In 4 we compare flight planning and other scheduling problems and argue that traditional techniques are not sufficient to solve this problem. We also mention similar complex scheduling problems which may benefit from efforts to solve this problem. In 5 we describe an approach for solving this problem based on research into a similar problem, that of scheduling observations for a space-borne probe. In 6 we discuss extensions of the flight planning problem as well as other problems which are similar to flight planning. In 7 we conclude and discuss future work.

  15. Observation scheduling and data acquisition with the SUBARU control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumaru, Junichi; Kosugi, George; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Kawai, Jun; Kidou, Akihiko

    1995-06-01

    The control system for the Subaru telescope is designed to consist of distributed workstations, local processors, and data acquisition computers, which are interconnected by control LANs and data LANs. The control software achieves its functionality with message-based communication. Two key processes, a scheduler and a status logger cooperating with any other processes, are designed to perform efficiency and security in observation. Control flow of observation scheduling and functionality of sub-processes which constitutes the scheduler and the status logger are described. For data acquisition from instruments, Subaru control system provides a variety of data highway which enable instruments to transfer data by up to 20 Mbytes/second. Functionality and characteristics of other subsystems which compose the Subaru control system are described.

  16. Approaches to Classroom Observations: Open versus Closed Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirabayashi, Judy; Wheeler, Patricia

    This paper offers guidelines in the consideration of an open or closed classroom-observation system. Factors in the definition of an observation approach include target, timing, focus, topic of observation, and data-collection system. Because there are advantages and drawbacks to any classroom-observation system, the following factors should be…

  17. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD…

  18. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD…

  19. Rater Drift and Time Trends in Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom observation protocols, in which observers rate multiple dimensions of teaching according to established protocols (either live in the classroom, or post-hoc from lesson videos), are increasingly being used in both research and policy contexts. However, scores generated from these protocols have many sources of error. Day to day variation…

  20. Applying Squeaky-Wheel Optimization Schedule Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Kuerklue, Elif

    2004-01-01

    We apply the Squeaky Wheel Optimization (SWO) algorithm to the problem of scheduling astronomy observations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, an airborne observatory. The problem contains complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time at which the observation begins, telescope elevation limits, special use airspace, and available fuel. Solving the problem requires making discrete choices (e.g. selection and sequencing of observations) and continuous ones (e.g. takeoff time and setting up observations by repositioning the aircraft). The problem also includes optimization criteria such as maximizing observing time while simultaneously minimizing total flight time. Previous approaches to the problem fail to scale when accounting for all constraints. We describe how to customize SWO to solve this problem, and show that it finds better flight plans, often with less computation time, than previous approaches.

  1. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  2. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  3. Classroom Observation Code for Hyperactive Children: A Replication of Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results confirm previous findings that the revised State University of New York at Stony Brook observation code is a valid instrument for quantifying and discriminating the classroom behavior of children referred because of hyperactive behavior. (Author)

  4. Observations of AA Tau requested to schedule XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Dr. Hans Moritz Guenther (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has requested nightly observations of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau in order to schedule x-ray observations with XMM-Newton that have been planned for between 2013 August 15 and September 15. The purpose of the AAVSO observations is to determine whether AA Tau is at a suitable magnitude for the satellite observations. Taurus is difficult to observe during this time period but that is exactly why AAVSO assistance is needed! AA Tau is a morning object, and also, many of the professional ground-based telescopes are offline because of the US southwest monsoon season. Since it is critical to know the brightness of AA Tau, AAVSO observations will be truly essential. Nightly visual and snapshot (not more than once per night) observations beginning now and continuing through September 20 are needed. Coverage beginning ahead of the XMM window is requested because there is a one- to two-week lead time for the target to be inserted into the telescope schedule. Continuing the nightly observations a few days beyond the end of the XMM window will give better optical context for the x-ray data. AA Tau ranges between ~12.8V and ~16.1V; since December 2011 or earlier it has been at ~14.5V. The most recent observation in the AAVSO International Database shows it at 14.779V on 2013 Feb 5 (J. Roe, Bourbon, MO). Dr. Guenther writes, "AA Tau is surrounded by a thick accretion disk which is seen nearly edge-on. For decades the light curve of AA Tau showed regular eclipsing events when the accretion funnel rotated through the line of sight. However, earlier this year J. Bouvier and his group found that this behavior changed dramatically: AA Tau now seems to be deeply absorbed all the time (V band 14.5 mag). In collaboration with this group we will perform X-ray observations of AA Tau with the XMM-Newton satellite." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plo! tter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  5. The pre-linguistic autism diagnostic observation schedule.

    PubMed

    DiLavore, P C; Lord, C; Rutter, M

    1995-08-01

    The Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (PL-ADOS) is a semistructured observation scale designed for use as a diagnostic tool for children less than 6 years old who are not yet using phrase speech and are suspected of having autism. The PL-ADOS takes approximately 30 minutes to administer and is appropriate for use with this population because of its emphasis on playful interactions and the use of toys designed for young children. Reliability studies indicated that both individual activity ratings and summary ratings could be reliably scored from videotaped assessments by naive raters. Additionally, PL-ADOS scores of nonverbal preschool-aged children referred for clinical diagnosis and classified on the basis of a diagnostic team's clinical judgment, clearly discriminated between autistic and nonautistic developmentally disabled children. The resulting diagnostic algorithm is theoretically linked to diagnostic constructs associated with ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria for autism. PMID:7592249

  6. (42355) Typhon Echidna: Scheduling observations for binary orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Virtanen, J.; Muinonen, K.; Kern, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Levison, H. F.; Spencer, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We describe a strategy for scheduling astrometric observations to minimize the number required to determine the mutual orbits of binary transneptunian systems. The method is illustrated by application to Hubble Space Telescope observations of (42355) Typhon-Echidna, revealing that Typhon and Echidna orbit one another with a period of 18.971±0.006 days and a semimajor axis of 1628±29 km, implying a system mass of (9.49±0.52)×10 kg. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.526±0.015. Combined with a radiometric size determined from Spitzer Space Telescope data and the assumption that Typhon and Echidna both have the same albedo, we estimate that their radii are 76-16+14 and 42-9+8 km, respectively. These numbers give an average bulk density of only 0.44-0.17+0.44 gcm, consistent with very low bulk densities recently reported for two other small transneptunian binaries.

  7. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2009-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

  8. A gain-scheduled observer under transmissions without delivery acknowledgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolz, Daniel; Peńarrocha, Ignacio; Sanchis, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the estimation problem for discrete-time systems where both measurements and control commands are sent to a central station through a lossy network without delivery acknowledgment. The central unit implements the estimation and control algorithms. We propose a jump observer that uses the expected value of the unknown control input at the actuator to run an open loop estimation. Then, the absence of acknowledgment in the control input transmission is dealt with through the introduction of an unknown disturbance. The observer update is performed by means of jumping gains when there are available measurements. We employ an statistic of the control error (new disturbance), i.e., the difference between the control inputs at the plant and at the observer, to schedule the observer gains in real time. The observer is designed to minimize the H? norm from disturbances, measurement noises and control input errors, to estimation error. The infinite-dimensional design problem is turn into an optimization problem over polynomials using sum-of-squares decomposition techniques. Benefits of the proposal are shown in a simulation example.

  9. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores.

    PubMed

    Esler, Amy N; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12-30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages. PMID:25832801

  10. Improving Classroom Observation Skills: Guidelines for Teacher Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Patricia

    This paper provides guidelines for improving the objectivity, quality, and relevance of classroom observations. Suggestions are organized according to the three stages of the observation process--prior, during, and after the observation. Tips for establishing and maintaining a positive climate and for necessary preparations prior to the…

  11. A Critical Examination of Classroom Communication Observation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Roger M.; Scafe, Marla

    More than 100 classroom communication observation instruments are surveyed and assessed from a communication-based perspective in this paper. In an overview, a schema designating three main types of approaches is established; they include behavioral descriptive, message functional, and cognitive/affective inferential observational categories.…

  12. Characterizing Mathematics Classroom Practice: Impact of Observation and Coding Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha; Webb, Noreen M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale observational measures of classroom practice increasingly focus on opportunities for student participation as an indicator of instructional quality. Each observational measure necessitates making design and coding choices on how to best measure student participation. This study investigated variations of coding approaches that may be…

  13. Observing Children's Stress Behaviors in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative methods to determine whether kindergarten children exhibited stress behaviors during the academic work period of the day. Sixteen children (8 male, 8 female) ages 5-6 years were observed. The data consisted of classroom observations by the researcher, open-ended interviews with teachers, artifacts collected from the…

  14. Where Do I Look? Preservice Teachers' Classroom Observation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Teresa; Bender-Slack, Delane

    2011-01-01

    During field experiences, preservice teachers are typically required to observe mentor teachers in schools, but what exactly are they seeing? This research examined the patterns and variations that existed with regard to preservice teachers' classroom observations during recent field experiences. Data were collected from 24 preservice teachers…

  15. Aspects on Learner-Biased Classroom Observational Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper was designed to explore the means in the field of observing classroom teaching/learning from both a general, and an "English as a Foreign Language" (EFL), viewpoint. The aim was to browse the relevant literature, and lead to consider observation tools which might serve to research in EFL. This paper summarizes the reading by…

  16. Classroom Observation: Desirable Conditions Established by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Teacher observation is regarded as an essential procedure in the teacher training process. However, the vast majority of observation experiences have a top-down approach, as they are usually established by experts such as university teaching staff or school inspectors working for the administration. With a bottom-up approach in mind, this paper…

  17. Observation Instrument of Play Behaviour in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature…

  18. Teacher's Approaches in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustakim, Siti Salina; Mustapha, Ramlee; Lebar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the approaches employed by teachers in teaching Contemporary Children's Literature Program to upper primary school. Using classroom observations and interview as research instruments, this paper evaluates the approaches of five ESL teachers teaching Year 5 students and examines the various challenges faced by them in…

  19. Observation Instrument of Play Behaviour in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature…

  20. Beyond student ratings: peer observation of classroom and clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    Berk, Ronald A; Naumann, Phyllis L; Appling, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Peer observation of classroom and clinical teaching has received increased attention over the past decade in schools of nursing to augment student ratings of teaching effectiveness. One essential ingredient is the scale used to evaluate performance. A five-step systematic procedure for adapting, writing, and building any peer observation scale is described. The differences between the development of a classroom observation scale and an appraisal scale to observe clinical instructors are examined. Psychometric issues peculiar to observation scales are discussed in terms of content validity, eight types of response bias, and interobserver reliability. The applications of the scales in one school of nursing as part of the triangulation of methods with student ratings and the teaching portfolio are illustrated. Copies of the scales are also provided. PMID:16646875

  1. Approaches to Observation in Classroom Research: Macroscopic and Microscopic Views of L2 Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Lyster, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and organization of the Colt (Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching) observation scheme and Lyster and Ranta's (1997) error treatment model, instruments including predetermined categories to describe features of instructional input and interaction in second language classrooms. Concludes that the choice of…

  2. A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

  3. The ISI Classroom Observation System: Examining the Literacy Instruction Provided to Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom

  4. Uncovering Multivariate Structure in Classroom Observations in the Presence of Rater Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Yuan, Kun; Savitsky, Terrance D.; Lockwood, J. R.; Edelen, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the factor structure of scores from the CLASS-S protocol obtained from observations of middle school classroom teaching. Factor analysis has been used to support both interpretations of scores from classroom observation protocols, like CLASS-S, and the theories about teaching that underlie them. However, classroom observations contain…

  5. Uncovering Multivariate Structure in Classroom Observations in the Presence of Rater Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Yuan, Kun; Savitsky, Terrance D.; Lockwood, J. R.; Edelen, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the factor structure of scores from the CLASS-S protocol obtained from observations of middle school classroom teaching. Factor analysis has been used to support both interpretations of scores from classroom observation protocols, like CLASS-S, and the theories about teaching that underlie them. However, classroom observations contain…

  6. Activity Schedules: Helping Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in General Education Classrooms Manage Transition Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Grimmett, Eric; Hart, Stephanie L.

    2009-01-01

    "Activity schedules" are a promising educational strategy to support transitions for students with autism. An activity schedule is a visual support system that combines photographs, images, or drawings in a sequential format to represent a targeted sequence of the student's day. Activity schedules provide predictability throughout the student's…

  7. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Motivation and Classroom Practice in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesinger, Kevin D.; Crippen, Kent J.; Muis, Krista R.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented from a mixed-method investigation into the effects of Block Schedule on student self-efficacy, attitude, and instructional practices within the context of mathematics. Students exposed to block schedule showed no change in attitude toward mathematics, whereas those on a traditional schedule demonstrated a significant…

  8. Activity Schedules: Helping Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in General Education Classrooms Manage Transition Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Grimmett, Eric; Hart, Stephanie L.

    2009-01-01

    "Activity schedules" are a promising educational strategy to support transitions for students with autism. An activity schedule is a visual support system that combines photographs, images, or drawings in a sequential format to represent a targeted sequence of the student's day. Activity schedules provide predictability throughout the student's…

  9. "What Do I Teach for 90 Minutes?" Creating a Successful Block-Scheduled English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Carol

    The story of the process that Mundelein High School (located in a northwest suburb of Chicago, Illinois) as it moved from a traditional schedule to a block schedule is described throughout this book as a way to blend theory with practice. The book addresses types of block schedules; key issues for effective preparation; professional development…

  10. Radio observations of the Milky Way from the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChyĹĽy, Krzysztof T.

    2014-12-01

    We present the project to introduce the first European network of radio telescopes for education. It enables pupils to detect spectral line emission of neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way at a wavelength of 21 cm. Any classroom connected to Internet via any web-browser can remotely control one of the radio-telescopes, observe and analyse obtained spectra: derive the Milky-Way rotation curve and recognise spiral arms in hydrogen distribution. Doing exercises pupils, guided by their teachers, learn the basics of radio astronomy research, use scientific method to explore and interpret the attained spectral data. A range of attractive educational materials are prepared to help in disseminating the scientific knowledge in the classroom and demonstrate the modern information technology.

  11. Rating a Teacher Observation Tool: Five Ways to Ensure Classroom Observations are Focused and Rigorous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Teacher Project, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Rating a Teacher Observation Tool" identifies five simple questions and provides an easy-to-use scorecard to help policymakers decide whether an observation framework is likely to produce fair and accurate results. The five questions are: (1) Do the criteria and tools cover the classroom performance areas most connected to student outcomes?…

  12. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

  13. Observation of Classroom Performance Using Therapy Balls as a Substitute for Chairs in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Molly E.; Ketcham, Caroline J.

    2015-01-01

    Many classrooms are beginning to substitute standard chairs with therapy balls, which help to improve students' focus and classroom performance, according to teacher and student reports. Researchers conducted an observational study in a classroom at a local elementary school that implemented therapy balls. For each hour-long observation, three…

  14. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. A total of 145 children were observed for an average of 80 min during 8 occasions across 2 days using the Individualized…

  15. Observed Classroom Quality during Teacher Education and Two Years of Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hagger, Hazel; Burn, Katharine; Mutton, Trevor; Colls, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to investigate whether and how teachers change in their observed classroom quality (emotional and instructional support, classroom organization, and students' engagement; measured with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System observation measure for secondary school [CLASS-S]; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2006) during…

  16. Relationships between Classroom Schedule Types and Performance on the Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Gregory V.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    One option for length of individual mathematics class periods is the schedule type selected for Algebra I classes. This study examined the relationship between student achievement, as indicated by Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test scores, and the schedule type for Algebra I classes. Data obtained from the Utah State Office of Education included…

  17. Relationships between Classroom Schedule Types and Performance on the Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Gregory V.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    One option for length of individual mathematics class periods is the schedule type selected for Algebra I classes. This study examined the relationship between student achievement, as indicated by Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test scores, and the schedule type for Algebra I classes. Data obtained from the Utah State Office of Education included…

  18. Observing Science Classrooms: Observing Science Perspectives from Research and Practice. 1984 AETS Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charles W., Ed.

    Presented in nine separate chapters are nine studies involving the direct observation of science classrooms. Eight of the nine chapters are based on qualitative data collection techniques which typically aim for depth of insight and understanding. Studies included are: "Critical Barriers to the Understanding of Elementary Science: Learning about…

  19. Learning from Animated Classroom Exemplars: The Case for Guiding Student Teachers' Observations with Metacognitive Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    Student teachers learned about teaching principles with the help of an instructional program that included classroom animation exemplars, where expert teachers demonstrate how to apply teaching principles to a classroom scenario. Some students learned by solely observing the classroom animations, whereas others were presented with the expert's…

  20. Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom

  1. The ISI Classroom Observation System: Examining the Literacy Instruction Provided to Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom…

  2. The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS): A New Instrument to Characterize University STEM Classroom Practices

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michelle K.; Jones, Francis H. M.; Gilbert, Sarah L.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change. PMID:24297289

  3. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…

  4. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…

  5. Refining MARGINS Mini-Lessons Using Classroom Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.; McDaris, J. R.; Lee, S.

    2009-12-01

    One of the challenges that we face in developing teaching materials or activities from research findings is testing the materials to determine that they work as intended. Traditionally faculty develop material for their own class, notice what worked and didn’t, and improve them the next year. However, as we move to a community process of creating and sharing teaching materials, a community-based process for testing materials is appropriate. The MARGINS project has piloted such a process for testing teaching materials and activities developed as part of its mini-lesson project (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/index.html). Building on prior work developing mechanisms for community review of teaching resources (e.g. Kastens, 2002; Hancock and Manduca, 2005; Mayhew and Hall, 2007), the MARGINS evaluation team developed a structured classroom observation protocol. The goals of field testing are to a) gather structured, consistent feedback for the lesson authors based on classroom use; b) guide reviewers of these lessons to reflect on research-based educational practice as a framework for their comments; c) collect information on the data and observations that the reviewer used to underpin their review; d) determine which mini-lessons are ready to be made widely available on the website. The protocol guides faculty observations on why they used the activity, the effectiveness of the activity in their classroom, the success of the activity in leading to the desired learning, and what other faculty need to successfully use the activity. Available online (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/protocol.html), the protocol can be downloaded and completed during instruction with the activity. In order to encourage review of mini-lessons using the protocol, a workshop focused on review and revision of activities was held in May 2009. In preparation for the workshop, 13 of the 28 participants chose to field test a mini-lesson prior to the workshop and reported that they found this process instructive. Activity authors found the observations very helpful and the first mini-lessons have now been revised using feedback from testers. Initial results show that the tested mini-lessons give students hands-on experience with scientific data and help students make connections between geologic phenomena and data. Productive feedback ranged from suggestions for improving activity design, adaptations for other audiences, suggestions for clearer presentation, and tips for using the materials. The team plans to broaden the use of the protocol to test and refine all of the mini-lessons in the MARGINS collection.

  6. Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-06-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

  7. Selecting, Scheduling and Carrying out Observing Programmes at CFHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillet, Christian

    2006-12-01

    From paper proposals and photographic plate observations of the early days to today's submission, CFHT (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) went through many changes. However, a few basic features of the observatory did not change over the years, reflecting the very nature of an international collaboration deeply rooted in the concept of equal role and responsibilities of its two main partners, Canada and France. Nevertheless, the overall role of the observatory strongly evolved over the past years, as demonstrated by a more business-like management emphasizing the services rendered by the observatory to its customers, a move made possible by the Queues Service Observing mode. Together with a careful selection of its new generation of instruments, it allows the observatory to play a significant role in astronomy in spite of the relatively small size of its telescope.

