Science.gov

Sample records for clean coke process

  1. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction

  2. Process for calcining coke

    SciTech Connect

    Komi, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1981-05-05

    A process is described for calcining green coke in at least three heating stages, which comprises preheating the green coke in the first stage, preliminarily calcining the coke in the second stage, cooling the coke; and calcining the coke in the third stage, volatile matter from the second stage being burned during the third stage. The product coke is suitable for preparing graphite electrodes.

  3. Process and apparatus for the dry cooling of coke

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Breidenbach, D.; Galow, M.; Hackler, E.; Meckel, J.; Smieskol, S.; Wagener, D.

    1983-10-04

    A process and apparatus for the dry cooling of coke involves the provision of a vessel having therein first and second zones in full communication with each other. Hot coke from a coking operation is introduced into the first zone and is passed through the first and second zones. Raw coke oven gas from the coking operation is introduced into the first zone, thereby reducing the temperature of the coke, while cleaning the raw coke oven gas to form cleaned coke oven gas. The cleaned coke oven gas is removed from the first zone, cooled, and then directly or indirectly utilized as a heat carrier gas introduced into the second zone to therein further reduce the temperature of the coke. The thereby further cooled coke is removed from the second zone.

  4. Coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  5. Advanced processes for metallurgical coke. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, R.W.; Carsey, J.N.; von Bismarck, G.; Fujishima, C.

    1980-12-01

    Material collected in a survey of German coking plants (some in German, some in English) is presented: Ancit hot briquetting (including blast furnace tests), by-products of Ancit process, coal preparation, high volatile coking coals, preheating, briquetting blending, compacting and preheating, short coking time, wet charges, temperature control and heat consumption, supplies of coke, Solmer coke oven complex at Fos-sur-Mer, etc. (LTN)

  6. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  7. Selection of equipment for coke processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhodenko, N.T.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Nurlygayanova, V.M.; Petrunina, O.A.

    1984-07-01

    This article shows how the design and selection of equipment for the crushing, transportation, and storage of petroleum coke is dependent on the physicomechanical properties of the coke. The mechanical properties of petroleum coke depend on its total porosity, which is determined from true and apparent densities. Topics considered include screen composition, bulk density, the degree of compaction, coefficients of internal and external friction, segregation, and the angle of repose. A vibrating platform operating at 350 cycles per minute was used to investigate the dynamics of compaction of coke fractions during rail transport. It is emphasized that the physical properties of coke as a free-flowing material are of paramount importance in designing the processing and transportation systems and storage facilities for coking and calcining units.

  8. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  9. Process for the recovery of coke oven waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1981-01-20

    This invention is directed to a process for making coke and recovering the heat therefrom for preheating the firing gas to the coke oven. The process involves the use of the coke oven firing gas to extract the sensible heat from the hot coke from the coking oven to both preheat the firing gas for the coke oven and cool the hot coke. Significant economies are achieved in the two-fold function of coke production and heat recovery in accordance with the method disclosed.

  10. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  11. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Advanced processes for metallurgical coke. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, R.W.; Carsey, J.N.; von Bismarck, G.; Fujishima, C.

    1980-12-01

    Material collected in a survey of German coking plants is presented (some in German; some in English): heat recovery in coke ovens and in coke cooling (both dry and wet methods); use of recovered heat to preheat charge, stamping techniques, blending coals, binders, briquetting, etc. (LTN)

  13. Upgrading coke strength by a coal-blend-compaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Fun, F.; Brayton, W.E.; Shoenberger, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the continuing effort to upgrade the strength of coke made from available coal blends, US Steel is developing coal-blend compaction as an alternative method to coal preheating. In this process the coal blend is compacted to produce relatively weak compacted materials, which are subsequently degraded into controlled size fractions of intimately integrated particles of the multicomponent coal blend. The degraded blend particles are charged into conventional coke ovens for coking. Coal-blend-compaction tests conducted in the laboratory with coals from the Appalachian basin showed substantial improvement in coke strength. The encouraging laboratory results dictated a commerical scale test at US Steel's Gary Works. This plant test, in which more than 200 tons of coal blend was used, further confirmed the improvement in coke strength by the coal-blend-compaction process. Potential benefits of the process include (1) retrospective adaptation to existing coke batteries, (2) improved strength of coke from regular coal blends, (3) maintenance of same or higher coke strength with poor coal blends, and (4) economics that are competitive with or better than those of coal preheating. Continuing developments are being investigated in a compaction pilot plant and commercial coke ovens at US Steel's Clairton Works, mainly to establish engineering criteria and optimal controls for large-scale installations. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  15. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  16. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  17. Recycling of hazardous waste materials in the coking process.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R; Barriocanal, C; Díez, M A; Cimadevilla, J L G; Casal, M D; Canga, C S

    2004-03-01

    Every year the coking industry produces a significant amount of tarry and other wastes in byproducts plants. For the most part these wastes have not been put to any practical use. In addition, an integrated factory produces several waste oils which differ in composition and quantity, e.g., wastes from the steel rolling-mill process. In this work, the possibility of using such waste materials as binders in a partial briquetting process for metallurgical coke production is explored. By means of this coking procedure, a strong metallurgical coke not inferior in quality to coke from conventional coal blends is produced at pilot and semi-industrial scales. The use of such wastes, some of which are classified as hazardous materials, will avoid the need for dumping, thereby contributing to the protection of the environment as well as reducing the costs related to waste disposal. PMID:15046368

  18. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  19. Process for producing shaft furnace cokes

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, K.; Sunami, Y.

    1981-06-09

    An impregnated carbonaceous material which can be mixed with basic coal to form a mixture which, once roasted, forms an effective shaft furnace coke. The impregnated carbonaceous material is formed by finely crushing an inert carbonaceous material such as powdered coke, coal gasification char, coal liquifaction residue coal, oil coke, and semi-dry-distilled char, and mixing and impregnating the crushed carbonaceous material with an aromatic pitch such as coal tar, coal tar pitch, asphalt, and pitch obtained by heat-treating or solvent extracting an asphalt. The mixing is conducted at a temperature above the aromatic pitch melting point. The impregnated carbonaceous material contains preferably 50 to 95 parts by weight of crushed inert carbonaceous material and 5 to 50 parts by weight aromatic pitch.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project, Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Assessment has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate environmental issues associated with a project that will be cost-shared by DOE and private industry under the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program. The proposed action is a coke oven gas cleaning technology demonstration project proposed to be installed and operated at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Sparrows Point Plant, in Baltimore County, Maryland. Alternatives to the proposed action, which include no action, delayed action, and the use of alternate sites or technologies, are discussed. Three basic steel manufacturing operations are carried out at the Sparrows Point Plant: (1) pyrolytic conversion of coal to coke (carbon) in coke ovens; (2) combination of coke, iron ore, and limestone in a blast furnace to produce iron; and (3) refinement of iron to steel in oxygen or open-hearth furnaces. The Coke Works at the plant consists of three operational coke batteries and two Coal Chemicals plants. Bituminous coal is heated in a coke oven in the absence of air to remove its volatile components. About 70% of the coal feed is converted to coke; the remaining 30% consists of by-product gases and vapors. These by-product gases are treated in the Coal Chemicals plants to recover usable and marketable products, including coke oven gas, which is used to fuel the ovens and furnaces within the plant. The analysis concluded that no significant, environmental impacts would result from the proposed project. 12 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities. PMID:24804662

  2. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.

    1993-10-22

    Work on this coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project (CCT-II) this quarter has been focused on Phase IIB tasks, and include engineering, procurement, construction, and training. Additionally, plans for changes in the operating schedule of the coke plant that affect the demonstration project are described. Engineering efforts are nearly complete. Remaining to be finalized is an assessment of electrical heat tracing/insulation needs for pipe lines, assessment of fire protection requirements, and instrument modifications. Procurement of all major equipment items is complete, except for possible additions to fire fighting capabilities. Major focus is on expediting pipe and structural steel to the project site. Civil construction is complete except for minor pads and bases as required for pipe supports, etc. Erection of the hydrogen sulfide and ammonia scrubber vessels is complete. Installation of scrubber vessel internals is underway. A subcontractor has been retained to develop a computerized program for operations and maintenance training for the coke oven gas treatment plant. Recent developments in the coke plant operating plans will result in reductions in the rate of production of coke oven gas to be processed in the demonstration project.

  3. Process for dissolving coke oven deposits comprising atomizing a composition containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone into the gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, M.L.; Nicholson, G.M.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for cleaning gas lines in coke oven batteries comprising atomizing a composition into the gas lines of coke oven batteries, where the composition comprises N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

  4. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  5. Composition and method for coke retardant during hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, D.K.

    1988-02-09

    A process is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of filamentous coke on metallic surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon having a temperature of 600/sup 0/-1300/sup 0/F which comprises adding to the hydrocarbon a sufficient amount for the purpose of a boron compound selected from the group of boron oxide compounds, boric acid and metal borides, with the proviso that when boric acid is used, it is substantially free of water.

  6. Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, John M.

    2010-01-01

    All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

  7. Non-coke smelting reduction of iron ores: Process modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichestapong, Pipat

    The scarcity of coking coals and the high cost entailed in minimizing the emissions from the coke-making process as well as the relative inflexibility of large production capacity of the conventional blast-furnace ironmaking are the main reasons for the development of non-coke smelting reduction processes with the economical and ecological compatibility. The main objectives of the alternative processes development are to use ordinary coals directly, extend the range of usable raw materials, and allow the operation at a small scale. While most of smelting reduction processes are still in various stages of development, only the COREX ironmaking has successfully reached the industrial application with its first 300000 tpa plant operated in Pretoria, South Africa. The COREX process is composed of two main reactors: the vertical shaft furnace for the gaseous reduction of iron ore to sponge iron, and the melter-gasifier for the gasification of coal and smelting of iron. The gasification process generates the reducing gas mixture (CO and Hsb2) for use in the reduction furnace and also produces heat for smelting of the direct reduced iron. In the present work, the operating data of the COREX process are studied and process material and energy balances are prepared. The coal consumption rate of the COREX process is found higher than the coke consumption rate of the conventional process; however, the total energy consumption for the COREX process compares well with that of the blast furnace. The COREX process also generates surplus gas of high heating value which is suitable for many applications. A reduction model employing the diffusion-limited mass-transfer coupled with virtual equilibrium at core-interface is developed to determine the reduction of iron oxide pellets. The rate of oxygen-transfer between the solid and gas phases is computed by combining the Stefan-Maxwell multi-component diffusion formalism with the iterative equilibrium constant method. The computed

  8. Emission characteristics of heavy metals and their behavior during coking processes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; Bai, Huiling; Song, Chongfang; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhen

    2012-06-01

    Besides organic pollutants, coke production generates emissions of toxic heavy metals. However, intensive studies on heavy metal emissions from the coking industry are still very scarce. The current work focuses on assessing the emission characteristics of heavy metals and their behavior during coking. Simultaneous sampling of coal, coke, residues from air pollution control devices (APCD), effluent from coke quenching, and fly ash from different processes before and after APCD has been performed. The total heavy metal concentration in the flue gas from coke pushing (CP) was significantly higher than that from coal charging (CC) and combustion of coke oven gases (CG). Emission factors of heavy metals for CP and CC were 378.692 and 42.783 μg/kg, respectively. During coking, the heavy metals that were contained in the feedstock coal showed different partitioning patterns. For example, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, and Cr were obviously concentrated in the inlet fly ash compared to the coke; among these metals Cu, As, and Cr were concentrated in the outlet fly ash, whereas Zn and Pb were distributed equally between the outlet fly ash and APCD residue. Ni, Co, Cd, Fe, and V were partitioned equally between the inlet fly ash and the coke. Understanding the behavior of heavy metals during coking processes is helpful for the effective control of these heavy metals and the assessment of the potential impact of their emissions on the environment. PMID:22607524

  9. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  10. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  11. Visualization of coke state in hydraulic decoking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qian; Tong, Xinglin; Deng, Chengwei; Zhang, Cui; Huang, Di; Chen, Liang; Xiong, Jiaguo

    2016-05-01

    The relationship model of the sound signal and the coke state can be established through multiple test and comparison of the noise signal and the coke operation. By collecting data, we summarize the main frequency power fluctuation range of the sound signal in kinds of state, and extract the nearest 5 decision results for reference. The weighted value of each result according to the update time has gradually increased. On the basis of that, we developed visualization software, real-time reflect out coke coking tower state. Animation refresh rate is second level, and the vertical height can be accurate to 0.1m.

  12. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  13. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  14. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  15. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  16. Selecting the optimum coke pushing sequence

    SciTech Connect

    V.T. Krivoshein; A.V. Makarov

    2007-01-15

    The sequence of pushing coke ovens is one of the most important aspects of battery operation. The sequence must satisfy a number of technical and process conditions: (1) achieve maximum heating-wall life by avoiding destructive expansion pressure in freshly charged ovens and during pushing of the finished coke; (2) ensure uniform brickwork temperature and prevent overheating by compensating for the high thermal flux in freshly charged ovens due to accumulated heat in adjacent ovens that are in the second half of the coking cycle; (3) ensure the most favorable working conditions and safety for operating personnel; (4) provide additional opportunities for repair personnel to perform various types of work, such as replacing coke-machine rails, without interrupting coal production; (5) perform the maximum number of coke-machine operations simultaneously: pushing, charging, and cleaning doors, frames, and standpipe elbows; and (6) reduce electricity consumption by minimizing idle travel of coke machines.

  17. Application of process safety management to the coke industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mentzer, W.P. )

    1994-09-01

    OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard went into effect on May 26, 1992. Explosions at various industrial facilities that claimed the lives of workers over the past several years were the catalyst for the new federal regulations. The new PSM standard deals with 130 specific chemicals along with flammable liquids and gases used at nearly 25,000 worksites. The performance-based PSM standard consists of 14 elements that establish goals and describe basic program elements to fulfill these goals. The PSM standard requires employers to conduct a process hazard analysis to examine potential problems and determine what preventative measures should be taken. Key elements include employee training, written operating procedures, safety reviews and maintenance requirements to insure the mechanical integrity of critical components. The presentation will cover the evolution of OSHA's PSM standard, the requirements of the 14 elements in the PSM standard and discuss the significant achievements in the development and implementation of the PSM process at US Steel's Clairton coke plant.

  18. Comparison of cleaning processes with respect to cleaning efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Osborne, Steve; Rode, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Photomask technology has attained feature sizes of about 50nm and below. Whereas the main feature size is still above 70-80nm at 20nm technology node recently reported e.g. by Toppan Printing Company as developed, assist features for this node are in the range of 50-60nm. One of the critical aspects of this technology development is the cleaning process. Processes are supposed to clean off contamination and particles down to a defect size of about 40nm and at the same time prevent damage to assist features in the same size range. Due to obvious trade offs between cleaning power and Feature Damage Probability (FPD), this task becomes tricky. Improvement of cleaning processes by raising the power of megasonic (MS) cleaning, or adjusting the speed and size of droplets for spray cleaning occurs at the expense of increased feature damage. Prolongation of physical cleaning steps does not necessarily leads to improvement of the cleaning as shown previously. Susceptibility to feature damage occurs predicatively according to dimension and orientation. This allows us to extrapolate a Feature Damage Limit (FDL) which approximates the smallest feature size for which a process has an acceptable probability of success. In a practical sense, the most advantageous approach seems to be to adjust the cleaning power to the maximum allowed by the FDP and then optimize to the lowest process time necessary to reach expected cleaning efficiency. Since there are several alternative physical cleaning principles, we have to pick the best one for a given application. At this point we have to raise the question of how to compare the cleaning efficiency of processes. The goal of this work is to provide a method for evaluation and comparison of cleaning efficiency between physical cleaning processes and demonstrate the method on an example. We will focus on comparing two physical cleaning processes 1MHz megasonic and binary spray process.

