Sample records for clean fuel from coal process

  1. Lummus clean fuels from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, J.E.; Hefferan, J.K.; Chorba, W.F.; Schachtschneider, A.B.; Schulze, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    This report compares two direct, catalytic, hydroliquefaction processes - H-Coal and Lummus Clean Fuels From Coal (LCFFC). These processes are compared for two sets of operating conditions. In the first, the reactors are operated to produce a product suitable for use as fuel oil (fuel oil mode). In the second, the operating conditions are more severe, so the resulting product slates more closely resemble crude oil (syncrude mode). The comparisons are performed using conceptual designs based on single point run data, with a design basis of 25,000 tpd (moisture-free basis) of Illinois No. 6 coal. Although all cost comparisons are well within the estimated 25% accuracy of the estimates, LCFFC shows generally lower costs. Three types of economic evaluation are performed: computation of internal rate of return (IRR) with product values set to estimated market value, computation of overall average product cost ($/MM Btu) with the discount rate set at 20%, and calculation of average product cost with naphtha credited at estimated market value and the discount rate set at 20%. H-Coal has a lower cost only in the fuel oil mode analysis with naphtha valued at market price. The processes are also compared with respect to the potential for commercialization and anticipated operability differences. It is concluded that the lower hydrogen content of LCFFC product may offset its advantage of lower cost if it is used as refinery feed, and that the design of the LCFFC reactor may make it harder to control. Suggestions for future research are presented.

  2. Clean coal preparation using the Liquids From Coal (LFC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Klugh, D.M.; Marquardt, M.M.; Hoften, S.A. van [SGI International, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    With an abundance of coal located in the Pacific Rim region, many economies offer excellent opportunities for the application of clean coal technologies. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) Mild Gasification Process is a clean coal technology that can greatly enhance both the economical and environmental use of coal in this area. Indonesia, with its large population and emerging industrial infrastructure, has exhibited one of the fastest growth rates of electrical power consumption in Asia. This paper demonstrates the economic and environmental advantages of the LFC Process as it applies to coals in the Pacific Rim. These advantages are assessed from the results of a technical feasibility study of coal from the Tanjung Enim Region of Indonesia. While Tanjung Enim provides an example of added value and increased lifetime of an existing resource with some environmental benefits, other examples illustrate the excellent opportunity for upgrading coals for export into the Pacific Rim Steaming Coal Trade. These upgraded coals are expected to be very competitive in cost and are expected to be environmentally attractive.

  3. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  4. A novel process for recovering clean coal and water from coal tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Duong; J. Choung; Z. Xu; J. Szymanski

    2000-01-01

    Recovery of fine coals from coal preparation tailings and recycle of processing water are of both economic and environmental incentives, not only preserving natural resources but also reducing environmental consequences of discharging large volume of tailings. A novel single stage process capable of recovering fine coals in liquid fuels and clarifying water for recycle is described. This process integrates three

  5. CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM COAL CLEANING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of criteria for assessing environmental pollutants associated with coal cleaning processes. The primary problem concerns emissions of pollutants to all three media--air, water, and land--and assessing their effects on humans and the environmen...

  6. Clean fuel-magnesia bonded coal briquetting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yildirim I. Tosun

    2007-01-01

    Benefaction from coal fines as solid fuel in Turkey is very much important for economical development. Beneficiation from washed coal fines in the industry using solid fuel at lump size and in the municipal areas as an household solid fuel may be only provided by hot briquetting of the coal fines. The most practical common way of that benefication from

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  8. Clean coal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    Fossil fuels such as coal can be powerful polluters of the environment. This article, part of site on the future of energy, introduces students to methods being implemented to make burning coal a cleaner process. Students read about the 1986 creation of the Clean Coal Technology Program and the coal-burning improvements it generated. Definitions of key terms are available, and a link is provided to an ABC News article about bacteria that have been bioengineered to clean coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  9. (Lambda coal cleaning process). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Besides removing sulfur and heavy metals from coal, the research at Lambda Group, Inc. has produced 4 other processes and variations of those processes, all of which address the problems caused by acidic pollution. The processes are fast, flexible, cost-effective, fairly simple and in all cases, synergistic, symbiotic and mixotrophic. We have found new uses for old microbes and added new microbes to our arsenal in the battle against acidic pollution in whatever form it occurs. ''Acid Rain'' (acid deposition) can be reduced and reversed; coal fines cleaned on line in batch reactors, in fines ponds and in buried sediment sludge ditches. Clean coal reduces one of the causes of acid deposition. Now, we can also reverse the damage done to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and make pollution profitable by reducing it into valuable raw materials, such as sulfur, iron, aluminum, copper, etc. We have outside lab verification on all the processes except the Delta.

  10. Coal can be a Clean Fuel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Redevelopment and expansion of United States coal resources are economic necessities. Environmentalists' objections to the less expensive, available United States coal, that introduces large amounts of SOx and particulates into the air, may be overcome with the options of coal cleaning, tall stacks, material recovery and stack cleaning. (BT)

  11. Clean fuels from biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  12. Properties of premium coal water fuel prepared by advanced physical fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J. [Entech Global, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Feeley, T.J. III [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Coal water slurry fuels (CWF) were prepared from six finely ground bituminous coals cleaned by two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, which reduced their ash contents to less than 2 lb/MBtu. A-23M was used as a dispersant. The CWF slurries prepared from -62 mesh to -150 mesh hvA Taggart, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside and Hiawatha coals contained 59.5 to 67 percent coal, or 8,500 to 10,200 Btu/lb. CWF prepared from minus 325 mesh hvG Indiana VII coal contained 50.9 to 52.5 percent coal, or 7,100 to 7,400 Btu/lb. The cleaning method had no discernible impact on the slurry properties. Adjustment of the natural particle size distributions by regrinding a portion of the clean coal improved the loadings by a small amount while Flocon stabilizer additions had an adverse effect. Because of the cost of the stabilizer, it is recommended that CWFs be burned soon after preparation.

  13. Coal-based clean fuel for international residential markets

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is conducting a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a company that will ultimately supply energy to residences throughout Eastern Europe. Initially it will manufacture a new load priced, but environmentally friendly fuel (Clean Fuel) in Krakow, Poland. As acceptance and profitability is proven, manufacturing will be extended to other regions of Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany, and the Ukraine. Currently, apartments and individual homes are heated with expensive and polluting raw coal. Acurex Environmental Corporation has developed and patented a Clean Fuel that is manufactured from inexpensively raw material--coal fines, a waste byproduct of the coal mining industry. This material is readily available, inexpensive, and substantially polluting if used in its raw state. When mixed with the proprietary binder and pressed into fuel pellets, or briquettes, it has been proven to have substantially less pollutants than high grade coal (70% reduction). Acurex Environmental Corporation will be able to offer a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The market for Clean Fuel is essentially limitless. The initial intent of this new company is to focus on the city of Krakow, Poland and its neighboring province of Katowice. This area consumes about 686,000 tons/yr in the fourth year of commercial operation. Price competitiveness will be met by pricing Clean Fuel below the price of chunk coal.

  14. EFFECT OF FILTRATION TEMPERATURE ON ORGANIC SULFUR REMOVAL FROM COAL BY PERCHLOROETHYLENE COAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padmakar Vishnubhatt; Sunggyu Lee

    1993-01-01

    The perchloroethylene extraction desulfurization process removes the organic sulfur in coal via a hybrid mechanism of solvent extraction and chemical reaction. The nature and extent of the reaction is controlled by the extraction time and temperature of operation. Although the extraction temperature is kept identical for all types of coals (120°C), the organosulfur extraction time still depends upon the type

  15. Clean Coal as Fuel for Turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Domazetis

    Clean coal suitable for turbines must not contain more than extremely small amounts of volatile sodium and potassium compounds and low levels of particulate ash. Turbines are expected to tolerate in the region of 100 ppb concentration of volatile alkali and inlet particulate loading at 6 to 8 ppmw. These specifications are required for cleaning intervals of 2,500 hours and

  16. Clean Coal Technologies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains clean coal technologies, including coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, and carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation explores the benefits and processes of clean coal technologies (gasification, coal-to-liquids, synthetic natural gas, carbon capture & sequestration and integrated gasification combined cycle).

  17. Advanced Process for the Production of Clean Coal by Chemical Leaching Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. SHARMA; S. K. SINGH

    1995-01-01

    If coal must be used in industry to replace oil that becomes scarce, the coal should be demineralized to get a clean, high-heating-value, noncorrosive, free flowing solid fuel. Alkali leaching of coal under ambient pressure followed by acid leaching under milder conditions affords a convenient process for cleaning coal up to a degree of demineralization of 75%. The conditions for

  18. UCG complements surface processing for fuels from coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varma

    1982-01-01

    The major potential application of UCG technology is to use the vast U.S. reserves of unmineable low-grade coal. This technology is expected to complement mining and surface gasification rather than displace it. A discussion is presented of five major areas of a plant: field gasification facilities; gas gathering and transport; feed gas\\/solids separation; gas clean-up; and, methanol or medium BTU

  19. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  20. CLEANED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter summarizes information on U.S. coal resources, describes physical coal cleaning technology, and discusses the potential for desulfurizing U.S. coals by physical techniques. It presents the costs of physical coal cleaning, summarizes the amounts of cleaned coals which ...

  1. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  2. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program ?Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications,? (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R&D, Golden, Colorado by Entech Global for process evaluation tests. The tests successfully demonstrated the capability of advanced column flotation as well as selective agglomeration to produce ultra-clean coal at specified levels of purity and recovery efficiency. Test results and the experience gained during the operation of the PDU have provided valuable insights into the processes studied. Based on the design data obtained from the test work and a set of project design criteria, two sets of conceptual designs for commercial CWF production plants have been developed, one using column flotation and the other using selective agglomeration process. Using these designs, Capital as well as Operating and Maintenance (O&M) cost estimates for the plants have been compiled. These estimates have then been used to derive the annualized cost of production of premium CWF on a commercial scale. Further, a series of sensitivity analysis have been completed to evaluate the effects of variations in selected cost components and process parameters on the overall economics of premium fuel production

  3. Biomass in clean coal production

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, C.L.; Pedersen, M.P. [Grand Forks Activation Technologies, ND (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In physical cleaning processes for coal, the coal is initially crushed and then cleaned, resulting n a fine clean coal product. The fine nature of this clean coal makes it more difficult to ship and handle. Combining biomass with cleaned coal is one method to produce a dust-free, lump, biomass-coal product that is readily shippable. The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) in Grand Forks North Dakota has recently completed work funded by the North Dakota Industrial Commission and Knife River coal Mining Company demonstrating that clean coal could be successfully briquetted using biomass (a waste paper filler and a pulverized wheat binder). Grand Forks Activation Technologies (GFAT) is working with Knife River Coal Mining Company in the further development and commercialization of the coal cleaning process. GFAT is also working with Producers Renewable Products, LLC to further develop and commercialize the use of other agricultural waste products, such as stillage concentrate, in the production of biomass-coal fuel products. This process addresses the two problems: (1) how to inexpensively clean centrate water for recycle in an ethanol plant and (2) how to gent an inexpensive binder for reconstitution of coal by pelletization. In the Phase I work, the feasibility of each processing step and end product would be evaluated as well as the overall economic benefits of the process. If successful, it will improve the reconstitution, dewatering, and handling of coal making it a more marketable product. Demonstration of this process would have a number of economic and environmental benefits. The use of cleaned coal as a plant fuel would (1) free up valuable propane or natural gas for use in homes, (2) prevent plant interruptions due to winter demand shut-downs, (3) decrease plant fuel costs, and (4) increase the number of jobs in the local community since coal is a more labor-intensive fuel than natural gas, propane, or oil.