  8. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    PubMed Central

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)—Combined type (n = 64); ADHD—Inattentive type (n = 22); clinically referred without ADHD (n = 51); and nonreferred control children (n = 26). The ADHD—Combined group scored significantly higher than the referred without ADHD group and controls on the DOF Intrusive and Oppositional syndromes, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems scale, Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. The ADHD—Inattentive group scored significantly higher than controls on the DOF Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Attention Problems syndromes, Inattention subscale, and Total Problems; and significantly lower on the DOF On-Task score. Implications are discussed regarding the discriminative validity of standardized classroom observations for identifying children with ADHD and differentiating between the two ADHD subtypes. PMID:20802813

  9. Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

  10. Functional Communication Training without Extinction Using Concurrent Schedules of Differing Magnitudes of Reinforcement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dawn H.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Gama, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders…

  11. Variability of Attention Processes in ADHD: Observations from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Alderson, R. Matt; Timko, Thomas M., Jr.; DuPaul, George J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongruent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children…

  12. Improving Method-in-Use through Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Method-in-use (Nunn, Describing classroom interaction in intercultural curricular research and development, University of Reading, 1996, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 37: 23-42, 1999) is a description of the method actually being enacted through classroom interaction in a particular context. The description is…

  13. Variability of Attention Processes in ADHD: Observations from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Alderson, R. Matt; Timko, Thomas M., Jr.; DuPaul, George J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongruent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children…

  14. An Observational Study of Instructional and Curricular Practices Used with Gifted and Talented Students in Regular Classrooms. Research Monograph 93104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Karen L.; And Others

    This report describes one part of the Classroom Practices Study, focusing on systematic observations of gifted and talented students in 46 third and fourth grade classrooms. The observations were designed to determine if and how teachers meet the needs of gifted and talented students in regular classroom settings. The Classroom Practices Record…

  15. Dynamic scheduling and planning parallel observations on large Radio Telescope Arrays with the Square Kilometre Array in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Scheduling, the task of producing a time table for resources and tasks, is well-known to be a difficult problem the more resources are involved (a NP-hard problem). This is about to become an issue in Radio astronomy as observatories consisting of hundreds to thousands of telescopes are planned and operated. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which Australia and New Zealand bid to host, is aiming for scales where current approaches -- in construction, operation but also scheduling -- are insufficent. Although manual scheduling is common today, the problem is becoming complicated by the demand for (1) independent sub-arrays doing simultaneous observations, which requires the scheduler to plan parallel observations and (2) dynamic re-scheduling on changed conditions. Both of these requirements apply to the SKA, especially in the construction phase. We review the scheduling approaches taken in the astronomy literature, as well as investigate techniques from human schedulers and today's observatories. The scheduling problem is specified in general for scientific observations and in particular on radio telescope arrays. Also taken into account is the fact that the observatory may be oversubscribed, requiring the scheduling problem to be integrated with a planning process. We solve this long-term scheduling problem using a time-based encoding that works in the very general case of observation scheduling. This research then compares algorithms from various approaches, including fast heuristics from CPU scheduling, Linear Integer Programming and Genetic algorithms, Branch-and-Bound enumeration schemes. Measures include not only goodness of the solution, but also scalability and re-scheduling capabilities. In conclusion, we have identified a fast and good scheduling approach that allows (re-)scheduling difficult and changing problems by combining heuristics with a Genetic algorithm using block-wise mutation operations. We are able to explain and eradicate two problems in the literature: The inability of a GA to properly improve schedules and the generation of schedules with frequent interruptions. Finally, we demonstrate the scheduling framework for several operating telescopes: (1) Dynamic re-scheduling with the AUT Warkworth 12m telescope, (2) Scheduling for the Australian Mopra 22m telescope and scheduling for the Allen Telescope Array. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability of the presented scheduling framework to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA, in construction) and the SKA. In particular, during the development phase of the SKA, this dynamic, scalable scheduling framework can accommodate changing conditions.

  16. A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Trossmann, Kaili; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings…

  17. A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Trossmann, Kaili; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings…

  18. Observed Patterns of Teacher-Pupil Classroom Behavior as Predicators of Student Growth in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Homer; Lorentz, Jeffrey L.

    This study examined the relationship between observed classroom behavior (teacher-pupil interactions) and reading achievement. An elementary school reading teacher and six students with different coping styles were observed six times in each of 41 classrooms during the school year. Pretest and posttest reading scores, a measure for socioeconomic…

  19. The Potential of General Classroom Observation: Turkish EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Sentiments, and Readiness for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merç, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Turkish EFL teachers' attitudes towards classroom observation. 204 teachers from different school settings responded to an online questionnaire. Data were analyzed according to three types of attitudes towards classroom observation: perceptions, sentiments, and readiness for action. The findings revealed…

  20. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Revised Algorithm and Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4…

  1. A Replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Revised Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Joseph, Robert; Carter, Alice; Hepburn, Susan; McMahon, William; Rodier, Patricia; Hyman, Susan L.; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally; Landa, Rebecca; Spence, M. Anne; Osann, Kathryn; Flodman, Pamela; Volkmar, Fred; Hollander, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A study replicated the module comparability and predictive ability of the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in an independent dataset of children with autism. Results indicated that the revised ADOS algorithms improved module comparability and predictive validity for autistic children than the earlier…

  2. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Revised Algorithms for Improved Diagnostic Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Modules 1-3 item and domain total distributions were reviewed for 1,630 assessments of children aged 14 months to 16 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or with heterogeneous non-spectrum disorders. Children were divided by language level and age to yield more homogeneous cells. Items were…

  3. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Revised Algorithm and Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4…

  4. A Replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Revised Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Joseph, Robert; Carter, Alice; Hepburn, Susan; McMahon, William; Rodier, Patricia; Hyman, Susan L.; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally; Landa, Rebecca; Spence, M. Anne; Osann, Kathryn; Flodman, Pamela; Volkmar, Fred; Hollander, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A study replicated the module comparability and predictive ability of the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in an independent dataset of children with autism. Results indicated that the revised ADOS algorithms improved module comparability and predictive validity for autistic children than the earlier…

  5. Validity and Diagnostic Accuracy of Scores from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the internal structure, relationships with other variables, and diagnostic accuracy of scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G; Lord et al., 1999) for the purpose of diagnostic decision-making. Participants were 462 children enrolled in a public school district in the southern…

  6. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  7. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  8. PERFORMANCE OF CROP COEFFICIENTS INFERRED FROM NDVI OBSERVATIONS FOR ESTIMATING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND IRRIGATION SCHEDULING OF WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time-based crop coefficients are often used to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for determining irrigation scheduling. Incorporating remote sensing observations to infer crop coefficients during the season could provide the spatial and temporal estimation of ETc that is needed for precis...

  9. Use of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Cynthia A.; Murray, Donna S.; Akers, Rachel; Mitchell, Terry; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) as it is commonly used in clinical practice. ADOS classifications were compared to final diagnoses given by a multidisciplinary team to 584 children referred for evaluation for possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical…

  10. Observations on SOFIA Observation Scheduling: Search and Inference in the Face of Discrete and Continuous Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Gross, Michael; Kuerklu, Elif

    2003-01-01

    We did cool stuff to reduce the number of IVPs and BVPs needed to schedule SOFIA by restricting the problem. The restriction costs us little in terms of the value of the flight plans we can build. The restriction allowed us to reformulate part of the search problem as a zero-finding problem. The result is a simplified planning model and significant savings in computation time.

  11. Observations of Effective Teacher-Student Interactions in Secondary School Classrooms: Predicting Student Achievement with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori; Lun, Janetta; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary. After accounting for prior…

  12. Self-Observation Model Employing an Instinctive Interface for Classroom Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Nurkhamid; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Yang, Shu-Han; Chao, Po-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In a classroom, obtaining active, whole-focused, and engaging learning results from a design is often difficult. In this study, we propose a self-observation model that employs an instinctive interface for classroom active learning. Students can communicate with virtual avatars in the vertical screen and can react naturally according to the…

  13. Early Childhood Teachers' Curriculum Beliefs: Are They Consistent with Observed Classroom Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaoli; Elicker, James G.; McMullen, Mary B.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the consistency between early childhood teachers' self-reported curriculum beliefs and observations of their actual interactive behaviors with children in classrooms. Also tested was the hypothesized moderation by teacher and classroom characteristics of the association between beliefs and practices. A total…

  14. Concurrent Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale for Elementary School--Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an initial investigation of the concurrent validity of a new assessment, the Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS version 2.0) for Elementary School--Observer Form. The CSS assesses teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies. In the present study, the CSS is compared to the Classroom Assessment Scoring…

  15. Junior High Classroom Organization Study. Observer Training Manual. R&D Rep. No. 6102.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Research and Development Center for Teacher Education.

    This manual was used to train observers for the Junior High Classroom Organization Study, a research project developed to delineate specific effective teacher behaviors. During the training sessions, the following topics were discussed: 1) preliminary results from a previously conducted Third-Grade Classroom Organization Study; 2) concepts and…

  16. Comparing Vignette Instruction and Assessment Tasks to Classroom Observations and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn; Maeder, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    The growing body of research on the use of vignettes in teacher education courses suggests that vignette-based instruction and assessment tasks may represent a viable alternative to traditional forms of scaffolded instruction and reflective essays following classroom observations, thereby creating a bridge between college and K-12 classrooms for…

  17. Development and Construct Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical…

  18. Engaging Instruction in Middle School Classrooms: An Observational Study of Nine Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Lisa M.; Pressley, Michael; Mohan, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Observations of instructional practices, teacher interviews, and classroom artifacts were collected in 9 sixth-grade classrooms in 2 middle schools to determine teaching practices associated with student engagement (i.e., being on task, doing thoughtful assignments). The teachers used a variety of instructional practices, with some teachers…

  19. Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    This paper addresses classroom design trends and the key issues schools should consider for better classroom space flexibility and adaptability. Classroom space design issues when schools embrace technology are discussed, as are design considerations when rooms must accommodate different grade levels, the importance of lighting, furniture…

  20. Research on earth observing satellite segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Renjie; Ruan, Qiming

    2005-10-01

    The mission of an Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) is to acquire images of specified areas on the Earth surface, in response to observation requests from customers for strategic, environmental, commercial, agricultural, and civil analysis and research. A target imaged can have one out of two shapes: a spot and a large polygonal area. A spot can be covered by a single scene of satellite sensor, while a polygonal area may require cutting-up into several contiguous strips to be completely imaged. Because of the orbit restriction, satellite can only view target during specific windows of opportunity when flying over the target. Furthermore, the satellite can only be tasked during such access time windows. Hence a scheduling method of satellite observing tasks has to be taken into account for utilizing satellite sensor efficiently. This paper intends to solve a specific segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets, which concerned with an optical observing satellite equipped with line array CCD sensor. In the paper, based on the analysis of characters of satellite sensor and observed area target, a new method of segmenting area target is given. And on the basis of segmenting results of area target, a scheduling model for multi area targets is proposed. In the paper end, experimental results and analysis are also presented.

  1. Research for the Classroom: Analyzing Classroom Literacy Events--What Observing Classroom Conversations about Popular Culture Can Reveal about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Mayer, a recently retired English language arts teacher, frequently used strategies described in John Golden's book "Reading in the Dark: Using Film as a Tool in the English Classroom." In this book, Golden suggests that ELA teachers "reverse the order: use a film clip to practice the reading and analytical skills that we want our students to…

  2. DEEP-South: Automated Observation Scheduling, Data Reduction and Analysis Software Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Hong-Suh; Kim, Myung-Jin; Bae, Young-Ho; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jintae; Moon, Bora

    2016-01-01

    We started `DEep Ecliptic Patrol of the Southern sky' (DEEP-South, DS) (Moon et al. 2015) in late 2012, and conducted test runs with the first Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) (Park et al. 2012), a 1.6 m telescope with 18k x 18k CCD stationed at CTIO in early 2015. While the primary objective of DEEP-South is the physical characterization of small Solar System bodies, it is also expected to discover a large number of such bodies, many of them previously unknown. An automated observation scheduling, data reduction and analysis software subsystem called `DEEP-South Scheduling and Data reduction System' (DS SDS) is thus being designed and implemented to enable observation planning, data reduction and analysis with minimal human intervention.

  3. Mathematical Observations: The Genesis of Mathematical Discovery in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaugris, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    In his "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos identifies the "Primitive Conjecture" as the first stage in the pattern of mathematical discovery. In this article, I am interested in ways of reaching the "Primitive Conjecture" stage in an undergraduate classroom. I adapted Realistic Mathematics Education methods in an…

  4. A Note on the Processing of Classroom Observation Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; And Others

    1972-01-01

    With an example of OScAR 5V records from four seventh-grade classrooms, this article illustrates the fact that conclusions in any study depend on decision-making processes. Careful examination of the decision-making process is suggested since resulting judgments and implications are rarely scrutinized. (CK)

  5. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social…

  6. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social…

  7. Mathematical Observations: The Genesis of Mathematical Discovery in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaugris, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    In his "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos identifies the "Primitive Conjecture" as the first stage in the pattern of mathematical discovery. In this article, I am interested in ways of reaching the "Primitive Conjecture" stage in an undergraduate classroom. I adapted Realistic Mathematics Education methods in an…

  8. The 21st Century Physics Classroom: What Students, Teachers, and Classroom Observers Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis W.; Dantzler, John A.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Turner, Donna P.; Harrell, James W.; Simon, Marsha; Aggarwal, Mohan D.

    2016-01-01

    Before we can effectively apply specific interventions through professional development, it is important to determine what is occurring in our high school physics classrooms. This study investigated common professional practices in physics teaching among a representative sample group of schools and teachers from a diverse, geographically large…

  9. Live Video Classroom Observation: An Effective Approach to Reducing Reactivity in Collecting Observational Information for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of live video classroom observations of teaching practice to reduce reactivity (the observer effect) so as to obtain more credible observational information for teacher professional development in a secondary school in the largest city in southern China. Although much has been discussed regarding the use of…

  10. Live Video Classroom Observation: An Effective Approach to Reducing Reactivity in Collecting Observational Information for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of live video classroom observations of teaching practice to reduce reactivity (the observer effect) so as to obtain more credible observational information for teacher professional development in a secondary school in the largest city in southern China. Although much has been discussed regarding the use of…

  11. Toward Trustworthy and Transformative Classroom Observations. Progress, Challenges and Lessons in SREB States. Educator Effectiveness Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandha, Tysza; Baxter, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This February 2015 report presents an analysis of classroom observation policies and progress in implementation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states. It offers a closer look at how states are framing observations, training observers, ensuring observation quality and building a culture of educator support. The report outlines…

  12. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  13. Occasions and the Reliability of Classroom Observations: Alternative Conceptualizations and Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick; Cash, Anne H.; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Student-teacher interactions are dynamic relationships that change and evolve over the course of a school year. Measuring classroom quality through observations that focus on these interactions presents challenges when observations are conducted throughout the school year. Variability in observed scores could reflect true changes in the quality of…

  14. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  15. Commentary on two classroom observation systems: moving toward a shared understanding of effective teaching.

    PubMed

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2013-12-01

    In this commentary, I make five points: that designing observation systems that actually predict students' outcomes is challenging; second that systems that capture the complex and dynamic nature of the classroom learning environment are more likely to be able to meet this challenge; three, that observation tools are most useful when developed to serve a particular purpose and are put to that purpose; four that technology can help; and five, there are policy implications for valid and reliable classroom observation tools. The two observation systems presented in this special issue represent an important step forward and a move toward policy that promises to make a true difference in what is defined as high quality and effective teaching, what it looks like in the classroom, and how these practices can be more widely disseminated so that all children, including those attending under-resourced schools, can experience effective instruction, academic success and the lifelong accomplishment that follows. PMID:24341927

  16. The Teacher as a Classroom Observer: A Simple and Reliable Procedure for Recording Teacher Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semb, Susan; And Others

    This report describes a study of a procedure for recording teacher interactions in a sixth grade classroom. The study was designed to record interactions for an entire class and to determine if a sixth grade student could act as a reliable observer in such a data collecting system. Results indicate that sixth grade students can observe and record…

  17. Sustained Classroom Observation: What Does It Reveal about Changing Teaching Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the tension between classroom observation as a form of empowerment and as an instrument of control, the partnership between three 16-19 colleges and a university School of Education in delivering a programme of sustained observation over eight years is explicated. Drawing on the literature about continuing professional…

  18. Examining Teacher Effectiveness Using Classroom Observation Scores: Evidence from the Randomization of Teachers to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel; Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite policy efforts to encourage multiple measures of performance in newly developing teacher evaluation systems, practical constraints often result in evaluations based predominantly on formal classroom observations. Yet there is limited knowledge of how these observational measures relate to student achievement. This article leverages the…

  19. Commentary on Two Classroom Observation Systems: Moving toward a Shared Understanding of Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, I make five points: that designing observation systems that actually predict students' outcomes is challenging; second that systems that capture the complex and dynamic nature of the classroom learning environment are more likely to be able to meet this challenge; three, that observation tools are most useful when developed to…

  20. An Observational Method in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Closer Look at Interaction Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Leona G.