  19. Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater treatment processes from coke production plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Feng, Chunhua; Zhao, Guobao; Lin, Chong; Yuan, Mengyang; Wu, Chaofei; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at two coke plants located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. Samples of raw coking wastewaters and wastewaters from subunits of a coke production plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to provide a detailed chemical characterization of PAHs. The identification and characterization of PAH isomers was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of sample peaks with those for PAH isomers in mass spectra databases with electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of internal reference compounds. In total, 270 PAH compounds including numerous nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur heteroatomic derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target PAHs revealed that total PAH concentrations in coking wastewaters were in the range of 98.5 ± 8.9 to 216 ± 20.2 μg/L, with 3-4-ring PAHs as dominant compounds. Calculation of daily PAH output from four plant subunits indicated that PAHs in the coking wastewater came mainly from ammonia stripping wastewater. Coking wastewater treatment processes played an important role in removing PAHs in coking wastewater, successfully removing 92 % of the target compounds. However, 69 weakly polar compounds, including PAH isomers, were still discharged in the final effluent, producing 8.8 ± 2.7 to 31.9 ± 6.8 g/day of PAHs with potential toxicity to environmental waters. The study of coking wastewater herein proposed can be used to better predict improvement of coke production facilities and treatment conditions according to the identification and removal of PAHs in the coke plant as well as to assess risks associated with continuous discharge of these contaminants to receiving waters. PMID:23589270

  20. Distribution, partition and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coking wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; An, Guanfeng

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we report the performance of a full-scale conventional activated sludge (A-O1-O2) treatment in eliminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Both aqueous and solid phases along with the coking wastewater treatment processes were analyzed for the presence of 18 PAHs. It was found that the target compounds occurred widely in raw coking wastewater, treated effluent and sludge samples. In the coking wastewater treatment system, 4-5 ring PAHs were the dominant compounds, while 4 rings PAHs predominated in the sludge samples. Over 98% of the PAH removal was achieved in the coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), with the total concentration of PAHs being 21.3 ± 1.9 μg L(-1) in the final effluent. During the coking wastewater treatment processes, the association of the lower molecular weight PAH with suspended solids was generally less than 60%, while the association of higher molecular weight PAHs was greater than 90%. High distribution efficiencies (Kdp and Kds) were found, suggesting that adsorption was the potential removal pathway of PAHs. Finally, the mass balances of PAHs in various stages of the coking WWTP were obtained, and the results indicated that adsorption to sludge was the main removal pathway for PAHs in the coking wastewater treatment processes. PMID:25865172

  1. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  2. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  3. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    PubMed Central

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  4. The release of trace elements in the process of coal coking.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  5. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  6. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 1, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  7. Reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BG activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-04-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960`s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the United States toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  8. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Work on the coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project (CCT-11) this quarter has focused on Phase IIB tasks, and include engineering, construction, and training. Additionally, plans for changes in the operating schedule of the coke plant that affect the demonstration project are described. The project Milestone Schedule and Log is shown. Planned Baseline Supplemental Monitoring activities described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan were completed. Testing of the mechanical systems began in June, 1991. The cold commissioning date has been moved back from October 1, 1991 to November 1, 1991 to allow float for miscellaneous finish-up items beyond the electrical contractor`s projected completion date of October 31, 1991.

  9. Process for producing blast furnace grade coke, a distillable product and fuel gases from a heavy, high sulfur, crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, L.D.; Sooter, M.C.; Theodore, F.W.; Wasson, G.E.

    1983-06-14

    A process for producing a distillable hydrocarbonaceous stream, fuel gases and blast furnace grade coke from a heavy, high sulfur, crude oil by producing delayed coke from at least a portion of the crude oil; crushing at least a portion of the coke to provide a finely divided coke feedstock to a briquetting operation where the finely divided coke is briquetted using crude oil or topped crude oil as a binder to produce briquettes of a size from about 3/4 inch to about 3 inches with the resulting briquettes being passed to a high temperature vertical calciner where the solids are desulfurized to produce a strong blast furnace grade coke. The distillable stream and fuel gas stream are recovered from the delayed coking operation, the vertical calciner and optionally a crude oil topping operation. In some instances coke particles in the size range from about 3/4 inch to about 3 inches may be passed directly to the calciner without crushing and briquetting. However, it is preferred to crush and briquette substantially all of the coke.

  10. Treatment of coking wastewater by an advanced Fenton oxidation process using iron powder and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong; Dong, Jing; Liu, Haiyang; Sun, Xulin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the treatment of coking wastewater was investigated by an advanced Fenton oxidation process using iron powder and hydrogen peroxide. Particular attention was paid to the effect of initial pH, dosage of H(2)O(2) and to improvement in biodegradation. The results showed that higher COD and total phenol removal rates were achieved with a decrease in initial pH and an increase in H(2)O(2) dosage. At an initial pH of less than 6.5 and H(2)O(2) concentration of 0.3 M, COD removal reached 44-50% and approximately 95% of total phenol removal was achieved at a reaction time of 1 h. The oxygen uptake rate of the effluent measured at a reaction time of 1h increased by approximately 65% compared to that of the raw coking wastewater. This indicated that biodegradation of the coking wastewater was significantly improved. Several organic compounds, including bifuran, quinoline, resorcinol and benzofuranol were removed completely as determined by GC-MS analysis. The advanced Fenton oxidation process is an effective pretreatment method for the removal of organic pollutants from coking wastewater. This process increases biodegradation, and may be combined with a classical biological process to achieve effluent of high quality. PMID:22014660

  11. Cleaning process for contaminated superalloy powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    A cleaning process for removing interstitial contaminants from superalloy powders after wet grinding is described. Typical analyses of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen in ball-milled WAZ-20 superalloy samples after hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning are presented. The hydrogen cleaning step involves heating retorts containing superalloy powder twice under flowing hydrogen with a 24-hour hold at each temperature. The vacuum step involves heating cold-pressed billets two hours at an elevated temperature at a pressure of 10 microPa. It is suggested that the hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning procedure can be applied to superalloys contaminated by other substances in other industrial processes.

  12. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.J.; Spiller, E.A.

    1999-09-28

    A cleaning process is disclosed for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  13. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Frank J.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    1999-01-01

    A cleaning process for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  14. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  15. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes a 3-year evaluation of coal cleaning processes. It discusses: physical coal cleaning (PCC) technology; the potential role of PCC in producing coals for compliance with SO2 emission regulations; pollution controls for PCC plants; assessment criteria and test ...

  17. Exhaust gas clean up process

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.

    1989-04-11

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/. and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt.

  18. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  19. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  20. Coke pushing emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.; Symons, C.

    1980-07-08

    A method is described for controlling coke oven emissions comprising the steps of: (A) aligning a one-spot, open-top coke quenching car with the coke oven, (B) providing a coke guide from the coke oven to the car, (C) positioning a fume hood over the car, with the fume hood having a length about equal to the length of the car, (D) pushing hot coke from the coke oven through the coke guide and into the car, (E) withdrawing gases from the fume hood during step (D) and passing said gases to gas cleaning equipment at a gas flowrate of between about 1000 and about 3500 scfmd per ton of coke pushed under step (D), and (F) substantially upon completion of step (E) moving the car from under the fume hood to a quenching station with the hot coke in the car exposed to the atmosphere and without further withdrawal of gases from the hot coke to the gas cleaning equipment.

  1. Freezing cleans food processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    Snowfluent is a technology which atomizes wastewater effluent and sprays it into the air as ice crystals at cold temperatures. It has been found effective in treating municipal sewage and food processing wastes. This bulletin reviews pilot- and production-scale studies conducted at an Alberta malt producer to test whether the Snowfluent process has further applications for the treatment of food processing wastes. The study was designed to determine the percentage of nutrients removed by the technology, the point at which contaminants are reduced, the effect of the process on the shallow water table, and the health risk to operators involved.

  2. Freezing cleans food processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Snowfluent is a technology which atomizes wastewater effluent and sprays it into the air as ice crystals at cold temperatures. It has been found effective in treating municipal sewage and food processing wastes. This bulletin reviews pilot- and production-scale studies conducted at an Alberta malt producer to test whether the Snowfluent process has further applications for the treatment of food processing wastes. The study was designed to determine the percentage of nutrients removed by the technology, the point at which contaminants are reduced, the effect of the process on the shallow water table, and the health risk to operators involved.

  3. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Terza, R.R. ); Sardesai, U.V. )

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

  4. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  5. The reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BF activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-07-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitrification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960's by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the US toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. Of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC's AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  6. Study on treatment of coking wastewater by biofilm reactors combined with zero-valent iron process.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peng; Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Zeng, Ming; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2009-03-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of the integrated system with biofilm reactors and zero-valent iron (ZVI) process for coking wastewater treatment. Particular attention was paid to the performance of the integrated system for removal of organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds. Maximal removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N) and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) were up to 96.1, 99.2 and 92.3%, respectively. Moreover, it was found that some phenolic compounds were effectively removed. The refractory organic compounds were primarily removed in ZVI process of the integrated system. These compounds, with molecular weights either ranged 10,000-30,000 Da or 0-2000 Da, were mainly the humic acid (HA) and hydrophilic (HyI) compounds. Oxidation-reduction and coagulation were the main removal mechanisms in ZVI process, which could enhance the biodegradability of the system effluent. Furthermore, the integrated system showed a rapid recovery performance against the sudden loading shock and remained high efficiencies for pollutants removal. Overall, the integrated system was proved feasible for coking wastewater treatment in practical applications. PMID:18639983

  7. Advanced treatment of coking wastewater by coagulation and zero-valent iron processes.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peng; Zhao, Hua-zhang; Wang, Chao; Ni, Jin-ren

    2007-08-17

    Advanced treatment of coking wastewater was investigated experimentally with coagulation and zero-valent iron (ZVI) processes. Particular attention was paid to the effect of dosage and pH on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the two processes. The results showed that ZVI was more effective than coagulation for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. The jar tests revealed that maximal COD removal efficiency of 27.5-31.8% could be achieved under the optimal condition of coagulation, i.e. 400mg/L of Fe(2)(SO(4))3 as coagulant at pH 3.0-5.0. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency could be up to 43.6% under the idealized condition of ZVI upon 10 g/L active carbon and 30 g/L iron being dosed at pH 4.0. The mechanisms for COD removal in ZVI were dominated by coagulation, precipitation and oxidation-reduction. ZVI would also enhance the biodegradability of effluent by increasing BOD5/COD from 0.07 to 0.53. Moreover, some ester compounds could be produced in the reaction. Although ZVI was found more efficient than coagulation in eliminating low molecular weight (<2000 Da) compounds in the wastewater, there were still a few residual contaminants which could hardly be eliminated by either of the process. PMID:17267104

  8. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Volume 3, Appendix sections 8--14: Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27

    This report contains no text. It consists entirely of numerical data: Coke oven wastewater treatment performance; Ammonia still effluents to equalization tank; Stack gas analysis of coke oven batteries; CoaL consumption; Coke production; Supplemental OSHA employee exposure monitoring(hydrocarbons,ammonia, hydrogen sulfide); operating data; chemical products and coke oven gas production.

  9. Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  10. The reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-MITSUI-BE activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The dry desulfurization, denitrification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to the facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the U.S. toward SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on flour coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MCC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Systems, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF press for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSO{sub x}/DeNO{sub x}/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSO{sub x}/DeNO{sub x}/Air Toxics removal process.

  11. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. PMID:26439861

  12. Method and apparatus for processing filling gas from a coke oven battery

    SciTech Connect

    Polenz, J.; Wagner, H.

    1981-08-11

    An improved coke oven battery and an improved method for production of coke and byproducts are provided. The filling gas escaping during the filling of the oven chambers with coal is initially rendered inert by admixing flue gas. Then the resulting gas mixture of filling gas and flue gas is withdrawn via a conduit fed with flushing liquor from the coke oven gas off-take main and is added to the raw coke oven gas after the coke oven gas off-take main. The tar and coal containing flushing liquor coming from the filling gas conduit is fed back to the coke oven gas off-take main after removal of the tar.

  13. Structure of metallurgical coke

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, F.L.; Makarov, G.N.; Sidogin, V.P.; Kovalenko, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    Obtaining carboniferous coke satisfying the requirements of the metallurgical production processes constitutes a complicated problem determined by correctness in selecting a technological coking process and selecting the starting coals. Changes in coal charge composition, method, and systems of coking show a considerable effect on the properties of the metallurgical coke. Moreover, each technological process in which coke is used gives rise to quite well-defined requirements as regards its physicochemical properties. The general property of the carboniferous materials, on which their technological properties depend, is the reactive capability, which, in turn, depends to a large extent on the structure (macro-, micro-, and fine structure), the degree of order in the structure, the presence and sizes of crystals, and the extent of development of the system. Therefore, the structure can and must be one of the basic criteria of evaluating the quality when producing and using a specific metallurgical fuel and a reducing agent. A method of complex microscopic analysis of a carboniferous substance of carboniferous coke, iron and chemical etching methods, and optical and electronic (transmission and scanning) microscopy were used to study the structure of metallurgical coke produced by the Dnepropetrovsk Coking Plant. Coke belonging to 7 size-classes was studied microscopically: > 80, 80-60, 60-40, 40-25, 25-10, < 10, and 25-8 mm. The first size classes constitute the principal production of the plant, while the 25-8 mm class is produced to increase the quality of coke supplied to the ferroalloy plants. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. Combustion Simulation and Quick-freeze Observation of a Cupola-furnace Process Using a Bio-coke Fuel Based on Tea Scum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Murata, Hirotoshi; Kuwana, Kazunori; Mizuno, Satoru; Morita, Akihiro; Ida, Tamio

    Global environment problems have become more and more serious in recent years, and reduction of greenhouse gas emission based on Kyoto Protocol adopted at the 3rd conference of the parties of the United nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3); securement of primary energy source and development of clean and renewable energy sources have been pressingly needed in consideration of the predicted depletion of fossil fuel in the future. In this study, we explore the use of a solidified biomass-derived fuel, having the maximum compressive strength of 100MPa and calorific value of 21MJ/kg, in iron-casting or iron-making processes as an alternative fuel to be mixed with coal coke. This study, carried out for internal observation using a quick-freeze technique, observed an actual working cupola furnace under the 20% alternative coal coke operation condition. After quick freeze of the cupola furnace, the solidified biomass fuel was found to inhabit near the iron-melting zone. Especially, this solidified biomass fuel smoothly changes carbonized fuel through high-density state during the operating process. On the other hand, this study tried to simulate gasification combustion under a high temperature environment instead of actual internal combustion of solidified biomass fuel. These combustion mechanisms were confirmed to be similar to diffusion-flame phenomena in general.