  4. EPA PROGRAM STATUS REPORT: SYNTHETIC FUELS FROM COAL, INCLUDING PROCESS OVERVIEW WITH EMPHASIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The status of EPA's Synthetic Fuels from Coal Program as of July 1977 is presented. Processes with emphasis on environmental considerations are also described. This program is a part of EPA's interagency energy-related environmental research program directed toward providing the ...

  5. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  6. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Hackett; Kirk R. Gerdes; Xueyan Song; Yun Chen; V. Shutthanandan; Mark H. Engelhard; Zihua Zhu; Suntharampillai Thevuthasan; Randall Gemmen

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates

  7. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hackett; K. Gerdes; X. Song; Y. Chen; V. Shutthanandan; M. Englehard; Z. Zhu; S. Thevuthasan; R. Gemmen

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of

  8. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable to coal-derived FT liquid fuels. After different gas clean up processes steps, the coal-derived syngas will produce FT liquid fuels that have similar properties to natural gas derived FT liquids.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1June 30, 1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t\\/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during

  10. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  11. The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal. [COMPCOAL Process

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: HOMER CITY POWER COMPLEX TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a preliminary, preoperational environmental survey conducted at a newly constructed advanced physical coal cleaning plant near Homer City, PA. The work is part of a comprehensive environmental assessment of physical and chemical coal cleaning processes perfor...

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-05-06

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  14. Clean coal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    The different commercially available clean coal technologies are introduced with particular emphasis on their efficiency and environmental performance. The technologies in question are: pulverized fuel combustion with flue gas desulphurization; circulating fluidized bed combustion; integrated coal gasification combined cycle; pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Consideration is also be given to emerging coal combustion technologies.

  15. Briquetting of coal with roller processes. An important technology for the production of coal based compliance fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, I.W. [Koppern Equipment, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This will be the third of a series of papers at this Conference discussing the briquetting of coal. While the first presentation in 1993 covered the historical and technical fundamentals, equipment designs, as well as traditional and contemporary applications, the second paper in 1994 looked at briquetting as an upgrading process for different types of coal. This years Conference theme is: {open_quotes}1995 - The year of Compliance{close_quotes}. Therefore, the paper will show that briquetting plays an important, often critical role in the production of coal based compliance fuel. After summarizing present clean coal technologies and the characteristics of coal based compliance fuels resulting from such processes the beneficial and economical application of modem roller presses is being dismissed.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  17. Combustion behaviour of ultra clean coal obtained by chemical demineralisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Rubiera; A. Arenillas; B. Arias; J. J. Pis; I. Suárez-Ruiz; K. M. Steel; J. W. Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The increasing environmental concern caused by the use of fossil fuels and the concomitant need for improved combustion efficiency is leading to the development of new coal cleaning and utilisation processes. However, the benefits achieved by the removal of most mineral matter from coal either by physical or chemical methods can be annulled if poor coal combustibility characteristics are attained.

  18. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    DOEpatents

    Klima, Mark S. (Finleyville, PA); Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  19. A CO-UTILIZATION OF COAL WITH E-FUEL FROM ENERTECH'S SLURRYCARBtm PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Susan L. Hoang

    2000-03-02

    In August 1999, EnerTech Environmental, LLC (EnerTech) and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement to develop the first SlurryCarb{trademark} facility for converting Municipal Sewage Sludge (MSS) into a high-density slurry fuel, which could be co-utilized with coal in various industrial applications. Funded primarily by private investors, this program was divided into two major phases, Project Definition (Phase 0) and Design, Construction, and Operation (Phase 1). Project Definition, performed during this reporting period, was designed to define the project from a technical, economic, and scheduling standpoint. Once defined, much of the project risk would be appropriately mitigated thereby providing stakeholders, such as FETC, less risk when investing in the more costly Phase 1, which includes the design, construction, and operation of the first SlurryCarb{trademark} facility. Since May 1999, EnerTech has made significant progress in the tasks required in Phase 0 for bringing this project to Phase 1. These accomplishments have enhanced the probability for success thereby reducing the risk to the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) for its investment in the project. Phase 0 technical accomplishments include: Locating and securing a project site for the 60 dry ton per day (DTPD) SlurryCarb{trademark} facility; Locating and securing a project partner who will supply the necessary MSS for the project revenue stream; Completing the basic engineering of the project, which included value engineering for reducing technical risk and lowering project costs (final drawings, detail technical review, test runs on process development unit, fuel production for fuel usage research, and final cost estimate all pending); Research and a market study necessary for finding a potential fuel user, which included working with General Electric Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with a focus on coal utilization (locate actual fuel user and detailed combustion research pending); Beginning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process necessary for the DOE involvement (final NEPA report pending); Completing the basic design for the fuel delivery system and developing a research protocol for testing required by the fuel user (actual fuel testing pending); and Locating engineering, procurement, and construction firm (EPC) to provide a fixed price guaranteed schedule for the project (EPC contract negotiation pending). For this project, a semi-annual technical progress report is required to describe the technical progress made during the duration of the budget period.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Smit; R. F. Hogsett; M. C. Jha

    1993-01-01

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January--March 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is engineering development of advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies for cleaning coal. Development of these technologies is an important step in the Department of Energy program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected United States coals and that this fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for a portion of

  2. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  3. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Western Research Institute (WRI) COMPCOAL{trademark} process which is designed to produce a stable, high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) and other low-rank coals. The process is designed to overcome the problems of oxidation and spontaneous combustion, readsorption of moisture, and dust formation from the friable coal. PRB coal is susceptible to low-temperature oxidation and self-heating, particularly after it has been dried. This report describes a method WRI has developed to prevent self-heating of dried PRB coal. The ``accelerated aging`` not only stabilizes the dried coal, but it also increases the heating value of the COMPCOAL product. The stabilized COMPCOAL product has a heating value of 12,000 to 12,700 Btu/lb, contains 35 to 40 wt % volatiles, and is comparable to unprocessed PRB coal in self-heating and low-temperature oxidation characteristics. Importantly, the self-heating tendency can be controlled by slightly adjusting the ``aging`` step in the process.

  4. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300°C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm˛ degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm˛ degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  5. A novel process for preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal by high pressure water jet comminution technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longlian Cui; Liqian An; Weili Gong; Hejin Jiang

    2007-01-01

    A novel process for the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal is presented in this paper. High pressure water jet mill replacing the ball mill is employed for coal comminution in the new preparation process, which is the essential difference from the traditional one. To compare the new preparation process with the traditional one, the comparison experiments were performed, with froth

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly progress report No. 10, January--March 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t\\/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1994September 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2 t\\/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then

  8. Fuel briquettes from brown coals of Yakutia

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Nikolaeva; V.G. Latyshev; O.N. Burenina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Oil and Gas Problems

    2009-04-15

    Experimental data on the development of technology for the manufacture of briquetted fuel from brown coals with the use of various petroleum binders are presented. The influence of the moisture content, the coal particle-size composition, the binder type and concentration, the compacting pressure, and heat treatment regimes on the mechanical properties of the materials was studied. The optimal compositions and optimal values of the engineering parameters for the production of graded briquetted fuel from brown coals of the Kangalassy deposit in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) were established.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE FLASH DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR COAL CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a program to develop (on the laboratory, bench, and pilot scale) operating conditions for key steps in the 'flash' process for desulfurizing coal by chemical and thermal treatment. Laboratory and bench scale data on high-sulfur eastern U.S. coals prove...

  10. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

  11. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, M.D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  12. High-density jet fuels from coal syncrudes: Appendix 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Very dense jet-boiling-range hydrocarbons can be obtained by hydrotreating and hydrocracking syncrudes made from coal in direct liquefaction processes. Heteroatom impurities must be removed, and most of the aromatics must be hydrogenated at high severity in order to produce kerosene jet fuels from coal syncrudes that meet smoke point and stability specifications. The resulting hydrotreated products consist mainly of naphthenes

  13. The study and practice of clean coal pressure filter and dewatering process

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Wu, L.; Ou, Z.

    1999-07-01

    This paper introduces the current status of dewatering of the flotation clean coal and the problems in China. The industrial application of the dewatering process and the newly developed clean coal pressure filter is represented. And the results indicated that this filter press possesses such advantages as fast speed in filter lower moisture in filter cake, convenience in operation, obvious saving on energy, etc. It will have a broad applications.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES; SELECTION OF TEST SITES FOR SOURCE TEST PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the selection of coal claning plants at which field testing and sampling will be conducted to support the environmental assessment of the pollution potential of various coal cleaning processes. The approach was to select a few plants (representing extremes in...

  15. Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Koby?ecki, Rafa?; Bis, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1993-01-01

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to

  17. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanistic studies (Subtask 4.3) for the Middle Wyodak and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples continued during the quarter. The leaching kinetics of the different soluble mineral matter present in the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were studied. The kinetics of pyrite dissolution and mineral matter liberation were also investigated by measuring the redox potential of the system with respect to time. The measured potential will be used during the next quarter to calculate the ratio of the ferric to ferrous ions. The response of the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal to alternative methods of ferric ion regeneration was also studied. Using bacterial or air oxidation to regenerate the ferric ions gave poorer mineral matter rejection than was obtained with the electrochemical regeneration scheme. Image analysis of the 65 {times} 325 mesh Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples showed that the amount of mineral matter liberated by EIL mechanism increases with time; however, a significant fraction of the liberated mineral matter is larger than 325 mesh. This finding provides an explanation for the poor result obtained with this sample when a 325 mesh screen was used to remove the liberated mineral matter. Another reason for the poor result was that the coal samples were oxidized before processing. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF ADVANCED PROCESSES FOR CONVERSION OF COAL AND BIOMASS INTO CLEAN ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass and coal conversion into clean energy is compared on an economic and environmental basis in three regional scenarios: (1) electric power from direct combustion of wood versus conventional coal combustion in the South Central U.S., (2) synthetic pipeline gas from anaerobic...

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t\\/hr process development unit. The project began in

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October 1, 1994December 31, 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t\\/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 13, October--December, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t\\/hr process development unit. During Quarter 13 (October--December

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t\\/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Shields; N. Moro; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t\\/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began

  4. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t\\/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be

  5. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert C. Tsang

    2004-03-26

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The early entrance coproduction plant study conducted in Phase I of the IMPPCCT project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there are minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the synthesis gas (syngas). However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies will address the technical concerns that will make the IMPPCCT concept competitive with natural

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Smit; R. F. Hogsett; M. C. Jha

    1993-01-01

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Smit; R. M. Rowe; K. R. Anast; M. C. Jha

    1994-01-01

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars

  8. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1994-01-01

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1994June 30, 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Smit; N. Moro; G. L. Shields; M. C. Jha

    1994-01-01

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustors

  10. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. During the reporting period, various methods to remove low-level contaminants for the synthesis gas were reviewed. In addition, there was a transition of the project personnel for GEC which has slowed the production of the outstanding project reports.

  11. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

    1996-01-01

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design\\/construction\\/operation of a 2-t\\/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  14. Clean Coal Draft for public comment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Department of Energy is asking the public to comment on the draft environmental impact statement for 22 clean coal technologies, from precombustion cleaning techniques to coal gasification and fuel cell systems. Incentives to promote use of these new methods for burning coal are included in President George Bush's proposed revisions to the Clean Air Act.The draft is based on a computer model developed at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, and run at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. The model estimates the amounts of reduction by 2010 in national emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide that use of the new technologies could achieve. It also compares the amounts and kinds of solid waste produced by clean coal technologies to the solid waste of power-production technologies in use today.

  15. EPA COAL CLEANING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes work during Fiscal Year 1979 by 12 organizations, both public and private, under EPA's Coal Cleaning Program, a program that explores the possibilities for wider use of coal as an environmentally acceptable energy source. Many aspects of coal were studied, in...