    1975-01-01

    This paper analyzes both Flanders' and the Foreign Language Interaction (FLint) methods of classroom observation and concludes that both systems are deficient in accuracy, reliability and practicality. Observing, recording and decision-making difficulties are inherent, and system complexities and teacher biases add to the problems. (CHK)

  1. Classroom Observation Ability among Pre-Service Music Educators in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Androutsos, Polyvios; Humphreys, Jere T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom observation ability of pre-service music teachers in Greece (N = 62). Two groups of undergraduates, one near the beginning and one near the end of a two-year course sequence in teaching methods that included in-class and in-school training in observation ("juniors" and "seniors",…

  2. Commentary on Two Classroom Observation Systems: Moving toward a Shared Understanding of Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, I make five points: that designing observation systems that actually predict students' outcomes is challenging; second that systems that capture the complex and dynamic nature of the classroom learning environment are more likely to be able to meet this challenge; three, that observation tools are most useful when developed to…

  3. Sustained Classroom Observation: What Does It Reveal about Changing Teaching Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the tension between classroom observation as a form of empowerment and as an instrument of control, the partnership between three 16-19 colleges and a university School of Education in delivering a programme of sustained observation over eight years is explicated. Drawing on the literature about continuing professional…

  4. Systematic Observations: Relating Theory and Practice in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bob Burton; And Others

    The first of the five papers in this booklet, "Using Systematic Observation and Analysis of Teaching" by Bob Burton Brown, presents suggestions for the development of inservice education programs to train school staff members in the use of observational systems and lists suggested uses of such systems. In "Theoretical Bases of Observational

  5. On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

  6. On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

  7. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Modules 1-3 item and domain total distributions were reviewed for 1,630 assessments of children aged 14 months to 16 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or with heterogeneous non-spectrum disorders. Children were divided by language level and age to yield more homogeneous cells. Items were chosen that best differentiated between diagnoses and were arranged into domains on the basis of multi-factor item-response analysis. Reflecting recent research, the revised algorithm now consists of two new domains, Social Affect and Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors (RRB), combined to one score to which thresholds are applied, resulting in generally improved predictive value. PMID:17180459

  8. What Principals Do to Improve Teaching and Learning: Comparing the Use of Informal Classroom Observations in Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    Informally observing classrooms is one way that principals can help improve teaching and learning. This study describes the variability of principals' classroom observations across schools and identifies the conditions under which observations relate to the instructional climate in some schools and not others. Data for this study come from…

  9. What Principals Do to Improve Teaching and Learning: Comparing the Use of Informal Classroom Observations in Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    Informally observing classrooms is one way that principals can help improve teaching and learning. This study describes the variability of principals' classroom observations across schools and identifies the conditions under which observations relate to the instructional climate in some schools and not others. Data for this study come from…

  10. Development of Situational Task Methodology for the Evaluation of Process Outcomes in the Open Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentfrow, Robert K.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to develop an evaluation technique to assess how effectively children develop as independent learners within classrooms implementing the Tucson Early Education Model. A situational task was chosen in order to gather information about the ongoing open classroom. The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule was…

  11. Five Methods to Score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist and to Examine Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Rohrer, David; Chuang, Chi-ching; Fujiki, Mayo; Herman, Keith; Reinke, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 5 scoring methods in terms of their statistical assumptions. They were then used to score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist, a measure consisting of 3 subscales and 21 Likert-type items. The 5 methods used were (a) sum/average scores of items, (b) latent factor scores with continuous indicators, (c)…

  12. Teacher Interviews, Student Interviews, and Classroom Observations in Combinatorics: Four Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caddle, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This research consists of teacher interviews, student interviews, and classroom observations, all based around the mathematical content area of combinatorics. Combinatorics is a part of discrete mathematics concerning the ordering and grouping of distinct elements. The data are used in four separate analyses. The first provides evidence that…

  13. Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation--Checklist: Development and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koth, Christine W.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the validity and factor structure of the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist, an instrument used to evaluate school-based programs. The checklist is a cost-effective alternative to the original interview format, and the factor structure is consistent across gender, race, age, and time of administration.…

  14. IRR (Inter-Rater Reliability) of a COP (Classroom Observation Protocol)--A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Ning; Feldman, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding broad utility of COPs (classroom observation protocols), there has been limited documentation of the psychometric properties of even the most popular COPs. This study attempted to fill this void by closely examining the item and domain-level IRR (inter-rater reliability) of a COP that was used in a federally funded striving readers…

  15. Classroom Observation Data and Instruction in Primary Mathematics Education: Improving Design and Rigour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics…

  16. Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms: Validating a Direct Observation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their study's…

  17. Five Methods to Score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist and to Examine Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Rohrer, David; Chuang, Chi-ching; Fujiki, Mayo; Herman, Keith; Reinke, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 5 scoring methods in terms of their statistical assumptions. They were then used to score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist, a measure consisting of 3 subscales and 21 Likert-type items. The 5 methods used were (a) sum/average scores of items, (b) latent factor scores with continuous indicators, (c)…

  18. Observations of Children’s Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    PubMed Central

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children’s observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children’s interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children’s interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions. PMID:25717282

  19. Observing Students in Classroom Settings: A Review of Seven Coding Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; DiPerna, James C.; Hintze, John M.; Shapiro, Edward S.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of coding schemes are available for direct observational assessment of student classroom behavior. These instruments have been used for a number of assessment tasks including screening children in need of further evaluation for emotional and behavior problems, diagnostic assessment of emotional and behavior problems, assessment of…

  20. Describing Profiles of Instructional Practice: A New Approach to Analyzing Classroom Observation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Peter F.; Kieffer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors outline the application of latent class analysis (LCA) to classroom observational instruments. LCA offers diagnostic information about teachers' instructional strengths and weaknesses, along with estimates of measurement error for individual teachers, while remaining relatively straightforward to implement and interpret. It is…

  1. Classroom Observation Data and Instruction in Primary Mathematics Education: Improving Design and Rigour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics…

  2. Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Adapted for Older Individuals with Severe to Profound Mental Retardation: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berument, Sibel Kazak; Starr, Elizabeth; Pickles, Andrew; Tomlins, Megan; Papanikolauou, Katerina; Lord, Catherine; Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured observational scale developed to assess social interaction, communication and play in individuals who are suspected to have autism. Since the ADOS is not suitable to be used with severely or profoundly mentally retarded adolescents and adults with very limited language…

  3. Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Adapted for Older Individuals with Severe to Profound Mental Retardation: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berument, Sibel Kazak; Starr, Elizabeth; Pickles, Andrew; Tomlins, Megan; Papanikolauou, Katerina; Lord, Catherine; Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured observational scale developed to assess social interaction, communication and play in individuals who are suspected to have autism. Since the ADOS is not suitable to be used with severely or profoundly mentally retarded adolescents and adults with very limited language…

  4. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  5. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  6. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) schedule plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes Aerojet's methods and procedures used to control and administer contractual schedules for the EOS/AMSU-A program. Included are the following: the master, intermediate, and detail schedules; critical path analysis; and the total program logic network diagrams.

  7. Using Classroom Observations to Measure Teacher Effectiveness: Q&A with Rob Ramsdell. REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this webinar, Mr. Rob Ramsdell, Vice President, Cambridge Education, discussed the use of classroom observations as one measure of teacher effectiveness in a comprehensive educator support system. Mr. Ramsdell presented research-based recommendations for improving the quality and rigor of classroom observations. This Q&A addressed the…

  8. The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers’ Competence in Classroom Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children’s interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children’s classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed. PMID:23175598

  9. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined. PMID:24341926

  10. Combinations of Response-Dependent and Response-Independent Schedule-Correlated Stimulus Presentation in an Observing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFulio, Anthony; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons pecked a response key on a variable-interval (VI) schedule, in which responses produced food every 40 s, on average. These VI periods, or components, alternated in irregular fashion with extinction components in which food was unavailable. Pecks on a second (observing) key briefly produced exteroceptive stimuli (houselight flashes)…

  11. How Are They Really Doing? Observation of Inclusionary Classroom Participation for Children with Mild-to-Moderate Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Christina M.; Barnett, David; Bauer, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observation was utilized to study how 5 children with mild-to-moderate deafness participated within inclusive classroom settings. Responses to practice and prompt opportunities, levels of prompting required to follow classroom directions, and engagement were analyzed across students with mild-to-moderate deafness and were compared to…

  12. How Are They Really Doing? Observation of Inclusionary Classroom Participation for Children with Mild-to-Moderate Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Christina M.; Barnett, David; Bauer, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observation was utilized to study how 5 children with mild-to-moderate deafness participated within inclusive classroom settings. Responses to practice and prompt opportunities, levels of prompting required to follow classroom directions, and engagement were analyzed across students with mild-to-moderate deafness and were compared to…

  13. Growth in Reading as a Correlate of Student Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Homer; Lorentz, Jeffrey L.

    Systematic classroom observation instruments were used to study the relationship between student coping style and student growth in reading. Classrom behaviors were recorded in the fall and the following spring with the Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES). Data were analyzed separately for two types of classroom setings:…

  14. Scheduling satellite imagery acquisition for sequential assimilation of water level observation into flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pintado, Javier; Neal, Jeff C.; Mason, David C.; Dance, Sarah L.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-04-01

    Satellite-based imagery has proved useful for obtaining information on water levels in flood events. Microwave frequencies are generally more useful for flood detection than visible-band sensors because of its all-weather day-night capability. Specifically, the future SWOT mission, with Ka-band interferometry, will be able to provide direct Water Level Observations (WLOs), and current and future Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can provide information of flood extent, which, when intersected with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the floodplain, provides indirect WLOs. By either means, satellite-based WLOs can be assimilated into a hydrodynamic model to decrease forecast uncertainty and further to estimate river discharge into the flooded domain. Operational scenarios can even make a combined use of imagery from different uncoordinated missions to sequentially estimate river discharge. Thus, with an increasing number of operational satellites with WLO capability, information on the relationship between satellite first visit, revisit times, and forecast performance is required to optimise the operational scheduling of satellite imagery. By using an Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) and a synthetic analysis with the 2D hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP based on a real flooding case affecting an urban area (summer 2007, Tewkesbury, Southwest UK), we evaluate the sensitivity of the forecast performance to visit parameters. As an example, we use different scenarios of revisit times and observational errors expected from the current COSMO-Skymed (CSK) constellation, with X-band SAR. We emulate a generic hydrologic-hydrodynamic modelling cascade by imposing a bias and spatiotemporal correlations to the inflow error ensemble into the hydrodynamic domain. First, in agreement with previous research, estimation and correction for this bias leads to a clear improvement in keeping the forecast on track. Second, imagery obtained early in the flood is shown to have a large influence on forecast statistics. Revisit interval is most influential for early observations. The results are promising for the future of remote sensing-based water level observations for real-time flood forecasting in complex scenarios.

  15. Japanese Classroom Behavior: A Micro-Analysis of Self-Reports versus Classroom Observations--With Implications for Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Mariko T.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the influence of Japanese cultural values, beliefs, and educational style on Japanese students learning English as a second language in an American classroom. In contrast to the Japanese students' high motivation to learn English, their classroom behavior and roles reflect their own cultural perspectives rather than the…

  16. The Astronomer's Integrated Desktop: A Unified Suite of Applications for Scheduling-Block Based Observing with the GBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, K.; Shelton, A. L.; Radziwill, N. M.; Prestage, R. M.

    2006-07-01

    Since 2003, the monitor and control software systems for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have been redesigned to make the telescope easier to use. The result is the release of the Astronomer's integrated desktop (Astrid), an observation management platform used to create and submit scheduling blocks, monitor their progress on the telescope, and provide a real time, quick look data display. Using Astrid, the astronomer launches one application and has access to all of the software, documentation, and feedback facilities that are required to conduct an interactive observing session. These systems together provide a common look and feel for GBT software applications, enable offline observation preparation, and facilitate dynamic scheduling and remote observing.

  17. Testing gridded NWS 1-Day observed precipitation analysis in a daily irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the inputs required by daily irrigation schedulers is the amount of water supplied by rainfall. In-field measurements of daily precipitation are expensive or laborious, while measurements from gauges within a few kilometers are frequently not representative due to the high spatiotemporal vari...

  18. CHIRON TOOLS: Integrated Target Submission, Scheduling and Observing Systems for a High-Resolution Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John M.; Giguere, Matthew; Fischer, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    The CHIRON spectrometer is a new high-resolution, fiber-fed instrument on the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-America Observatory (CTIO). To optimize use of the instrument and limited human resources, we have designed an integrated set of Web applications allowing target submission, observing script planning, nightly script execution and logging, and access to reduced data by multiple users. The unified and easy-to-use interface has dramatically reduced the time needed to submit and schedule observations and improved the efficiency and accuracy of nightly operations. We present our experience to help astronomers and project managers who need to plan for the scope of effort required to commission a queue-scheduled facility instrument.

  19. Trajectory-Based Takeoff Time Predictions Applied to Tactical Departure Scheduling: Concept Description, System Design, and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Current aircraft departure release times are based on manual estimates of aircraft takeoff times. Uncertainty in takeoff time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route streams and lead to lost throughput. However, technology exists to improve takeoff time estimates by using the aircraft surface trajectory predictions that enable air traffic control tower (ATCT) decision support tools. NASA s Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) is designed to use automated surface trajectory-based takeoff time estimates to improve en route tactical departure scheduling. This is accomplished by integrating an ATCT decision support tool with an en route tactical departure scheduling decision support tool. The PDRC concept and prototype software have been developed, and an initial test was completed at air traffic control facilities in Dallas/Fort Worth. This paper describes the PDRC operational concept, system design, and initial observations.

  20. The Identity, Second Language, and the Classroom Dynamic: Participant Observation in a Beginning Korean as a Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the nexus between second language acquisition, identity, and the beginning second language classroom. Using a social constructionist framework, the study utilizes ethnographic methodology incorporating both narrative and autoethnographic elements. Specifically the author acted as a participant…

  1. Examination of Classroom Observations and Educator Perceptions of Classroom Interventions of Middle School Gifted Students Exhibiting Unhealthy Perfectionist Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawdy, LaTease

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy perfectionist tendencies plague many gifted middle school students, and this type of perfectionism can lead to a lack of classroom success. Identifying effective interventions that educators can utilize is important in assisting middle school gifted students who demonstrate these maladaptive tendencies in their achievement in the…

  2. Examination of Classroom Observations and Educator Perceptions of Classroom Interventions of Middle School Gifted Students Exhibiting Unhealthy Perfectionist Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawdy, LaTease

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy perfectionist tendencies plague many gifted middle school students, and this type of perfectionism can lead to a lack of classroom success. Identifying effective interventions that educators can utilize is important in assisting middle school gifted students who demonstrate these maladaptive tendencies in their achievement in the…

  3. The Identity, Second Language, and the Classroom Dynamic: Participant Observation in a Beginning Korean as a Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the nexus between second language acquisition, identity, and the beginning second language classroom. Using a social constructionist framework, the study utilizes ethnographic methodology incorporating both narrative and autoethnographic elements. Specifically the author acted as a participant…

  4. Predictive Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form on Statewide Testing Scores: An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management…

  5. Classroom Use and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

  6. Initial Validation of the Prekindergarten Classroom Observation Tool and Goal Setting System for Data-Based Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, April D.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bhavsar, Vibhuti; Landry, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Although coaching is a popular approach for enhancing the quality of Tier 1 instruction, limited research has addressed observational measures specifically designed to focus coaching on evidence-based practices. This study explains the development of the prekindergarten (pre-k) Classroom Observation Tool (COT) designed for use in a data-based…

  7. Initial Validation of the Prekindergarten Classroom Observation Tool and Goal Setting System for Data-Based Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, April D.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bhavsar, Vibhuti; Landry, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Although coaching is a popular approach for enhancing the quality of Tier 1 instruction, limited research has addressed observational measures specifically designed to focus coaching on evidence-based practices. This study explains the development of the prekindergarten (pre-k) Classroom Observation Tool (COT) designed for use in a data-based…

  8. Variable sleep schedules and outcomes in children with psychopathological problems: preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Raubuck, Danielle L; Grogan, Katie; Gozal, David; Stein, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Background Night-to-night variability in sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be a mediator of behavioral phenotype. We examined the potential association between alertness, sleep, and eating behaviors in children with ADHD and comorbid problems. Methods Sleep was monitored by actigraphy for 7 days. Questionnaires were used to assess sleep complaints, habits and food patterns by parental report, and sleep complaints and sleepiness by child report. Results The group comprised 18 children, including 15 boys, aged 9.4 ± 1.7 years, 88.9% Caucasian, who took one or multiple medications. Children slept on average for 6 hours and 58 minutes with a variability of 1 hour 3 minutes relative to the mean, and their sleepiness scores were highly variable from day to day. Most children had a normal body mass index (BMI). Sleepiness and BMI were associated with sleep schedules and food patterns, such that they accounted for 76% of variance, predominantly by the association of BMI with mean wake after sleep onset and by bedtime sleepiness, with wake after sleep onset variability. Similarly, 97% of variance was shared with eating behaviors, such as desserts and snacks, and fast food meals were associated with morning sleepiness. Conclusion Disrupted sleep and sleepiness appears to favor unhealthy food patterns and may place children with ADHD at increased risk for obesity. PMID:23616725

  9. Pre-linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule adapted for older individuals with severe to profound mental retardation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Berument, Sibel Kazak; Starr, Elizabeth; Pickles, Andrew; Tomlins, Megan; Papanikolauou, Katerina; Lord, Catherine; Rutter, Michael

    2005-12-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured observational scale developed to assess social interaction, communication and play in individuals who are suspected to have autism. Since the ADOS is not suitable to be used with severely or profoundly mentally retarded adolescents and adults with very limited language skills, materials and some of the tasks of the PL-ADOS and the original ADOS (the former versions of the current ADOS) were adapted. Results indicated that almost all of the overall ratings showed good reliability and discriminative diagnostic validity. Furthermore, the combination of codings into an overall algorithm score on social/communicative behavior resulted in a sensitivity of .82 and a specificity of .85 when using a cut-off score of 15. PMID:16283083

  10. A web-based tool that combines satellite and weather station observations to support irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery, and reference evapotranspiration from surface weather station networks to map daily crop irrigation demand in California in ...

  11. Behavior Management in Preschool Classrooms: Insights Revealed through Systematic Observation and Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, Mariah; Noltemeyer, Amity; Davis, Darrel; Green, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined behavior management strategies used by preschool teachers to address student noncompliance in the classroom. Specifically, the study aimed to (1) examine the methods that preschool teachers are currently using to respond to noncompliant behavior in their classrooms, (2) measure the frequency with which each…

  12. Behavior Management in Preschool Classrooms: Insights Revealed through Systematic Observation and Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, Mariah; Noltemeyer, Amity; Davis, Darrel; Green, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined behavior management strategies used by preschool teachers to address student noncompliance in the classroom. Specifically, the study aimed to (1) examine the methods that preschool teachers are currently using to respond to noncompliant behavior in their classrooms, (2) measure the frequency with which each…

  13. Development of the Science Curriculum Assessment System, Part Two: Classroom Observational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Charles C.; Phillips, Darrell G.

    Described are the procedures whereby data from teachers and children may be collected in classrooms. The techniques of interaction analysis (including matrix analysis) are applied to the collection and analysis of these data. The categories applied to the classroom behaviors of teachers and students have been developed specifically for the Science…

  14. Who Is Granted Authority in the Mathematics Classroom? An Analysis of the Observed and Perceived Distribution of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaepe, Fien; De Corte, Erik; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the way in which authority was established and interpreted by teachers and students in two Flemish sixth-grade mathematics classrooms. Problem-solving lessons during a seven-month observation period were analysed regarding three aspects of teacher-student interactions that explicitly or implicitly reflect who bears…

  15. Teacher and TA Ratings of Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior: Agreement and Associations with Observed Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students'…

  16. Exploring Teachers' Knowledge of Second Language Pronunciation Techniques: Teacher Cognitions, Observed Classroom Practices, and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study explored some of the intricate connections between the cognitions (beliefs, knowledge, perceptions, attitudes) and pedagogical practices of five English language teachers, specifically in relation to pronunciation-oriented techniques. Integral to the study was the use of semistructured interviews, classroom observations, and stimulated…

  17. The Development and Implementation of a Planned Program of Classroom Observation at the Elementary School Level. Maxi II Practicum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Samuel L.