  15. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  16. Processes forming Gas, Tar, and Coke in Cellulose Gasification from Gas-Phase Reactions of Levoglucosan as Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2015-07-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of levoglucosan (LG), the major intermediate species during cellulose gasification, was studied experimentally over the temperature range of 400-900 °C. Gaseous LG did not produce any dehydration products, which include coke, furans, and aromatic substances, although these are characteristic products of the pyrolysis of molten LG. Alternatively, at >500 °C, gaseous LG produced only fragmentation products, such as noncondensable gases and condensable C1 -C3 fragments, as intermediates during noncondensable gas formation. Therefore, it was determined that secondary reactions of gaseous LG can result in the clean (tar- and coke-free) gasification of cellulose. Cooling of the remaining LG in the gas phase caused coke formation by the transition of the LG to the molten state. The molecular mechanisms that govern the gas- and molten-phase reactions of LG are discussed in terms of the acid catalyst effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding to promote the molten-phase dehydration reactions. PMID:26099988

  17. Combustion of petroleum coke dust as a partial substitute for natural gas and oil in the alumina trihydrate calcination process

    SciTech Connect

    Desgroseillers, B.; Perron, J.; Laurin, P.; Menard, O.; Martin, J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Saguenay region, Alcan operates two coke calcination rotary kilns to supply with calcined coke its prebaked anode and Soderberg paste smelters. The annual production is approximately 220,000 t of calcined coke. For the last few years, the unwanted emissions of under calcined coke dust (UCCD) emitted from the kilns along with the hot gas reaches approximately 16,000 t per year. A maximum of 6,000 t of UCCD are recycled in fabrication processes. In the search of new possibilities to recycle and sell the remaining 10,000 t the possibility of using this UCCD as a heating source ion other processes has emerged, particularly for the calcination of alumina trihydrate. A feasibility study on the combustion as well as a plant trial showed the benefits of burning this UCCD in two 60 t/h capacity calcination units. In fact, appreciable savings in natural gas or oil, as well as increased energetic efficiency (gain of 6%) were observed in the calcination units. Furthermore, the impact on quality of the metallurgical alumina is negligible. These results can be explained partly by the use of a solid combustible which presents longer combustion time compared to natural gas. The combustion zones are therefore extended, favoring the heat transfer to the solid during calcination.

  18. Aqueous cleaning and verification processes for precision cleaning of small parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gale J.; Fishell, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) has developed a totally aqueous process for precision cleaning and verification of small components. In 1990 the Precision Cleaning Facility at KSC used approximately 228,000 kg (500,000 lbs) of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 113 in the cleaning operations. It is estimated that current CFC 113 usage has been reduced by 75 percent and it is projected that a 90 percent reduction will be achieved by the end of calendar year 1994. The cleaning process developed utilizes aqueous degreasers, aqueous surfactants, and ultrasonics in the cleaning operation and an aqueous surfactant, ultrasonics, and Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) in the nonvolatile residue (NVR) and particulate analysis for verification of cleanliness. The cleaning and verification process is presented in its entirety, with comparison to the CFC 113 cleaning and verification process, including economic and labor costs/savings.

  19. Process safety management (OSHA) and process risk management (CAA) application. Application to a coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Graeser, W.C.; Mentzer, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention is the name of the proposed rule for the RMP Risk Management Program. The RMP was written in response to several catastrophic releases of hazardous substances. The rule is applicable to facilities that store, process or use greater than threshold quantities of 62 listed flammable chemicals and another 100 listed toxic substances. Additionally, a Risk Management Plan is registered with the EPA, Chemical Safety and Hazardous Investigation Board, state governments and the local emergency planning commission. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (specifically Section 112r) required the EPA to develop a three phase Risk Management Plan for industry: prevention program; hazard assessment; and emergency response program. The Prevention Program closely follows the OSHA`s Process Safety Management Standard. The Hazard Assessment section requires facilities to develop plans for a worst case scenario. The Emergency Response section defines the steps the facility and each employee will take if a release occurs. This section also needs to be coordinated with the Local Emergency Planning Commission. These regulations are described using Clairton Works as an example of compliance.

  20. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index. PMID:25078828

  1. Exploiting by combustion for secondary products resulting from metallurgical coke-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ioana, A.; Gaba, A.; Paunescu, L.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the design, operation, and performance of a coke-gas burner that is capable of mitigating flow blockage of the gas to the burner when coal tars are present in the coke oven gas. This is accomplished by a flow-limiting nozzle and a three-staged combustion air flame stabilizer. A prototype was constructed and field tested on chamber furnaces at the Maintenance-Forge-Section, SIDEX-Galati.

  2. Coking wastewater treatment for industrial reuse purpose: combining biological processes with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xuewen; Li, Enchao; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2013-08-01

    A full-scale plant using anaerobic, anoxic and oxic processes (A1/A2/O), along with a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) integrated system developed by Shanghai Baosteel Chemical Co. Ltd., was investigated to treat coking wastewater for industrial reuse over a period of one year. The removals reached 82.5% (COD), 89.6% (BOD), 99.8% (ammonium nitrogen), 99.9% (phenol), 44.6% (total cyanide (T-CN)), 99.7% (thiocyanide (SCN-)) and 8.9% (fluoride), during the A1/A2/O biological treatment stage, and all parameters were further reduced by over 96.0%, except for fluoride (86.4%), in the final discharge effluent from the currently operating plant. The pilot-scale MBR process reduced the turbidity to less than 0.65 NTU, and most of the toxic organic compounds were degraded or intercepted by the A1/A2/O followed MBR processes. In addition, parameters including COD, T-CN, total nitrogen, fluoride, chloride ion, hardness and conductivity were significantly reduced by the NF-RO system to a level suitable for industrial reuse, with a total water production ratio of 70.7%. However, the concentrates from the NF and RO units were highly polluted and should be disposed of properly or further treated before being discharged. PMID:24520694

  3. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  4. Post cleaning of chemical mechanical polishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chi-Wen; Dai, Bau-Tong; Yeh, Ching-Fa

    1996-02-01

    We describe a study on the effect of the electrostatic nature in silica particles on the post CMP cleaning behavior. A fall-off for the zeta potential of silica particles is observed as the pH of dip solutions is increased. In this study, we also observed that particle counts on the SiO 2 and the Si 3N 4 dielectric films had a similar dependence on the pH. Furthermore, we confirmed that surface hardness of the wafer is an important factor for particles physically embedded in different dielectric materials during and after the CMP process. The nanoscale surface hardness of dielectric films was measured by the nanoindentation technique. Experimental results showed that particles had difficulty attaching to a harder surface of the dielectric film.

  5. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  6. Limitations of the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater by ozonation and by the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, N; Miguel, N; Ovelleiro, J L; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of ozonation and the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process for the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater. The most efficient oxidation process is combined with coagulation-flocculation-decantation and lime-soda ash softening pretreatments. The oxidation in aqueous solution and industrial wastewater (at pH 9.5-12.3) by O3 was carried out using a range of concentration of consumed O3 from 10 to 290 mg/L. A molar ratio of H2O2/O3 from 0.1 to 5.2 with different concentrations of O3 constants was used for the H2O2-O3 process. The maximum cyanide removal obtained in coking wastewater was 90% using a mass ratio of O3/CN(-) of 9.5. Using lower concentrations of O3, cyanide is not removed and can even be generated due to the presence of other cyanide precursor organic micropollutants in the industrial matrix. The concentration of O3 is reduced to half for the same cyanide removal efficiency if the pretreatments are applied to reduce the carbonate and bicarbonate ions. The cyanide removal efficiency in coking wastewater is not improved if the O3 is combined with the H2O2. However, the preliminary cyanide removal treatment in aqueous solution showed an increase in the cyanide removal efficiency for the H2O2-O3 process. PMID:27438254

  7. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  8. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  9. EUV mask surface cleaning effects on lithography process performance

    SciTech Connect

    George, Simi; Baclea-an, Lorie Mae; Naulleau, Patrick; Chen, Robert J.; Liang, Ted

    2010-06-18

    The reflective, multilayer based, mask architectures for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography are highly susceptible to surface oxidation and contamination. As a result, EUV masks are expected to undergo cleaning processes in order to maintain the lifetimes necessary for high volume manufacturing. For this study, the impact of repetitive cleaning of EUV masks on imaging performance was evaluated. Two, high quality industry standard, EUV masks are used for this study with one of the masks undergoing repeated cleaning and the other one kept as a reference. Lithographic performance, in terms of process window analysis and line edge roughness, was monitored after every two cleans and compared to the reference mask performance. After 8x clean, minimal degradation is observed. The cleaning cycles will be continued until significant loss imaging fidelity is found.

  10. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented.

  11. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  12. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  13. Development of cleaning process for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching Yu; Yu, D. C.; Lin, John C.; Lin, Burn J.

    2006-03-01

    In immersion lithography, DI water fills the space between the resist surface and the last lens element. However water is also a good solvent for most of the leaching compounds from resists. The leaching materials from the resist and the original impurities in the water from pipelines pose a significant risk on bottom lens deterioration, wafer surface particles, and facility contamination. If the bottom lens surface deteriorates, it can cause flare and reduce transparency. Particles on the wafer surface can degrade image formation. In addition to contaminating the facility, the impurity inside the water can cause stains or defects after the water is evaporated from the wafer surface. In order to reduce the impact of such contamination, we have evaluated many chemicals for removing organic contamination as well as particles. We have collected and characterized immersion-induced particles from cleaning studies on bare silicon wafers. We have also used oxide wafers to simulate the lens damage caused by the cleaning chemicals. In case, a mega sonic power is not suitable for scanners last lens element in production FABs, the emulsion concept has also been adopted to remove the lens organic contaminants. We have studied many chemical and mechanical methods for tool cleaning, and identified those that possess good organic solubility and particle removal efficiency. These cleaning methods will be used in periodic maintenance procedures to ensure freedom from defects in immersion lithography.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a background against which requirements for further developments of coal cleaning technology and control techniques for the associated pollutants can be established, as part of a review of U.S. coal cleaning process technologies and related technologies for envir...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES; MASTER TEST PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a master test plan, presenting the objectives and general structure of a field testing program designed for an environmental source assessment of coal cleaning processes. The report, to be used to prepare test plans for individual coal cleaning sites, reflects th...

  16. Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Fu, Hongjing; Wang, Nan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Martin, Jonathan W; Zubot, Warren; Smith, Daniel W

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and/or safe return of OSPW into the environment, water treatment technologies are required. This study examined, for the first time, the impacts of pretreatment steps, including filtration and petroleum-coke adsorption, on ozonation requirements and performance. The effect of the initial OSPW pH on treatment performance, and the evolution of ozonation and its impact on OSPW toxicity and biodegradability were also examined. The degradation of more than 76% of total acid-extractable organics was achieved using a semi-batch ozonation system at a utilized ozone dose of 150 mg/L. With a utilized ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the treated OSPW became more biodegradable and showed no toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. Changes in the NA profiles in terms of carbon number and number of rings were observed after ozonation. The filtration of the OSPW did not improve the ozonation performance. Petroleum-coke adsorption was found to be effective in reducing total acid-extractable organics by a 91%, NA content by an 84%, and OSPW toxicity from 4.3 to 1.1 toxicity units. The results of this study indicate that the combination of petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation is a promising treatment approach to treat OSPW. PMID:21907388

  17. Coking partially briquetted coal charge under industrial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhorukov, V.I.; Bezdvernyi, G.N.; Kopeliovich, L.V.; Mishchikhin, V.G.; Berkutov, A.N.; Stepanov, Y.; Abramicheva, A.I.; Topchii, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    The partial briquetting of low grade coals ordinarily unsuitable for coking, has been found to allow use of these materials in the coking process under industrial conditions, with an improvement in coke quality. Coke oven capacity is increased. The binder used is medium temperature coal tar.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES. SECOND ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the second year's work for EPA by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. Program activities included systems studies, data acquisition, and general program support. (1) Systems studies have been directed at...

  19. PROJECT LISTING - CLEAN PROCESSES BRANCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This list of projects for the Clean Processes Branch (CPB)of NRMRL's Sustainable Technology Division covers CPB projects in the areas of metal finishing and electronics pollution prevention; green engineering for chemical synthesis; solvent and coatings alternatives; separations ...

  20. Application of quality improvement techniques to meet coke battery environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility operates three coke oven batteries, producing both foundry coke and blast furnace coke, under the trade name Indianapolis Coke. Active participation in the regulation negotiation process by the Vice President of Indianapolis Coke allowed the company to accurately anticipate the environmental regulations, long before they were set in law. Several improvements were put into motion that helps them meet the new environmental regulations. Better trained operators with new job positions dedicated solely to environmental compliance, an extensive environmental training program, and two innovations, a portable oven door milling and cleaning machine and three new computer applications are the result of team efforts. The focus of this paper is development of the computer applications designed to enhance three areas of environmental compliance. The three areas addressed by the applications are documentation and information deployment, problem solving, and resource allocation. Through quality improvement techniques and team oriented problem solving, new approaches to environmental data collection and analysis have helped Indianapolis Coke meet the ever tightening environmental regulations.

  1. Coke oven emissions

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Coke oven emissions ; CASRN NA Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  2. Thermal processes in the two-stage primary cooling of coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Petrukhno, R.P.; Vasil'ev, Y.S.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of a two-stage method for the cooling of coke oven gas was presented. The method employed air-cooling in a finned-tube exchanger for primary cooling, and then water cooling in a horizontal tube exchanger. Calculations showed that about 80% of the heat was removed by the air cooler. Also, the cooling water savings was about 70-75% over conventional methods using water only. The two stage concept allowed increased velocity of the gas and decreasing the sealing of the exchanger.

  3. Performance evaluation of a full-scale coke oven wastewater treatment plant in an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Vaidya, A N; Shivaraman, N; Bal, A S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater generated during coke-oven gas cleaning operations in the integrated steel plant contains phenol, cyanide, thiocyanate, and also oil and grease. Although the activated sludge process is widely practiced for biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater, it was observed during the evaluation of performance of full scale coke-oven wastewater treatment plant that oil contamination and poor sludge settleability had resulted in poor maintenance of the activated sludge process. Keeping these aspects in view, treatability studies were conducted and an alternative treatment process is proposed. With these corrective measures the coke-oven wastewater treatment plant will give desired performance. In this paper we present results of the performance evaluation, data on treatability studies and alternative treatment process scheme. PMID:14723281

  4. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  5. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A.

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  6. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full

  7. Novel acid-free cleaning process for mask blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Harald; Branz, Karsten; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter; Hess, Guenter

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of particle removal during the mask cleaning was transferred to the blank cleaning and vice versa. The experiments are focusing on a variety of blank substrates (glass substrates, chrome on glass blanks and phase shift mask blanks substrates). The principal equipment concept and the process optimization strategies for cleaning of those different kinds of blank substrates are presented. With a fixed process flow, including UV-treatment, Fulljet and MegaSonic treatment, Rinse and Dry, process parameters are varied to define the optimum process conditions. Criteria for an optimum process are particle removal efficiency in general and optical integrity for phase shift mask blanks in particular. The particle removal efficiency for all investigated blank types is within a range of 96-100%. Especially for Ta/SiO2 phase shift mask blanks we demonstrate that during the cleaning process the optical properties only change by 0.07° phase loss and 0.01% transmission loss per cleaning cycle, respectively.

  8. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  9. Theoretical Investigation of the Process of Steam-Oxygen Gasification of Coke-Ash Particles in a Fluidized Bed Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhman, B. B.

    2015-03-01

    The problem on the evolution of the state of an ensemble of reacting coke-ash particles in a fluidized-bed gas generator is considered. A kinetic equation for the distribution function of particles within small ranges of carbon concentration variation for the stages of surface and bulk reaction has been constructed and integrated. Boundary conditions ("matching" conditions) at the boundaries between these ranges are formulated. The influence of the granulometric composition of the starting coal, height, porosity, and of the bed temperature on the process of steam-oxygen gasification of coke-ash particles of individual sorts of fuel and of a binary coal mixture has been investigated.