  16. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Two project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, DOE approved the RD&T Plan submitted in the previous quarter. The RD&T Plan forms the basis for the Continuation Application to initiate the transition of the project from Phase I to Phase II. Potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis will be tested in slipstream units at the WREL facility during Phase II. A supplemental information package consisting of a revised Work Breakdown Structure and Budget Plan for Phase II and other necessary forms was also submitted. Agreement is being reached with DOE's patent attorney on the scope of the limited rights data to be provided under the Cooperative Agreement. Preparation of a comprehensive Final Report for Phase I of the project, which will consolidate the remaining deliverables including the Initial Feasibility Report, Concept Report, Site Analysis Report, Economic Analysis, and Preliminary Project Financing Plan, continued during the reporting period. Significant progress was made in the Subsystem Design Specification section of the report.

  17. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the GEC and an Industrial Consortia are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-07-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

  19. Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Furlong; J. D. Fox; J. G. Masin; D. J. Soderberg

    1988-01-01

    Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Task 1 of the work, in which processes to produce each of the three jet

  20. Jute fiber composites from coal, super clean coal, and petroleum vacuum residue-modified phenolic resin

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center of Energy Studies

    2005-07-01

    Jute fiber composites were prepared with novolac and coal, phenolated-oxidized super clean coal (POS), petroleum vacuum residue (XVR)-modified phenol-formaldehyde (novolac) resin. Five different type of resins, i.e., coal, POS, and XVR-modified resins were used by replacing (10% to 50%) with coal, POS, and XVR. The composites thus prepared have been characterized by tensile strength, hardness, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transfer infrared (FT-IR), water absorption, steam absorption, and thickness swelling studies. Twenty percent POS-modified novolac composites showed almost the same tensile strength as that of pure novolac composites. After 30% POS incorporation, the tensile strength decreased to 25.84MPa from 33.96MPa in the case of pure novolac resin composites. However, after 50% POS incorporation, the percent retention of tensile strength was appreciable, i.e., 50.80% retention of tensile strength to that of pure novolac jute composites. The tensile strength of coal and XVR-rnodified composites showed a trend similar to that shown by POS-modified novolac resin composites. However, composites prepared from coal and XVR-modified resin with 50% phenol replacement showed 25.4% and 42% tensile strength retention, respectively, compared to that of pure novolac jute composites. It was found that the hardness of the modified composites slightly decreased with an increase in coal, POS, and XVR incorporation in the resin. The XVR-modified composites showed comparatively lower steam absorption than did coal or POS-modified composites. The thermal stability of the POS-modified composites was the highest among the composites studied. The detailed results obtained are being reported.

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  2. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  3. Active carbons and clean briquettes from the modified Kansk-Achinsk brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kontzevoi, A.A.; Pozharnikov, V.A. [Ministry of Fuel and Energetics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of modification of Kansk Achinsk Brown coal by means of chemical and mechanical pretreatments as well as by hydrolyzed lignin addition on coal briquetting was studied. Coal briquettes were then pyrolyzed and steam activated at 700--800 C to prepare the active carbons. The main focus was to analyze how macromolecular structure of brown coal affect the properties of briquettes and the sorption and mechanical properties of activated carbons and to investigate the potential for the production of clean briquetted fuel and high performance carbon adsorbents through the directive modification of coal.

  4. 3. Huber Breaker (center) and Coal Fuel Conveyor leading from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Huber Breaker (center) and Coal Fuel Conveyor leading from Breaker to Power Station (out of frame), View looking Southwest Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  5. Milliken Clean Coal project-update

    SciTech Connect

    Janik, G.S.; Chang, S.C.; Szalach, P.A. [New York State Electric & Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Milliken Clean Coal Demonstration Project was selected for funding in Round 4 of the U.S. DOE`s Clean Coal Demonstration Program. The project`s sponsor is New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG). Project team members include CONSOL Inc., Saarberg-Holter-Umwelttechnik (S-H-U), NALCO/FuelTech, Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Co., DHR Technologies, and ABB/CE Air Preheater. The project will provide full-scale demonstration of a combination of innovative emission-reducing technologies and plant upgrades for the control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired steam generator without a significant loss of station efficiency. The demonstration project is being conducted at NYSEG`s Milliken Station, located in Lansing, New York. Milliken Station has two Combustion Engineering 150 MWe pulverized coal-fired units built in the 1950s. The S-H-U FGD process and the LNCFS-Level III low-NO{sub x} burner are being installed on both units.

  6. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

  7. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  8. COAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC FUELS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a portion of a comprehensive, long term EPA program to evaluate the environmental effects of energy systems that produce gaseous and liquid fuels from coal. The technologies being assessed include low-, medium-, and high-Btu gasification and liquefaction. One...

  9. Hydration and weathering reactions in by-products from clean coal technologies: effects on material properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Weinberg; Ray Hemmings

    1997-01-01

    Three landfill test cells were constructed using AFBC by-products and Class F coal fly ash at a site in central Illinois and were monitored over a 5 year period as part of a DOE METC effort to characterize by-products from clean coal technologies. The field programme documented rapid loss of structural integrity in cell 1, which contained no fly ash,

  10. Comparative kinetic analysis of raw and cleaned coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Ozbas; M. V. Kök; C. Hicyilmaz

    2002-01-01

    In this research, thermogravimetry (TG\\/DTG) was used to determine the kinetic analysis of different coals and effect of cleaning process on kinetic parameters of raw and cleaned coal samples from Soma, Tuncbilek and Afsin Elbistan regions. Kinetic parameters of the samples were determined using Arrhenius and Coats and Redfern kinetic models and the results are discussed.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly progress report No. 10, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-04-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 10 (January--March, 1995), preliminary work continued for the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant. Towards this end, laboratory flotation testing and refurbishing of the column have been started. The final version of the Subtask 4.2 Advanced Flotation Process Optimization Research topical report was issued, as was a draft version of the Subtask 4.3 report discussing the formulation of coal-water slurry fuels (CWF) from advanced flotation products. A number of product samples from Subtask 4.4 testing were sent to both Combustion Engineering and Penn State for combustion testing. The evaluation of toxic trace element analyses of column flotation products also continued. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr PDU was essentially completed with the approval of various process flow, plant layout, electrical, and vendor equipment drawings. The final version of the Subtask 6.5 -- Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Design and Test Plan Report was issued during this reporting quarter. Design and construction of this 25 lb/hr selective agglomeration test unit was completed and preliminary testing started. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU began following the selection of TIC. The Industrial Company as the construction subcontractor.

  12. Clean coal technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Abelson

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce COâ emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to

  13. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  14. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness; R. J. Cena; W. R. Aiman; D. R. Stephens

    1980-01-01

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of

  15. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L. [CEA, DEN, DPC Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lacroix, M. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carra, O. [AREVA / NP, 10 Rue Juliette Recamier, 69003 Lyon (France); Dechelette, F. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Prele, G. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbane Cedex (France); Rodriguez, G. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  16. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-04-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

  18. Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Amoco and Lummus Crest are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. In addition to the maximum jet fuel schemes, conceptual designs have also been formulated for maximizing profits from refining of the Great Plains by-products. Conceptual processing schemes for profitable production of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X have been developed, as has a maximum profit'' case. All four of these additional cases have now been transferred to Lummus for design and integration studies. Development of these schemes required the use of linear programming technology. This technology includes not only conventional refining processes which have been adapted for use with coal-derived liquids (e.g. hydrotreating, hydrocracking), but also processes which may be uniquely suited to the Great Plains by-products such as cresylic acid extraction, hydordealkylation, and needle coking. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. BENCH-SCALE PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ECONOMIC ANALYSES OF ELECTROSTATIC DRY COAL CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of preliminary performance evaluations and economic analyses of the Advanced Energy Dynamics (AED) electrostatic dry coal-cleaning process. Grab samples of coal feed product coals were obtained from 25 operating physical coal cleaning (PCC) plants. These ...

  20. Dry superconducting magnetic cleaning of pulverized coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zhou; E. S. Garbett; R. F. Boucher

    1996-01-01

    There are wet and dry methods of cleaning pulverized coal for thermal power stations. However, it may be desirable to use a dry process because dewatering finely pulverized coal is difficult and expensive, and burning wet coal reduces the thermal efficiency of the combustion process. It has been shown that high gradient magnetic filters can be constructed which will extract

  1. MULTIPLE CATALYSTS PRODUCE A SYNTHETIC FUEL FROM COAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONALD F. OTHMER

    1989-01-01

    A recent government study indicates that oil prices will be substantially higher within the next few years. Thus liquid fuels from coal, will be required. The study concludes, however, that the considerable effort, time and money spent to date in trying to make gasoline from coal will be of no help in reducing in the 1990's our almost entire dependence

  2. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  3. Pelletised fuel production from coal tailings and spent mushroom compost – Part II. Economic feasibility based on cost analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changkook Ryu; Adela Khor; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

    2008-01-01

    Due to the growing market for sustainable energy, in order to increase the quality of the fuels, pellets are being produced from various materials such as wood and other biomass energy crops, and municipal waste. This paper presents the results from an economic feasibility study for pellet production using blends of two residue materials: coal tailings from coal cleaning and

  4. Clean Fossil Energy Conversion Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L.-S.

    2007-03-01

    Absolute and per-capita energy consumption is bound to increase globally, leading to a projected increase in energy requirements of 50% by 2020. The primary source for providing a majority of the energy will continue to be fossil fuels. However, an array of enabling technologies needs to be proven for the realization of a zero emission power, fuel or chemical plants in the near future. Opportunities to develop new processes, driven by the regulatory requirements for the reduction or elimination of gaseous and particulate pollutant abound. This presentation describes the chemistry, reaction mechanisms, reactor design, system engineering, economics, and regulations that surround the utilization of clean coal energy. The presentation will cover the salient features of the fundamental and process aspects of the clean coal technologies in practice as well as in development. These technologies include those for the cleaning of SO2, H2S, NOx, and heavy metals, and separation of CO2 from the flue gas or the syngas. Further, new combustion and gasification processes based on the chemical looping concepts will be illustrated in the context of the looping particle design, process heat integration, energy conversion efficiency, and economics.

  5. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

  6. Hybrid clean energy technologies for power generation from sub-bituminous coals: a case of 250 MW unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Siddhartha Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Major re-thinking is required on the conventional pulverized fuel conversion route of power generation wherein the ash and mineral burden in coals is transported through the entire flow passage of the boiler. For high-ash fuels, this has to be contained and the boiler must be clear of all mineral matter. The two independent clean coal candidate technologies for efficiency enhancement

  7. CLEAN FUELS FROM AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of the operating parameters for a mobile waste conversion system based on the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station's partial oxidation pyrolysis process. The object of the testing was to determine the combination of...

  8. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Weidong Gu Jian-Ping Shen; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre Boehman

    2006-01-01

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle

  9. Power Gas and Combined Cycles: Clean Power From Fossil Fuels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, William D.

    1973-01-01

    The combined-cycle system is currently regarded as a useful procedure for producing electricity. This system can burn natural gas and oil distillates in addition to coal. In the future when natural gas stocks will be low, coal may become an important fuel for such systems. Considerable effort must be made for research on coal gasification and…

  10. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  11. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  12. Preparation of clean coal by flotation following ultra fine liberation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ljudmilla Bokányi; Barnabás Csöke

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results of current fundamental research at the Department of Process Engineering, University of Miskolc on the processing of clean coal from Mecsek bituminous coal, Southern Hungary. The theoretical possibility of the separation of different petrographic components was proven experimentally and their liberation degree was determined based on the petrographic composition, flotation kinetic study of isolated components

  13. Development of a microwave coal cleaning process. Technical progress report, December 1985-February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the program is to conduct bench scale studies to evaluate a process using microwave irradiation of caustic treated coal to remove sulfur and ash from the coal. The program is organized into three tasks: equipment design and installation, shakedown testing, and process testing. This report presents the results from the completion of Task 2, shakedown testing, including applied and reflected microwave power calibrations, batch shakedown testing of Kentucky and Pittsburgh coals in both laboratory and bench scale microwave units with shine-on versus overmoded reactor configurations, molten versus dry feed, the presence of insulation, and second pass operations. Also, the data in the GE draft final report was reviewed in light of TRW's current knowledge of the process mechanism, and a computerized thermal model of the TRW reactor was developed. 31 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Vastola, F.J.; Given, P.H.; Suhr, N.H.; Jenkins, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and computerized. These data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur forms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. During the contract period more than 5000 samples were prepared and distributed. A theoretical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of coal has been completed. The reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, has been studied with regard to reactivity to air, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and steam. Another area research has concerned the catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported here. The products of this research can be found in 23 DOE Technical Research Reports and 49 published papers. As another mechanism of technology transfer, the results have been conveyed via more than 70 papers presented at a variety of scientific meetings. References to all of these are contained in this report.