    This report describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model for classroom observation designed to improve instructional supervisory skills and enhance teaching and learning. The project was carried out in 10 (Broward County, Florida) elementary schools with the principals and six teachers from each school involved. The aims of…

  18. Teacher and TA Ratings of Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior: Agreement and Associations with Observed Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students'…

  19. From Evaluation to Collaborative Reflection: Teacher Candidate Perceptions of a Digital Learner-Centered Classroom Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Krutka, Daniel G.; Mason, Katherine; Bergman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to promote a more learner-centered approach to supervision, faculty members at a Midwestern U.S. university piloted a new digital classroom observation form. Participants included middle/secondary teacher candidates (N = 28) in their final semester of their programs. The overall goal of this study was to gather teacher candidates'…

  20. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., 2000) is widely accepted as a “gold standard” diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the ADOS Toddler Module (or Module T), was used in 360 evaluations. Participants included 182 children with best estimate diagnoses of ASD, non-spectrum developmental delay or typical development. A final set of protocol and algorithm items was selected based on their ability to discriminate the diagnostic groups. The traditional algorithm “cutoffs” approach yielded high sensitivity and specificity, and a new range of concern approach was proposed. PMID:19415479

  1. Predicting Student Achievement in University-Level Business and Economics Classes: Peer Observation of Classroom Instruction and Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…

  2. Predicting Student Achievement in University-Level Business and Economics Classes: Peer Observation of Classroom Instruction and Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…

  3. Schedule-induced defecation.

    PubMed Central

    Rayfield, F; Segal, M; Goldiamond, I

    1982-01-01

    Excessive defecation, typically considered to be a concomitant of stress, was experimentally induced or eliminated under specific schedules of positive reinforcement of lever pressing by rats. The schedules were, by and large, those under which polydipsia is typically induced. In the first of three experiments, rats under fixed-interval 32-second schedules and variable interval 32-second schedules for food and water reinforcers defecated profusely, but not under fixed-interval one-second schedules or other small interval schedules. Somewhat higher rates of defecation were observed on variable interval 32-second schedules than on fixed-interval 32-second schedules. In a second experiment, fixed-ratio schedules were used, some of which resulted in responding such that reinforcement densities were similar to those on the interval schedules that induced defecation. Defecation was not systematically induced by these ratio schedules. In a third experiment, fixed-time schedules of food presentations were utilized. High rates of defecation were induced comparable to those induced by interval schedules of the same time parameter. No other behavior commonly termed "emotional" was observed in any of these experiments. PMID:7202038

  4. The View from the Little Chair in the Corner: Improving Teacher Practice and Early Childhood Learning (Wisdom from an Experienced Classroom Observer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Cindy Rzasa

    2009-01-01

    This is a down-to-earth, heart-to-heart book about what it takes to be an exceptional early childhood teacher. The author uses her experience as a classroom observer and a developmental psychologist to create a rationale for best practice--the reasoning behind the best (worst and average) classroom practice. Cindy Rzasa Bess examines a variety of…

  5. Observation of Classroom Social Communication: Do Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Spend Their Time Differently than Their Typically Developing Peers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders…

  6. Differentiated Instruction at Work. Reinforcing the Art of Classroom Observation through the Creation of a Checklist for Beginning and Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subban, Pearl; Round, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Professional experience is viewed as integral to shaping philosophy and acquiring skills in the area of classroom teaching. Classrooms are complex places, with educators implementing differentiated strategies to cater for student diversity. Pre-service teachers who observe these lessons often miss the intuitive practices, as there is much to…

  7. Development and evaluation of a driving observation schedule (DOS) to study everyday driving performance of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Vlahodimitrakou, Z; Charlton, J L; Langford, J; Koppel, S; Di Stefano, M; Macdonald, W; Mazer, B; Gelinas, I; Vrkljan, B; Porter, M M; Smith, G A; Cull, A W; Marshall, S

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of an on-road procedure, the Driving Observation Schedule (DOS), for monitoring individual driving behavior. DOS was developed for use in the Candrive/Ozcandrive five-year prospective study of older drivers. Key features included observations in drivers' own vehicles, in familiar environments chosen by the driver, with start/end points at their own homes. Participants were 33 drivers aged 75+ years, who drove their selected route with observations recorded during intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low speed maneuvers and maneuver-free driving. Driving behaviors were scored by a specialist occupational therapy driving assessor and another trained observer. Drivers also completed a post-drive survey about the acceptability of DOS. Vehicle position, speed, distance and specific roadways traveled were recorded by an in-vehicle device installed in the participant's vehicle; this device was also used to monitor participants' driving over several months, allowing comparison of DOS trips with their everyday driving. Inter-rater reliability and DOS feasibility, acceptability and ecological validity are reported here. On average, drivers completed the DOS trip in 30.48min (SD=7.99). Inter-rater reliability measures indicated strong agreement between the trained and the expert observers: intra-class correlations (ICC)=0.905, CI 95% 0.747-0.965, p<0.0001; Pearson product correlation, r (18)=.83, p<0.05. Standard error of the measurement (SEM), method error (ME) and coefficient of variation (CV) measures were consistently small (3.0, 2.9 & 3.3%, respectively). Most participants reported being 'completely at ease' (82%) with the driving task and 'highly familiar with the route' (97%). Vehicle data showed that DOS trips were similar to participants' everyday driving trips in roads used, roadway speed limits, drivers' average speed and speed limit compliance. In summary, preliminary findings suggest that DOS can be scored reliably, is of feasible duration, is acceptable to drivers and representative of everyday driving. Pending further research with a larger sample and other observers, DOS holds promise as a means of quantifying and monitoring changes in older drivers' performance in environments typical of their everyday driving. PMID:23639887

  8. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  9. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  10. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (N = 93)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A. C. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in "J Autism Dev Disord" 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off…

  11. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (N = 93)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A. C. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in "J Autism Dev Disord" 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off…

  12. Instructional Practices in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…

  13. Are Handheld Computers Dependable? A New Data Collection System for Classroom-Based Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Very little research exists on the dependability of handheld computers used in public school classrooms. This study addresses four dependability criteria--reliability, maintainability, availability, and safety--to evaluate a data collection tool on a handheld computer. Data were collected from five sources: (1) time-use estimations by 19 special…

  14. Teacher Behavior in PLAN and Control Classrooms Using the PLAN Teacher Observation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Margaret T.; Lipe, Dewey

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the PLAN teacher training program in changing teacher classroom behavior. The program, to train teachers in skills specific to the use of the PLAN system of individualized education, included a 2-day spring 1969 session, a 3-day summer conference, a fall minicourse, and inservice consultant…

  15. Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms through a Direct Observation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.

    2010-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that many students struggle to learn mathematics proficiently. One plausible contributor to the low math achievement is the quantity and quality of learning opportunities provided in classrooms. These opportunities may fall short of addressing the learning needs of students, especially those at risk for failure in…

  16. Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms through a Direct Observation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.

    2010-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that many students struggle to learn mathematics proficiently. One plausible contributor to the low math achievement is the quantity and quality of learning opportunities provided in classrooms. These opportunities may fall short of addressing the learning needs of students, especially those at risk for failure in…

  17. New Directions in Open Classroom Evaluation: Situational Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentfrow, Robert K.

    The material reported here was developed as part of a systematic effort to develop techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of a nationally implemented early childhood program. The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule technique has been implemented in a number of school districts as a means of assessing program implementation of the Tucson…

  18. Usability and Reliability of a Remotely Administered Adult Autism Assessment, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Michael P.; Parmanto, Bambang; McGonigle, John; Handen, Benjamin; Lewis, Allen; Pulantara, I. Wayan; Saptono, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4 is an autism assessment designed for verbally fluent adolescents and adults. Because of a shortage of available clinical expertise, it can be difficult for adults to receive a proper autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessment. A potential option to address this shortage is remote assessment. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility, usability, and reliability of administering the ADOS Module 4 remotely using the Versatile and Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISYTER). Materials and Methods: VISYTER consists of computer stations at the client site and clinician site for video communication and a Web portal for managing and coordinating the assessment process. Twenty-three adults with an ASD diagnosis participated in a within-subject crossover design study in which both a remote ADOS and a face-to-face ADOS were administered. After completing the remote ADOS, participants completed a satisfaction survey. Results: Participant satisfaction with the remote ADOS delivery system was high. The kappa value was greater than 0.61 on 21 of 31 ADOS items. There was substantial agreement on ADOS classification (i.e., diagnosis) between assessments delivered face-to-face versus assessments delivered remotely (interclass coefficient=0.92). Non-agreement may have been due to outside factors or practice effect despite a washout period. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an autism assessment designed to be delivered face to face can be administered remotely using an integrated Web-based system with high levels of usability and reliability. PMID:25569603

  19. Scheduling Inequality in Math and Science: How Trimesters Hurt Students at Risk of Academic Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair, Mary Antony; Bair, David

    2010-01-01

    Although many high schools are switching from a semester to a trimester schedule as a response to increased high-school graduation requirements, there is very little empirical research on trimesters. In this ethnographic case study (2006-2009), we observed 22 math and science classrooms, interviewed seven administrators, two counselors and 22…

  20. Inside the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Presents some of the findings of the ORACLE research program (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation), a detailed observational study of teacher-student interaction, teaching styles, and management methods within a sample of primary classrooms. (Editor/SJL)

  1. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  2. Collaboration Between Astronomers at UT Austin and K-12 Teachers: Connecting the Experience of Observing and Research with the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Sneden, Christopher; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra; EXES Teachers Associate Program

    2015-01-01

    McDonald Observatory has a long history of providing teacher professional development (PD), and recently we have developed a new workshop model for more advanced participants. By choosing a select group of middle and high school teachers from those previously involved in our past PD programs, we have created a joint workshop / observing run program for them. After traveling to the observatory, the teachers participate in an actual observing run with a research astronomer. The teachers are trained first-hand how to take observations, operate the telescope, set up the instrument, and monitor observing conditions. The teachers are fully put in the role of observer. They are also given background information before and during the workshop related to the science and data they are helping to collect. The teachers work in teams to both perform the nightly observations with an astronomer, but to also perform new interactive classroom activities with education staff, and use other telescopes on the mountain. This is a unique experience for teachers since it allows them to take the resources and experiences directly back to their classrooms and students. They can directly relate to their students what skills for specific careers in STEM fields are needed. Evaluation from these workshops shows that there is: increased content knowledge among participants, greater impact that will be passed on to their students, and an authentic research experience that can't be replicated in other PD settings. In addition, not only is this program beneficial to the teachers, but this group is benefit to the education program of McDonald Observatory. Building on an existing PD program (with a 16 year history) we have the opportunity to test out new products and new education endeavors with this devoted group of well-trained teachers before bringing them to wider teacher and student audiences. This program is currently supported by the NSF grant AST-1211585 (PI Sneden).

  3. Scheduling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Scheduling Environment is a software product designed and marketed by AVYX, Inc. to provide scheduling solutions for complex manufacturing environments. It can be adapted to specific scheduling and manufacturing processes and has led to substantial cost savings. The system was originally developed for NASA use in scheduling Space Shuttle flights and satellite activities. AVYX, Inc. is an offshoot of a company formed to provide computer-related services to NASA. TREES-plus, the company's initial product became the programming language for the advanced scheduling environment system.

  4. Test Review: Lord, C., Luyster, R. J., Gotham, K., & Guthrie, W. (2012). "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) Manual (Part II): Toddler Module." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam; Rostad, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition" (ADOS-2; Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012; Lord, Rutter et al., 2012), a newly updated, semistructured, standardized measure of communication, social interaction, play/imagination, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors published by Western…

  5. Test Review: Lord, C., Luyster, R. J., Gotham, K., & Guthrie, W. (2012). "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) Manual (Part II): Toddler Module." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam; Rostad, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition" (ADOS-2; Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012; Lord, Rutter et al., 2012), a newly updated, semistructured, standardized measure of communication, social interaction, play/imagination, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors published by Western…

  6. Does Use of ICT-Based Teaching Encourage Innovative Interactions in the Classroom? Presentation of the CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manny-Ikan, Edith; Tikochinski, Tal Berger; Bashan, Zipi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observations analysis tool (CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation tool). The CLI-O tool enables the collection of various data regarding the use of ICT tools, organization of learning, and teacher-student interactions in the lesson. Several examples demonstrating the use of CLI-O and some preliminary…

  7. Improving Classroom Learning by Collaboratively Observing Human Tutoring Videos while Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…

  8. Collaborative Observation. Putting Classroom Instruction at the Center of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Karen H.; March, Judith K.

    This book joins instructional design as the axis of school reform with collaborative observation as the proven method to sustain teacher growth and renewal. The acronym COMPASS (Collaborative Observation for Monitoring Practices to Achieve Sustained School reform) is used. The book details a four-part observation process, each component of which…

  9. Observations of Teacher-Child Interactions in Classrooms Serving Latinos and Dual Language Learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of Latino and dual language learner (DLL) children attending pre-k and the importance of assessing the quality of their experiences in those settings, this study examined the extent to which a commonly used assessment of teacher-child interactions, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), demonstrated similar…

  10. Observations of Teacher-Child Interactions in Classrooms Serving Latinos and Dual Language Learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of Latino and dual language learner (DLL) children attending pre-k and the importance of assessing the quality of their experiences in those settings, this study examined the extent to which a commonly used assessment of teacher-child interactions, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), demonstrated similar…

  11. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  12. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors’ alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  13. The Master Schedule and Learning: Improving the Quality of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Carol A.; Kruse, Gary D.

    1995-01-01

    The master schedule determines instructional time, use of space, student grouping, and teacher role. Currently, secondary school buildings are used like factories, and teachers can spend an entire career in the same classroom. Traditional, intensified, and flexible block scheduling produces master schedules with greater flexibility, less…

  14. Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

  15. Observations from Secondary School Classrooms in Trinidad and Tobago: Science Teachers' Use of Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maharaj-Sharma, R.; Sharma, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine and interpret how science teachers in Trinidad and Tobago used analogies in their science teaching. A total of 30 lessons taught by five different teachers were observed and analysed using an interpretative research methodology to develop generalized observations. The findings revealed that in general science…

  16. Using Videoconferencing Technology to Enhance Classroom Observation Methodology for the Instruction of Preservice Early Childhood Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Lloyd E.; Walsh, Eamonn Joseph

    2011-01-01

    To learn about and become acclimated to the environment in which they someday plan to work, preservice teachers and pre-professional daycare providers are typically required to conduct onsite observations. Traditionally, these observations require that the pre-professional spend a required number of hours studying the dynamics of the real-world…

  17. Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

  18. I Spy Something! A Practical Guide to Classroom Observations of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Ann Marie

    Claiming that observation is the first and most authentic tool for assessing young children's learning and development, this book advises educators of young children how to improve observation skills by recording children's growth and development. The book also serves as a tool to evaluate and improve early childhood programs. Specific benefits of…

  19. Influences of block scheduling on secondary science teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Donna Louise

    Increasing the length of class periods has become one of the most frequently implemented recommendations from the secondary school restructuring movement. Many schools have changed to a block schedule in which the students have four 90--100 minute periods each day. The needs of science classes, such as time to set up and perform lab experiments, suggest the block schedule may be particularly appropriate for science. A case study design was used to explore the instructional and attitudinal changes that accompany the restructuring of the daily schedule. Classroom observations were conducted before and after the implementation of block scheduling to document the student-teacher interactions and the instructional strategies used by the science teachers. Teacher and student surveys were administered to obtain information about attitudes towards the block schedule as well as self-reported instructional strategies. Interviews were conducted to elicit beliefs about good teaching practices. Changes in instructional strategies and learning climate were considered within the context of teacher beliefs, state standards, and the organizational change to the school schedule. The results support other studies that have found positive attitudes toward block scheduling. Teachers in this study changed their instructional strategies, although not necessarily in line with the theorized changes. In several instances, the changes were closely aligned with the teachers' beliefs about good science instruction. Test scores and grades were not strongly influenced. Teachers met more of the state science standards and spent more time interacting with small groups during the block schedule. The results suggest teachers' beliefs about good teaching practice play an important role in the influences of restructuring efforts. The block schedule, preferred by teachers, provides an opportunity for improvement in science instruction and learning climate. How this popular form of restructuring manifests itself at the classroom level is largely a function of the individual teacher. Practical implications can be used to guide teachers and administrators in making scheduling decisions. Theoretical implications based on increased knowledge of teacher change emerge from the results. This study adds to the literature on the relationships among teacher beliefs, practices, and the process of organizational change in secondary school restructuring efforts.

  20. An Investigation of Relationships Between Fifth Grade Students' Perception of the Physical Classroom Environment and Observed Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Russell Weidner

    An exploratory field study was conducted in 42 self-contained, elementary grade classrooms in 18 school buildings. Subjects were 1,030 fifth-grade students. The purpose of the study was to determine the range of physical environmental conditions in the classrooms; and how students' perceptions of the physical environment (1) describe the…

  1. Preliminary Psychometric Properties of an Observation System to Assess Teachers' Use of Effective Behavior Support Strategies in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew; Gera, Shradha; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matt; Buck, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behaviors are one of the most common concerns of early educators, and preschool teachers continue to report feeling unprepared to meet the needs of children displaying challenging behaviors. Overall, traditional standardized classroom assessments have evaluated global classroom quality, but they may not capture the reciprocal and…

  2. Sex-Stereotyped and Nonstereotyped Introductions of New Toys in the Preschool Classroom: An Observational Study of Teacher Behavior and Its Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serbin, Lisa A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of teachers in introducing stereotyped and nonstereotyped and sex-typed and nonsex-typed toys in the classroom was observed. Results suggest that bias in the introduction of toys by adults may contribute to the sex-typing of specific activities. (Author)

  3. Classroom Observations: Documenting Shifts in Instruction for Districtwide Improvement. Formative Evaluation Cycle Report for the Math in Common Initiative, Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Rebecca R.; Seago, Nanette M.; Burr, Elizabeth; Broek, Marie; Finkelstein, Neal D.

    2015-01-01

    Math in Common® (MiC) is a five-year initiative that supports a formal network of 10 California school districts as they implement the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSS-M) across grades K-8. This research brief explores how best to select or develop and use classroom observation systems in order to document instructional shifts and…

  4. Swedish Religious Education at the End of the 1960s: Classroom Observations, Early Video Ethnography and the National Curriculum of 1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flensner, K. Kittelmann; Larsson, G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a unique corpus of film-recorded classroom observations of sixth-grade classes (age 12-13) in the Swedish cities of Gothenburg, Partille and Trollhättan in the late 1960s. The material documents how RE could be taught in Swedish schools in line with the curriculum of Lgr 62 which internationally was an early…

  5. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  6. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted. PMID:22057307

  7. Developing Indicators for a Classroom Observation Tool on Pedagogy and Technology Integration: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmendorf, Douglas C.; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in technology and increased access to technology tools have created new instructional demands and expectations on teachers. Due to the ubiquitous presence of technology in K-12 schools, teachers are being observed on both their pedagogical and technology integration practices. Applying the technological pedagogical and content…

  8. Enabling and Supporting Remote Classroom Teaching Observation: Live Video Conferencing Uses in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ruolan; Wiesemes, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the authors present findings from a small-scale study in order to extend their understanding of using live video conferencing in initial teacher education. Four distinct steps, consisting of observation, contextualisation, reflection and development of personal practices, were identified based on an in-depth focus group interview.…

  9. Developing Indicators for a Classroom Observation Tool on Pedagogy and Technology Integration: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmendorf, Douglas C.; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in technology and increased access to technology tools have created new instructional demands and expectations on teachers. Due to the ubiquitous presence of technology in K-12 schools, teachers are being observed on both their pedagogical and technology integration practices. Applying the technological pedagogical and content…

  10. Using Generalizability Theory to Examine Sources of Variance in Observed Behaviors within High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Cash, Anne H.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Generalizability theory (GT) offers a useful framework for estimating the reliability of a measure while accounting for multiple sources of error variance. The purpose of this study was to use GT to examine multiple sources of variance in and the reliability of school-level teacher and high school student behaviors as observed using the tool,…

  11. Tale of the Tape: International Teaching Assistant Noticing during Videotaped Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gwendolyn M.; Case, Rod E.

    2015-01-01

    International teaching assistants face challenges in learning the norms for teaching in American universities. In order to address this learning curve this article describes a qualitative study of twenty international teaching assistants that examined how these participants viewed observations as part of their professional development. The study…

  12. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  13. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (n = 93).