  10. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  11. APPLICABILITY OF COKE PLANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES TO COAL CONVERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comparisons of process and waste stream characteristics from the Byproduct coke over process with selected gasification and liquefaction processes. It includes recommendations regarding control technologies for air, water, and solid wastes. Coke oven c...

  12. Update-processing steam generator cleaning solvent at Palo Verde

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, G.

    1996-10-01

    Framatome Technologies Inc.(FTI) recently completed the steam generator chemical cleanings at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2 and 3. Over 500,000 gallons of low-level radioactive solvents were generated during these cleanings and were processed on-site. Chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes are difficult to reduce in volume using standard technologies. The process that was ultimately used at Palo Verde involved three distinct processing steps: The evaporation step was conducted using FTI`s submerged combustion evaporator (SCE) that has also been successfully used at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Three Mile Island - Unit 1, and Oconee on similar waste. The polishing step of the distillate used ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology that was also used extensively by Ontario Hydro to assist in their processing of chemical cleaning solvent. This technology, equipment, and operations personnel were provided by Zenon Environmental, Inc. The concentrate from the evaporator was absorbed with a special {open_quotes}peat moss{close_quotes} based media that allowed it to be shipped and buried at the Environcare of Utah facility. This is the first time that this absorption media or burial site has been used for chemical cleaning solvent.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of products from vacuum oil under delayed coking process by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, L. V.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejía-Ospino, E.; Guzmán, A.

    2016-02-01

    Eight vacuum residues and their delayed coking liquids products from Colombian crude were study by infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and principal component analysis (PCA). For the samples the structural parameters of aromaticity factor (fa), alifaticity (A2500-3100cm-1), aromatic condensation degree (GCA), length of aliphatic chains (LCA) and aliphatic chain length associated with aromatic (LACAR) were determined through the development of a methodology, which includes the previous processing of spectroscopy data, identifying the regions in the IR spectra of greatest variance using PCA and molecules patterns. The parameters were compared with the results obtained from proton magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and 13C-NMR. The results showed the influence and correlation of structural parameters with some physicochemical properties such as API gravity, weight percent sulphur (% S) and Conradson carbon content (% CCR)

  14. Effect of processing rate on seed cotton cleaning equipment performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing rate per unit width of seed cotton cleaning equipment– cylinder cleaners and stick machines– recommended by manufacturers is 4.8-8.2 bales hr-1 m-1 (1.5-2.5 bales hr-1 ft-1). Survey data has indicated that many gins exceed this processing rate. Previous research with picker-harvested ...

  15. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning is necessary to ensure the proper functioning of aerospace hardware, particularly those systems that come in contact with liquid oxygen or hypergolic fuels. Components that have not been cleaned to the appropriate levels may experience problems ranging from impaired performance to catastrophic failure. Traditionally, this has been achieved using various halogenated solvents. However, as information on the toxicological and/or environmental impacts of each came to light, they were subsequently regulated out of use. The solvent currently used in Kennedy Space Center (KSC) precision cleaning operations is Vertrel MCA. Environmental sampling at KSC indicates that continued use of this or similar solvents may lead to high remediation costs that must be borne by the Program for years to come. In response to this problem, the Green Solvents Project seeks to develop state-of-the-art, green technologies designed to meet KSCs precision cleaning needs.Initially, 23 solvents were identified as potential replacements for the current Vertrel MCA-based process. Highly halogenated solvents were deliberately omitted since historical precedents indicate that as the long-term consequences of these solvents become known, they will eventually be regulated out of practical use, often with significant financial burdens for the user. Three solvent-less cleaning processes (plasma, supercritical carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide snow) were also chosen since they produce essentially no waste stream. Next, experimental and analytical procedures were developed to compare the relative effectiveness of these solvents and technologies to the current KSC standard of Vertrel MCA. Individually numbered Swagelok fittings were used to represent the hardware in the cleaning process. First, the fittings were cleaned using Vertrel MCA in order to determine their true cleaned mass. Next, the fittings were dipped into stock solutions of five commonly encountered contaminants and were

  16. K2CO3 catalysis on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Jian-liang; Qi, Cheng-lin; Ma, Chao; Kong, De-wen; Mao, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The catalysis of K2CO3 on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke from Pansteel in China was studied. The coke reaction index of the stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the top charged coke. Under the catalysis of K2CO3, the coke reaction index of both cokes approximately increased by 4%, 6%, 10% and 6% at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively. The reactivity of the K-enriched stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the K-enriched top charged coke below 1100°C. However, only negligible differences were found in the temperature zone between 1100 and 1200°C. Scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that pores in the top charged coke were smaller and equally distributed, while relatively more big pores exist non-homogenously in stamp charged coke. Due to the different processes in production, the stamp charged coke was more porous and most of the pores tended to be applanate. Cracks were observed in the microstructure of the stamp charged coke during the carbon solution reaction, implying the inferior quality of the stamp charged coke to the top charged coke at high temperature. Diffusion of K during the carbon solution reaction was studied by the energy dispersive spectrometry. It is found that K gradually spreads into the center of lumpy coke with the rising of temperature and is equally distributed on the edges of pores at 1200°C. Besides, oxidation reactions of functional groups become faster with the catalysis of K.content

  17. Contamination detection NDE for cleaning process inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, W. J.; Dicristina, V.; Sonnenfroh, D.; Blair, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the joining of multilayer materials, and in welding, the cleanliness of the joining surface may play a large role in the quality of the resulting bond. No non-intrusive techniques are currently available for the rapid measurement of contamination on large or irregularly shaped structures prior to the joining process. An innovative technique for the measurement of contaminant levels in these structures using laser based imaging is presented. The approach uses an ultraviolet excimer laser to illuminate large and/or irregular surface areas. The UV light induces fluorescence and is scattered from the contaminants. The illuminated area is viewed by an image-intensified CCD (charge coupled device) camera interfaced to a PC-based computer. The camera measures the fluorescence and/or scattering from the contaminants for comparison with established standards. Single shot measurements of contamination levels are possible. Hence, the technique may be used for on-line NDE testing during manufacturing processes.

  18. Regeneration of coked catalysts: The effect of aging upon the characteristics of the coke deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Royo, C.; Ibarra, J.V.; Monzon, A.; Santamaria, J. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente)

    1994-11-01

    The effect of aging in nitrogen upon the regeneration characteristics of the coke deposits on chromia-alumina catalysts has been investigated. To this end, the coked catalysts have been subjected to various treatments in nitrogen, and the chemical composition and reactivity of the deposits have been investigated. The results show that the process of aging in nitrogen gives rise to significant changes in both the composition and reactivity of the coke deposits, due to the stripping of the coke fractions with a higher volatility. This obviously has important consequences upon the subsequent regeneration, which are also discussed and tested in regeneration experiments using coked catalyst of different ages.

  19. Photomask cleaning process improvement to minimize ArF haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michael; McDonald, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Growth of "haze" defects on photomasks exposed in ArF lithography is recognized as a serious problem. Haze defects that have grown to detectable sizes can be analysed in situ by techniques such as EDX or Raman, but to analyze at the photomask manufacturing stage requires extraction of residues by solution in DI water. The effect of extraction conditions, including surface area and material, water volume, time, and temperature, has been studied. A standard method to compare residual ion levels is proposed. Various methods for reducing residual ion levels from the photomask cleaning process have been published. These include SPM reduction, oxygen plasma, SC1 dilution, Megasonic agitation, hot rinse, UV exposure, thermal bake, ozone water, ozone gas, and hydrogenated water. Critical parameters for the cleaning process, besides residual ion levels and contamination removal efficiency, include CD shift, AR/chrome damage, scatter bar damage, and on phase shift masks, the change in phase and transmission. An optimized process combining conventional and novel techniques is described. Data is presented to show the importance of controlling all resist strip and clean processes, not just the final clean. It has achieved sulphate levels of 0.2ng/cm2 (well below the critical level for haze growth), as well as improved results for the other critical parameters. This process has been demonstrated to allow ArF exposure of large numbers of wafers without the appearance of haze defects.

  20. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. PMID:25113994

  1. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS & PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Led by the United States, represented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes was instituted to create an international forum where current trends, developments, and expert...

  2. NICE3 SO3 Cleaning Process in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This fact sheet explains how Anon, Inc., has developed a novel method of removing photoresist--a light-sensitive material used to produce semiconductor wafers for computers--from the computer manufacturing process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. The new technology is technically superior to existing semiconductor cleaning methods and results in reduced use of hazardous chemicals.

  3. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed objective of the NATO/CCMS Pilot on clean products and processes is to facilitate further gains in pollution prevention, waste minimization, and design for the environment. It is anticipated that the free exchange of knowledge, experience, data, and models will fost...

  4. Characterization of the cleaning process on a transferred graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Li-Wei; Chang, Cheng-Kai; Chien, Fan-Ching; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Peilin; Chen, Fu-Rong; Chang, Chia-Seng

    2014-09-01

    Intrinsic graphene possesses many outstanding physical and chemical properties, but their full explorations are often hindered by the effects of substrate and/or contamination. The authors employ the ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy equipped with a residual gas analyzer to in-situ characterize an effective decontamination process on a suspended graphene. Raman spectroscopic spectra further verify the cleanness of the resultant graphene membrane. The authors also present two contrasting growth morphologies of copper nanoparticles obtained on both clean and unclean graphene surfaces and show that the intrinsic growth dynamics can only manifest on the surface without contaminations.

  5. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Prele, G.

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  6. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  7. Application of NMR techniques for studying coking of FCC catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bonardet, J.J.; Barrage, M.C.; Fraissard, J.

    1995-12-31

    NMR occupies an important place in the study of the deactivation of zeolites by coking. Indeed, association of the resonances of several nuclei has shown that it is possible to investigate: the nature of the, carbonaceous; deposits; under certain conditions, the coke content; the mode of zeolite deactivation; the exact location of the internal coke and the evolution of its distribution with the coke content, the presence of carbonaceous; residues at the crystallite surface; the effect of zeolite structure and the nature of the reactant on coking and regeneration. It also reveals the role of extra framework aluminium species and that of certain lattice Al atoms in the coking process.

  8. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  9. Properties of spent active coke particles analysed via comminution in spouted bed.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  10. Properties of Spent Active Coke Particles Analysed via Comminution in Spouted Bed

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  11. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  12. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  13. Copper post-CMP cleaning process on a dry-in/dry-out tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Sanjay; Grief, Malcolm; Gupta, Anand; Murella, Krishna; VanDevender, Barrie

    1998-09-01

    Metal Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) and post CMP cleaning have continued to increase in importance in semiconductor manufacturing. The introduction of copper metallization into semiconductor manufacturing processes has created a need for integrating CMP and cleaning tools, as well as a demand for the development of novel cleaning solutions. One system designed for integrated CMP processing and cleaning, commonly referred to as dry-in/dry-out CMP, is the SpeedFam Auriga C. The Auriga C integrates a widely used polishing tool together with a proven cleaning technique. The key to the operation of the Auriga C cleaning process is the effective operation of the PVA brush cleaners, water track transport, final jet rinse and high-speed spinner dryer. The effective operation of the cleaning mechanism for copper post- CMP cleaning requires the use of new chemical solutions. Typical solutions used for post process cleaning of more mature CMP processes are either ineffective for cleaning or chemically incompatible with the copper process. This paper discusses the cleaning mechanism used in an integrated dry- in/dry-out tool and demonstrates an effective and novel cleaning solution for use with this type of post-CMP cleaning process.

  14. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    PubMed

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking. PMID:16366463

  15. A cleaning energy area conception on Fenhe river valley

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, C.

    1997-12-31

    Fenhe river valley has a dense population, abundant resources and coal mining, coke making, metallurgy industry concentration. Therefore, it is a seriously pollute area. The paper puts forward a concept of building up a clean energy area through process improvement and change of energy structure to realize ecological economy. The analysis shows that the indigenous method used for coking produces serious pollution, the resource cannot be used comprehensively, the regular machinery coke has a high investment in capital construction, but not much economic benefit. All are disadvantages for health and sustainable economic development. Also, this paper describes a LJ-95 machinery coke oven which has lower investment, higher product quality, less pollution, and higher economical benefit. LJ-95 coke oven will be the technical basis for construction of a clean energy area. The clean energy area concept for the Fenhe river valley consists of a coal gas pipeline network during the first phase and building electricity generation using steam turbines in the second phase.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: HOMER CITY POWER COMPLEX TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a preliminary, preoperational environmental survey conducted at a newly constructed advanced physical coal cleaning plant near Homer City, PA. The work is part of a comprehensive environmental assessment of physical and chemical coal cleaning processes perfor...

  17. Influence of cleaning process on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Zhengxiang; Ding Tao; Ye Xiaowen; Wang Xiaodong; Ma Bin; Cheng Xinbin; Liu Huasong; Ji Yiqin; Wang Zhanshan

    2011-03-20

    The cleaning process of optical substrates plays an important role during the manufacture of high-power laser coatings. Two kinds of substrates, fused silica and BK7 glass, and two cleaning processes, called process 1 and process 2 having different surfactant solutions and different ultrasonic cleaning parameters, are adopted to compare the influence of the ultrasonic cleaning technique on the substrates. The evaluation standards of the cleaning results include contaminant-removal efficiency, weak absorption, and laser-induced damage threshold of the substrates. For both fused silica and BK7, process 2 is more efficient than process 1. Because acid and alkaline solutions can increase the roughness of BK7, process 2 is unsuitable for BK7 glass cleaning. The parameters of the cleaning protocol should be changed depending on the material of the optical components and the type of contamination.

  18. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

  19. Process for cleaning the inner walls of a reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Perrot, M.; Jaccaud, M.

    1985-05-21

    A physico-chemical cleaning process for the inner walls of a reactor which serves to maintain these walls in a state close to their main initial characteristics necessitated by a fluorination reaction, said characteristics being degraded by the deposition of a parasitic phase during the reaction, said initial characteristics being maintained by the use of a protective agent belonging to the group constituted by at least one of the reagents, a product resulting from the reaction, a product foreign to the reaction, but compatible with the substances of the main reaction or by the reaction of a third substance with at least one of the reaction substances or a mixture thereof, forming a renewable protective film on the said walls. The protective agent can be deposited by condensation on the walls before, during or after the main reaction, and then vaporized. The protective agent can be in liquid form, and trickling along the walls.

  20. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  1. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  2. Method for determining the end of devolatilizing in a coke oven and adjusting the coke cycle based thereon

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.G.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing coke in a by-product coke oven battery. Each oven is operated over a coking cycle; each coking cycle having an aim total coke cycle time defined by a charging time and an aim push time. The aim push time has a permitted plus or minus deviation. Between the charging time and aim push time there is: (1) a devolatilizing period of estimated length, and (2) a coke soaking period immediately following the devolatilizing period. The method of determining the end of the devolatilizing period consists of: (a) in a first coking cycle, during a devolatilizing period, obtaining liquid catch condensed volatiles specimens from gas samples withdrawn from within the coke oven; (1) determining a reference light-transmitting value of the catch specimens for the devolatilizing period; (b) in a second coking cycle, as the coking cycle approaches an estimated end of the devolatilizing period, obtaining liquid catch specimens having condensed volatiles from gas samples withdrawn from within the coke oven; and (1) determining when an individual light-transmitting value of one of the specimens varies by a pre-selected amount from the reference light-transmitting value.