  15. Improving the technology of creating water-coal fuel from lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, E.G.; Golovin, G.S.; Zotova, O.V. [Rossiiskaya Akadeiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the preparation of coal-water fuel slurries from lignite. The heat of combustion as related to the preparation of the lignite was investigated. The hydrobarothermal processing of suspensions of lignites was studied in autoclaves.

  16. WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Strickland

    2001-09-28

    In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

  17. Vibration mills in the manufacturing technology of slurry fuel from unbeneficiated coal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russia)

    2008-08-15

    Coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) is economically viable provided that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount water in the fuel is at most 45%. Two impoundments were revealed that have considerable reserves of waste coal useful for commercial manufacture of CWSF without the beneficiation step. One of the CWSF manufacture steps is the comminution of coal sludge to have a particle size required by the combustion conditions. Vibration mills, which are more compact and energy-intensive that drum mills, can be used in the CWSG manufacture process. The rheological characteristics of CWSF obtained from unbeneficiated waste coal were determined.

  18. Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Larson; Ren Tingjin

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports detailed process designs and cost assessments for production of clean liquid fuels (methanol and dimethyl ether) by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Gasification of c oal pro- duces a synthesis gas that can be converted to liquid fuel by synthesis over appropriate catalysts. Recycling of unconverted synthesis gas back to the synthesis reactor enables a larger fraction of

  19. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  20. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R. H.; Phillips, D. I.; Sohn, S. M.; Luttrell, G. H.

    1996-10-01

    If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

  2. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

  3. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    DOEpatents

    Bauman, Richard F. (Houston, TX); Ryan, Daniel F. (Friendswood, TX)

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  4. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Development of a coal cleaning control system

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Barnes, R.H.; Orban, J.E.; Webb, P.R.

    1990-03-09

    The US Department of Energy selected the Battelle-Electric Power Research Institute-Science Applications International Corporation team to evaluate and develop on-line slurry ash, percent solids, and sulfur analysis instrumentation and process control technology. The project's objectives were (1) to develop an accurate, versatile, easy to use, on-line coal slurry analyzer and (2) to develop control strategies for analysis, control, and optimization of advanced and conventional coal-cleaning plant. The project's scope included (1) the installation of a slurry test loop, ash, percent solids, and sulfur instruments; (2) evaluation of instrument accuracy with various coals, under various slurry conditions; and (3) assessment of the cost and benefits to be derived from on-line analysis and control 12 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  7. Advanced clean coal technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Azuhata

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that, although coal may be an interim solution, the development of technologies providing effective use of coal is important to bridge the gap between present and future energy supply situations

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-10-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 12 (July--September 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at Lady Dunn. Under Subtask 4.4, additional toxic trace element analysis of column flotation samples finalized the data set. Data analysis indicates that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements. The final Subtask 6.3 Selective Agglomeration Process Optimization topical report was issued this quarter. Preliminary Subtask 6.4 work investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation indicated that selective agglomeration products formulate slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Work continued on Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing. Results indicate that a 2 lb ash/MBtu product could be produced at a 100-mesh topsize with the Elkhorn No. 3 coal. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module neared completion this quarter with the completion of additional revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU and advanced flotation module was completed this quarter and startup and shakedown testing began.

  9. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  10. Pelletised fuel production from coal tailings and spent mushroom compost — Part I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changkook Ryu; Karen Finney; Vida N Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the technology of manufacturing pellet blends for energy production from two discarded materials in industry. Coal tailings material is the fine discard produced as a result of coal cleaning. Although it still has a significantly high calorific value, over a million tonnes of coal tailings are deposited in lagoons every year in the UK alone. Spent mushroom

  11. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  12. Clean coal-preparation barriers in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wies?aw Blaschke; Ryszard Nycz

    2003-01-01

    Poland is the second biggest European producer of hard coal. This raw product is cleaned in 49 preparation plants. Production capacities of the preparation plants depend on the demand for coal. The clean-coal production mostly depends on the quality demands of customers. Polish hard-coal is of good quality. It is enough to remove grains of clean stone to get saleable

  13. Fossil Fuels: Coal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Pratte

    This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

  14. Gas cleaning challenges for coal-fired oxy-fuel technology with carbon capture and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Wall; Rohan Stanger; Yinghui Liu

    As one of the three major carbon capture technologies associated with carbon capture and storage (CCS), oxy-fuel technology is currently undergoing rapid development with a number of international demonstration projects commencing in the progression towards commercialisation. The CO2 gas quality from oxy-fuel differs from pre- and post-combustion technologies, having higher levels of inert gases, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen gases and

  15. Cleaning Up Coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Corcoran

    1991-01-01

    According to the percentages, coal is still King. Coal-fired power plants generate more than 50% of US electricity. But every year those utilities also pour forth 70% of the sulfur dioxide and significant portions of other pollutants that cause acid rain and contribute to global warming. Now the US is trying a novel market-based approach to reducing those emissions. The

  16. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  17. Hydration and weathering reactions in byproducts from clean coal technologies: Effects on material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); Hemmings, R. [JTM Industries, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Three landfill test cells were constructed using AFBC byproducts and Class F coal flyash at a site in central Illinois and were monitored over a five year period as part of a DOE/METC effort to characterize byproducts from clean coal technologies. The field program documented rapid loss of structural integrity in Cell 1, which contained no flyash, whereas Cells 2 and 3 show continued improvement in strength and permeability over time. These observed differences in material behavior are related to loss of soluble minerals from Cell 1 and enhanced silicate reactivity in Cells 2 and 3. Ettringite and thaumasite, minerals associated with failure of Portland cement concrete, do not appear to be the primary causes of Cell 1 deterioration and ettringite remains a primary cement-forming mineral in Cells 2 and 3.

  18. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  19. Process for separating anthracite coal from impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, D.W.; Stiller, A.H.

    1985-05-06

    A process is described for separating a first mixture including previously mined anthracite coal, klinker-type cinder ash and other refuse consisting of: a. separating the first mixture to produce a refuse portion and a second mixture consisting of anthracite and klinker-type cinder ash, b. reducing the average particle size in the second mixture to a uniform size, c. subjecting the second mixture to a separating magnetic field to produce a klinker-type cinder ash portion and an anthracite coal portion.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-01-25

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 9 (October--December, 1995), parametric and optimization testing was completed for the Taggart, Sunnyside, and Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column. The detailed design of the 2-t/hr PDU grinding, flotation, and dewatering circuits neared completion with the specification of the major pieces of capital equipment to be purchased for these areas. Selective agglomeration test work investigated the properties of various industrial grades of heptane for use during bench- and PDU-scale testing. It was decided to use a hydrotreated grade of commercial heptane due to its low cost and low concentration of aromatic compounds. The final Subtask 6.4 CWF Formulation Studies Test Plan was issued. A draft version of the Subtask 6.5 Preliminary Design and Test Plan Report was also issued, discussing the progress made in the design of the bench-scale selective agglomeration unit. PDU construction work moved forward through the issuing of 26 request for quotations and 21 award packages for capital equipment.

  1. Catalytic hydrosolvation process converts coal to low-sulfur liquid fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the catalytic hydrosolvation process for converting coal to low-sulfur fuel oil is described in this paper. Coal impregnated with catalyst was slurried with oil, and the mixture was hydrogenated at a temperature of 475 C, and 30 min residence time under 3600 psi pressure. A ton of coal yielded 3.5 bbl of fuel oil containing 0.2% sulfur, with naphtha and C1-C4 hydrocarbon gases as byproducts. A preliminary economic evaluation of the process indicated potential for further development.

  2. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  3. High NO\\/sub x\\/ from coal-derived fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Stettler; M. C. Hardin

    1976-01-01

    Three coal-derived liquid fuels experimentally burned in automotive and aircraft gas turbine combustors produced higher nitrogen oxides emissions and smoke readings than petroleum fuels according to a report to the Combustion Institute by R. J. Stettler (Gen. Mot. Corp.) and M. C. Hardin (Detroit Diesel Allison Div., Gen. Mot. Corp.). Since the fuel-bound nitrogen concentrations measured in the fuels were

  4. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  6. The Clean Coal and Carbon Capture and Storage Technology of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Kok; A. Vural

    2012-01-01

    The present study presents a draft national Clean Coal Technologies and Carbon Capture and Storage Technology Roadmap to policy makers. Various technical and non-technical (economic and social) challenges that currently prevent clean coal technologies and carbon capture and storage from being a widely used commercial technology are discussed and the goals for each research pathway are defined. The process of

  7. Coal-water slurry as utility boiler fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffee, R.S.; Boyd, T.J.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; McHale, E.T.; Henderson, C.B.; Glenn, R.D.

    1982-03-01

    Coal-water slurries are a potential replacement for heavy fuel oil in utility boilers. Slurries have the major advantages of low cost, ease of handling, and early availability. A program was conducted to characterize the formulation, processing, handling, combustion, and storage of coal-water slurries made from cleaned coals. Acceptable slurries containing between 67 and 70% coal (by weight) were made from two different coals. A selected slurry was burned with good results in the Atlantic Research Corporation's one-million Btu/h experimental furnace. Approximately five tons (4,500 kg) of slurry were prepared on a pilot line for testing in the four-million Btu/h Babcock and Wilcox Basic Combustion Test Unit. A plant flowsheet was developed for a slurry plant designed to process five-million tons (4.5 x 10/sup 9/ kg) of coal a year. Total plant investment is estimated at $104-million (1980). Assuming a delivered coal cost of $50/ton (800 kg), the production costs are estimated to be $58/ton of coal or $2.14/million Btu. This cost compares favorably to a cost of $4.76/million Btu for heavy fuel oil at $30/barrel. These costs exclude certain ancillary costs such as marketing, fees and permits, insurance, interest on capital, profit, local taxes, and corporate income tax.

  8. Clean coal technology development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenying Chen; Ruina Xu

    2010-01-01

    Coal is found in huge amounts throughout the world and is expected to play a crucial role as an abundant energy source. However, one critical issue in promoting coal utilization is controlling environmental pollution. Clean coal technologies are needed to utilize coal in an environmentally acceptable way and to improve coal utilization efficiency. This paper describes coal's role in China's

  9. Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-print Network

    of suchan option basedon the use of commercially ready technologies involving coal gasification for power(4). 2 #12;Coal gasification. After milling and drying, coal is fed into a 25 bar gasifier togetherwiProducing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions K. Blok, C.A. Hendriks

  10. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. (Skip) Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

    2002-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

  11. Effect of Grinding Conditions on the Performance of a Selective Agglomeration Process for Physical Coal Cleaning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. KIM; B. I. MORSI; G. ARAUJO; S.-H. CHIANG; J. BLACHERE; A. SHARKEY

    1991-01-01

    An extensive experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of grinding conditions on the performance of a selective agglomeration process using n-pentane as agglomerant. Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh # 8, and Illinois # 6 coal samples were dry and wet ground to 28 mesh × 0 and 200 mesh × 0 particle sizes using a pulverizer, a ceramic jar mill,

  12. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN); Hamilton, Choo Y. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  13. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 90% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 90% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning, method for analysis of samples, development of standard beneficiation test, grinding studies, modification of particle surface, and exploratory R D and support. 5 refs., 22 figs., 34 tabs.