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A C J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in J Autism Dev Disord 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off resembled the original algorithm ASD cut-off: highly specific for psychopathy and controls, lower sensitivity than Hus and Lord (2014; i.e. ASD .61, AD .53). The revised algorithm AD cut-off improved sensitivity over the original algorithm. Discriminating ASD from schizophrenia was still challenging, but the better-balanced sensitivity (.53) and specificity (.78) of the revised algorithm AD cut-off may aide clinicians' differential diagnosis. Findings support using the revised algorithm, being conceptually conform the other modules, thus improving comparability across the lifespan. PMID:26319249

  14. Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? An observational real-time study in German hospital departments

    PubMed Central

    Mache, Stefanie; Scutaru, Cristian; Vitzthum, Karin; Quarcoo, David; Schöffel, Norman; Welte, Tobias; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified. Methods Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer. Results Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care. Conclusion This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization. PMID:19473487

  15. Does the learning deficit observed under an Incremental Repeated Acquisition schedule of reinforcement in Ts65Dn mice, a model for Down syndrome, change as they age?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Nichole C.; Williams, D. Keith; Wenger, Galen R.

    2009-01-01

    The Ts65Dn mouse is partly trisomic at chromosome 16 and is considered to be a valid mouse model of human Down syndrome. Prior research using an incremental repeated acquisition (IRA) schedule of reinforcement has revealed that there is a significant learning deficit in young, adult Ts65Dn mice compared to littermate controls. The purpose of this study was to examine whether this deficit changes during the life-span of these mice. In order to determine if changes in the deficit were caused by motoric or motivational deficiencies, a second group of mice was trained to respond under a performance version of the task (IRA-P). The IRA-P task required the same motor responses to produce the reinforcer, but no learning or acquisition was required. Data collected under the IRA task demonstrated that there was a significant learning impairment that persisted up to 24-months of age in the Ts65Dn mice compared to littermate controls. There was a significant decrease in the rate of responding and the number of milk presentations earned by the Ts65Dn mice after 19-months of age. However, during this time, response accuracy, which is independent of mobility and possibly motivation, did not decrease. Under the IRA-P schedule, there was no decrease observed in the number of milk presentations of either line as they aged, but the trend in the rate of responding of the Ts65Dn mice was similarly declining as the rate of responding observed in the Ts65Dn mice under the IRA task. These data indicate that the ability to learn in Ts65Dn mice does not decline with age as measured by the IRA task and suggests that perhaps Ts65Dn mice do not exhibit the same early-onset Alzheimer’s disease phenotype that is typically seen in human patients. PMID:19409933

  16. Evaluation Report 1-C-2: Observations of CSMP First Grade Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holz, Alan; And Others

    This evaluation report is one of 17 planned for the longitudinal pilot study of the implementation in kindergarten and grade 1 of the Comprehensive School Mathematics Program (CSMP). In this report, the purpose and design of the classroom observation phase of evaluation are described; schedules of observation and a sample observation form are…

  17. The added value of the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: diagnostic validity in a clinical Swedish sample of toddlers and young preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-02-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus diagnosis. A total of N = 268 children (n = 171 with autism spectrum disorder) were assessed. The new Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised algorithms (research cutoff) gave excellent specificities (91%-96%) but low sensitivities (44%-52%). Applying adjusted cutoffs (lower than recommended based on receiver operating characteristics) yielded a better balance between sensitivity (77%-82%) and specificity (60%-62%). Findings for the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule were consistent with previous studies showing high sensitivity (94%-100%) and alongside lower specificity (52%-76%) when using the autism spectrum cutoff, but better balanced sensitivity (81%-94%) and specificity (81%-83%) when using the autism cutoff. A combination of both the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (with adjusted cutoff) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (autism spectrum cutoff) yielded balanced sensitivity (77%-80%) and specificity (87%-90%). Results favor a combined usage of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in young children with unclear developmental problems, including suspicion of autism spectrum disorder. Evaluated separately, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (cutoff for autism) provides a better diagnostic accuracy than the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. PMID:24413849

  18. Getting Classroom Observations Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover; Chingos, Matthew M.; Lindquist, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the body of knowledge on teacher evaluation systems by examining the actual design and performance of new teacher-evaluation systems in four school districts that are at the forefront of the effort to evaluate teachers meaningfully. The authors find first that the ratings assigned teachers by the districts'…

  19. Getting Classroom Observations Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover; Chingos, Matthew M.; Lindquist, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the body of knowledge on teacher evaluation systems by examining the actual design and performance of new teacher-evaluation systems in four school districts that are at the forefront of the effort to evaluate teachers meaningfully. The authors find first that the ratings assigned teachers by the districts'…

  20. Rethinking Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Emily Dolci; Kaufman, Trent; Doty, Dave

    2014-01-01

    If your professional learning seems stalled, maybe you could put yourself and your colleagues in the driver's seat of professional development. The authors describe a professional learning approach that gives teachers both a say in what they focus their learning on and a chance to practice and refine teaching strategies that they hope to…

  1. Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faia, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

  2. Relationship between Perceived and Observed Student-Centred Learning Environments in Qatari Elementary Mathematics and Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Stephanie L.; Parker, Dawn; Zimmerman, Whitney; Ikhlief, Atman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Qatar established educational reform in charter (independent) schools focusing on curriculum standards, student-centred teaching, standards-based assessment, English as the language of instruction, and extensive professional development. A primary area of emphasis was the creation of student-centred mathematics and science classrooms

  3. Observations of Representational Practices by Indian-Descent Children in a US Preschool Classroom: Connections among People, Spaces and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined children's experiences with producing and comprehending external representations in a preschool classroom. Data collection and analyses focused on how artifacts, spaces, adult-guided routines, and social conventions shape young children's representational development. Participants included 4- and…

  4. Pinpointing Chinese Early Childhood Teachers' Professional Development Needs through Self-Evaluation and External Observation of Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Zhou, Yisu; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    This study compared Chinese kindergarten teachers' values and perceptions of program quality with trained raters' assessments of quality in order to gain insights into effective professional development for improving teacher quality. A total of 284 Chinese kindergarten teachers self-assessed the quality of their classroom teaching and…

  5. Can Inspectors Really Improve the Quality of Teaching in the PCE Sector? Classroom Observations under the Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Matt

    2006-01-01

    For some years now, teachers in the post compulsory sector have been lambasted in educational circles for what some perceive as the poor quality of teaching and learning in classrooms. Such criticisms have tended to emanate from those responsible for inspecting the sector's provision. In fact, when Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) and…

  6. A Case Based Analysis Preparation Strategy for Use in a Classroom Management for Inclusive Settings Course: Preliminary Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, William J.; Cohen, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Case based instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical option in teacher preparation growing in application but short on practical means to implement the method. This paper presents an analysis strategy and questions developed to help teacher trainees focus on classroom management issues embedded in a set of "real" cases. An analysis of teacher candidate…

  7. The LSST OCS scheduler design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

    2014-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

  8. Media Equipped Classrooms: Giving Attention to the Teaching Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.; Cichocki, Ronald R.

    This paper provides an overview of the Media Equipped Classroom (MEC), i.e., a centrally scheduled or departmentally scheduled teaching space with permanently installed media and classroom support technology designed to enhance the quality of teaching when properly utilized. Specific emphasis is given to the teaching station at the State…

  9. Media Equipped Classrooms: Giving Attention to the Teaching Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.; Cichocki, Ronald R.

    This paper provides an overview of the Media Equipped Classroom (MEC), i.e., a centrally scheduled or departmentally scheduled teaching space with permanently installed media and classroom support technology designed to enhance the quality of teaching when properly utilized. Specific emphasis is given to the teaching station at the State…

  10. Dispatch Scheduling of Automated Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, R. B.

    2004-05-01

    Automated telescope scheduling systems have traditionally focused on optimiz- ing the use of the observatory, minimizing overhead and maximizing shutter- open time. However, educational and amateur observatories do not enjoy con- sistently good skies. Conditions can change significantly during an observing session, leading to schedule breakage. This gives rise to the need for a scheduling system that is capable of recovering from periods of bad skies, wind, etc. without operator intervention. The concept of dispatch scheduling, where the scheduler makes a "best" choice for the next observation, will be discussed. The choice of next target must consider constraints such as mini- mum altitude or maximum air mass, moon illumination, and sky condition, as well as timing constraints that may arise from linked observations and/or target phasing requirements. It also must be as fair and efficient as prac- tical. A dispatch scheduler (ACPS) was constructed and used to perform a num- ber of simulations with both isolated and multiple/linked observations, and noisy timing. By varying "best next target" choice algorithm, these simula- tions provided insight into the behavior of a dispatch scheduler. This talk will describe the scheduler and present the results of these preliminary sim- ulations, some conclusions that arose from them, and outline areas for fur- ther research.

  11. ASTER Scheduling Prioritization Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ron

    1996-01-01

    ASTER schedules are generated by an automated scheduling system. This scheduler will generate psuedo-optimal schedules based on a priority scheme. This priority scheme is controlled by the Science Team.

  12. OPPORTUNITY CLASS PROCEDURES. PLANNING, GROUPING, SCHEDULING, ORGANIZING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MURRAY, LOIS T.; AND OTHERS

    DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS OF OPPORTUNITY CLASSES ORGANIZE THE CLASS AND PLAN FOR DAILY ACTIVITIES, THIS GUIDE INCLUDES DIRECTIONS FOR SETTING UP A SCHEDULE, PREPARING THE PLAN BOOK, AND DEVELOPING CLASSROOM PROCEDURES. CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAINABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED AND EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED PUPILS AND A DISCUSSION OF THE IDENTIFICATION…

  13. Deep Learning Experiences within a Fixed Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; Olmstead, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Two and a half years ago, elementary school librarians in the Birmingham Public School district (Troy, Michigan) had to change to a fixed schedule for half the day with kindergarten through second grade students. This change was due to cutbacks and the need for common planning time among classroom teachers. School librarians found themselves…

  14. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  15. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  16. Classroom Utilization Review. Research Monograph III [and] Classroom Utilization Comparing Spring 1984 to Spring 1985. Research Monograph VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirazi, Annmarie

    Studies were conducted to analyze classroom utilization at Oklahoma City Community College for spring and fall, 1984, and spring, 1985. During all three semesters, there were 68 general purpose classroom areas, although some of the lab areas had classes scheduled in them. Study findings revealed: (1) heaviest classroom usage was between 5:30 p.m.…

  17. Evaluating Psychosocial Classroom Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar Angulo, Luis Miguel

    A rating scale was designed to measure college classroom climate in Primary Teacher Training Colleges in Spain, as well as to describe and compare college classroom environments. Data were gathered from 33 classes of students training to be public or private primary school teachers at colleges in Sevilla and Huelva. Participant observation and…

  18. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  19. Pre-Service Teachers and Classroom Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classroom practices of five pre-service teachers from three secondary schools in a large southeastern state. Through classroom observations, survey responses, reviews of refection logs, and focus-group interview responses, we centered on the issue of developing classroom authority as a means to effective classroom

  20. Different Regions, Diverse Classrooms? a Study of Primary Classrooms in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lok, Beatrice; Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Song, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Classroom experience is shaped by a number of factors. In this paper, we report a classroom observation study in China, illustrating regional variation in students' classroom learning experiences. Through comparing and contrasting observed classroom practices in three different regions in China (Chongqing, Hong Kong and Shanghai), the paper…

  1. Different Regions, Diverse Classrooms? a Study of Primary Classrooms in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lok, Beatrice; Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Song, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Classroom experience is shaped by a number of factors. In this paper, we report a classroom observation study in China, illustrating regional variation in students' classroom learning experiences. Through comparing and contrasting observed classroom practices in three different regions in China (Chongqing, Hong Kong and Shanghai), the paper…

  2. A Comparative Assessment of Classroom Management of a High Control and a Low Control Teacher through Student Perceptions and Class Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Adem Sultan; Yildirim, Ali

    This study investigated the relationship between teachers' orientations to classroom management and their classroom behaviors. Participants were teachers and students at an English Preparatory School at Erciyes University in Turkey. Two teachers with different orientations (noninterventionist and interventionist) to classroom management were…

  3. Craters in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

  4. The Classroom Animal: Mealworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)

  5. Classroom Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankney, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)

  6. Scheduler's assistant: a tool for intelligent scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Neal L.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this project was to use expert system technology to aid in the scheduling activities performed at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The WSMR range scheduling problem presents a complex interactive environment. A human factors approach was undertaken, in that, the goal was to implement a system which mimics current WSMR scheduling procedures. The results of this project have produced a prototypic scheduling tool, called Scheduler's Assistant (SA), to aid WSMR range schedulers to generate a daily schedule. The system provides resource conflict detection and resolution advice through a series of cooperating expert systems. Immediate advantages of the system are increased safety, insurance of proper schedule execution and improved speed for turnaround time of sudden schedule changes. Additional benefits of SA include: expandability as future operations grow, allows for rapid redeployment for changing resources, promotes efficient management of WSMR resources, provides a formal representation of knowledge such that years of range personnel experience is preserved and enables the flexibility of a scheduling aid as opposed to a rigid methodology. Prior development efforts by Perceptics have produced a sophisticated expert system development tool, called Knowledge Shaper, which was used to implement all of the expert systems. The development of SA included a library of routines (the SA toolbox) to permit the manipulation of internal data tables and define a data transfer protocol to and from the SA environment. The combination of Knowledge Shaper and the SA toolbox provide a powerful set of design tools for the development of future scheduling applications.

  7. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  8. Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

  9. Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

  10. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  11. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

  12. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

  13. Classroom Observations and Reflections: Using Online Streaming Video as a Tool for Overcoming Barriers and Engaging in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; McCrory, Michael R.; Blessing, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In typical school settings, teachers are not afforded the opportunity to observe the instructional practices of their peers. Time constraints, opportunity, and willingness to participate in observational practices are just three of the factors that may limit teachers' engagement in this type of activity. To provide teachers with opportunities…

  14. The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

  15. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  16. The Classroom Experiences of Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools--1976 to 2012. What Do Data from Systematic Observation Studies Reveal about Pupils' Educational Experiences over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of an analysis of primary-aged pupils' educational experiences over a 35 year period. Data drawn from a set of large-scale systematic observation studies, conducted in the UK between 1976 and 2012, are used to describe pupils' average classroom experiences at six points in time over this period. These data are then used…

  17. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The TOF Attention Problems and DOF Intrusive scales contributed significant unique variance, over and above parent and teacher ratings, to predicting parent and teacher ratings of hyperactivity and impulsivity and predicting categorical diagnoses of ADHD-Combined type versus Non-ADHD and ADHD-Combined type versus ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive type. The TOF Oppositional and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scales contributed unique variance to predicting parent ratings of hyperactivity and impulsivity and the DOF Oppositional and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scales contributed unique variance to predicting teacher ratings of hyperactivity and impulsivity. PMID:20706918

  18. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  19. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  20. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  1. Scanning to the Beep: A Teacher-Tested Computer-Based Observational Assessment Tool for the Distance Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausafus, Cheryl O.; Torrie, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses results of a study that examined preservice and inservice teachers' use of hand-held Computer-Based Observational Assessment Tools (CBOATs) in a distance education environment using the Iowa Communications Network. The CBOAT studied was Learner Profile, which included a small bar-code reader and data management software. (LRW)

  2. Watching for Washback: Observing the Influence of the International English Language Testing System Academic Writing Test in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of washback (the influence of a test on teaching and learning) have provided insights into the complexity of educational systems and test use, especially in relation to the role of the teacher, but have given insufficient attention to the relationship between observed practices and test design features. In this article a washback…

  3. Classroom Use of Multimedia-Supported Predict--Observe--Explain Tasks in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict--observe--explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a…

  4. Rethinking Teacher Evaluation in Chicago: Lessons Learned from Classroom Observations, Principal-Teacher Conferences, and District Implementation. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartain, Lauren; Stoelinga, Sara Ray; Brown, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a two-year study of Chicago's Excellence in Teaching Pilot, which was designed to drive instructional improvement by providing teachers with evidence-based feedback on their strengths and weaknesses. The pilot consisted of training and support for principals and teachers, principal observations of teaching…

  5. Beyond Classroom Walls: Developing Innovative Work Roles for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Julie; Brinson, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The teaching profession has long been structured around full-time classroom responsibilities that are defined by the location, timing, and schedule of the school day and a ubiquitous one-teacher-per-classroom model. In most districts, the only option for highly successful teachers to advance in the profession or serve more students is to leave the…

  6. Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Frances R.

    This pamphlet suggests activities that may be used in the elementary school classroom. Chapter I lists various short plays that children can easily perform which encourage their imagination. Chapter II details a few quiet classroom games such as "I Saw,""Corral the Wild Horse,""Who Has Gone from the Room," and "Six-Man-Football Checkers." A number…

  7. Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Terri Sue

    This paper is a report of a middle-school teacher's study of classroom management. The teacher/researcher was interested in how some of the techniques in the Kovalik Integrated Thematic Instruction model of training would influence the teacher/researcher's classroom management; the effects of direct instruction within a community circle; the…

  8. Classroom Connect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Describes the World Wide Web site called Classroom Connect. Notes that it gives easy access to Global Resources and Directory of Educational Sites (GRADES), which lists only "high quality" sites. Briefly discusses 17 sites listed by GRADES, and seven sections of the Classroom Connect site. (RS)

  9. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  10. A Day in Third Grade: A Large-Scale Study of Classroom Quality and Teacher and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary School Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Observations of 780 third-grade classrooms described classroom activities, child-teacher interactions, and dimensions of the global classroom environment, which were examined in relation to structural aspects of the classroom and child behavior. 1 child per classroom was targeted for observation in relation to classroom quality and teacher and…

  11. Dishabituation Produces Interactions during Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Murphy, Eric S.; Isava, Duane M.

    2004-01-01

    McSweeney and Weatherly (1998) argued that differential habituation to the reinforcer contributes to the behavioral interactions observed during multiple schedules. The present experiment confirmed that introducing dishabituators into one component of a multiple schedule increases response rate in the other, constant, component. During baseline,…

  12. The Nonsexist Classroom. Primary Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taus, Kay; Spann, Mary Beth

    1992-01-01

    Presents strategies to help teachers keep elementary classrooms free of sex-role stereotyping. The article explains how to set the tone, observe classroom behavior, share nonsexist lessons, provide role models, modify sexist statements, connect with parents, discuss female heroes, reverse traditional roles, use nonsexist photo files, and make role…

  13. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  15. Teaching Practices and Elementary Classroom Peer Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom

  16. Pre-Service Teachers and Classroom Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classroom practices of five pre-service teachers from three secondary schools in a large southeastern state. Through classroom observations, survey responses, reviews of refection logs, and focus-group interview responses, we centered on the issue of developing classroom authority as a means to effective classroom…

  17. Classroom Ecological Inventory: A Process for Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Teachers in Tennessee are using the Classroom Ecological Inventory (CEI) to prepare students with mild disabilities for moves into mainstream settings. The CEI was field tested as part of the Peabody Reintegration Project and involves observation of the regular classroom, regular teacher interview, comparison of the special and regular classrooms,…

  18. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. H.; Balser, D. S.; Braatz, J.; Condon, J.; Creager, R. E.; McCarty, M. T.; Maddalena, R. J.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Sessoms, E.; Shelton, A. L.