  3. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  4. Crude oil tank-cleaning process recovers oil, reduces hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.B. ); Goss, M.L. ); Schoemann, P.; Tyler, S.S. )

    1993-12-13

    An improved crude oil tank-cleaning process can reduce hazardous waste generated from tank bottoms and allow the recovery of valuable hydrocarbons. The process uses chemicals, heat, water, and applications technology. Crude oil tank bottoms are typically high in hydrocarbons -- a valuable raw material if recovered and recycled back to the refining process. Nalco's patented program essentially separates sludge into its components: water, nonhazardous solids, and recovered hydrocarbons. The paper describes industry trends, sludge removal, mechanical cleaning, chemical cleaning, environment and safety, case history of a New Jersey refinery, testing, program design, the cleaning process, hydrocarbon recovery, and return on investment.

  5. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  6. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  7. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  8. Effect of two cleaning processes for bone allografts on gentamicin impregnation and in vitro antibiotic release.

    PubMed

    Coraça-Huber, D C; Hausdorfer, J; Fille, M; Steidl, M; Nogler, M

    2013-06-01

    Bone allografts are a useful and sometimes indispensable tool for the surgeon to repair bone defects. Microbial contamination is a major reason for discarding allografts from bone banks. To improve the number of safe allografts, we suggest chemical cleaning of the grafts followed by antibiotic impregnation. Comparison of two chemical cleaning processes for bone allografts aiming for antibiotic impregnation and consequently delivery rates in vitro. Bone chips of 5-10 mm were prepared from human femoral heads. Two cleaning methods (cleaning A and cleaning B) based on solutions containing hydrogen peroxide, paracetic acid, ethanol and biological detergent were carried out and compared. After the cleaning processes, the bone chips were impregnated with gentamicin. Bacillus subtilis bioassay was used to determine the gentamicin release after intervals of 1-7 days. Differences were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests. The zones of inhibition obtained from the bone grafts cleaned with both cleaning processes were similar between the groups. The concentration of the released antibiotic was decreasing gradually over time, following a similar pattern for both groups. The cleaning procedure A as well as the cleaning procedure B for bone allografts allowed the impregnation with gentamicin powder in the same concentrations in both groups. The delivery of gentamicin was similar for both groups. Both cleaning procedures were easy to be carried out, making them suitable for routine use at the bone banks. PMID:22581168

  9. Development of a replacement for trichloroethylene in the two-stage cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1992-12-01

    A solvent was sought to replace trichloroethylene in the two-stage cleaning process that is used in the Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) Miniature Electro-Mechanical Assembly Department. The process is an ultrasonic cleaning process in which product is first cleaned in trichloroethylene and then in isopropyl alcohol. After a general review of the properties of available solvents, isopropyl alcohol, d-limonene, and a synthetic mineral spirits, were chosen to be evaluated as trichloroethylene replacements. Stainless steel test panels were cleaned and then soiled with several different organic materials. Certain of the panels were cleaned by the two-stage process. The others were cleaned by the two-stage process using one or another of the solvents under evaluation in the place of the trichloroethylene. The cleanliness of the panels was determined by Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy. The panels cleaned with any of the three solvents under evaluation were found to be as clean as those cleaned by the standard two-stage process. Because of simplicity and minimization of inventory, it is recommended that the two-stage process be changed to use isopropyl alcohol in both stages.

  10. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  11. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for BNL accelerator and storage ring components

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1996-10-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its UHV components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which had to be environmentally and personnel safe, was needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which was still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on Photon Stimulated Desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel and oxygen free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 ev. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10{sup 22} and 10{sup 23} photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories.

  12. Development of a cleaning process for uranium chips machined with a glycol-water-borax coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1984-12-01

    A chip-cleaning process has been developed to remove the new glycol-water-borax coolant from oralloy chips. The process involves storing the freshly cut chips in Freon-TDF until they are cleaned, washing with water, and displacing the water with Freon-TDF. The wash water can be reused many times and still yield clean chips and then be added to the coolant to make up for evaporative losses. The Freon-TDF will be cycled by evaporation. The cleaning facility is currently being designed and should be operational by April 1985.

  13. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick.

  14. Precision Cleaning and Verification Processes Used at Marshall Space Flight Center for Critical Hardware Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.

    1999-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs many research and development programs that require hardware and assemblies to be cleaned to levels that are compatible with fuels and oxidizers (liquid oxygen, solid propellants, etc.). Also, the Center is responsible for developing large telescope satellites which requires a variety of optical systems to be cleaned. A precision cleaning shop is operated with-in MSFC by the Fabrication Services Division of the Materials & Processes Division. Verification of cleanliness is performed for all precision cleaned articles in the Analytical Chemistry Branch. Since the Montreal Protocol was instituted, MSFC had to find substitutes for many materials that has been in use for many years, including cleaning agents and organic solvents. As MSFC is a research Center, there is a great variety of hardware that is processed in the Precision Cleaning Shop. This entails the use of many different chemicals and solvents, depending on the nature and configuration of the hardware and softgoods being cleaned. A review of the manufacturing cleaning and verification processes, cleaning materials and solvents used at MSFC and changes that resulted from the Montreal Protocol will be presented.

  15. Precision Cleaning and Verification Processes Used at Marshall Space Flight Center for Critical Hardware Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.; Cox, Jack A.; McGee, Kathleen A.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration performs many research and development programs that require hardware and assemblies to be cleaned to levels that are compatible with fuels and oxidizers (liquid oxygen, solid propellants, etc.). Also, MSFC is responsible for developing large telescope satellites which require a variety of optical systems to be cleaned. A precision cleaning shop is operated within MSFC by the Fabrication Services Division of the Materials & Processes Laboratory. Verification of cleanliness is performed for all precision cleaned articles in the Environmental and Analytical Chemistry Branch. Since the Montreal Protocol was instituted, MSFC had to find substitutes for many materials that have been in use for many years, including cleaning agents and organic solvents. As MSFC is a research center, there is a great variety of hardware that is processed in the Precision Cleaning Shop. This entails the use of many different chemicals and solvents, depending on the nature and configuration of the hardware and softgoods being cleaned. A review of the manufacturing cleaning and verification processes, cleaning materials and solvents used at MSFC and changes that resulted from the Montreal Protocol will be presented.

  16. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY: CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES - PHASE I: AN ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clean Products and Processes - promote cooperation for improving the common pollution landscape by stimulating cross-national dialogues and collaboration. Share knowledge on the methods, tools, and technologies for making cleaner products and processes possible.

  17. Removal of organic compounds and trace metals from oil sands process-affected water using zero valent iron enhanced by petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Pourrezaei, Parastoo; Alpatova, Alla; Khosravi, Kambiz; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Chen, Yuan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-06-15

    The oil production generates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), referring to the water that has been in contact with oil sands or released from tailings deposits. There are concerns about the environmental impacts of the release of OSPW because of its toxicity. Zero valent iron alone (ZVI) and in combination with petroleum coke (CZVI) were investigated as environmentally friendly treatment processes for the removal of naphthenic acids (NAs), acid-extractable fraction (AEF), fluorophore organic compounds, and trace metals from OSPW. While the application of 25 g/L ZVI to OSPW resulted in 58.4% removal of NAs in the presence of oxygen, the addition of 25 g petroleum coke (PC) as an electron conductor enhanced the NAs removal up to 90.9%. The increase in ZVI concentration enhanced the removals of NAs, AEF, and fluorophore compounds from OSPW. It was suggested that the electrons generated from the oxidation of ZVI were transferred to oxygen, resulting in the production of hydroxyl radicals and oxidation of NAs. When OSPW was de-oxygenated, the NAs removal decreased to 17.5% and 65.4% during treatment with ZVI and CZVI, respectively. The removal of metals in ZVI samples was similar to that obtained during CZVI treatment. Although an increase in ZVI concentration did not enhance the removal of metals, their concentrations effectively decreased at all ZVI loadings. The Microtox(®) bioassay with Vibrio fischeri showed a decrease in the toxicity of ZVI- and CZVI-treated OSPW. The results obtained in this study showed that the application of ZVI in combination with PC is a promising technology for OSPW treatment. PMID:24681364

  18. Methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40 % by weight. There are some coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have big resources of the coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for the coke production would allow to broad up the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C`s lab shown some differences in coal properties in dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of well caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way of low caking coals application in coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method is been known for a very loner time acro. It may be divided into two possible directions of briquettes using. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is briquettes adding to coal blend in defined proportion and its combined coking. The possibility of application of coal benefication methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  19. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  20. WATER AS A REACTION MEDIUM FOR CLEAN CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapid developing new field that provides us a pro-active avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. When designed properly, clean chemical technology can be developed in water as a reaction media. The technologies generated f...

  1. Functionalization of Petroleum Coke-Derived Carbon for Synergistically Enhanced Capacitive Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Xuejin; Huang, Jufeng; Xing, Wei; Yan, Zifeng

    2016-03-01

    Petroleum coke is a valuable and potential source for clean energy storage if it could be modified legitimately and facilely. In the present study, porous carbon with high surface area and abundant oxygen-containing groups was prepared from petroleum coke by chemical activation and modification processes. The as-prepared carbon exhibits a high surface area (1129 m2 · g-1) and stable micrographic structure. It presents a high specific capacitance and excellent rate performance in KOH electrolyte. Even at an ultrahigh current density of 50 A · g-1, the specific capacitance of the prepared carbon can still reach up to an unprecedented value of 261 F · g-1 with a superhigh retention rate of 81 %. In addition, the energy density of this material in aqueous electrolyte can be as high as 13.9 Wh · kg-1. The high energy density and excellent rate performance ensure its prosperous application in high-power energy storage system.

  2. The importance of cleaning for the overall results of processing endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Martiny, H; Floss, H; Zühlsdorf, B

    2004-04-01

    Reprocessing comprises three steps: cleaning, disinfection and-if required-sterilisation. While the extents of disinfection and of sterilisation are quantitatively defined, there are only imprecise (qualitative) definitions of cleaning. There are two main reasons for accurate cleaning. First organic and inorganic materials that remain on inner and outer surfaces will interfere with the efficacy of the disinfectants. In case of endoscopes this will lead to channel blockages; they remain undisinfected. Second the bioburden found on endoscopes after use can be very high. Data available demonstrate that a bacterial burden of up to 10(9)cfu/endoscope channel can be expected. Therefore it is necessary to perform a thorough cleaning. Studies using endoscopes showed a reduction in microbial counts by a factor of approximately 10(4) by cleaning (manual and mechanical). Therefore in 2001 the German Society of Hospital Hygiene (DGKH) specified its requirements and recommendations for determining cleaning efficacy separately from those for disinfection. Cleaning and disinfecting can be done manually or mechanically, but it seems impossible to validate manual processes. However our studies in two different washer-disinfectors (WD) showed differences in cleaning efficacy. The tested cleaning processes showed different efficacies. Not all cleaning processes showed better results than water alone with regard to visible cleanliness and to a microbiological reduction E. faecium. Our results show that the evaluation of cleanliness exclusively by visible inspection is not sufficient, particular for the lumens of endoscopes. The results also show that a cleaning process may be very effective also in reducing micro-organisms present. PMID:15110118

  3. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  4. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  5. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  6. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  7. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  8. Evaluation of a no-clean soldering process designed to eliminate the use of ozone depleting chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.; Armendariz, M.E.; Anderson, D.J. |; Lichtenberg, L.; Van Buren, P.; Paffett, M.T.

    1992-11-01

    The destruction of the Earth`s protective ozone layer is one of today`s largest environmental concerns. Solvent emissions released during the cleaning of printed wiring boards (PWBs) have been identified as a primary contributor to ozone destruction. No-clean soldering (sometimes referred to as self-cleaning) processes represent an ideal solution since they eliminate the need for cleaning after soldering. Elimination of solvent cleaning operations significantly reduces the emissions of ozone depleting chemicals (ODCs), reduces energy consumption, and reduces product costs. Several no-clean soldering processes have been developed over the past few years. The program`s purpose was to evaluate the no-clean soldering process and to determine if hardware produced by the process is acceptable for military applications. That is, determine if the no-clean process produces hardware that is as reliable as that soldered with the existing rosin-based flux solvent cleaning process.

  9. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  10. Clean-air legislation will buoy U. S. gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.R.; Ellington, E.E.; Otto, K.W. )

    1991-07-22

    This paper reports on the effects of recent U.S. clean-air legislation on NGL demand and pricing. Demand for all NGL products will be firm throughout the 1990s. Increased requirements for butane as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) feedstock will strengthen butane prices. Higher base-load requirements for propane in new NGL-based olefin plants will also have a positive impact on propane prices.

  11. Coke Deposition and Smoke Formation in Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Wear, J. D.

    1956-01-01

    , structure, and chemical composition of the soft coke in the dome and (2) the hard deposits on the liner are similar to petroleum coke and may result from the liquid-phase thermal cracking of the fuel. During the early development period of jet engines, it was noted that the excessive coke deposits and exhaust smoke were generally obtained when fuel-oil-type fuels were used. Engines using gasoline-type fuels were relatively free from the deposits and smoke. These results indicated that some type of quality control would be needed in fuel specifications. Also noted was the effect of engine operating conditions on coke deposition. It is possible that, even with a clean-burning fuel, an excessive amount of coke could be formed at some operating conditions. In this case, combustor redesign could possibly reduce the coke to a tolerable level. This chapter is a summary of the various coke-deposition and exhaust-smoke problems connected- with the turbojet combustor. Included are (1) the effect of coke deposition on combustor life or durability and performance; (2) the effect of combustor design, operating conditions, inlet variables, and fuel characteristics on coke deposition; (3) elimination of coke deposits; (4) the effect of operating conditions and fuel characteristics on formation of exhaust smoke; and (5) various bench test methods proposed for determining and controlling fuel quality.

  12. Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  13. Bubble size distribution analysis and control in high frequency ultrasonic cleaning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, M.; Struyf, H.; Mertens, P.; Heyns, M.; De Gendt, S.; Glorieux, C.; Brems, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the semiconductor industry, the ongoing down-scaling of nanoelectronic elements has lead to an increasing complexity of their fabrication. Hence, the individual fabrication processes become increasingly difficult to handle. To minimize cross-contamination, intermediate surface cleaning and preparation steps are inevitable parts of the semiconductor process chain. Here, one major challenge is the removal of residual nano-particulate contamination resulting from abrasive processes such as polishing and etching. In the past, physical cleaning techniques such as megasonic cleaning have been proposed as suitable solutions. However, the soaring fragility of the smallest structures is constraining the forces of the involved physical removal mechanisms. In the case of "megasonic" cleaning -cleaning with ultrasound in the MHz-domain - the main cleaning action arises from strongly oscillating microbubbles which emerge from the periodically changing tensile strain in the cleaning liquid during sonication. These bubbles grow, oscillate and collapse due to a complex interplay of rectified diffusion, bubble coalescence, non-linear pulsation and the onset of shape instabilities. Hence, the resulting bubble size distribution does not remain static but alternates continuously. Only microbubbles in this distribution that show a high oscillatory response are responsible for the cleaning action. Therefore, the cleaning process efficiency can be improved by keeping the majority of bubbles around their resonance size. In this paper, we propose a method to control and characterize the bubble size distribution by means of "pulsed" sonication and measurements of acoustic cavitation spectra, respectively. We show that the so-obtained bubble size distributions can be related to theoretical predictions of the oscillatory responses of and the onset of shape instabilities for the respective bubbles. We also propose a mechanism to explain the enhancement of both acoustic and cleaning activity

  14. Met coke world summit 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  15. Tunable droplet momentum and cavitation process for damage-free cleaning of challenging particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouk, Roman; Papanu, James; Li, Fred; Jeon, Jason; Liu, Tong; Yalamanchili, Rao

    2008-10-01

    Particle removal without damage has been demonstrated for <60nm photomask sub-resolution assist features with droplet momentum cleaning technology that employs NanoDropletTM mixed-fluid jet nozzle. Although 99%+ particle removal efficiency can be achieved for standard Si3N4 particles with broad size distribution, there are some cleaning challenges with small (<100nm) and large contact area (>500nm) particles. It was found that tunable uniform cavitation can provide the additional physical assist force needed to improve cleaning efficiency of these challenging particles while meeting the damage-fee cleaning requirement. An integrated cleaning process was developed that combines both droplet momentum and damage-free cavitation technology. Cleaning tests were performed with different types of challenging particles. The results showed 5-8% particle removal efficiency improvement as compared to momentum based only cleaning. All masks were processed using the TetraTM mask cleaning tool configured with NanoDropletTM mixed fluid jet technology and full face megasonics.