  14. Underground coal gasification of steeply dipping coal beds; a second generation synthetic fuels process

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.; Ahner, P.F.; Singelton, A.H.

    1982-08-01

    In situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The SDB process mechanism has several advantages over the horizontal process and performs in a fashion similar to surface packedbed reactors. The oxygen requirements for the process are quite low and the degree of process control observed at Rawlins is very attractive.

  15. Coal and biomass to fuels and power.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert H; Liu, Guangjian; Kreutz, Thomas G; Larson, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Systems with CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) that coproduce transportation fuels and electricity from coal plus biomass can address simultaneously challenges of climate change from fossil energy and dependence on imported oil. Under a strong carbon policy, such systems can provide competitively clean low-carbon energy from secure domestic feedstocks by exploiting the negative emissions benefit of underground storage of biomass-derived CO(2), the low cost of coal, the scale economies of coal energy conversion, the inherently low cost of CO(2) capture, the thermodynamic advantages of coproduction, and expected high oil prices. Such systems require much less biomass to make low-carbon fuels than do biofuels processes. The economics are especially attractive when these coproduction systems are deployed as alternatives to CCS for stand-alone fossil fuel power plants. If CCS proves to be viable as a major carbon mitigation option, the main obstacles to deployment of coproduction systems as power generators would be institutional. PMID:22432630

  16. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal-Derived Syngas'' experimental evaluations of the one-step synthesis of alternative fuels were carried out. The objective of this work was to develop novel processes for converting coal-derived syngas to fuels or fuel additives. Building on a technology base acquired during the development

  17. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  18. Reaction of CO 2 with clean coal technology ash to reduce trace element mobility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Tawfic; K. J. Reddy; S. P. Gloss; J. I. Drever

    1995-01-01

    The combustion of coal in power plants generates solids (e.g., fly ash, bottom ash) and flue gas (e.g., SOx, CO2). New Clean Air Act mandated reduction of SOx emissions from coal burning power plants. As a result, a variety of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) are implemented to comply with these amendments. However, most of the CCT processes transfer environmentally sensitive

  19. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  20. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  1. Cleaning and utilization of coals for low emission at Swedish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Forssberg, K.S.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Division of Mineral Processing; Ryk, L. [SGS Sweden Solid Fuels and Minerals, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-10-01

    The paper discusses coal utilization in Sweden. All hard coals have to be imported from other countries. Peat from domestic sources is used as a complement. environmental legislation and taxation on fuel and emissions are severe. This situation affects the procurement, preparation, handling and use of coal. The paper presents: R and D projects concerning deep cleaning of thermal coal; handling and treatment of coal used in PFBC boilers and for blast furnace injection; dust prevention for coal and peat briquettes; and procurement of col emphasizing quality and environmental issues.

  2. Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Wilson; R. Q. Honaker; Y. Ding; K. Ho

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose

  3. Determination of total sulfur by ion chromatography following peroxide oxidation in spent caustic from the chemical cleaning of coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D. Chriswell; David R. Mroch; Richard. Markuszewski

    1986-01-01

    Total sulfur in samples of spent caustic arising from the chemical cleaning of coal has been determined by ion chromatography after oxidation of all sulfur species to sulfate. Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide first under basic conditions and subsequently under strongly acidic conditions was required for quantitative conversion of all sulfur species to sulfate. The effects of pH, sample size, and

  4. Cleaning Lower Kittanning Seam coal to increase volatility and decrease SOâ emissions. Coal cleaning test facility campaign report No. 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Bencho; E. R. Torak; J. R. Cavalet; A. K. Bhowmick

    1986-01-01

    Lowering Kittanning Seam coal from Cambria County, Pennsylvania, was characterized at EPRI's 25 ton-per-hour Coal Cleaning Test Facility (CCTF) to estimate the change in combustion characteristics that can be achieved by physical coal cleaning. Major objectives included production of coal that can meet a sulfur dioxide emissions limit of 1.20 lb\\/MBtu while increasing volatile matter content to a value at

  5. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1November 30, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Wilson; Y. Ding; R. Q. Honaker

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal

  6. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  7. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  8. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction

    DOEpatents

    Longanbach, James R. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-08-09

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300.degree.-550.degree. C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-500.degree. C. for a limited time of only about 1-5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300.degree. C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  9. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  10. Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal

    DOEpatents

    Akers, David J. (Indiana, PA); Ekechukwu, Kenneth N. (Silver Spring, MD); Aluko, Mobolaji E. (Burtonsville, MD); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

  11. Coal cleaning test facility: 1985 plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Torak; J. W. Parkinson; R. G. Moorhead; N. Hoffman; J. R. Cavalet; A. K. Bhowmick; D. J. Akers; R. J. Jenko

    1985-01-01

    The activities at EPRI's Coal Cleaning Test Facility (CCTF) are divided into two major categories: a standard suite of tests which define Coal Cleanability Characterization and Development and Demonstration (D and D) projects. EPRI began conducting Coal Cleanability Characterizations on nationally important steam coals in 1983. These characterizations are a series of laboratory and pilot-scale investigations designed to determine a

  12. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  13. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  14. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  15. Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Wang; Toshihiko Nakata

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for promoting the market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) into China's electricity sector and the evaluation of corresponding effects. Based on the reality that coal will remain the predominant fuel to generate electricity and conventional pulverized coal boiler power plants have serious impacts on environment degradation, development of clean coal technologies could be one

  16. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  17. Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

  18. The thermal efficiency and cost of producing hydrogen and other synthetic aircraft fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison is made of the cost and thermal efficiency of producing liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and synthetic aviation kerosene from coal. These results are combined with estimates of the cost and energy losses associated with transporting, storing, and transferring the fuels to aircraft. The results of hydrogen-fueled and kerosene-fueled aircraft performance studies are utilized to compare the economic viability and efficiency of coal resource utilization of synthetic aviation fuels.

  19. The thermal efficiency and cost of producing hydrogen and other synthetic aircraft fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made of the cost and thermal efficiency of producing liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and synthetic aviation kerosene from coal. These results are combined with estimates of the cost and energy losses associated with transporting, storing, and transferring the fuels to aircraft. The results of hydrogen-fueled and kerosene-fueled aircraft performance studies are utilized to compare the economic viability and efficiency of coal resource utilization of synthetic aviation fuels.

  20. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  1. Conditions of utilization of coal mining and processing sludges as slurry fuel

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-12-15

    The results of this study have shown that coal sludge can be used as slurry fuel (like coal-water fuel (CWF)) providing that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount in the fuel is at least 55%. The conventional CWF preparation technologies are inapplicable to the fabrication of water-sludge fuel; therefore, special technologies with allowance for the ash content, the particle size, and the water content of coal sludge are demanded.

  2. Cleaning of Croweburg Seam coal to improve boiler performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dospoy, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recently an Oklahoma law was enacted that mandates that Oklahoma coal-fired utilities must burn a minimum of ten percent Oklahoma-mined coal. Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO), burning raw Croweburg Seam coal from Oklahoma as part of a blend, was interested in determining if cleaning the Croweburg Seam coal could reduce boiler slagging and fouling problems experienced at its Northeastern Station's Units 3 and 4. Studies of the Croweburg Seam coal performed at CQ Inc. in Homer City, Pennsylvania were used to determine the potential of physical cleaning for upgrading this coal. The test program involved commercial-scale cleaning tests with heavy-medium cyclones, two-stage water only cyclones, and froth flotation cells, well as extensive laboratory and pilot-scale tests. The coal evaluated during the test program responded well to cleaning. Results indicate the ash slagging and fouling can be significantly improved by cleaning. Significant reductions in ash, specific ash constituents, and trace element concentrations were also demonstrated along with increased heating value. Finally, although the raw coal tested can be classified as compliance'' prior to cleaning, the cleaning tests show that further reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions potential were possible, along with high energy recoveries and increased heating values and can be beneficial for improved plant performance.

  3. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  4. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  5. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  6. Preparation of gas turbine engine fuel from synthetic crude oil derived from coal. Final report on Phase 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eisen

    1975-01-01

    A 232 gallon gas turbine fuel sample containing 23 vol.percent aromatics (20-25 vol.percent specification target) was prepared from synthetic crude oil (syncrude) derived from Western Kentucky coal. The seven fuel specifications designated as most important were all met with the exception of smoke point. The following major processing steps were used to prepare the sample: initial distillations (atmospheric distillation of

  7. Clean fuels from biomass. [cellulose fermentation to methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The potential of growing crops as a source of fuels is examined, and it is shown that enough arable land is available in the U.S. so that, even with a modest rate of crop yield, the nation could be supplied by fuel crops. The technologies for fuel conversion are available; however, some R&D efforts are needed for scaling up design. Fuel crop economics are discussed and shown to be nonprohibitive.

  8. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibilities of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results on coal cleaning is in progress in the Phase II study. Illinois No. 6, Ohio Lower Kittanning, and West Virginia Pocahontas coals have been prepared(simulating the industrial operations) and characterized. The adsorption conditions for {minus}48 mesh ROM coals and flotation concentrates have been optimized. Magnetic separation of the reagent conditioned coals shows that both ash and pyritic sulfur can be significantly reduced. Comparing with the repeated flotation approach for coal cleaning, the magnetizing reagent enhanced magnetic separation method shows better performance on cleaning the flotation concentration at {minus}48 mesh.

  9. The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

  10. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-10-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  11. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  12. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  13. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

  14. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  15. Agenda and briefing book: Clean Coal Technology Coordinating Committee, September 16, 1991, Louisville, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-16

    A considerable amount of time was spent discussing the Clean Air Act Amendments pending before Congress. Several members pointed out provisions of the legislation that would have serious impacts on the coal industry and the electric utility industry. The need for increased electricity in Florida raised the question about coal fired Power Plants. It is generally believed that most people in Florida do not know that over 55 percent of the electricity now comes from coal-fired generators. However, publicly, people will say they do not want coal-fired facilities built in Florida. People in Florida are concerned with the EMF Issue just as much as the source of power. It was stated that the coal industry has a very poor image and DOE should assume responsibility for improving the image of coal. it was agreed that it would take a considerable financial commitment to do this and that in addition to government the industry would have to be willing to contribute financially. The Partial results of a survey to utilities concerning the future use of clean coal technologies was reported. Utilities are not ignoring coal technologies but acknowledged that the amendments to the Clean Air Act would be the driving force in future decisions. It was learned through the survey that the DOE negotiation process in the Clean Coal Technology Program was in need of improvement. DOE had recently changed the procedure internally and it was anticipated that the procedure would be smoother in the future.

  16. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995August 31, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Wilson; R. Q. Honaker; Y. Ding

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  18. POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal gasification test runs have been conducted in a semibatch, fixed-bed laboratory gasifier in order to evaluate various coals and operating conditions for pollutant generation. Thirty-eight tests have been completed using char, coal, lignite, and peat. Extensive analyses were ...

  19. Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. Tenth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, C.T.

    1992-04-29

    Full implementation of coal fuel sources will require more effective methods of providing ``clean coal`` as a fuel source. Methods must be developed to reduce the sulfur content of coal which significantly contributes to environmental pollution. This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies.