    2011-07-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope's (GBT) Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS), in production use since September 2009, was designed to maximize observing efficiency while maintaining the GBT's flexibility, improving data quality, and minimizing any undue adversity for the observers. Using observing criteria, observer availability and qualifications, three-dimensional weather forecasts, and telescope state, the DSS software is capable of optimally scheduling observers 24 to 48 hours in advance on a telescope having a wide-range of capabilities in a geographical location with variable weather patterns. Recent improvements for the GBT include an expanded frequency coverage (0.390-90 GHz), proper treatment of fully sampled array receivers, increasingly diverse observing criteria, the ability to account for atmospheric instability from clouds, and new tools for scheduling staff to control and interact with generated schedules and the underlying database.

  19. Long range science scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are scheduled with the assistance of a long-range scheduling system (SPIKE) that was developed using artificial intelligence techniques. In earlier papers, the system architecture and the constraint representation and propagation mechanisms were described. The development of high-level automated scheduling tools, including tools based on constraint satisfaction techniques and neural networks is described. The performance of these tools in scheduling HST observations is discussed.

  20. Dosing Schedules for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses—the schedule—that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

  1. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  2. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  3. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple…

  4. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple…

  5. Classroom Dynamics in Adult Literacy Education. NCSALL Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal; Medina, Patsy

    The effects of adult literacy classroom dynamics on the content and structure of instruction, learning processes, and classroom behavior were examined in a study during which 20 adult literacy classes in 8 states were observed and the teachers of those classrooms were interviewed. Key findings were as follows: (1) most classroom instruction…

  6. Self-Contained Classrooms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Determining the ideal academic setting in which students can be successful continues to be one of the primary goals of educators. Is there a best classroom structure in which students can be successful? Although there is research on the academic gains in the block schedule and in traditional departmentalized settings, both of which are common in…

  7. Helping Classroom Staff Teach General Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Charles

    1979-01-01

    In Anchorage, Alaska, classroom teachers are supported in their music teaching by resource teachers who provide in-service, regular demonstration lessons, and locally developed materials. This article describes the program's schedule, costs, and staffing, as well as the role of the music resource teacher. (SJL)

  8. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. February 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Newtown, PA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of February, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, links to related World Wide Web sites, and lists of related news terms. Topics include: Monica Lewinsky scheduled to be deposed for the Senate,…

  9. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. February 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Newtown, PA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of February, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, links to related World Wide Web sites, and lists of related news terms. Topics include: Monica Lewinsky scheduled to be deposed for the Senate,…

  10. Classroom Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Daryl

    1984-01-01

    A game is used to study population control factors on a wolf pack and to explore human competition with these animals. A game board and chance cards to be photocopied for use in the classroom are provided. (DH)

  11. The Effects of Classroom Management on the Behaviors of Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Sazak-Pinar, Elif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the behaviors of the students with disabilities placed in general education classrooms differed according to the classroom management level of the teachers. The classroom management strategies of the 44 teachers were assessed by using The Proactive Classroom Management Observation Form. The…

  12. The Effects of Classroom Management on the Behaviors of Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Sazak-Pinar, Elif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the behaviors of the students with disabilities placed in general education classrooms differed according to the classroom management level of the teachers. The classroom management strategies of the 44 teachers were assessed by using The Proactive Classroom Management Observation Form. The…

  13. Observational Methods in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Charles W., Ed.; Brandt, Richard M., Ed.

    The ASCD Supervision Council established three regional conferences to (1) assure that supervisors in elementary and secondary education would have the opportunity for self-renewal through a wide variety of meaningful experiences, and (2) help supervisors and curriculum workers develop skills and competencies that could be shared with teachers.…

  14. Reflections on Practice: Classroom Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Bataineh, Adel; David, Laura; Hamann, Steven; Wiegel, Laura

    Student disengagement and overuse of direct instruction can result in lack of student motivation. This paper reflects on the practice of 4th and 5th grade teachers at a suburban elementary school that includes diverse, mainly low- and middle-income students. Because of the diversity, motivation has been very important to the school. The paper…

  15. Connellys' Classroom Cutaway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, John; Connelly, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to help classroom teachers use the educational tool of student-produced media to meet their curriculum objectives. It has been the authors' experience in three decades of utilizing this tool personally and observing other teachers utilizing this tool, across nearly all grades and course content areas, that it is very effective.…

  16. The Structured Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the organisation of the remedial classroom. The data were collected from observations and semi-structured interviews with 10 teachers in remedial classes for children seen and treated as having concentration deficits. The teachers use primarily compensatory language that places the deficits in the pupils.…

  17. A Zebra in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Devin; Morvillo, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the care and breeding of zebra fish, suggests various experiments and observations easily performed in a classroom setting, and provides some ideas to further student interest and exploration of these organisms. (DDR)

  18. The Classroom Animal: Daddy Longlegs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of the common harvestmen, or daddy longlegs, and the true spider. Provides information on harvestmen's habitats and life cycles and includes tips on housing and observing these organisms in science classrooms. (TW)

  19. Religion in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of religion in the elementary classroom. Suggests activities and discusses cautions and concerns, dealing with absolutism, using religious literature, and parental rights. Compares teaching about religion with teaching for religious observance. (CMK)

  20. Noncontingent Reinforcement: A Further Examination of Schedule Effects during Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to determine whether dense and thin NCR schedules exert different influences over behavior and whether these influences change as dense schedules are thinned. In Study 1, we observed that thin as well as dense NCR schedules effectively decreased problem behavior exhibited by 3 individuals. In Study 2, we compared the effects…

  1. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  2. Measuring Quality in Kindergarten Classrooms: Structural Analysis of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS K-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the structural validity of scores on a measure of global classroom quality, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS K-3; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). Using observational data from a sample of 417 kindergarten classrooms from the southern and mid-Atlantic regions of…

  3. Measuring Quality in Kindergarten Classrooms: Structural Analysis of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS K-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the structural validity of scores on a measure of global classroom quality, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS K-3; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). Using observational data from a sample of 417 kindergarten classrooms from the southern and mid-Atlantic regions of…

  4. An algorithm for a single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and scheduling windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    An enumeration algorithm is presented for solving a scheduling problem similar to the single machine job shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. The scheduling problem differs from the job shop problem in two ways. First, its objective is to select an optimum subset of the available tasks to be performed during a fixed period of time. Secondly, each task scheduled is constrained to occur within its particular scheduling window. The algorithm is currently being used to develop typical observational timelines for a telescope that will be operated in earth orbit. Computational times associated with timeline development are presented.

  5. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  6. Confronting the realities of implementing contextual learning ideas in a biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, Julia B.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the implementation of contextual learning practices in a biology class. Research contends that contextual learning classrooms are active learning environments where students are involved in "hands-on" team projects and the teacher assumes a facilitator role. In this student-centered classroom, students take ownership and responsibility for their own learning. This study examined these assertions and other factors that emerged as the study developed. The research methods used were qualitative. The subject for this study was a biology teacher with twenty-six years of experience who implemented contextual learning practices in two of her biology classes in the 1997--98 school year. As the teacher confronted contextual learning, we engaged in collaborative research that included fourteen interviews transcribed verbatim for analysis, classroom observations and the teacher's written reports. Throughout the study, factors developed that adversely affected contextual learning practices. These factors were discipline, curriculum, and administrative decisions over which the teacher had no control. These are examined along with their consequences for implementing a contextual classroom. Successful practices that worked in the teacher's classroom were also determined and included the teacher's "failure is not an option" policy, mandatory tutoring, behavior contracts, high expectations and teamed projects. Besides contextual learning, a key component of the study was the collaborative research process and its meaning to the subject, the researcher and future researchers who attempt this collaborative approach. The study's conclusion indicate that scheduling, multiple repeaters, discipline and the state Standards of Learning moved the teacher away from contextual learning practices to a more teacher-directed classroom. Two recommendations of this study are that further research is needed to study how the state Standards of Learning have affected instructional practices and the effect of administrative decisions that influence the level of teacher success in the classroom.

  7. The Role of Children's Ethnicity in the Relationship between Teacher Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Observed Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffrey N.; Willoughby, Michael; Valencia, Elvia Y.; Tonev, Simon T.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2005-01-01

    Significant ethnic differences have been consistently documented on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) teacher rating scales. Whether these ethnic differences result from a teacher rating bias or reflect actual classroom behavior patterns is unknown. Ethnic differences between Caucasian and African American (AA) elementary…

  8. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  9. Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaas, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

  10. Profiles of classroom behavior in high schools: associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Cash, Anne H; O'Brennan, Lindsey; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-04-01

    Although there has been considerable attention to the issue of classroom management and processes in educational reform models, there has been relatively limited research on these factors in high schools. The current study utilized observational data from 1262 classrooms in 52 high schools to examine teacher classroom management strategies and ratings of student compliance, engagement, and social disruption. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to examine specific patterns of classroom-wide student behavior in relation to teachers' use of classroom management strategies and classroom composition. The LPA revealed three distinct classroom behavioral profiles where students consistently met behavioral expectations (71%), inconsistently met expectations (23%), and were noncompliant (6%). Analyses indicated a functional association between patterns of student behavior and teachers' classroom management. In classrooms where students consistently met expectations, teachers provided more opportunities to respond and less disapproval and reactive behavioral management. Classrooms with noncompliant students had teachers who used the most disapproval and reactive behavior management. In addition, classrooms characterized as consistent had fewer males and more White students than classrooms characterized by inconsistent and noncompliant behaviors. These findings highlight the link between student patterns of behavior and teacher classroom management and have important implications for screening and professional development. PMID:25746823

  11. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters.

  12. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters. PMID:26679572

  13. Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

  14. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

  15. JPA Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This instructional guide offers classroom lesson plans that can be used by teachers or police officers with a videotape to present a "Junior Police Academy" (JPA) program for middle school students. The guide also contains lesson plans and student activities to be used independently of the videotape. Following a description of the goals of the…

  16. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

  17. Supplementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas Fir Plywood Association, Tacoma, WA.

    Three prototype portable classrooms were developed for both conventional and component construction. One of these economical units was built for $7.50 per square foot. Construction of each type is explained through use of photographs and text. Included in the presentation are--(1) cluster grouping suggestions, (2) interior and exterior…

  18. Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Carmit

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

  19. Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

  20. Classroom Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article features the latest classroom technologies namely the FLY Pentop, WriteToLearn, and a new iris scan identification system. The FLY Pentop is a computerized pen from Leapster that "magically" understands what kids write and draw on special FLY paper. WriteToLearn is an automatic grading software from Pearson Knowledge Technologies and…

  1. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  2. Distributed network scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate missions where communications resources are limited, requiring autonomous planning and execution. Unlike typical networks, spacecraft networks are also suited to automated planning and scheduling because many communications can be planned in advance.

  3. Distributed network scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    Distributed Network Scheduling is the scheduling of future communications of a network by nodes in the network. This report details software for doing this onboard spacecraft in a remote network. While prior work on distributed scheduling has been applied to remote spacecraft networks, the software reported here focuses on modeling communication activities in greater detail and including quality of service constraints. Our main results are based on a Mars network of spacecraft and include identifying a maximum opportunity of improving traverse exploration rate a factor of three; a simulation showing reduction in one-way delivery times from a rover to Earth from as much as 5 to 1.5 hours; simulated response to unexpected events averaging under an hour onboard; and ground schedule generation ranging from seconds to 50 minutes for 15 to 100 communication goals.

  4. Ecology and Development in Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowy, William; Smith, Jeanne Elser

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon observer participation in a first grade classroom, we present a systemic functional analysis of classroom communication located in relation to social semiotics, cultural historical activity theory, and ecological psychology, relating context to meaning making. Two years of observation include field notes, student assessments, audio…

  5. Ecology and Development in Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowy, William; Smith, Jeanne Elser

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon observer participation in a first grade classroom, we present a systemic functional analysis of classroom communication located in relation to social semiotics, cultural historical activity theory, and ecological psychology, relating context to meaning making. Two years of observation include field notes, student assessments, audio…

  6. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  7. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  8. Discourse in the Production of Classroom Knowledge: Reading Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heap, James L.

    1985-01-01

    Critically examines the "English ethnographic tradition's" view that classroom instruction transmits propositional knowledge. Uses observed classroom discourse to argue that instruction in fact produces knowledge, both propositional and "how-to". (MCG)

  9. Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA

    2016-01-01

    MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.

  10. Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

  11. Interactive Dynamic Mission Scheduling for ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Nagase, F.; Isobe, T.

    The Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission requires scheduling for each 6-month observation phase, further broken down into weekly schedules at a few minutes resolution. Two tools, SPIKE and NEEDLE, written in Lisp and C, use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques combined with a graphic user interface for fast creation and alteration of mission schedules. These programs consider viewing and satellite attitude constraints as well as observer-requested criteria and present an optimized set of solutions for review by the planner. Six-month schedules at 1 day resolution are created for an oversubscribed set of targets by the SPIKE software, originally written for HST and presently being adapted for EUVE, XTE and AXAF. The NEEDLE code creates weekly schedules at 1 min resolution using in-house orbital routines and creates output for processing by the command generation software. Schedule creation on both the long- and short-term scale is rapid, less than 1 day for long-term, and one hour for short-term.

  12. Are accidents scheduled. [safety management problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C.

    1976-01-01

    Two major sets of safety problems associated with project scheduling are examined. The first set involves problems resulting from the improper scheduling of the safety tasks. The second involves problems which result from inadequate attention to scheduling of those project tasks which lead to tests and operations and includes condensed schedules, modified schedules, schedule workarounds, eliminated portions of the schedules and strung out schedules.

  13. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  14. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  15. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  16. Schedule-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Tracker provides effective method for tracking tasks "past due" and/or "near term". Generates reports for each responsible staff member having one or more assigned tasks falling within two listed categories. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  17. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  18. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times of the aircraft. Findings from these initial experiments indicate that it is possible to schedule arrivals into Anchorage with minimal delays under low-visibility conditions with less disruption to high-cost, international flights.

  19. NASA revises shuttle schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    The new schedule for Space Shuttle missions and expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) calls for a 7-month delay in sending up the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA was forced to put off launching the telescope until February 1990 to keep the Magellan and Galileo missions within their narrow launch windows. The first post-Challenger shuttle launch is now scheduled for late this month. Discovery's most recent delays were due to a hydrogen leak discovered July 29 that has still not been corrected and an engine valve malfunction during an August 4 test fire.

  20. Intelligent retail logistics scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.; Jewers, K.; Codd, A.; Alcock, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.

  1. The Classroom Animal: Crickets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

  2. Back to Basics: Working with Young Children with Autism in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deris, Aaron R.; Di Carlo, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Young children with autism benefit from various adaptations made to an early childhood classroom. This article includes modifications for both teacher-directed and child-initiated activities. Adaptations are given for the classroom environment, daily schedule, sensory needs, transitions and general teaching strategies. The techniques described are…

  3. Back to Basics: Working with Young Children with Autism in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deris, Aaron R.; Di Carlo, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Young children with autism benefit from various adaptations made to an early childhood classroom. This article includes modifications for both teacher-directed and child-initiated activities. Adaptations are given for the classroom environment, daily schedule, sensory needs, transitions and general teaching strategies. The techniques described are…

  4. Scheduling Advisory. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    More and more high schools are implementing Advisory programs for a variety of reasons: personalization, academics & study skills, life success skills, self-knowledge, addressing the concern about students feeling "lost" in the high school setting, first line of contact for the parents, and portfolios. But finding a way to schedule advisory can…

  5. Round Robin Schedules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a computer program written in BASIC that covers round-robin schedules for team matches in competitions. The program was originally created to help teams in a tennis league play one match against every other team. Part of the creation of the program involved use of modulo arithmetic. (MP)

  6. Inside the Pre-Kindergarten Door: Classroom Climate and Instructional Time Allocation in Tulsa's Pre-K Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah A.; Gormley, William T.; Lowenstein, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This observational study of 106 pre-K classrooms in Tulsa, Oklahoma provides descriptive data on children's classroom experiences--classroom climate and exposure to academic instruction--and comparisons of Tulsa classrooms with a multi-state sample of pre-K and Head Start classrooms led by comparably educated teachers. We also examined teacher and…

  7. The effect of mathematical games on on-task behaviours in the primary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Leicha A.

    2012-12-01

    A challenge for primary classroom teachers is to maintain students' engagement with learning tasks while catering for their diverse needs, capabilities and interests. Multiple pedagogical approaches are employed to promote on-task behaviours in the mathematics classroom. There is a general assumption by educators that games ignite children's on-task behaviours, but there is little systemically researched empirical data to support this claim. This paper compares students' on-task behaviours during non-digital game-playing lessons compared with non-game-playing lessons. Six randomly selected grade 5 and 6 students (9-12 year olds) were observed during ten mathematics lessons. A total of 2,100 observations were recorded via an observational schedule and analysed by comparing the percentage of exhibited behaviours. The study found the children spent 93 % of the class-time exhibiting on-task engagement during the game-playing lessons compared with 72 % during the non-game-playing lessons. The game-playing lessons also promoted greater incidents of student talk related to the mathematical task (34 %) compared with the non-game-playing lessons (11 %). These results support the argument that games serve to increase students' time-on-task in mathematics lessons. Therefore, it is contended that use of games explicitly addressing the mathematical content being taught in a classroom is one way to increase engagement and, in turn, potential for learning.

  8. A Measure of Teacher Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soar, Robert S.

    This document reports on an observation instrument and data obtained over 2 years as part of the national evaluation of project Follow Through. Data was collected from 70 kindergarten and first grade classrooms involved 7 different experimental programs and including 2 comparison (control) classrooms. The primary instrument used to measure teacher…

  9. An Ethnographic Analysis of Open Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirabayshi, Richard

    A study to investigate the significance of teacher decisions concerning the social and physical dimensions of the Open Classroom was conducted. Preliminary observation reviewed teacher goals and decisions for the Open Classroom. This research is based upon Hall's theory of culture reflecting the communication model. There are five basic structural…

  10. Teaching Practices and Elementary Classroom Peer Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom…

  11. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom into Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbas, Maria Potes Santa-Clara

    2006-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger project in the area of research. The main purpose of this mediated discourse was to implement, observe and analyse experiences of teachers in a training project developed for two different settings in the classroom. The first was between international classrooms through cyberspace and the second was a cyberspace…

  12. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom into Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbas, Maria Potes Santa-Clara

    2006-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger project in the area of research. The main purpose of this mediated discourse was to implement, observe and analyse experiences of teachers in a training project developed for two different settings in the classroom. The first was between international classrooms through cyberspace and the second was a cyberspace…

  13. Promoting Excellence: Some Classroom Evaluation Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Archibald P.; Sydnor, Darlean

    Following a brief overview of literature on excellence in the classroom, the shortcomings of objective tests as means for evaluating classroom excellence are discussed as well as the need for evaluation alternatives. Descriptions are given of evaluation alternatives, some of which focus upon reading and writing achievement: (1) observation of…

  14. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jennifer Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the enactment of culturally responsive teaching practices (Gay, 2010) within two African American elementary teachers' classrooms. Teacher interviews, classroom observations, and classroom documents were collected and analyzed to examine the supports and barriers these teachers encountered as they attempted to…

  15. Effective Factors in Interactions within Japanese EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

    2013-01-01

    Classroom interactional patterns depend on some contextual, cultural and local factors in addition to the methodologies employed in the classroom. In order to delineate such factors, the focus of classroom interaction research needs to shift from the observables to the unobservables like teachers' and learners' psychological states and…

  16. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  17. Classroom Management. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association Research Department, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In learning-centered classrooms, the emphasis of classroom management shifts from maintaining behavioral control to fostering student engagement and self-regulation as well as community responsibility. This brief describes classroom management in "learning centered" classrooms, where practices are consistent with recent research knowledge about…

  18. Methodologies for building robust schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John H.

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is the name of a Computer Aided Scheduling System designed and built for NASA. COMPASS can be used to develop schedule of activities based upon the temporal relationships of the activities and their resource requirements. COMPASS uses this information, and guided by the user, develops precise start and stop times for the activities. In actual practice however, it is impossible to know with complete certainty what the actual durations of the scheduled activities will really be. The best that one can hope for is knowledge of the probability distribution for the durations. This paper investigates methodologies for using a scheduling tool like COMPASS that is based upon definite values for the resource requirements, while building schedules that remain valid in the face of the schedule execution perturbations. Representations for the schedules developed by these methodologies are presented, along with a discussion of the algorithm that could be used by a computer onboard a spacecraft to efficiently monitor and execute these schedules.