  16. Development of a replacement for trichloroethylene in the two-stage cleaning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, W. B.

    1992-12-01

    Isopropyl alcohol, d-limonene, and a synthetic mineral spirits were compared for effectiveness as replacements for trichloroethylene in an ultrasonic cleaning process. All were found to be suitable. Isopropyl alcohol is recommended as the replacement.

  17. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema

    Pete McGrail

    2012-12-31

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  18. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  19. Study of discharge cleaning process in JIPP T-2 Torus by residual gas analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, N.; Hirokura, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tanahashi, S.

    1982-12-01

    During discharge cleaning, decay time of water vapor pressure changes when the pressure reaches a certain level. A long decay time observed in the later phase can be interpreted as a result of a slow deoxidization rate of chromium oxide, which may dominate the cleaning process in this phase. Optimization of plasma density for the cleaning is discussed comparing the experimental results on density dependence of water vapor pressure with a result based on a zero dimensional calculation for particle balance. One of the essential points for effective cleaning is the raising of the electron density of the plasma high enough that the dissociation loss rate of H2O is as large as the sticking loss rate. A density as high as 10 to the 11th power/cu cm is required for a clean surface condition where sticking probability is presumed to be around 0.5.

  20. Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes.

    PubMed

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi

    2006-12-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most widely used disinfectant in the food industry despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite fulfills many requirements as the ideal disinfectant and furthermore it has an excellent cleaning action. The effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in the cleaning and disinfection processes depends on the concentration of available chlorine and the pH of the solution. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a weak acid and dissociates to the hypochlorite ion (-OCl) and proton (H+) depending on the solution pH. It is generally believed that HOCl is the active species in the germicidal action, whereas the concentration of -OCl is a key factor determining the cleaning efficiency. This implies that the optimal pH region of the germicidal activity of sodium hypochlorite differs from that of its cleaning activity. This paper describes the theory and practice of the cleaning and disinfecting operations based on the use of sodium hypochlorite solution. PMID:17190269

  1. Method for recovering and utilizing heat of coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunioka, K.; Nishio, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Shimotsuma, T.

    1981-06-02

    A method is described for recovering and utilizing heat of coke- oven gas is eliminated. Through heat exchange with a high-temperature coke-oven gas generated from a coke oven battery and containing vaporized coal tar, vaporized low boiling point substances and dust. By drying and preheating a blended raw material coal fine to be charged into coking ovens of said coke oven battery, and causing most of said coal tar contained in said coke-oven gas to condense and deposit onto the particle surfaces of said coal fine. During the process of said heat exchange, sensible heat and condensation heat of said coke-oven gas and substances contained therein are recovered and utilized, and at the same time, most of the contained coal tar from said coke-oven gas.

  2. Advanced treatment of residual nitrogen from biologically treated coke effluent by a microalga-mediated process using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under stepwise mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Woong; Heo, Sung-Woon; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a microalga-mediated process for simultaneous removal of residual ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and production of lipids from biologically treated coke effluent. Four species of green algae were tested using a sequential mixotrophic process. In the first phase-CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition-all microalgae assimilated NH4(+)-N with no evident inhibition. In second phase-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-supplied mixotrophic condition-removal rates of NH4(+)-N and biomass significantly increased. Among the microalgae used, Arctic Chlorella sp. ArM0029B had the highest rate of NH4(+)-N removal (0.97 mg/L/h) and fatty acid production (24.9 mg/L/d) which were 3.6- and 2.1-fold higher than those observed under the CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that acetate and butyrate were decisive factors for increasing NH4(+)-N removal and fatty acid production. These results demonstrate that microalgae can be used in a sequential process for treatment of residual nitrogen after initial treatment of activated sludge. PMID:25881553

  3. Sulfur cement production using by products of the perchloroethylene coal cleaning process and the FC4-1 cleaned soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bassam Masri, K.L.; Fullerton, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    An introductory set of experiments to show the feasibility of making sulfur cement were carried out at the University of Akron according to Parrett and Currett`s patent which requires the use of sulfur, a filler, a plasticizer, and a vulcanization accelerator. Small blocks of cement were made using byproducts of the perchloroethylene coal cleaning process. Extracted elemental and organic sulfur, ash and mineral matters from the float sink portion of the PCE process, and FC4-1 cleaned soil were used as substitutes for sulfur and filler needed for the production of sulfur cement. Leaching tests in different solutions and under different conditions were conducted on the sulfur blocks. Other tests such as strength, durability, resistance to high or low temperatures will be conducted in the future. Sulfur cement can be used as a sealing agent at a joint, roofing purposes, forming ornamental figures, and coating of exposed surfaces of iron or steel. When mixed with an aggregate, sulfur concrete is formed. This concrete can be used for structural members, curbings, guthers, slabs, and can be precast or cast at the job site. An advantage of sulfur cement over Portland cement is that it reaches its design strength in two to three hours after processing and it can be remelted and recast.

  4. Optimizing EUV mask blank cleaning processes using the Lasertec M7360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Kadaksham, Arun John; House, Matt; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank

    2012-03-01

    EUV lithography is considered the most promising lithography solution for the 16 nm node and beyond. As EUV light is strongly absorbed by all known materials, reflective optics are used instead of conventional transmittance optics applied to ArF and KrF lithography. The EUV mask must also need be reflective. It typically consists of a Ta-based absorber layer, Ru capping layer, Si/Mo multilayer on a low thermal expansion material (LTEM) substrate with a backside Cr-based metal coating. Because of the strong absorbance of the EUV light, a pellicle is not practical. Therefore, EUV masks must be cleaned more frequently to maintain the necessary cleanliness. This poses numerous unique challenges in cleaning processes. For example, the EUV mask integrity, including critical dimension (CD), EUV reflectivity, and absorber thickness must be kept intact during multiple cleanings throughout the mask's lifetime. Requirements of defect size for the cleaning, furthermore, are becoming tighter as semiconductor circuit design rules get smaller. According to the International Technology Roadmap For Semiconductors (ITRS), the smallest defect size that must be removed is 23 nm for the 18 nm NAND Flash node in 2013. In addition to defects on the frontside, defects on a backside also need to be minimized since they might lead overlay error due to local distortions of EUV masks on an electrostatic chuck. This paper focuses on evaluations of cleaning performances using the Lasertec M1350 and M7360 blank inspection system, which has a 71 nm and 43 nm sensitivity. The 43nm is the current best sensitivity while keeping a >90% defect capture rate. First, the cleaning performance using the standard process has been investigated. We found a mitigation of adders was a key challenge for the EUV mask cleaning. The primary source of the adders was also identified as pits. Secondly, the megasonic cleaning process has been optimized to mitigate the adders. We could successfully reduce the adders by

  5. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    DOEpatents

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  6. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  7. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  8. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  9. ECR plasma cleaning: an in-situ processing technique for RF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Moeller, W-D.; Antoine, C.; Jiang, H.; Pechenezhskiy, I.; Cooley, L.; Khabiboulline, T.; Terechkine, Y.; Edwards, H.; Koeth, T.; Romanenko, A.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Jefferson Lab

    2008-01-01

    A condition for Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) can be established inside a fully assembled RF cavity without the need for removing high-power couplers. As such, plasma generated by this process can be used as a final cleaning step, or as an alternative cleaning step in place of other techniques. Tests showed filtered dry air plasma can successfully remove sulfur particles on niobium surface while the surface oxygen content remains intact.

  10. The study and practice of clean coal pressure filter and dewatering process

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Wu, L.; Ou, Z.

    1999-07-01

    This paper introduces the current status of dewatering of the flotation clean coal and the problems in China. The industrial application of the dewatering process and the newly developed clean coal pressure filter is represented. And the results indicated that this filter press possesses such advantages as fast speed in filter lower moisture in filter cake, convenience in operation, obvious saving on energy, etc. It will have a broad applications.

  11. Development of the Ultra-Clean Dry Cleanup Process for Coal-Based Syngases

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has proposed a novel scheme for polishing sulfur species, halides, and particulate from syngas to meet stringent cleaning requirements, the ''Ultra-Clean syngas polishing process.'' The overall development objective for this syngas polishing process is to economically achieve the most stringent cleanup requirements for sulfur species, halide species and particulate expected for chemical and fuel synthesis applications (total sulfur species < 60 ppbv, halides < 10 ppbv, and particulate < 0.1 ppmw). A Base Program was conducted to produce ground-work, laboratory test data and process evaluations for a conceptual feasibility assessment of this novel syngas cleaning process. Laboratory testing focused on the identification of suitable sulfur and halide sorbents and operating temperatures for the process. This small-scale laboratory testing was also performed to provide evidence of the capability of the process to reach its stringent syngas cleaning goals. Process evaluations were performed in the Base Program to identify process alternatives, to devise process flow schemes, and to estimate process material & energy balances, process performance, and process costs. While the work has focused on sulfur, halide, and particulate control, considerations of ammonia, and mercury control have also been included.

  12. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  13. Influence of microbubble in physical cleaning of MF membrane process for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui-Jong; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Soo; Jang, Am

    2015-06-01

    Currently, there is a growing emphasis on wastewater reclamation and reuse all over the world due to restricted water resources. Among a variety of wastewater reuse technologies, the use of microfiltration membranes (MF) is one of the popular processes because it has the ability to successfully eliminate particulates and colloidal matters. However, successful fouling control is not easy because effluents from the activated sludge process still contain small particulates and colloidal matters such as extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP). On the other hand, microbubbles have advantageous properties compared to common bubbles, but there hasn't been reporting of the use of microbubbles in physical cleaning instead of aeration. Encouraging results were obtained herein through the application of microbubbles for physical cleaning. In evaluation of the cleaning efficiency, the efficiency of microbubbles was observed to be twice as high as that of aeration, except during the course of the initial 30 min. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the membrane tank after treatment with microbubbles was more than twice as high as that after aeration for physical cleaning. The membrane cleaned with microbubbles also had the smoothest surface, with a roughness of 42.5 nm. In addition, microbubbles were found to effectively remove EPS and make the structure of the gel layer loose. In particular, the microbubbles had the ability to remove proteins through the effect of pyrolytic decomposition. Therefore, in FT-IR spectra of the membrane surfaces taken before and after physical cleaning, while each treatment showed similar peak positions, the peak values of the membrane treated with microbubbles were the lowest. Through various analyses, it was confirmed that microbubbles can remove foulants on the gel layer in spite of their very low shear force. This means that microbubble cleaning has full potential for use as a physical cleaning

  14. MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

    1997-02-01

    An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory [1].

  15. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke. PMID:26114284

  16. Study of Sn removal processes for in-situ collector cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elg, Daniel T.; Panici, Gianluca A.; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2016-03-01

    An in-situ hydrogen plasma cleaning technique to clean Sn off of EUV collector optics is studied in detail. The cleaning process uses hydrogen radicals (formed in the hydrogen plasma) to interact with Sn-coated surfaces, forming SnH4 and being pumped away. This technique has been used to clean a 300mm-diameter stainless steel dummy collector optic, and EUV reflectivity of multilayer mirror samples was restored after cleaning Sn from them, validating the potential of this technology. This method has the potential to significantly reduce downtime and increase source availability. However, net Sn removal is limited by decomposition of the SnH4 molecule upon impact with the collector and the resulting redeposition of Sn. This is true in all cleaning systems that make use of hydrogen radicals. Thus, to guide the design of effective cleaning systems, the transport of Sn in the chamber, and the fundamental processes affecting it, must be understood. Accordingly, an investigation into these processes Sn removal is being performed. These processes include the advection of gas through the chamber, the creation of hydrogen radicals, the etching of Sn by radicals, and the surface decomposition of SnH4. In this paper, experiments to determine the radical density are presented, along with a theoretical plasma chemistry model that explains the processes behind radical creation and validates the radical density measurements. Additionally, experiments are shown that provide an insight into the etching of Sn by hydrogen radicals, yielding calculations of etching probability as well as showing that Sn etching is very sensitive to oxygen contamination and surface morphology.

  17. The mechanical stability of allografts after a cleaning process: comparison of two preparation modes.

    PubMed

    Putzer, David; Huber, Debora Coraca; Wurm, Alexander; Schmoelz, Werner; Nogler, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In revision hip arthroplasty, bone loss can be compensated by impacting allograft material. Cleaning processes reduce the risk of bacterial and viral contamination. Cleaned allograft material was compared to native untreated allografts by using a uniaxial compression test. 30 measurements were performed for each group before and after compaction. Grain size distribution and weight loss were determined. A reduction in the amount of large bone fragments and a higher compaction rate were observed in the cleaned bone grafts. The cleaned bone chips presented with a better mechanical resistance to a compression force and a reduced flowability. The benefit of a cleaner and a mechanical stable graft material comes with the drawback that higher initial amounts of graft material are needed. PMID:24793889

  18. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Cu Corrosion in Single Wafer Cleaning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Yukinari; Futatsuki, Takashi; Shiohara, Morio; Kondo, Seiichi; Saito, Shuichi

    2009-04-01

    We investigated Cu corrosion at the via bottom of multi-layered Cu interconnects that occurred after post-etching wet cleaning and caused via open failures. We found that oxygen was dissolved into de-ionized water (DIW) on the wafer edge from the air atmosphere during the rinse step after chemical cleaning and that Cu was oxidized due to the high oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the rinse DIW. To prevent Cu interconnects from being corroded, control of the dissolved oxygen and the ORP of the rinse DIW by decreasing the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere in the cleaning machine as well as by using H2 water is required. This will become indispensable in the cleaning process of the next generation Cu interconnects.

  19. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  20. Coke oven door seal

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrych, G.

    1984-01-17

    A coke oven door seal in which a leaf spring is fixed to the inner end of a continuous concave seating structure which is peripherally mounted on the door frame. A terminally convex ridge structure extends endwise from the door jamb to flex the leaf spring sufficiently so as to form a continuous gas tight seal around the door. The leaf spring is flexed by the ridge by an amount that is greater than the deflection which would result only from the application of pressure on the leaf spring by coke oven gases. The leaf spring is also flexed by an amount that is less than the amount which would surpass its elastic limit. In an alternate embodiment, the leaf spring and seat structure are mounted on the door jamb while the ridge is mounted on the door frame.