  20. Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

  1. DOE's clean coal technology program: commercial successes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. U. Watts; T. A. Sarkus; S. K. Marchant

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOEs) clean coal technology (CCT) program is comprised of 43 demonstration scale projects in a variety of coal utilization areas. The program is now well under way, and several demonstrations have been completed. Further, several commercial sales have already accrued to these technologies, with additional sales pending

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL FINE COAL CLEANING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj K. Mohanty

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the proposed project was to develop a novel fine coal separator having the ability to clean 1 mm x 0 size coal in a single processing unit. The novel fine coal separator, named as EG(Enhanced Gravity) Float Cell, utilizes a centrifugal field to clean 1 mm x 250 micron size coal, whereas a flotation environment to clean minus 250 micron coal size fraction. Unlike a conventional enhanced gravity concentrator, which rotates to produce a centrifugal field requiring more energy, the EG Float Cell is fed with a tangential feed slurry to generate an enhanced gravity field without any rotating part. A prototype EG Float Cell unit having a maximum diameter of 60 cm (24 inch) was fabricated during the first-half of the project period followed by a series of exploratory tests to make suitable design modification. Test data indicated that there was a significant concentration of coarse heavy materials in the coarse tailings discharge of the EG Float Cell. The increase in weight (%) of 1 mm x 250 micron (16 x 60 mesh) size fraction from 48.9% in the feed to 72.2% in the coarse tailings discharge and the corresponding increase in the ash content from 56.9% to 87.0% is indicative of the effectiveness of the enhanced gravity section of the EG Float Cell. However, the performance of the flotation section needs to be improved. Some of the possible design modifications may include more effective air sparging system for the flotation section to produce finer bubbles and a better wash water distributor.

  3. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Annual technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-12-31

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  4. ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: ANNUAL REPORT (1ST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    With a large projected increase in U.S. use of coal under the National Energy Plan, improved sulfur dioxide controls are quickly needed. Physical coal cleaning may prove to be the most cost-effective method for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from small boilers, since many smal...

  5. New fuel choices change coal handling and storage rules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Rittenhouse

    1992-01-01

    Fuel handling systems at power plants face new pressures. Those forces already mentioned in this article include the latest clean coal technologies, future compliance to the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments, and adjustments in fuel for economic reasons. Western and eastern coals of various types have their own unique handling characteristics. In addition, Round IV of the Department of

  6. Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

  7. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction. [partial liquefaction of coal in slurry, filtration and gasification of residue

    DOEpatents

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1981-11-13

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300 to 550/sup 0/C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400 to 500/sup 0/C for a limited time of only about 1 to 5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300/sup 0/C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  8. Motor fuels and chemicals from coal via the Sasol Synthol route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogendoorn, J. C.

    1981-03-01

    The production of synthetic motor fuels and chemicals from coal by the Sasol procedures is discussed. This process is based on the Fischer-Tropsch reaction by passing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a specific ratio over iron catalysts at elevated temperatures and pressures. Two parallel reactor systems are discussed. The smaller system employs fixed-bed reactors, using a precipitated iron catalyst and produces predominantly heavy hydrocarbons of an aliphatic nature with carbon chains up to 100. These straight-chain hydrocarbons yield excellent waxes and high quality diesel oil. The larger system uses a powdered iron catalyst in a circulating fluid-bed reactor, a concept developed from American catalytic cracker technology. This system has the advantage of high production capacity and scale-up potential, and produces light olefins which can be used either as petrochemical feedstock or refined and added to the motor fuel pool, and ethylene which is augmented by ethane cracking. Analysis of product selectivities and values shows that co-production of chemicals and motor fuels from coal is profitable and efficient.

  9. Process for selective grinding of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachari, Mukund K. (San Francisco, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  10. Clean coal fluidized-bed technology in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Nowak

    2003-01-01

    The use of a circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) for power generation is a rapidly growing technology in Poland. The ability of CFBs to burn a wide variety of fuels, while meeting strict emission-control regulations, makes them an ideal choice for burning such fuels as high-sulfur coal, lignite, peat, oil, sludge, petroleum coke, gas and wastes. All these fuels are burned cleanly

  11. POC-Scale Testing of a Dry Triboelectrostatic Seprator for Fine Coal Cleaning.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1997-12-31

    It is the objective of the present project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to be developed based on (i) the charge characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel online tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech, and (ii) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals.

  12. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak [University of Colorado at Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Clean coal demonstration program: Advanced flue gas desulfurization process. Volume 1 - public design report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The single 100 percent absorber is a co-current grid packed tower with an integrated reaction tank at the bottom. It is designed to accomplish several process steps (quenching, absorption of SO{sub 2}, reaction with limestone, oxidation to gypsum) in a single vessel, resulting in a simple configuration of the plant. The co-current absorber is designed for higher flue gas velocities than conventional countercurrent towers, which results in a compact absorber size. The flue gas enters the top of the absorber where it contacts recirculating slurry. Quenching and absorption of SO{sub 2} occur simultaneously. This {open_quotes}wet/dry{close_quotes} interface is washed intermittently with fresh water to prevent the formation and growth of any deposits.

  14. Development of an extraction process for removal of heteroatoms from coal liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The main goal of this contract was to develop an extraction process for upgrading coal liquids; and in doing so, to reduce the hydrogen requirement in downstream upgrading processes and to yield valuable byproducts. This goal was to be achieved by developing a novel carbon dioxide extraction process for heteroatom removal from coal-derived naphtha, diesel, and jet fuel. The research plan called for the optimization of three critical process variables using a statistically-designed experimental matrix. The commercial potential of the new process was to be evaluated by demonstrating quantitatively the effectiveness of heteroatom removal from three different feedstocks and by conducting a comparative economic analysis of alternate heteroatom removal technologies. Accomplishments are described for the following tasks: food procurement and analysis process variable screening studies; and process assessment.

  15. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  16. Clean Coal Technologies in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RYOICHI YOSHIDA; Ryoichi

    1997-01-01

    Coal provided 16·1% (116·3 million tons) of the energy for Japan in FY 1992. According to the long-term energy supply and demand outlook in Japan, prepared and revised in June 1994 by the Advisory Committee for Energy, it is estimated that coal will provide 16·4% (130 million tons) of the energy in 2000 and 15·4% (134 million tons) in 2010,

  17. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaing for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frank J. Smit; Gene L. Schields; Mehesh C. Jha; Nick Moro

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel? column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications -- Less than 2 pounds of ash per million Btu (860 grams per gigajoule) and

  18. Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal

    DOEpatents

    Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

  19. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, W.S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    1992-10-01

    New coal gasification processes are now being developed which can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency either in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or in a fuel cell (MCFC). Both of these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the coal-gas. This project investigates the effect of HCl, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by the HCI, both in absorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes. The work activity during the third quarter of this project involved the performance of the second block-set of experiments in the bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. These experiments were designed to study the effect of HCl in the desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas. Nine single-cycle experiments were performed, at operating temperature of 538, 650, and 750{degrees}C, with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppMv. The presence of HCl in the coal gas significantly enhanced the desulfurization efficacy of the sorbent. A 10-cycle sulfidation-regeneration sequence is currently being performed at 650{degrees}C with 800 ppMv HCl in the simulated fuel gas to determine any adverse effects on the sorbent structure or its desulfurization capability.

  20. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  1. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1992-12-31

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product; however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of the advanced flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach utilized synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant addition to lower the moisture of clean coal using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combinations of metal ions and surfactants in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. Surface chemical study indicated a direct correlation between the point-of-zero charge (PZC) of metal ion/fine coal system and lowering of moisture in the filter cake. Adsorption of either metal ions or surfactants alone did not provide a significant reduction of moisture in the filter cake. However, a combination of the two provided a filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture. Filtration tests conducted using a laboratory vacuum drum filter indicated that the results obtained in batch filtration could be reproduced on a continuous filtration unit. FT-IR studies indicated that anionic surfactant and metal ions form complex species which adsorbs on the fine coal and results in improved moisture reduction during filtration. Recommendations are offered for testing this novel dewatering process on a pilot scale at a coal preparation plant in Illinois.

  2. Group effects on fuel NOx emissisons from coal 

    E-print Network

    Vadakkath, Anand Anakkara

    1991-01-01

    rate, kg/s m~~f s Reference mass flow rate, kg/s Mass loss rate due to pyrolysis, kg/s Number of particles/m Heat transfer, kJ Cloud radius, m Universal Gas Constant, kJ/kmole K Radial distance from the cloud center, m Temperature, K Reference...) . 2 Input Data for the NOx Part of the Program 48 49 3 Typical Output Data for the NOx Part of the Program . 49 4 Timescales for Fuel Nitrogen Evolution 71 5 Pyrolysis Model 106 6 Ultimate and Proximate Analysis 118 7 Carrier (air) with 7. 5...

  3. Characterization of coal water slurry sprays from a positive displacement fuel injection system

    E-print Network

    Kumar Seshadri, Ajoy

    1991-01-01

    system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a.... 6 msec. Break-up time increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading. Cone angles of the sprays were dependant on time, fluid and position, For diesel fuel...

  4. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-01

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems. PMID:23301852

  5. Stabilization of coal cleaning wastes. Fossil Energy Program. Technical progress report, 1 April 1985-30 June 1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Burnet; A. Gokhale

    1985-01-01

    This report describes research work in progress on the stabilization of waste from the mining and cleaning of coal. A survey of the literature in the area of coal refuse processing has been conducted using computerized searches of the Energy Data Base and Chemical Abstracts as well as manual scanning of the Chemical Abstracts, NTIS and Energy Research Abstracts. Relevant

  6. Physical cleaning of waste coal by dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Shiao, S.Y. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The coal wastes generated from coal mining operations and coal cleaning processes contain fine and ultrafine coals. Recovery of the fine/ultrafine coal from the coal wastes reduces the loss of useable fuels and the environmental impact. The objective of this project was to use dissolved-CO{sub 2} technology to generate ultrafine bubbles to separate fine/ultrafine coal from pyrite and other mineral matter in the coal wastes. The Illinois No. 6 coal waste used in the project was the underflow from a refuse thickener. The concentrations of the major trace metals are much higher than those found in Illinois Basin Coal database for Illinois No. 6 coals. Bench-scale conventional flotation tests of the waste coal were performed under various conditions using a 4-liter Wemco flotation cell. The tests were performed to determine the chemical dosages and flotation conditions used in dissolved-CO{sub 2} column flotation. The waste coal samples were subjected to dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation in a 2-inch diameter microbubble column under various test conditions. The flotation performance as affected by each test variable was compared. For most of the tests, the Btu recovery was above 80%, the pyrite rejection was about 60%, and the ash rejection varied from about 45% to 76%. Dissolved air was used in one test for comparison. The waste coal samples were also subjected to typical microbubble flotation. As compared to microbubble flotation, the dissolved-CO{sub 2} had higher yield, higher Btu recovery, less pyrite rejection, and less ash rejection. Almost all of the major trace metals had a substantial reduction in concentration by dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation, particularly for cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead.

  7. Production of Ultra Clean Coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Steel; John Besida; Thomas A. O'Donnell; David G. Wood

    2001-01-01

    A model for determination of the concentration of fluoride complexed aluminium and silicon species, free fluoride (F?), H+ ions and molecular HF in solution when aluminosilicate compounds are treated with aqueous HF is presented. The model elucidates chemical mechanisms governing both the dissolution behaviour of the mineral matter in coal towards aqueous HF, and the unwanted precipitation of various fluoride

  8. Production of Ultra Clean Coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Steel; John Besida; Thomas A. O'Donnell; David G. Wood

    2001-01-01

    The mineral matter in an Australian black coal has been isolated using a low-temperature ashing (LTA) procedure. This LTA procedure is a modification of the Australian Standard for LTA at 370°C, and alleviates adverse effects to the minerals caused by the heat of combustion. The leaching behaviour of the mineral matter towards aqueous HCl and hydrofluoric acid (HF) is presented.