  19. Classroom Re-Design to Facilitate Student Learning: A Case Study of Changes to a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perks, Tom; Orr, Doug; Alomari, Elham

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the physical aspects of a particular university classroom, and what affect specific changes to the classroom had on the perceptions of students, instructors and observers regarding the room as an effective learning space. We compare survey and focus group data collected from students taking courses in the classroom prior…

  20. An integrated scheduling and program management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D.; Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    An integrated scheduling and program management system is being developed for the MMT Observatory (MMTO), Arizona, USA. A systems engineering approach is used to combine existing and new relational databases, spreadsheets, file storage systems, and web-based user interfaces into a single unified system. An overview of software design, data management, user interfaces, and techniques for performance assessment is presented. Goals of this system include streamlined data management and an optimized user experience. The MMTO has over a dozen different telescope configurations, including three secondary mirrors and a wide range of observing instruments. Scheduling is complex for the varying telescope configurations, limited available observing time, and appropriate astronomic conditions (e.g., lunar phase) for each science project. Scheduled telescope configurations can be used to perform safety checks of actual configuration during telescope operations. Programmatic information is automatically input into nightly telescope operator (TO) logs by the system. The TO's provide additional information into the system on telescope usage, observing conditions (e.g., weather conditions), and observatory closure (e.g., from instrument malfunction or inclement weather). All of this information is synthesized to assess telescope and observatory performance. Web interfaces to the system can be used by observers to submit information, such as travel plans, instrumentation requirements, and observing catalogs. A service request (SR) (i.e., trouble report) system has also been developed for tracking operational issues. The specific needs of the MMTO have been met through in-house software development of this integrated scheduling and program management system.

  1. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed. PMID:26150349

  2. Transportation Baseline Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

    2000-01-01

    The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

  3. NASA launch schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a record-setting launch schedule for 1984—10 space shuttle flights (see Table 1), 10 satellite deployments from the space shuttle in orbit and 12 unmanned missions using expendable launch vehicles. Also scheduled is the launch on March 1 for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of Landsat D‧, the nation's second earth resources satellite.The launch activity will begin February 3 with the launch of shuttle mission 41-B using the orbiter Challenger. Two communications satellites will be deployed from 41-B: Westar-VI, for Western Union, and Palapa B-2 for the government of Indonesia. The 8-day mission will feature the first shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the first flight of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, a self-contained, propulsive backpack that will allow astronauts to move about in space without being tethered to the spacecraft.

  4. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... and develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a ...

  5. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surloff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

  6. FlexMod Scheduling Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

  7. Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

    2006-01-01

    conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

  8. The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike to other problem domains, and plans for the future evolution of the system.

  9. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books.... (Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With...

  10. MESA: Mercator scheduler and archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, Florian; Prins, Saskia; Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Perez Padilla, Jesus; Van Winckel, Hans; Aerts, Conny

    2012-09-01

    We have developed an observing scheduling and archive system for the 1.2 meter Mercator Telescope. The goal was to optimize the specific niche of this modern small telescope in observational astrophysics: the building-up of long-term time series of photometric or high-resolution spectroscopic data with appropriate sampling for any given scientific program. This system allows PIs to easily submit their technical requirements and keep track of the progress of the observing programmes. The scheduling system provides the observer with an optimal schedule for the night which takes into account the current observing conditions as well as the priorities and requirements of the programmes in the queue. The observer can conveniently plan an observing night but also quickly adapt it to changing conditions. The archiving system automatically processes new files as they are created, including reduced data. It extracts the metadata and performs the normalization. A user can query, inspect and retrieve observing data. The progress of individual programmes, including timeline and reduced data plots can be seen at any time. Our MESA project is based on free and open source software (FOSS) using the Python programming language. The system is fully integrated with the Mercator Observing Control System1 (MOCS).

  11. Simulation of an Optimum Multilevel Dynamic Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Neetu; B. Garg, R.

    2013-08-01

    CPU scheduling has valiant effect on resource utilization as well as overall quality of the system. Round Robin algorithm performs optimally in time shared systems, but it performs more number of context switches, larger waiting time and larger response time. In order to simulate the behavior of various CPU scheduling algorithms and to improve Round Robin scheduling algorithm using dynamic time slice concept, in this paper we produce the implementation of new CPU scheduling algorithm called An Optimum Multilevel Dynamic Round Robin Scheduling (OMDRRS), which calculates intelligent time slice and warps after every round of execution. The results display the robustness of this software, especially for academic, research and experimental use, as well as proving the desirability and efficiency of the probabilistic algorithm over the other existing techniques and it is observed that this OMDRRS projects good performance as compared to the other existing CPU scheduling algorithms.

  12. The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom.

    PubMed

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Tim W; Grimm, Kevin J; Nathanson, Lori; Brock, Laura L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of multiple classroom observations during the kindergarten year. Children's adaptive classroom behavior in kindergarten was assessed through teacher report and classroom observations: Teachers rated children's cognitive and behavioral self-control and work habits during the spring of the kindergarten year; observers rated children's engagement and measured off-task behavior at 2-month intervals from November to May. Hierarchical linear models revealed that children's self-regulation upon school entry in a direct assessment related to teachers' report of behavioral self-control, cognitive self-control, and work habits in the spring of the kindergarten year. Classroom quality, particularly teachers' effective classroom management, was linked to children's greater behavioral and cognitive self-control, children's higher behavioral engagement, and less time spent off-task in the classroom. Classroom quality did not moderate the relation between children's self-regulation upon school entry and children's adaptive classroom behaviors in kindergarten. The discussion considers the implications of classroom management for supporting children's early development of behavioral skills that are important in school settings. PMID:19586173

  13. A Study of Sex Equity in Classroom Interaction. Final Report: Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Harris, Abigail M.

    The first volume of a two-volume report on the study of sex equity in classroom interaction presents findings of previous studies of classroom interaction, methods used in the study, observations of classroom interactions, possible causes of sex segregation, sex differences in classroom leadership, and intervention implementation effects. The…

  14. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  15. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  16. Creating a Positive Classroom Culture: Minute by Minute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a peek into high school math teacher Ali Wright's typical school day, which includes time-tested strategies that she uses to build a positive culture in her classroom. Scheduled timeframes and activities include before school starts, five minutes before class, during announcements, during class, last five minutes of class,…

  17. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple factor structures were found for both teacher- and classroom assistant–rated scales, with one-factor solutions for both scales. Paired t tests revealed that on average, classroom assistants rated classroom cohesion stronger than teachers. The CCS may be an effective tool for measuring cohesion between classroom staff and may have an important impact on various clinical and implementation outcomes in school settings. PMID:26213443

  18. CRI planning and scheduling for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarup, Mads

    1994-10-01

    Computer Resources International (CRI) has many years of experience in developing space planning and scheduling systems for the European Space Agency. Activities range from AIT/AIV planning over mission planning to research in on-board autonomy using advanced planning and scheduling technologies in conjunction with model based diagnostics. This article presents four projects carried out for ESA by CRI with various subcontractors: (1) DI, Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems is an on-going research project; (2) GMPT, Generic Mission Planning Toolset, a feasibility study concluded in 1993; (3) OPTIMUM-AIV, Open Planning Tool for AIV, development of a knowledge based AIV planning and scheduling tool ended in 1992; and (4) PlanERS-1, development of an AI and knowledge-based mission planning prototype for the ERS-1 earth observation spacecraft ended in 1991.

  19. CRI planning and scheduling for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarup, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Computer Resources International (CRI) has many years of experience in developing space planning and scheduling systems for the European Space Agency. Activities range from AIT/AIV planning over mission planning to research in on-board autonomy using advanced planning and scheduling technologies in conjunction with model based diagnostics. This article presents four projects carried out for ESA by CRI with various subcontractors: (1) DI, Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems is an on-going research project; (2) GMPT, Generic Mission Planning Toolset, a feasibility study concluded in 1993; (3) OPTIMUM-AIV, Open Planning Tool for AIV, development of a knowledge based AIV planning and scheduling tool ended in 1992; and (4) PlanERS-1, development of an AI and knowledge-based mission planning prototype for the ERS-1 earth observation spacecraft ended in 1991.

  20. Developing Stimulus Control of Young Children's Requests to Teachers: Classwide Applications of Multiple Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Cammilleri, Anthony P; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    Children may recruit their teachers' attention at undesirably high rates or at inconvenient times. Tiger and Hanley (2004) described a multiple-schedule procedure to reduce ill-timed requests, which involved providing children with two distinct continuous signals that were correlated with periods in which teacher attention was either available or unavailable. The current study extended the application of multiple schedules by evaluating the effectiveness of the procedure when implemented by private-school teachers in 3 elementary classrooms. Following the introduction of the multiple schedules, student approaches toward their teacher were maintained during desirable periods but were minimized during undesirable periods. PMID:18595297

  1. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  2. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our work and results may be outdated when this paper is published.

  3. Parallel Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koole, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of classroom interaction as a multi-party and multi-activity phenomenon. On the basis of video-recorded lessons in secondary education schools in the Netherlands, observational records were made of the behaviour of individual students throughout lessons. The main argument in this paper is that when students engage in…

  4. Classroom Interaction and Pupil Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenlander, Lester

    Data was gathered in conjunction with another study regarding the relationships between classroom interaction and constructive student attitudes. Using Flanders' categories, observations were made in two sections (the highest 20 percent and lowest 20 percent) of a departmentalized sixth grade. Each of four teachers (science, math, social studies,…

  5. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALLOWAY, CHARLES

    NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR CONSISTS MAINLY OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, GESTURES AND BODY MOVEMENTS, AND VOCAL INTONATIONS AND INFLECTIONS. IN ORDER TO PROVIDE A MODEL FOR OBSERVING TEACHER NONVERBAL CLASSROOM ACTIVITY, 12 CATEGORIES WERE DEVELOPED THROUGH THE USE OF TWO DIMENSIONS--ENCOURAGING TO INHIBITING AND TEACHER INITIATED TO TEACHER RESPONSE. THREE…

  6. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  7. A Read-Aloud for Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Judy S.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from Anne Dillard's "Pilgrim at Tinker Creek" suitable for reading aloud in science classrooms. Offers suggestions that combine the observations of both a science and a language arts teacher. (RS)

  8. Implementation of a Posted Schedule to Increase Class-Wide Interobserver Agreement Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Stefanie; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.; Maguire, Helena; Marquardt, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of an antecedent intervention in the form of a daily posted schedule on the interobserver agreement (IOA) assessment of educational goals implemented within a classroom at a private school serving individuals with disabilities. During baseline, the percentage of academic goals with interobserver agreement…

  9. The Effect of Immersion Scheduling on Academic Performance and Students' Ratings of Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Curl, Layton S.; Broussard, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, little research has investigated the effects of immersion scheduling on the psychology classroom. Therefore, we sought to compare academic performance of students in 2-week immersion psychology courses to that of students in traditional 16-week courses. In Study 1, students who received instruction in a 2-week immersion…

  10. Course Scheduling to Find the Minimum Cost Set of Facilities Required.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccatore, Luis A.

    The problem of determining the quantity of classroom, laboratories and instructors to train sections of students attending numerous distinct courses in a school such as the Fleet Ballistic Missile School is considered. A procedure is developed for determining feasible schedules in order to graduate a fixed number of trainees over time while…

  11. Course Scheduling to Find the Minimum Cost Set of Facilities Required.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccatore, Luis A.

    The problem of determining the quantity of classroom, laboratories and instructors to train sections of students attending numerous distinct courses in a school such as the Fleet Ballistic Missile School is considered. A procedure is developed for determining feasible schedules in order to graduate a fixed number of trainees over time while…

  12. The Effect of Immersion Scheduling on Academic Performance and Students' Ratings of Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Curl, Layton S.; Broussard, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, little research has investigated the effects of immersion scheduling on the psychology classroom. Therefore, we sought to compare academic performance of students in 2-week immersion psychology courses to that of students in traditional 16-week courses. In Study 1, students who received instruction in a 2-week immersion…

  13. Personalized Education; Solving a Group Formation and Scheduling Problem for Educational Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahargam, Sanaz; Erdos, Dóra; Bestavros, Azer; Terzi, Evimaria

    2015-01-01

    Whether teaching in a classroom or a Massive Online Open Course it is crucial to present the material in a way that benefits the audience as a whole. We identify two important tasks to solve towards this objective; (1) group students so that they can maximally benefit from peer interaction and (2) find an optimal schedule of the educational…

  14. Collaborative Classroom Management in a Co-Taught Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytivaara, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers manage their classroom in co-taught lessons. The data were collected by observing and interviewing a pair of primary school teachers. The most important influence of collaboration on classroom management seemed to be the emotional support of another adult, and the opportunity to use different…

  15. Collaborative Classroom Management in a Co-Taught Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytivaara, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers manage their classroom in co-taught lessons. The data were collected by observing and interviewing a pair of primary school teachers. The most important influence of collaboration on classroom management seemed to be the emotional support of another adult, and the opportunity to use different…

  16. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  17. Spike: Artificial intelligence scheduling for Hubble space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Sponsler, Jeff; Vick, Shon; Jackson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spacecraft resources is essential, but the accompanying scheduling problems are often computationally intractable and are difficult to approximate because of the presence of numerous interacting constraints. Artificial intelligence techniques were applied to the scheduling of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This presents a particularly challenging problem since a yearlong observing program can contain some tens of thousands of exposures which are subject to a large number of scientific, operational, spacecraft, and environmental constraints. New techniques were developed for machine reasoning about scheduling constraints and goals, especially in cases where uncertainty is an important scheduling consideration and where resolving conflicts among conflicting preferences is essential. These technique were utilized in a set of workstation based scheduling tools (Spike) for HST. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. High level scheduling strategies using both rule based and neural network approaches were developed. While the specific constraints implemented are those most relevant to HST, the framework developed is far more general and could easily handle other kinds of scheduling problems. The concept and implementation of the Spike system are described along with some experiments in adapting Spike to other spacecraft scheduling domains.

  18. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  19. DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

  20. Writing in the elementary science classroom: Teacher beliefs and practices within a narrowing curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leffler, Angela K.

    The narrowed curriculum continues to be challenging for science education as teachers strive to impart content that is on the high-stakes assessments. This Qualitative multiple-case study investigated four experienced, elementary classroom teachers' use of writing in science. It was designed to provide insight into teaching beliefs and practices of how teachers use writing in science opportunities within a narrowing curriculum. Triangulation was achieved through teacher interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis. Three major findings were evident through careful examination of data which is representative of the teacher participants within this study: 1.) Writing is combined with dialogue, multiple applications, activity and audience, 2.) Writing is used as an assessment and as a means to enhance learning, 3.) Writing is prioritized in science with differing schedule approaches. Although these are the major findings there were exceptions that were unique to each individual participant. The findings of this study can inform pre-service, novice and experienced classroom teachers on how to interconnect the two subject areas of writing and science to promote enhancement of learning. By gaining this information, it could diminish the global achievement gap in science.

  1. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  2. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  3. Creating Respectful Classroom Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Regina; Pedro, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Respect is a critical variable in education. It is critical to each individual child in the classroom environment as well as to the teaching and learning that takes place in the classroom. Children learn by example. Where do they get their examples? This article explores the parameters of teaching and encouraging respect in classrooms for young…

  4. Analysing Bilingual Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Ali S.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper analyses and evaluates spoken discourse in the bilingual classroom at Damascus University. It looks at the mechanism of classroom interaction: the use of questions, initiations, repetitions and expansions. Although this paper deals with classroom interaction at Damascus University, it is believed that the results arrived at may…

  5. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  6. Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

  7. Classroom Strategies: Classroom Management Systems. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speiss, Madeleine F.; And Others

    Classroom management is defined as procedures for arranging the classroom environment so that children learn what the teacher wants to teach them in the healthiest and most effective way possible. The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory presents a discussion of these procedures as they relate to social controls and components of…

  8. Classrooms 2000: Innovative Approaches to Classroom Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoomer, Elia

    2000-01-01

    Describes the next generation of technology classrooms based on experiences at Lehigh University (Pennsylvania). Topics include learner-centered rather than instructor-centered instruction; size; interactivity; and technology features, emphasizing flexibility and interactive technology. An appendix lists selected classroom technology Web sites and…

  9. Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

  10. Coordinated Science Campaign Scheduling for Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgington, Will; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer; Williams, Jenny; Carlson, Jean; Fleming, Damian; Wood, Terri; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Future Earth observing missions will study different aspects and interacting pieces of the Earth's eco-system. Scientists are designing increasingly complex, interdisciplinary campaigns to exploit the diverse capabilities of multiple Earth sensing assets. In addition, spacecraft platforms are being configured into clusters, trains, or other distributed organizations in order to improve either the quality or the coverage of observations. These simultaneous advances in the design of science campaigns and in the missions that will provide the sensing resources to support them offer new challenges in the coordination of data and operations that are not addressed by current practice. For example, the scheduling of scientific observations for satellites in low Earth orbit is currently conducted independently by each mission operations center. An absence of an information infrastructure to enable the scheduling of coordinated observations involving multiple sensors makes it difficult to execute campaigns involving multiple assets. This paper proposes a software architecture and describes a prototype system called DESOPS (Distributed Earth Science Observation Planning and Scheduling) that will address this deficiency.

  11. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Cláudio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration. PMID:26529697

  12. Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Delivered by Teachers for Reducing Problem Behavior in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlin, Michelle; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules on the disruptive behavior of 4 students in special education classrooms were studied. Attention provided on FT schedules in the context of a multiple-baseline design across participants substantially decreased all students' challenging behavior. Disruptive behavior was maintained at levels…

  13. Scheduling IT staff at a bank: a mathematical programming approach.

    PubMed

    Labidi, M; Mrad, M; Gharbi, A; Louly, M A

    2014-01-01

    We address a real-world optimization problem: the scheduling of a Bank Information Technologies (IT) staff. This problem can be defined as the process of constructing optimized work schedules for staff. In a general sense, it requires the allocation of suitably qualified staff to specific shifts to meet the demands for services of an organization while observing workplace regulations and attempting to satisfy individual work preferences. A monthly shift schedule is prepared to determine the shift duties of each staff considering shift coverage requirements, seniority-based workload rules, and staff work preferences. Due to the large number of conflicting constraints, a multiobjective programming model has been proposed to automate the schedule generation process. The suggested mathematical model has been implemented using Lingo software. The results indicate that high quality solutions can be obtained within a few seconds compared to the manually prepared schedules. PMID:24772032

  14. Designing for the Active Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Donohue, Amy; Davis, Robert G.

    2015-02-01

    The article discusses trends in classroom design and then transitions to a discussion of the future of the classroom and how the lighting industry needs to be preparing to meet the needs of the future classroom. The OSU Classroom building as an example throughout, first discussing how trends in classroom design were incorporated into the Classroom Building and then discussing how future lighting systems could enhance the Classroom Building, which is a clear departure from the actual lighting design and current technology.