  1. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  2. IMPACT OF NOX SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION PROCESSES ON FLUE GAS CLEANING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the impact of the ammonia leaving a nitrogen oxide (NOx) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process on downstream flue gas cleaning processes. (NOx emissions from electric utility boilers may be reduced 80-90% by the application of pollutio...

  3. Evaluation of seed cotton cleaning equipment performance at various processing rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing rate per unit width of seed cotton cleaning equipment– cylinder cleaners and stick machines– recommended by manufacturers is 4.9-8.2 bales hr-1 m-1 (1.5-2.5 bales hr-1 ft-1). Survey data has indicated that many gins exceed this processing rate. Little research has been conducted wit...

  4. Cleaning process for corrugated aluminum electrical transmission line enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Gary K.

    1984-07-24

    A process for preparing the interior of a corrugated pipe or sheath comprises the steps of placing a predetermined amount of a tumbling abrasive material into the sheath, and then rotating the sheath.

  5. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  6. The TEES process cleans waste and produces energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, D. C.; Silva, L. J.

    1995-02-01

    A gasification system is under development that can be used with most types of wet organic wastes. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet waste can be fed as a solution or slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. The system has utility both for direct conversion of high-moisture biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for wet organic wastes including unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system more than 99% conversions of organic waste to medium-Btu fuel gas can be achieved.

  7. Processes For Cleaning a Cathode Tube and Assemblies In A Hollow Cathode Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a process for cleaning a cathode tube and other subassemblies in a hollow cathode assembly. In the disclosed process, hand covering elastomer gloves are used for handling all cathode assembly parts. The cathode tube and other subassemblies are cleaned with a lint-free cloth damped with acetone, then wiped with alcohol, immersed in ethyl alcohol or acetone, and ultrasonic agitation is applied, heating to 60 C. for ethyl alcohol or 56 C. for acetone. The cathode tube and other subassemblies are dried by blowing with nitrogen gas.

  8. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature

  9. Investigation of the impact of cleaning on the adhesive bond and the process implications

    SciTech Connect

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GUESS,TOMMY R.; ADKINS,CAROL L. JONES; CURRO,JOHN G.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LOPEZ,EDWIN P.; LEMKE,PAUL A.

    2000-05-01

    While surface cleaning is the most common process step in DOE manufacturing operations, the link between a successful adhesive bond and the surface clean performed before adhesion is not well understood. An innovative approach that combines computer modeling expertise, fracture mechanics understanding, and cleaning experience to address how to achieve a good adhesive bond is discussed here to develop a capability that would result in reduced cleaning development time and testing, improved bonds, improved manufacturability, and even an understanding that leads to improved aging. A simulation modeling technique, polymer reference interaction site model applied near wall (Wall PRISM), provided the capability to include contaminants on the surface. Calculations determined an approximately 8% reduction in the work of adhesion for 1% by weight of ethanol contamination on the structure of a silicone adhesive near a surface. The demonstration of repeatable coatings and quantitative analysis of the surface for deposition of controlled amounts of contamination (hexadecane and mineral oil) was based on three deposition methods. The effect of the cleaning process used on interfacial toughness was determined. The measured interfacial toughness of samples with a Brulin cleaned sandblasted aluminum surface was found to be {approximately} 15% greater than that with a TCE cleaned aluminum surface. The sensitivity of measured fracture toughness to various test conditions determined that both interfacial toughness and interface corner toughness depended strongly on surface roughness. The work of adhesion value for silicone/silicone interface was determined by a contact mechanics technique known as the JKR method. Correlation with fracture data has allowed a better understanding between interfacial fracture parameters and surface energy.

  10. Enhancing the performance of multilayer-dielectric diffraction gratings through cleaning process modifications and defect mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, Heather P. H.

    2014-05-01

    The laser-damage resistance of multilayer-dielectric (MLD) pulse compressor gratings currently limits the energy performance of the petawatt-class OMEGA EP laser system at University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The cleanliness of these components is of paramount importance; contaminants can act as absorbers during laser irradiation, initiating intense local heating and catastrophic laser-induced damage. Unfortunately, some of the most effective cleaning methods for MLD gratings - usually involving high temperatures and strong acids or bases - can themselves induce chemical degradation and thermal stresses, leading to coating delamination and defects. This work explores ways to improve the laser-damage resistance of MLD gratings through modifications to the final cleaning phase of the manufacturing process. Processes of defect formation are investigated through a combination of chemical cleaning experiments, microscopy, and modeling. We use a fracture-mechanics approach to formulate a mechanism for the initiation of micrometer-scale delamination defects that are commonly observed after chemical cleaning. The stress responses of MLD coatings to elevated-temperature chemical cleaning are estimated using a thermomechanical model, enabling us to study the effects of substrate thickness, solution temperature, and heating rates on coating stresses (and thus the risk of stress-induced failure). Finally, a low-temperature chemical cleaning approach is developed to improve laser-damage resistance while avoiding defect formation and mitigating coating stresses. We find that grating coupons cleaned using the optimized method consistently meet OMEGA EP requirements on diffraction efficiency and 1054-nm laser-damage resistance at 10 ps.

  11. Method for removal of furfural coke from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating ship furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas with a total pressure of less than 100 psig containing molecular oxygen. The gas being at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F. (427{degrees}C.) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of about 5000 psi.

  12. Briquetting of coke fines for phosphorus production

    SciTech Connect

    Shpaizer, E.E.; Klimova, L.K.; Mel'nik, A.P.; Egorov, A.A.

    1988-07-20

    Large amounts of coke wastes have accumulated in phosphorus factories. For use as a carbonaceous reducing agent in phosphorus production this waste material should be agglomerated to the required size with satisfactory strength, with minimal consumption of energy and materials. The dependence of briquet strength on a number of important physicochemical factors is described by an equation obtained by least-squares computer analysis of experimental data. Addition of finely ground quartzite to the mixture raises the thermal stability of the briquets. The activation energy and order of overall interaction of phosphoric acid and the ash components of coke, E = 24.8 kJ/mole and n = 0.98, were found by the method of nonisothermal kinetics. Their results show that the reactions leading to increase of briquet strength occur at temperatures from 520 to 670 K, i.e., below the ignition point of coke. Therefore the briquets may be heat-treated in an oxidizing medium; this greatly simplifies the practical process of agglomeration of coke fines.

  13. 76 FR 52692 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... on August 17, 2011, a Consent Decree in United States of America v. Erie Coke Corporation, Civil... Pennsylvania. In this action, the United States sought injunctive relief and penalties against Erie Coke Corporation (``Erie Coke'') pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for...

  14. Modeling of the process of burning-out of coke-ash particles in a fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhman, B. B.

    2012-05-01

    A generalized statistical model of the process of burning out of coal particles in a fluidized-bed furnace is constructed. It takes into account the kinetics of heterogeneous chemical reactions, as well as radiant and convective-conductive heat transfer, which made it possible to considerably expand the region of application of the existing models. Different schemes of the behavior of ash in the process of burning of carbon particles are considered. Boundary conditions (conditions of matching) were formulated, and analytical solutions for the distribution function of particles in small intervals of carbon concentration for surface and bulk reaction have been obtained.

  15. Clean burning process which converts pollutants into value added product

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Xuefang

    1999-07-01

    By adding a multiple composite admixture in coal-fired boilers, the new technology turns ash and the sulfur in coal into cement clinker materials, deepens and stabilizes combustion process, decreases mechanical and chemical instabilities during combustion, and eliminates the production of NO{sub x}. While generating heat and power, the technology produces cement clinkers, and gets rid of the soot type of air pollution caused by cement kilns, thus effects a radical cure for the two pollution sources in coal-fired power plants and cement kilns. The new technology makes use of coal ashes as renewable resources, saves energy resources and the land needed to discard the ashes. Therefore, it benefits for ecological balance and economics.

  16. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for Brookhaven National Laboratory accelerator and storage ring components

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1997-05-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which has to be environmentally and personnel safe, is needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which is still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel, and oxygen-free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 eV. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils, and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10{sup 22} and 10{sup 23} photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories. After modification, the new UHV cleaning process was accepted by BNL.

  17. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  18. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES -(PHASE I) - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual report summarizes the activities of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on clean products and processes for 2002, including the proceedings of the 2002 annual meeting held in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report presents a wealth of information on cleaner production activities in ove...

  19. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE I) 2000 ANNUAL REPORT, NUMBER 242

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the Third Annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the area of research of clean products and processes, life cycle analysis, computer tools and pollution prevention.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF A LIQUID CARBON DIOXIDE PROCESS FOR CLEANING METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a demonstration of liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) as an alternative to chlorinated solvents for cleaning metal parts. It describes the LCO2 process, the parts tested, the contaminants removed, and results from preliminary laboratory testing and on-site d...

  1. Selection of a Non-ODC Solvent for Rubber Processing Equipment Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. E.; Thornton, T. N.; Semmel, L.; Selvidge, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has recently acquired new equipment for the manufacture and processing of rubber and rubber containing items that are used in the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) system. Work with a previous generation of rubber equipment at MSFC in the 1970's had involved the use of Oxygen Deficient Center (ODC's) such as 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or VOC's such as Toluene as the solvents of choice in cleaning the equipment. Neither of these options is practical today. This paper addresses the selection and screening of candidate cleaning solvents that are not only effective, but also meet the new environmental standards.

  2. Selection of a Non-ODC Solvent for Rubber Processing Equipment Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. E.; Thornton, T. N.; Semmel, L.; Selvidge, S. A.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has recently acquired new equipment for the manufacture and processing of rubber and rubber containing items that are used in the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) system. Work with a previous generation of rubber equipment at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in the 1970's had involved the use of ODC's such as 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or VOC's such as Toluene as the solvents of choice in cleaning the equipment. Neither of these options is practical today. This paper addresses the selection and screening of candidate cleaning solvents that are not only effective, but also meet the new environmental standards.

  3. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  4. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  5. Reducing the emission of ozone depleting chemicals through use of a self-cleaning soldering process

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, L.; Martin, G.; Van Buren, P.; Iman, R.; Paffett, M.T.

    1991-12-31

    Motorola has jointed with Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories to perform work under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to reduce the use of CFC`s and other ozone depleting printing wiring board (PWB) cleaning solvents. This study evaluated the use of a new soldering process that uses dilute adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid during the soldering process and precludes the need for subsequent cleaning with ozone depleting solvents. This paper presents results from a series of designed experiments that evaluated PWB cleanliness as a function of various levels of machine control parameters. The study included a comprehensive hardware reliability evaluation, which included environmental conditioning, cleanliness testing, surface chemical analysis, surface insulation resistance testing, along with electrical, mechanical and long term storage testing. The results of this study that the new process produces quality, reliable hardware over a wide range of processing parameters. Adoption of this process, which eliminates the need for supplemental cleaning, will have a positive impact on many environmental problems, including depletion of the ozone layer.

  6. Reducing the emission of ozone depleting chemicals through use of a self-cleaning soldering process

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, L.; Martin, G.; Van Buren, P. . Government Electronics Group); Iman, R. ); Paffett, M.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Motorola has jointed with Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories to perform work under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to reduce the use of CFC's and other ozone depleting printing wiring board (PWB) cleaning solvents. This study evaluated the use of a new soldering process that uses dilute adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid in lieu of rosin flux. The process consumes the adipic acid during the soldering process and precludes the need for subsequent cleaning with ozone depleting solvents. This paper presents results from a series of designed experiments that evaluated PWB cleanliness as a function of various levels of machine control parameters. The study included a comprehensive hardware reliability evaluation, which included environmental conditioning, cleanliness testing, surface chemical analysis, surface insulation resistance testing, along with electrical, mechanical and long term storage testing. The results of this study that the new process produces quality, reliable hardware over a wide range of processing parameters. Adoption of this process, which eliminates the need for supplemental cleaning, will have a positive impact on many environmental problems, including depletion of the ozone layer.

  7. Preparation and characterization of bi-metallic nanoparticle catalyst having better anti-coking properties using reverse micelle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharia, Thomas

    Energy needs are rising on an exponential basis. The mammoth energy sources like coal, natural gas and petroleum are the cause of pollution. The large outcry for an alternate energy source which is environmentally friendly and energy efficient is heard during the past few years. This is where “Clean-Fuel” like hydrogen gained its ground. Hydrogen is mainly produced by steam methane reforming (SMR). An alternate sustainable process which can reduce the cost as well as eliminate the waste products is Tri-reforming. In both these reforming processes nickel is used as catalyst. However as the process goes on the catalyst gets deactivated due to coking on the catalytic surface. This goal of this thesis work was to develop a bi-metallic catalyst which has better anti-coking properties compared to the conventional nickel catalyst. Tin was used to dope nickel. It was found that Ni3Sn complex around a core of Ni is coking resistant compared to pure nickel catalyst. Reverse micelle synthesis of catalyst preparation was used to control the size and shape of catalytic particles. These studies will benefit researches on hydrogen production and catalyst manufactures who work on different bi-metallic combinations.

  8. Evaluation, modelling and optimization of the cleaning process of contaminated plastic food refillables.

    PubMed

    Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Sekitoleko, P; Estrella Garcia, A A; Huyghebaert, A

    1997-01-01

    In this study several types of bottle materials (glass, PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PC (polycarbonate), HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride)) were evaluated in order to be used as food refillables, comparing the residual chemical contamination after classical caustic washing. Bottles were contaminated with model chemicals (chloroxylenol and d-limonene) and caustic washed with varied process parameters using a simulated laboratory-scale washing procedure. After washing, the chemical-contaminated bottles were filled with water and stored for 28 days at 37 degrees C. The concentrations of the model chemicals in the water after storage were taken as a measure of chemical contamination. The influence of the cleaning parameters (temperature, caustic and commercial additive concentration) was studied using response surface methodology. Washing temperature showed a significant influence on the removal of absorbed chemicals from surfaces compared with the effect of the caustic and especially the additive concentration. Optimization of caustic cleaning for the cleaning process in question led to better cleaning effectiveness, although none of the different washing conditions were able to remove all absorbed chemicals out of the polymeric resins. Commercially available plastic refillables (PET and PC) showed the best chemical rinsability. Glass bottles, however, had in every case the best rinsing characteristics. PMID:9373531

  9. Effect of Process Parameters on Particle Removal Efficiency in Poly(vinyl alcohol) Brush Scrubber Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Joonho; Lee, Hyunseop; Kim, Hyoungjae; Jeong, Haedo

    2012-02-01

    Wafer cleaning is one of the most critical processes in the semiconductor device manufacturing. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) brush scrubber cleaning is much attractive when compared with traditional wet-batch cleaning which causes the cross-contamination among the wafers in a bath and environmental issues with huge amount of chemical and deionized water (DIW) usages. The mechanical forces generated from PVA brush contact can remove the particles on a wafer surface under low concentration of chemical solution without cross-contamination. In this research, we monitored the change of the dynamic forces including normal and friction force generated by PVA brush contacts during cleaning process, and also investigated the effects of scrubbing conditions of PVA brush overlap and velocity, and the surface tension (low- or high-hydrophilic) of the wafer on the particle removal efficiency. The results show that the driving mechanism to remove the particle on a wafer surface can be changed by the PVA brush overlap and velocity condition such as the hydrodynamic drag force in the brush soft contact condition and friction force in the brush hard contact condition. The particle removal efficiency is higher under the low-hydrophilic surface having a low surface tension compared to high-hydrophilic surface.

  10. 7 CFR 361.8 - Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian-origin screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.8 Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain...

  11. Optimizing a Cleaning Process for Multilayer-Dielectric- (MLD) Diffraction Grating

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, B.; Giacofei, C.; Myhre, G.; Schmid, A.W.