  9. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1992-10-01

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, due to high surface area of particles the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water to 20 percent or lower moisture level from the clean coal froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combination of metal ions and surfactant found to be effective in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. During the third quarter, efforts were made to understand reagent adsorption mechanism. Adsorption studies indicated that the presence of metal ions enhanced adsorption of surfactant. It appears that metal ions induced floc formation at pH {approximately}7.0, which are hydrophilic in nature, however addition of surfactant restores the hydrophobicity. Organic polymers along with metal ions were found to be effective in dewatering of fine coal. Continuous filtration tests conducted using a drum filter provided a filter cake containing 24 percent moisture. Additional studies on mechanism of adsorption and continuous filtration using AC Electro-Coagulation will be conducted in the next quarter.

  10. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hózer, Zoltán; Szabó, Emese; Pintér, Tamás; Varjú, Ilona Baracska; Bujtás, Tibor; Farkas, Gábor; Vajda, Nóra

    2009-07-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  11. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid waste produced by advanced coal processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites have been selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's site using waste from Midwest Grain's FBC unit in central Illinois. A fourth site is under consideration at the Dakota Gasification Company in North Dakota. The first two tasks of this project involved the development of test plans and obtaining site access.

  12. The Impact of Leachate From Clean Coal Technology Waste on the Stability of Clay and Synthetic Liners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Brown; M. Ghate

    1996-01-01

    This project was developed to provide design criteria for landfill disposal sites used for sludges such as those generated using the Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) tested at the Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe Power Plant. The CCT wastes used were produced at the Arapahoe Plant Unit No. 4 that was equipped with the integrated dry NOâ\\/Sâ emissions control system

  13. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-11-30

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program?s fourth solicitation.

  14. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  15. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Energy International Corporation (El) was awarded a contract to evaluate a new concept for utilization of the fine coal wetcake produced by many of the physical beneficiation processes now under development. EI proposed development of a stabilized wetcake with properties that would facilitate storage, handling, transport, and subsequent conversion of the material into Coal-Water Fuel (CWF) at the point of use. The effort was performed in three phases. Phase I established the technical feasibility of stabilizing the fine coal ``wetcake`` in a form that can be readily handled and converted into a desired fuel form at the combustion site. The preferred form of stabilized ``wetcake`` was a granular free flowing material with the moisture encapsulated with the fine coal particles. The product was termed Mulled Coal. Phase I results indicated that the Mulled Coal was not only suitable as a CWF intermediate, but also had potential as a solid fuel. Phase II demonstrated the utilization of the Mulled Coal process to store and move fine coal products as a stable ``wetcake.`` Tasks in this phase tested components of the various systems required for storage, handling and combustion of the fine coals. Phase III expanded the technology by: 1. Evaluating Mulled Coal from representative coals from all producing regions in the US. 2. Development of bench-scale tests. 3. Design, construction, and operation of a 1 ton/hr continuous processing unit. 4. Evaluation of the effects of beneficiation. and 5. Developing an estimate of capital and operating costs for commercial units.

  16. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  17. SUBTASK 3.11 – PRODUCTION OF CBTL-BASED JET FUELS FROM BIOMASS-BASED FEEDSTOCKS AND MONTANA COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used interchangeably without any special requirements and thus provides a pathway to energy security to the U.S. military and the entire nation. This subtask was funded through the EERC–DOE Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by Accelergy Corporation.

  18. Removal of organic contaminants from coal conversion process condensates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luthy

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate treatment characteristics of a phenolic coal gasification process wastewater in which major treatment steps included solvent extraction with methylisobutyl ketone for phenol recovery and steam stripping for ammonia removal, followed by either activated sludge (AS) or powdered activated carbon-activated sludge (PAC\\/AS) processing. The study showed that solvent extracted wastewater did not require dilution prior

  19. Terrestrial carbon disturbance from mountaintop mining increases lifecycle emissions for clean coal.

    PubMed

    Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott

    2010-03-15

    The Southern Appalachian forest region of the U.S.--a region responsible for 23% of U.S. coal production--has 24 billion metric tons of high quality coal remaining of which mountaintop coal mining (MCM) will be the primary extraction method. Here we consider greenhouse gas emissions associated with MCM terrestrial disturbance in the life-cycle of coal energy production. We estimate disturbed forest carbon, including terrestrial soil and nonsoil carbon using published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data of the forest floor removed and U.S. Department of Agriculture--Forest Service inventory data. We estimate the amount of previously buried geogenic organic carbon brought to the soil surface during MCM using published measurements of total organic carbon and carbon isotope data for reclaimed soils, soil organic matter and coal fragments. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the life-cycle emissions of coal production for MCM methods were found to be quite significant when considering the potential terrestrial source. Including terrestrial disturbance in coal life-cycle assessment indicates that indirect emissions are at least 7 and 70% of power plant emissions for conventional and CO(2) capture and sequestration power plants, respectively. To further constrain these estimates, we suggest that the fate of soil carbon and geogenic carbon at MCM sites be explored more widely. PMID:20141186

  20. Dewatering Ultrafine Clean Coal in a T. H. Filter Press

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Patwardhan; Y. P. Chugh; B. J. Arnold; A. N. Terblanche

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficiency filter press technology for dewatering minus 150 µm column flotation clean coal products from two coal mines. Pilot-scale in-plant demonstration of this technology at these two locations provided stable, trouble-free operation while achieving an excellent dewatering performance at a high throughput. At one location, filter cakes with residual total moisture contents in the 20–22% range

  1. Contribution of chemistry to energy. [Fuels from coal; solar energy storage\\/conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cox

    1978-01-01

    Chemistry has contributed in many ways to energy production and conversion in the fossil fuel era. The challenges facing chemists and chemical engineers as we look forward to the 21st Century are addressed. This paper discusses some of the means that can be employed to meet this challenge both in the near-term and long-term, particularly alternate fuels from coal and

  2. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  4. Coal cleaning employing quaternary salts: Annual report, March 1, 1986-February 28, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.; Sarvela, D.P.; Murdie, N.

    1987-05-01

    Present New Source Performance Standards and the prospect of new acid rain legislation at the federal level require that methods be developed to remove substantial portions of sulfur from Illinois Basin coals. This report describes an innovative approach to coal desulfurization. In this approach, quaternary ammonium salts are employed as catalysts to swell coal. The process is designed to address three basic problems which exist in Illinois Basin coals. First, the pyrite in these coals is at a high level and is very finely dispersed. Therefore, the pyrite particles cannot be liberated by conventional coal cleaning techniques. Second, the porosity of these coals is routinely high but is closed to many reactants because of the lack of feeder and transitional pore structure. Third, the high organic sulfur levels require that some sort of chemical desulfurization occur before most Illinois coals meet NSPS standards. The swelling of coals by quaternary salt results in the liberation of the smallest pyrite and inertinite particles of the coal. Furthermore, cracks occur in the coal particle after swelling. These cracks are associated with the larger size pyrite material embedded in -60 mesh ground coal. Only small amounts of quaternary salt are exchanged on the coal. In some cases, a small amount of exchange results in pore enlargement. Under other conditions, chemical desulfurization of organic sulfur is observed. Relationships between the conditions of exchange, mineral and inertinite liberation, pore enlargement, and coal desulfurization are discussed. The results suggest that: (1) quaternary salts may be used to interrupt oxidation degradation of the coal; (2) coals might be liquified employing specific quaternary salt treatments; and (3) under specific conditions, organic sulfur may be attacked selectively. 3 refs., 22 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-04-15

    The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

  6. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  7. Clean fuels from biomass. [feasibility of converting plant systems to fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of converting biomass to portable fuels is studied. Since plants synthesize biomass from H2O and CO2 with the help of solar energy, the conversion methods of pyrolysis, anaerobic fermentation, and hydrogenation are considered. Cost reduction methods and cost effectiveness are emphasized.

  8. Emission Control of SO2 by Dry Coal-Cleaning and Bio-Briquette Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sakamoto; Y. Terauchi; O. Ishitani; M. Kamide; Q. Wang

    2001-01-01

    In China, the large amount of sulfur dioxide and dust discharged from the combustion of low-grade raw coal causes severe air pollution and acid rain. Therefore, the need to control the emission of such pollutants is urgent. It is well known that wet coal-cleaning technology is used to prepare clean coal from low-grade raw coal containing large amounts of sulfur

  9. Coal-to-Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.

    2006-01-18

    This book chapter describes a chemical process that is the key for turning coal into liquid fuels. This process, known as the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, has the potential for producing hundreds of thousands of barrels per day of hydrocarbon liquids and other byproducts, including electricity. The FT process, which was invented in Germany in the 1920s, is used today in full-scale production plants in South Africa and is planned for use in plants in many other parts of the world, including the United States.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technologies (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

  12. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical--can continue in its role as a key component in the U.S. and world energy markets. The CCT Program also has global importance in providing clean, efficient coal-based technology to a burgeoning energy market in developing countries largely dependent on coal. Based on 1997 data, world energy consumption is expected to increase 60 percent by 2020, with almost half of the energy increment occurring in developing Asia (including China and India). By 2020, energy consumption in developing Asia is projected to surpass consumption in North America. The energy form contributing most to the growth is electricity, as developing Asia establishes its energy infrastructure. Coal, the predominant indigenous fuel, in that region will be the fuel of choice in electricity production. The CCTs offer a means to mitigate potential environmental problems associated with unprecedented energy growth, and to enhance the U.S. economy through foreign equipment sales and engineering services.

  13. Mobilisation of trace elements from as-supplied and additionally cleaned coal: Predictions for Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Mo, Nb, Sb, V and W

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Gibbs; D. Thompson; B. B. Argent

    2008-01-01

    The partitioning of the elements antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, molybdenum and vanadium between the products of combustion of coals containing them burnt as pulverised fuel in excess air has been modelled using the MTDATA thermodynamic equilibrium package with data from the MTOX silicate melt model added to the standard database and trace element data added where necessary. The coals

  14. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

    1997-05-13

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to boilers in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  15. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  16. Ram pressing: An almost extinct technology with interesting new applications in coal and other solid fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, W.

    2000-07-01

    In response to the need for cheap carbon-based fuel for the quickly expanding use of steam engines in factories and locomotives, around 1850 extrusion presses for the binderless briquetting of peat and coal were inverted in the USA (1848, Easby), England (1853, Gwynne), and Germany (1855, Exter). The Exter press became the world's first commercially acceptable extrusion press for peat. In 1958, the first Exter press was built for the briquetting of brown coal (lignite). While, at the beginning, large briquettes were produced, mostly for firing steam locomotives, the technology soon evolved into an important technique for processing the vast European lignite deposits into briquettes for industrial and home heating. Many plants with hundreds of presses (one supplier sold in 100 years more than 1,400 presses to customers in Germany alone) were built and operated until, beginning around 1960, lignite had to be replaced by cleaner fuels. The particular advantage of ram presses is their ability to densify organic matter and produce strong, permanently bonded briquettes without the addition of binders. Soon after the introduction of Exter presses for the briquetting of brown coals and continuing until this application reached its peak, the heating value of the always very wet coal was increased by drying prior to briquetting. Similar efforts are underway in the USA for subbituminous coals, for example, where the ram press technology could find a new field of application. Other new uses may be the production of coal logs for pipeline transport and the briquetting of coal fines, organic wastes, biomass, and other opportunity fuels.