  15. Web-based irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, few web-based irrigation scheduling tools are available for the humid growing environments of the Mid-South. Common irrigation scheduling systems rely on soil or weather data to estimate crop water use, and are more commonly calibrated for dry growing environments. Increasing use of water...

  16. Constraint-Based Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene

    1995-01-01

    Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

  17. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  18. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  19. Block Schedule: Breaking the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mike

    As of 1996, Chaparral High School in Las Vegas, Nevada, was in the fourth year of a radical restructuring effort. The school changed from a 6-period day, composed of 51-minute periods, to an alternating day schedule, composed of 3 102-minute periods per day. This report describes how the school developed and implemented the new schedule. Faculty…

  20. Treating Non-Retentive Encopresis with Rewarded Scheduled Toilet Visits

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Richard E; Roberts, Michael C; Vernberg, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rewarded scheduled toilet sits on non-retentive encopretic behavior of an elementary-school student receiving services for serious emotional disturbance. A multidisciplinary team implemented the 8-week intervention using a multiple baseline across settings design. The results showed an increase in sitting on the toilet and a decline in encopretic episodes in both school and home settings. These findings support the use of a behavioral intervention for children with significant behavioral disorders within a classroom setting. PMID:22477690

  1. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  2. Hierarchical scheduling method of UAV resources for emergency surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junxiao; Zhu, Qing; Shen, Fuqiang; Miao, Shuangxi; Cao, Zhenyu; Weng, Qiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Traditional mission scheduling methods are unable to meet the timeliness requirements of emergency surveying. Different size and overlaps of different missions lead to inefficient scheduling and poor mission returns. Especially for UAVs, based on their agile and flexible ability, the scheduling result becomes diversiform; as affected by environment and unmanned aerial vehicle performance, different scheduling will lead to different time costs and mission payoffs. An effective scheduling solution is to arrange the UAVs reasonably to complete as many as missions possible with better quality and satisfaction of different demands. This paper proposes a method for mission decomposition or aggregation to generate a mission unit for specific UAVs based on the spatio-temporal constraints of different missions and UAV observation ability demands. In this way, the problems of lack or redundancy of resource scheduling, which can be caused by mission overload, various information demands and spatial overlapping will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, the global efficiency evaluation function is built by considering typical scheduling objectives, such as mission returns, priority and load balancing of resources. Then, an improved ant colony algorithm is designed to acquire an optimal scheduling scheme and the dynamic adjustment strategy is employed. Finally, the correctness and validity are demonstrated by the simulation experiment.

  3. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community.

  4. Scheduling MEMS manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Francis E.; Lee, Loo H.; Wang, Lixin

    2000-04-01

    This paper focuses on the production scheduling in MEMS manufacturing. The whole MEMS production process can be broken into 3 sub-processes, i.e., the front-end process, the wafer cap process and the back-end process. Every wafer processed by the front end process needs to be bonded with a wafer cap that are manufactured by the wafer cap process, and then it will be sent to the back-end process. Therefore how to synchronize the release of wafers into the front end as well as the wafer cap process becomes an important topic. An ineffective coordination will create larger WHIP and longer cycle time. In this paper, four different synchronization rules are developed and they are evaluated together with seven dispatching rules. The performance measures considered are cycle time, throughput rate and WHIP. A visual interactive simulation model is constructed to imitate the production line. The simulation results indicate that the synchronization rules have more significant impact than the dispatching rules on the performance of MEMS manufacturing.

  5. Scheduling on the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, A.

    2012-09-01

    The newly built LOFAR telescope (www.lofar.org) is a multi-purpose sensor array. Its main application area is astronomy where it functions as a digital radio interferometer telescope at low frequencies (10-250 MHz). LOFAR currently consists of 24 core stations, 9 remote stations and 8 international stations that have been validated and are fully operational that are coupled together via a proprietary high speed optical network. The fast amount of data being produced runs up to 10 terabit per second. Via the optical network the generated data is sent to an IBM Blue Gene supercomputer where it is further processed. LOFAR has ten different antenna modes, is supporting multiple independent station beams, and is able to perform parallel observations observing multiple targets at once. Currently up to hundreds of observations per week are performed and this number is still increasing. Producing an observational schedule that fulfills all system and operational constraints with so many observations every week becomes a daunting task for a human. Because of the required flexibility and the wish to schedule as compact as possible an automated LOFAR Scheduler has been built. This LOFAR Scheduler software ‘knows’ all relevant system parameters and the software scheduling constraints of the LOFAR telescope. The LOFAR Scheduler is supporting the LOFAR telescope operators so that they are able to quickly choose between different observing strategies. The Scheduler also supports the operators by keeping track of the current status of the LOFAR hardware such as the stations and storage nodes and is able to quickly adapt the schedule if any of it fails.

  6. Malaysian Primary Teachers' Classroom Practice of Teaching and Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Hashimah Mohd.; Ismail, Zurida; Raper, George

    2004-01-01

    The present study discusses the findings from a research that was conducted involving fourteen teachers in a primary school. In the study, the teachers' classroom practices of teaching and learning science were observed and analysed. The data gathering procedures included 23 classroom observations and analysed by means of qualitative data…

  7. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint Propagation techniques. A simulation platform, an analysis tool and different test case scenarios for CTA were developed to test the performance of the scheduler and are also described.

  8. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  9. Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

  10. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  11. Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

    2007-01-01

    A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

  12. Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

    2007-01-01

    A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

  13. Communication Apprehension and Classroom Apprehension in Nigerian Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaniran, Bolanle A.; Roach, K. David

    1994-01-01

    Finds significant correlation between student communication apprehension and student classroom apprehension. Reveals significant differences in classroom apprehension by class type, but no significant differences in communication apprehension by choice of occupation. Finds perceptions of academic performance negatively associated with classroom

  14. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Present and future hydropower scheduling in Statkraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, O.

    2012-12-01

    Statkraft produces close to 40 TWH in an average year and is one of the largest hydropower producers in Europe. For hydropower producers the scheduling of electricity generation is the key to success and this depend on optimal use of the water resources. The hydrologist and his forecasts both on short and on long terms are crucial to this success. The hydrological forecasts in Statkraft and most hydropower companies in Scandinavia are based on lumped models and the HBV concept. But before the hydrological model there is a complex system for collecting, controlling and correcting data applied in the models and the production scheduling and, equally important, routines for surveillance of the processes and manual intervention. Prior to the forecasting the states in the hydrological models are updated based on observations. When snow is present in the catchments snow surveys are an important source for model updating. The meteorological forecast is another premise provider to the hydrological forecast and to get as precise meteorological forecast as possible Statkraft hires resources from the governmental forecasting center. Their task is to interpret the meteorological situation, describe the uncertainties and if necessary use their knowledge and experience to manually correct the forecast in the hydropower production regions. This is one of several forecast applied further in the scheduling process. Both to be able to compare and evaluate different forecast providers and to ensure that we get the best available forecast, forecasts from different sources are applied. Some of these forecasts have undergone statistical corrections to reduce biases. The uncertainties related to the meteorological forecast have for a long time been approached and described by ensemble forecasts. But also the observations used for updating the model have a related uncertainty. Both to the observations itself and to how well they represent the catchment. Though well known, these uncertainties have thus far been handled superficially. Statkraft has initiated a program called ENKI to approach these issues. A part of this program is to apply distributed models for hydrological forecasting. Developing methodologies to handle uncertainties in the observations, the meteorological forecasts, the model itself and how to update the model with this information are other parts of the program. Together with energy price expectations and information about the state of the energy production system the hydrological forecast is input to the next step in the production scheduling both on short and long term. The long term schedule for reservoir filling is premise provider to the short term optimizing of water. The long term schedule is based on the actual reservoir levels, snow storages and a long history of meteorological observations and gives an overall schedule at a regional level. Within the regions a more detailed tool is used for short term optimizing of the hydropower production Each reservoir is scheduled taking into account restrictions in the water courses and cost of start and stop of aggregates. The value of the water is calculated for each reservoir and reflects the risk of water spillage. This compared to the energy price determines whether an aggregate will run or not. In a gradually more complex energy system with relatively lower regulated capacity this is an increasingly more challenging task.

  16. Making Observations Interactive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Lillie R.; Moyette, Gail; Sohn, Sheila Cutler

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on observational assessment in student learning of mathematical concepts in two sixth grade classrooms. Many of the class activities involved algorithms and open-ended problems in which students worked in collaborative groups, pairs, or individually. (MM)

  17. 29 CFR 1952.231 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Kentucky § 1952.231 Developmental schedule. The Kentucky state plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule as...

  18. Preliminary design of condenser cleansing schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Warberg, J.; Foraker, E.K.; Civera, A.G.; Daley, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Analysis of the operations of a fossil power plant for a 5-year period revealed a year-round trend of operating inefficiently due to elevated condenser back pressure, particularly during the summer months. A further 5-month longitudinal study between May and September of an individual condenser unit revealed a positive correlation between increasing inlet-circulating water temperature and above-design condenser back pressure. Moreover, condenser cleansing resulted in a return to approximately the design operating condition. A physical analysis of increased heat-rate and lost power generation from inefficient condenser back pressure was accomplished. Based on these observations and economic analysis, a preliminary cleansing schedule for periods of increasing circulating water temperature was derived. Further studies are planned to validate the proposed cleansing schedule.

  19. Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgĺ; Thrailkill, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

  20. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  1. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents computational results of these large-scale instances. To validate the models and solution algorithms developed, this thesis also compares the daily flight schedules that it designs with the schedules of the existing airlines. Furthermore, it creates instances that represent different economic and fuel-prices conditions and derives schedules under these different conditions. In addition, it discusses the implication of using new aircraft in the future flight schedules. Finally, future research in three areas---model, computational method, and simulation for validation---is proposed.

  2. Considering the Chalkless Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares some personal reflections on several years of integrating educational technology into mathematics courses while retaining the direct interaction strengths of the traditional classroom.

  3. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

  4. Calling All Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents examples of innovative public/private partnerships that have successfully provided affordable telephone access to school classrooms. Contact information for each of the programs is provided. (GR)

  5. Planning and scheduling for success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzanera, Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

  6. Profile-assisted instruction scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.Y.; Mahlke, S.A.; Warter, N.J.; Anik, S.; Wen-Mei W. Hwu

    1994-04-01

    Instruction schedulers for superscalar and VLIW processors must expose sufficient instruction-level parallelism to the hardware in order to achieve high performance. Traditional compiler instructure scheduling techniques typically take into account the constraints imposed by all execution scenarios in the program. However, there are additional opportunities to increase instruction-level parallelism for the frequent execution scenarios at the expense of the less frequent ones. Profile information identifies these important execution scenarios in a program. In this paper, two major categories of profile information are studied: control-flow and memory-dependence. Profile-assisted code scheduling techniques have been incorporated into the IMPACT-I compiler. These techniques are acyclic global scheduling and software pipelining. This paper describes the scheduling algorithms, highlights the modifications required to use profile information, and explains the hardware and compiler support for dealing with hazards that arise from aggressive use of profile information. The effectiveness of these profile-based scheduling techniques is evaluated for a range of super-scalar and VLIW processors.

  7. Non-clairvoyant Scheduling Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DĂĽrr, Christoph; Nguyen, Kim Thang

    In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

  8. Spitzer Operations: Scheduling the Out Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, William A.; Effertz, Mark J.; Fisher, Mark E.; Garcia, Lisa J.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Mannings, Vincent; McElroy, Douglas B.; Scire, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Spitzer Warm Mission operations have remained robust and exceptionally efficient since the cryogenic mission ended in mid-2009. The distance to the now exceeds 1 AU, making telecommunications increasingly difficult; however, analysis has shown that two-way communication could be maintained through at least 2017 with minimal loss in observing efficiency. The science program continues to emphasize the characterization of exoplanets, time domain studies, and deep surveys, all of which can impose interesting scheduling constraints. Recent changes have significantly improved on-board data compression, which both enables certain high volume observations and reduces Spitzer's demand for competitive Deep Space Network resources.

  9. The TJO-OAdM Robotic Observatory: the scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Casteels, Kevin; Ribas, Ignasi; Francisco, Xavier

    2010-07-01

    The Joan Oró Telescope at the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (TJO - OAdM) is a small-class observatory working under completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by its reliability in responding to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. But there is another key point when deciding how the system performs as a robot: the capability to adapt the scheduled observation to actual conditions. The scheduler represents a fundamental element to fully achieve an intelligent response at any time. Its main task is the mid- and short-term time optimization and it has a direct effect on the scientific return achieved by the observatory. We present a description of the scheduler developed for the TJO - OAdM, which is separated in two parts. Firstly, a pre-scheduler that makes a temporary selection of objects from the available projects according to their possibility of observation. This process is carried out before the beginning of the night following different selection criteria. Secondly, a dynamic scheduler that is executed any time a target observation is complete and a new one must be scheduled. The latter enables the selection of the best target in real time according to actual environment conditions and the set of priorities.

  10. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  11. Weighted fair queueing scheduling for World Wide Web proxy servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Abdouni Khayari, Rachid; Sadre, Ramin; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Zoschke, Norman

    2002-07-01

    Current world-wide web servers as well as proxy servers rely for their scheduling on services provided by the underlying operating system. In practice, this means that some form of first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling is utilised. Although FCFS is a reasonable scheduling strategy for job sequences that do not show much variance, in the world-wide web (WWW), however, it has been shown that the typical object sizes requested do exhibit heavy tails. This means that the probability to observe very long jobs (very large objects) is much higher than typically predicted using an exponential model. Under these circumstances, job scheduling on the basis of shortest-job first (SJF) has been shown to perform much better, in fact, to minimise the total average waiting time, simply by avoiding situations in which short jobs have to wait for very long one. However, SJF has as disadvantage that long jobs might suffer from starvation. In order to avoid the problems of both FCFS and SJF we present in this paper a new scheduling algorithm called class-based interleaving weighted fair queueing (CI-WFQ). This algorithm uses the specific characteristics of the job stream being served, that is, the distribution of the sizes of the objects being requested, to set its parameters such that good mean reponse times are obtained and starvation does not occur. In the paper, the new scheduling approach is introduced and compared, using trace-driven simulations, with existing scheduling approaches.

  12. Teaching Teamwork to Adolescents With Autism: The Cooperative Use of Activity Schedules

    PubMed Central

    White, Erin Richard; Hoffmann, Barbara; Hoch, Hannah; Taylor, Bridget A

    2011-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline design to assess the effects of prompting and reinforcement to teach three pairs of adolescents with autism to use photographic activity schedules to cooperatively complete a multistep vocational task (e.g., cleaning a kitchen). Baseline data indicated that despite being competent schedule followers, participants did not coordinate their actions to complete the schedule cooperatively. Following intervention, we observed an increase in cooperative schedule following. All prompts were removed and the schedule of reinforcement was thinned to the end of the task for two of the three pairs. We discuss the results in terms of increasing the collaborative work skills of individuals with autism. PMID:22532901

  13. Knowledge based tools for Hubble Space Telescope planning and scheduling: Constraints and strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark; Vick, Shon; Sponsler, Jeff; Lindenmayer, Kelly

    1988-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) presents an especially challenging scheduling problem since a year's observing program encompasses tens of thousands of exposures facing numerous coupled constraints. Recent progress in the development of planning and scheduling tools is discussed which augment the existing HST ground system. General methods for representing activities, constraints, and constraint satisfaction, and time segmentation were implemented in a scheduling testbed. The testbed permits planners to evaluate optimal scheduling time intervals, calculate resource usage, and to generate long and medium range plans. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and plans are an important feature of the system. High-level scheduling strategies using rule based and neural net approaches were implemented.

  14. Automatic Generation of Heuristics for Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.; Bresina, John L.; Rodgers, Stuart M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique, called GenH, that automatically generates search heuristics for scheduling problems. The impetus for developing this technique is the growing consensus that heuristics encode advice that is, at best, useful in solving most, or typical, problem instances, and, at worst, useful in solving only a narrowly defined set of instances. In either case, heuristic problem solvers, to be broadly applicable, should have a means of automatically adjusting to the idiosyncrasies of each problem instance. GenH generates a search heuristic for a given problem instance by hill-climbing in the space of possible multi-attribute heuristics, where the evaluation of a candidate heuristic is based on the quality of the solution found under its guidance. We present empirical results obtained by applying GenH to the real world problem of telescope observation scheduling. These results demonstrate that GenH is a simple and effective way of improving the performance of an heuristic scheduler.

  15. Response strength in extreme multiple schedules.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony P; Grace, Randolph C; Nevin, John A

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess resistance to change. Contrary to the generalized matching law, logarithms of response ratios in the two components were not a linear function of log reinforcer ratios, implying a failure of parameter invariance. Over a 2 log unit range, the function appeared linear and indicated undermatching, but in conditions with more extreme reinforcer ratios, approximate matching was observed. A model suggested by McLean (1991), originally for local contrast, predicts these changes in sensitivity to reinforcer ratios somewhat better than models by Herrnstein (1970) and by Williams and Wixted (1986). Prefeeding tests of resistance to change were conducted at each reinforcer ratio, and relative resistance to change was also a nonlinear function of log reinforcer ratios, again contrary to conclusions from previous work. Instead, the function suggests that resistance to change in a component may be determined partly by the rate of reinforcement and partly by the ratio of reinforcers to responses. PMID:22287804

  16. Technology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, Gisela E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue contains 20 articles dealing with technology in the classroom. The articles are: (1) "Distance Learning and the Future of Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate" (Henry E. Meyer); (2) "Technology and Multiple Intelligences" (Bette Savini); (3) "Technology Brings Voyagers into Classrooms" (Kristina Inn and others); (4) "Technologies Old…

  17. Evaluation in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becnel, Shirley

    Six classroom research-based instructional projects funded under Chapter 2 are described, and their outcomes are summarized. The projects each used computer hardware and software in the classroom setting. The projects and their salient points include: (1) the Science Technology Project, in which 48 teachers and 2,847 students in 18 schools used…

  18. Monitoring Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Gary M.

    This document describes an instructional packet designed to help teachers develop effective techniques for monitoring classroom behavior. Monitoring student classroom behavior requires the possession of a meaningful set of categories with which to describe student behavior, the ability to identify examples of those behaviors in the context of…

  19. Frontloading Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

  20. For the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartig, Gordon; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four games for use in the foreign language classroom are described. The first, "A Shopping Game," by Gordon Hartig, is played on a game board in the German classroom and provides practice in producing sentences with the preposition "in," which in some instances takes the dative and in others takes the accusative. A diagram of the game board is…