    2008-01-30

    A critical component for the OMEGA EP short-pulse petawatt laser system is the grating compressor chamber. This large vacuum chamber contains critical optics where laser-pulse compression is performed at the output of the system on two 40 cm-sq-aperture, IR (1054-nm) laser beams. Critical to this compression, within the grating compressor chamber, are four sets of tiled multilayer-dielectric-diffraction gratings that provide the capability for producing 2.6-kJ output IR energy per beam at 10 ps. Degradation of the grating laser-damage threshold due to adsorption of contaminants from the manufacturing process must be prevented to maintain system performance. In this paper we discuss an optimized cleaning process to achieve the OMEGA EP requirements. The fabrication of multilayer-dielectric gratings involves processes that utilize a wide variety of both organic materials (photoresist processes) and inorganic materials (metals and metal oxides) that can affect the final cleaning process. A number of these materials have significant optical absorbance; therefore, incomplete cleaning of these residues may result in the multilayer-dielectric gratings experiencing laser damage.

  12. Some physicochemical properties of petroleum pyrolysis cokes

    SciTech Connect

    Cherednik, E.M.; Butyrin, G.M.; Ibraev, S.O.; Shipkov, N.N.; Volchkova, N.I.

    1986-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the structure and reactivity of cokes and fillers from petroleum. The tests were carried out with KNPS and KNPE petroleum pyrolysis cokes, KZI needle coke obtained on a delayed coking unit, and coke obtained from KO oxidized petroleum residue. The original cokes were subjected to a preliminary thermal treatment in an inert atmosphere and the calcined samples were then used to determine the reactivity, the ash content, the specific surface, the content of impurities, the porosity, and xray characteristics. The presented data show that suppression of the catalytic effect of the impurities by impreganation with manganese phosphate is effective for cokes with low TTT.

  13. Effects of Annealing on Microstructure and Microstrength of Metallurgical Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xing; Zhang, Guangqing; Rogers, Harold; Zulli, Paul; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2013-12-01

    Two metallurgical cokes were heat treated at 1673 K to 2273 K (1400 °C to 2000 °C) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microstrength of metallurgical cokes was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and ultra-microindentation. In the process of heat treatment, the microstructure of the metallurgical cokes transformed toward the graphite structure. Raman spectroscopy of reactive maceral-derived component (RMDC) and inert maceral-derived component (IMDC) indicated that the graphitisation degree of the RMDC was slightly lower than that of the IMDC in the original cokes; however graphitisation of the RMDC progressed faster than that of the IMDC during annealing, and became significantly higher after annealing at 2273 K (2000 °C). The microstrength of cokes was significantly degraded in the process of heat treatment. The microstrength of the RMDC was lower, and of its deterioration caused by heat treatment was more severe than IMDC. The degradation of the microstrength of cokes was attributed to their increased graphitisation degree during the heat treatment.

  14. Temporal pulse cleaning by a self-diffraction process for ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Na; Zhou, Kainan; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Guo, Yi; Li, Qing; Su, Jingqin

    2014-11-01

    Applying the self-diffraction process to clean ultrashort laser pulses temporally is a recently developed effective way to temporal contrast enhancement. In this paper, we attempt to clean ultrashort laser pulses temporally by the self-diffraction process. Experiments were carried out to study the temporal contrast improvement in the front-end system of an ultraintense and ultrashort laser facility, i.e. the super intense laser for experiment on the extremes (SILEX-I). The results show that the maximum conversion efficiency of the first-order self-diffraction (SD1) pulse is 11%. The temporal contrast of the SD1 signal is improved by two orders of magnitude, i.e. to 103, for a 2.4-ns prepulse with initial contrast of ~10. For a 5.5 -ns prepulse with initial contrast of 2×103, the temporal contrast of the SD1 signal is improved by more than three orders of magnitude.

  15. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  16. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  17. Effectiveness of bone cleaning process using chemical and entomology approaches: time and cost.

    PubMed

    Lai, Poh Soon; Khoo, Lay See; Mohd Hilmi, Saidin; Ahmad Hafizam, Hasmi; Mohd Shah, Mahmood; Nurliza, Abdullah; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal examination is an important aspect of forensic pathology practice, requiring effective bone cleaning with minimal artefact. This study was conducted to compare between chemical and entomology methods of bone cleaning. Ten subjects between 20 and 40 years old who underwent uncomplicated medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Malaysia were randomly chosen for this descriptive cross sectional study. The sternum bone was divided into 4 parts, each part subjected to a different cleaning method, being two chemical approaches i.e. laundry detergent and a combination of 6% hydrogen peroxide and powder sodium bicarbonate and two entomology approaches using 2nd instar maggots of Chrysomyia rufifacies and Ophyra spinigera. A scoring system for grading the outcome of cleaning was used. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated based on average weight reduction per day and median number of days to achieve the average score of less than 1.5 within 12 days of the bone cleaning process. Using maggots was the most time-effective and costeffective method, achieving an average weight reduction of 1.4 gm per day, a median of 11.3 days to achieve the desired score and an average cost of MYR 4.10 per case to reach the desired score within 12 days. This conclusion was supported by blind validation by forensic specialists achieving a 77.8% preference for maggots. Emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation also revealed that maggots especially Chrysomyia rufifacies preserved the original condition of the bones better allowing improved elucidation of bone injuries in future real cases. PMID:26277669

  18. Extensive separations (CLEAN) processing strategy compared to TRUEX strategy and sludge wash ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.; Jansen, G.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Seeman, S.E.; Lauerhass, L.; Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Numerous pretreatment flowsheets have been proposed for processing the radioactive wastes in Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks. The CLEAN Option is examined along with two other flowsheet alternatives to quantify the trade-off of greater capital equipment and operating costs for aggressive separations with the reduced waste disposal costs and decreased environmental/health risks. The effect on the volume of HLW glass product and radiotoxicity of the LLW glass or grout product is predicted with current assumptions about waste characteristics and separations processes using a mass balance model. The prediction is made on three principal processing options: washing of tank wastes with removal of cesium and technetium from the supernatant, with washed solids routed directly to the glass (referred to as the Sludge Wash C processing strategy); the previous steps plus dissolution of the solids and removal of transuranic (TRU) elements, uranium, and strontium using solvent extraction processes (referred to as the Transuranic Extraction Option C (TRUEX-C) processing strategy); and an aggressive yet feasible processing strategy for separating the waste components to meet several main goals or objectives (referred to as the CLEAN Option processing strategy), such as the LLW is required to meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class A limits; concentrations of technetium, iodine, and uranium are reduced as low as reasonably achievable; and HLW will be contained within 1,000 borosilicate glass canisters that meet current Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glass specifications.

  19. The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Les

    2015-02-01

    Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-Héroult aluminum smelting process due to a combination of low impurity levels, ready availability, and relatively low cost. This article provides a review of the history and use of calcined petroleum coke for anode production and describes the different calcining technologies used by the industry. The article discusses the impact of changes in crude oil quality and refining economics over the last 10 years as well as the impact on green petroleum coke quality and availability. The industry has adapted well to quality changes in recent times, and the blending of different quality cokes by smelters is becoming increasingly important. The world has a plentiful supply of green petroleum coke, but the next wave of aluminum smelting capacity growth will put further pressure on the supply of the higher quality cokes traditionally favored by the industry.

  20. An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.

  1. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE 1) 1998 ANNUAL REPORT (EPA/600/R-98/065)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the first annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Cincinnati in March 1998. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, life cycle analysis, ecolabeling, and pollution prevention tools.

  2. Vented coke oven door apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H. B.; Gerding, C. C.

    1980-08-12

    A vented coke oven door includes a door frame having a vertical face surface carrying a plug assembly having a central vertical internal opening to conduct coke oven gas generated at the bottom of a coal charge in a coke oven chamber. The plug assembly includes a plurality of u-shaped refractory plug segments arranged in an end-to-end aligned relation with leg sections of each u-shaped segment extending horizontally into an abutting relation with the face surface of the door frame. Each leg section carries either an embedded hooked end or a t-shaped head of a threaded fastener which is supported by the door frame so that the leg sections are unrestrained against movement toward and away from each other in response to a thermal gradient across the wall thickness of the refractory plug segment. A backing plug plate is fitted into a recess in the leg sections of each plug segment to provide a closure wall to the u-shaped configuration of the segments and forms the vertical passageway for conducting coke oven gas. The backing plug plate has an exposed layer of cast refractory overlying a layer of insulation used to protect the door frame. A seal strip extends about the outer periphery of the door frame to prevent emission of coke oven gas from the coking chamber.

  3. CO₂ carbonation under aqueous conditions using petroleum coke combustion fly ash.

    PubMed

    González, A; Moreno, N; Navia, R

    2014-12-01

    Fly ash from petroleum coke combustion was evaluated for CO2 capture in aqueous medium. Moreover the carbonation efficiency based on different methodologies and the kinetic parameters of the process were determined. The results show that petroleum coke fly ash achieved a CO2 capture yield of 21% at the experimental conditions of 12 g L(-1), 363°K without stirring. The carbonation efficiency by petroleum coke fly ash based on reactive calcium species was within carbonation efficiencies reported by several authors. In addition, carbonation by petroleum coke fly ash follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. PMID:25000300

  4. Application of non-invasive optical monitoring methodologies to follow and record painting cleaning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Dal Fovo, A.; Striova, J.; Pezzati, L.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Barucci, M.

    2015-11-01

    The cleaning of painted artworks, i.e. the critical operation whereby materials are selectively removed from a painted surface by partial thinning or complete elimination of varnish, is one of the most debated conservation operations, being an irreversible process, which may result in chromatic and morphological variations in the painted surface. Due to ageing, the upper layer is subject to darkening and yellowing because of blanching and fading from ultraviolet exposure, dust deposition, and overpainted layers due, for instance, to restoration interventions. This degradation can either alter the original appearance of painting polychromy or cause mechanical failure of the finishes. To address these adverse conditions, a process of examination and analysis is critical to the definition and interpretation of the varnish layer. When investigating the ageing process of old paintings, it is of great importance to obtain insight into the painting technique as practiced in the past, and the first step in gaining this knowledge is, to a large extent, based on the study of the varnish film. An effective control of the process and objective evaluation of its outcome requires therefore instrumental/analytical support. The present study illustrates the successful application of non-invasive optical techniques—such as colorimetry, multispectral reflectography, laser scanning micro-profilometry, and optical coherence tomography—to the monitoring of an Italian fourteenth-century painting cleaning process. Results presented here confirm that optical techniques play a pivotal role in artwork diagnostics, especially with regard to conservation operations, while also indicating their validity when applied to the monitoring of the cleaning process.

  5. Microbiology of coke-plant activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The biological treatment of coke-plant wastewater represents the most economical means of detoxification and contaminant removal, but little is known about the microbial ecology of this system. Research was therefore undertaken to determine the kinds of microorganisms that survive and function in this environment and to examine the growth patterns that influence treatment efficiency. The microbial flora of coke-plant activated sludge is predominated by populations of aerobic gram negative rods. The principle genera identified were Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium and Acinetobacter. The genera Bacillus, Nocardia and Micrococcus were also present at low levels. A single type of rotifer was present along with various protozoans. The ability of microorganisms in coke wastewater to grow on various organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy is more restrictive when compared with that of isolates obtained from activated sludge processes treating municipal wastes. The phenol degrading bacteria can be maintained in a continuous culture system with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of as long as 14 days. Under conditions of increasing HRT the average cell size decreased and the number of cells per milliter increased. As the HRT increased cell yields decreased. At long HRT's (7 to 14 days) cell yields remained constant.

  6. Cleaning conveyor belts in the chicken-cutting area of a poultry processing plant with 45°c water.

    PubMed

    Soares, V M; Pereira, J G; Zanette, C M; Nero, L A; Pinto, J P A N; Barcellos, V C; Bersot, L S

    2014-03-01

    Conveyor belts are widely used in food handling areas, especially in poultry processing plants. Because they are in direct contact with food and it is a requirement of the Brazilian health authority, conveyor belts are required to be continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. The use of water in this procedure has been questioned based on the hypothesis that water may further disseminate microorganisms but not effectively reduce the organic material on the surface. Moreover, reducing the use of water in processing may contribute to a reduction in costs and emission of effluents. However, no consistent evidence in support of removing water during conveyor belt cleaning has been reported. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the bacterial counts on conveyor belts that were or were not continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. Superficial samples from conveyor belts (cleaned or not cleaned) were collected at three different times during operation (T1, after the preoperational cleaning [5 a.m.]; T2, after the first work shift [4 p.m.]; and T3, after the second work shift [1:30 a.m.]) in a poultry meat processing facility, and the samples were subjected to mesophilic and enterobacterial counts. For Enterobacteriaceae, no significant differences were observed between the conveyor belts, independent of the time of sampling or the cleaning process. No significant differences were observed between the counts of mesophilic bacteria at the distinct times of sampling on the conveyor belt that had not been subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. When comparing similar periods of sampling, no significant differences were observed between the mesophilic counts obtained from the conveyor belts that were or were not subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. Continuous cleaning with water did not significantly reduce microorganism counts, suggesting the possibility of discarding this procedure in chicken processing

  7. Fouling of a spiral-wound reverse osmosis membrane processing swine wastewater: effect of cleaning procedure on fouling resistance.

    PubMed

    Camilleri-Rumbau, M S; Masse, L; Dubreuil, J; Mondor, M; Christensen, K V; Norddahl, B

    2016-01-01

    Swine manure is a valuable source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. After solid-liquid separation, the resulting swine wastewater can be concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) to produce a nitrogen-potassium rich fertilizer. However, swine wastewater has a high fouling potential and an efficient cleaning strategy is required. In this study, a semi-commercial farm scale RO spiral-wound membrane unit was fouled while processing larger volumes of swine wastewater during realistic cyclic operations over a 9-week period. Membrane cleaning was performed daily. Three different cleaning solutions, containing SDS, SDS+EDTA and NaOH were compared. About 99% of the fouling resistance could be removed by rinsing the membrane with water. Flux recoveries (FRs) above 98% were achieved for all the three cleaning solutions after cleaning. No significant differences in FR were found between the cleaning solutions. The NaOH solution thus is a good economical option for cleaning RO spiral-wound membranes fouled with swine wastewater. Soaking the membrane for 3 days in permeate water at the end of each week further improved the FR. Furthermore, a fouling resistance model for predicting the fouling rate, permeate flux decay and cleaning cycle periods based on processing time and swine wastewater conductivity was developed. PMID:26698296

  8. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  9. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  10. Optimization of clean fractionation processing as a pre-treatment technology for prairie cordgrass.

    PubMed

    Brudecki, Grzegorz; Cybulska, Iwona; Rosentrater, Kurt; Julson, James

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to fractionate prairie cordgrass (PCG) obtaining the highest cellulose digestibility. Following clean fractionation (CF) processing, the PCG lignocellulosic biomass was fractionated into three main building blocks: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Effects of processing factors such as time, temperature, catalyst concentration and organic solvent mixture composition were evaluated. Organic solvent-aqueous mixture contained methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), ethanol and water in different proportions. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst. In order to evaluate the degree of pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification was employed on the cellulose fraction obtained from the CF process. Response surface methodology was used for process optimization and statistical analysis. Optimal conditions (39 min, 154°C, 0.69% catalyst and 9% MIBK) resulted in 84% glucose yield and 87% acid insoluble lignin (AIL). PMID:22244901