  17. A fossil-fuel based recipe for clean energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surendra K Saxena; Vadym Drozd; Andriy Durygin

    2008-01-01

    A zero-emission process of hydrogen production from fossil fuel through a system of reactions involving hydroxide, carbon, CO, CO2 and water is described here. It provides for a complete sequestration of carbon (CO2 and CO) from coal\\/natural-gas burning plants. The CO and or CO2 produced in coal or natural gas burning power plants and the heat may be used for

  18. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, C.E. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Volume four contains the results of an Empire State Electric Energy Research corporation and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded investigation to evaluate the effects and economics of applying ultrasonic waves to commercial-scale dewatering and classifying of fine coal. Pre-treating minus 28 mesh Upper Freeport Seam coal using an ultrasonic tray device improved subsequent dewatering by a vacuum disc filter after thickening in a cyclone, but it did not improve dewatering by a screen-bowl centrifuge after cycloning. Dewatering of Pittsburgh Seam coal also improved when the coal was ultrasonically treated, but it only manifested during thickening in the cyclone. Cycloning also increased the removal of fine, high-ash content clay particles from Pittsburgh Seam coal. In contrast, ultrasonically-treating Upper Freeport Seam coal did not improve subsequent classifying by a rapped sieve bend. Based on a specific example of results in this test work for Upper Freeport Seam coal, using an ultrasonic tray to aid dewatering of finely-sized coal can be economically beneficial. For other coals and dewatering devices, however, the economics for using ultrasonic trays to enhance fine coal dewatering will differ.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA BASE FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME I. SYSTEMS FOR 14 LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report, prepared as part of an overall environmental assessment (EA) program for the technology involved in the conversion of coal to clean liquid fuels, and the Standards of Practice Manual for the Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction Process (EPA-600/7-78-091) repre...

  20. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  1. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  2. Underground coal gasification of steeply dipping beds: A second generation synthetic fuels process

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.; Ahner, P.F.

    1982-09-01

    In-situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The SDB process mechanism has several advantages over the horizontal process and performs in a fashion similar to surface packed bed reactors. The oxygen requirements for the process are quite low and the degree of process control observed at Rawlins is very attractive.

  3. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  4. Physical aspects of deposition from coal-water fuels under gas turbine conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Wenglarz; R. A. Jr. Fox

    1990-01-01

    Deposition, erosion, and corrosion (DEC) experiments were conducted using three coal-water fuels (CWF) in a staged subscale turbine combustor operated at conditions of a recuperated turbine. This rich-quench-lean (RQL) combustor appears promising for reducing NOâ levels to acceptable levels for future turbines operating with CWF. Specimens were exposed in two test sections to the combustion products from the RQL combustor.

  5. Chemical aspects of deposition\\/corrosion from coal-water fuels under gas turbine conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Wenglarz; R. G. Jr. Fox

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a staged, subscale turbine combustor based on a promising rich-quench-lean combustion approach to reduce NOâ emissions used to evaluate deposition, erosion, and corrosion (DEC) from coal-water fuels (CWF). This combustor was operated with three CWF at conditions of a recuperated turbine. Specimens were exposed in two test sections at temperature conditions of the first stator vanes and

  6. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Tobey, M. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current physical coal cleaning process is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from the coal, that is, to remove the mineral particles from the coal. In order to separate mineral from coal particles efficiently, the finely disseminated mineral matter must be liberated from the coal matrix with the help of an ultrafine grinding operation. The coal becomes very difficult to dewater because of the small particle size produced. Difficulty in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at the utility plants are also problems associated with the small coal particles resulting from ultrafine grinding. During this project, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale hydraulic compacting device. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

  7. Innovative coal gas cleaning at Sparrows Point Coal Chemical Plant, Maryland for Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Antrobus, K.; Platts, M. (Davy/Still Otto, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Harbold, L. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (USA)); Kornosky, R. (Office of Clean Coal Technology, US DOE, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1990-01-01

    In response to the Clean Coal II solicitation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) submitted a proposal to the DOE in May 1988. The proposal submitted by BSC describes a Unique integration of commercial technologies developed by Davy/Still Otto to clean coke oven gas being produced at its Sparrows Point, Maryland steel plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines secondary gas cooling with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia removal, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia recovery, ammonia destruction and sulfur recovery to produce a cleaner fuel gas for plant use. The primary environmental benefit associated with employing this innovative coke oven gas cleaning system is realized when the fuel gas is burned within the steel plant. Emissions of sulfur dioxide are reduced by more than 60 percent. The removal, recovery and destruction of ammonia eliminates the disposal problems associated with an unmarketable ammonium sulfate by-product. Significant reduction in benzene and hydrogen cyanide emissions are also obtained.

  8. Comparison of particle size distributions and elemental partitioning from the combustion of pulverized coal and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Linak, W P; Miller, C A; Wendt, J O

    2000-08-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) research examining the characteristics of primary PM generated by the combustion of fossil fuels is being conducted in efforts to help determine mechanisms controlling associated adverse health effects. Transition metals are of particular interest, due to the results of studies that have shown cardiopulmonary damage associated with exposure to these elements and their presence in coal and residual fuel oils. Further, elemental speciation may influence this toxicity, as some species are significantly more water-soluble, and potentially more bio-available, than others. This paper presents results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particle size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction as well as electrical mobility, time-of-flight, and light-scattering techniques. Size-classified PM samples from this study are also being utilized by colleagues for animal instillation experiments. Experimental results on the mass and compositions of particles between 0.03 and > 20 microns in aerodynamic diameter show that PM from the combustion of these fuels produces distinctive bimodal and trimodal PSDs, with a fine mode dominated by vaporization, nucleation, and growth processes. Depending on the fuel and combustion equipment, the coarse mode is composed primarily of unburned carbon char and associated inherent trace elements (fuel oil) and fragments of inorganic (largely calcium-alumino-silicate) fly ash including trace elements (coal). The three coals also produced a central mode between 0.8- and 2.0-micron aerodynamic diameter. However, the origins of these particles are less clear because vapor-to-particle growth processes are unlikely to produce particles this large. Possible mechanisms include the liberation of micron-scale mineral inclusions during char fragmentation and burnout and indicates that refractory transition metals can contribute to PM < 2.5 microns without passing through a vapor phase. When burned most efficiently, the residual fuel oil produces a PSD composed almost exclusively of an ultrafine mode (approximately 0.1 micron). The transition metals associated with these emissions are composed of water-soluble metal sulfates. In contrast, the transition metals associated with coal combustion are not significantly enriched in PM < 2.5 microns and are significantly less soluble, likely because of their association with the mineral constituents. These results may have implications regarding health effects associated with exposure to these particles. PMID:11002612

  9. Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

  10. ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests at seven coal preparation plants to evaluate the performance of froth flotation cells and dense-medium cyclones in removing ash and sulfur (S) from fine coal (Minus 28 mesh). Flotation circuits tested at four plants showed substantial reductions ...

  11. Demonstration Of Selective Catalytic Reduction For The Control Of NOx Emissions From High-Sulfur Coal-Fired Boilers, Project Performance Summary. Clean Coal Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-11-30

    This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project is one of 16 selected from 55 proposals submitted in response to the CCTDP?s second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (Southern), a subsidiary of Southern Company, conducted the Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction for the Control of NOx Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers project. Gulf Power Company?s Plant Crist provided the host site and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ontario Hydro co-funded the project and provided technical input. The project began in June 1990 and operational testing occurred between July 1993 and July 1995. In simplistic terms, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process consists of injecting ammonia (NH3) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and NH3 react to form water vapor and nitrogen (an element that comprises 78 percent of air).

  12. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  13. Cleaning of Indian coals by agglomeration with xylene and hexane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mrinal K Baruah; Probhat Kotoky; Jyotish Baruah; Gobin C Bora

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory scale agglomeration process has been undertaken for cleaning Indian coals using oils namely, xylene and hexane. Maximum organic matter recovery for xylene has been found to be 91.9% whereas with hexane, the value is 54.7% on a dry basis. The highest ash rejection values with xylene (90.7%) and with hexane (89.7%) are almost same. Promising results for rejection

  14. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The progress achieved during this quarter includes the reagent shelf life study, the evaluation and selection of magnetizing reagents, an experimental database for activating and depressing the adsorption of magnetizing reagents in the presence of various chemicals, an adsorption regulator investigation, the establishment of a coal surface controlling theory, and a magnetite size effect study for the separation of magnetic enhanced minerals. The work is on schedule with the original plan. Modifications include the addition of a regulator study to help proving the selectivity controlling theory. The fundamentals for applying the magnetizing reagent technology on coal cleaning are generally established during this quarter. Selective magnetic enhancement of minerals through the adsorption of magnetizing reagents has been experimentally proved. The work for the next quarter will be mainly on optimizing the selective adsorption conditions and the continuation on magnetite size effect study.

  15. Proof of concept for integrating oxy-fuel combustion and the removal of all pollutants from a coal fired flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Alex (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William (CoalTeck LLC); Schoenfield, Mark (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    The USDOE/Albany Research Center and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, working together under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, have demonstrated proof-of-concept for the integration of Jupiter’s oxy-fuel combustion and an integrated system for the removal of all stack pollutants, including CO2, from a coal-fired flame. The components were developed using existing process technology with the addition of a new oxy-coal combustion nozzle. The results of the test showed that the system can capture SOx, NOx, particulates, and even mercury as a part of the process of producing liquefied CO2 for sequestration. This is part of an ongoing research project to explore alternative methods for CO2 capture that will be applicable to both retrofit and new plant construction.

  16. SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM COMBINED WIND TURBINE AND FUEL CELL POWER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper examines an integrated use of ultra-clean wind turbines and high temperature fuel cells to produce methanol, especially for transportation purposes. The principal utility and application of the process is the production of transportation fuel from domestic resources to ...

  17. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Brown

    1998-01-01

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed,

  18. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  19. Feasibility of producing a low-Btu gas from coal/briquetted coal fines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    In order to provide an essentially non-interruptible, plant-controlled, alternate fuel supply for the Noranda Aluminum, Inc. New Madrid, Missouri aluminum reduction plant, a study was commissioned by the DOE to develop a conceptual plant design to utilize coal/coal briquettes to produce Low Btu fuel gas (herein referred to as LBG). LBG equal to 1330 MM Btu per day (equivalent to 1330 M SCF per day Natural Gas) was projected to be produced from 84 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal (or 45% coal blended with 55% coal briquettes bonded with coal tar pitch binder) in one Wellman-Galusha gasifier unit. The LBG produced by this integrated processing plant is cooled, cleaned, and desulfurized to meet EPA requirements, dehydrated after compression, and odorized before transmission through a 6000 foot long pipeline to the aluminum reduction plant. Gas costs developed for a one gasifier installation show that without briquetting the net production cost for LBG is $5.07 per million Btu, while the cost with briquetting (including the coal tar pitch binder) increases the net production cost to $6.00 per million Btu. However, to obtain a 15% discounted cash flow the selling price would have to be set at $6.51/MM Btu and $7.78/MM Btu, respectively, with all values based on coal at $29.50/ton and full by-product credits. These unit costs include charges for the 6000 foot long pipeline, and compression costs to deliver the product gas to the aluminum plant's users. The financial attractiveness of this venture must be predicated on the anticipated increases in the cost of natural gas, propane and fuel oil.

  20. Coal desulfurization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  1. A pulverized coal fuel injector

    SciTech Connect

    Rini, M.J.; Towle, D.P.

    1991-12-31

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO{sub 2} formation.

  2. The pioneer plant concept: co-production of electricity and added-value products from coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Neathery; D. Gray; D. Challman; F. Derbyshire

    1999-01-01

    Although technologies have been developed for the clean, efficient use of coal for power generation, there exist some barriers to their adoption and implementation. These technologies are essentially based upon coal gasification, which also provides a route for the synthesis of chemicals and fuels from coal. An overview is given of commercial experience of power generation by integrated gasification combined-cycle,

  3. Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurements, Health Impacts, and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Smith, Kirk R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Nearly all China’s rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. Data sources We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English-language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. Conclusions Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of “poisonous” coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China’s indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector. PMID:17589590

  4. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would suffer from low throughput capacities and high maintenance requirements. In general, surface area-based separators (e.g., shaking tables, magnetic drum separator, electrodynamic separator, etc.) have lower throughput capacities than volume-based separators (e.g., flotation cell, dense-medium bath, cyclones, etc.) by an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the electrodes of the laboratory unit need to be cleaned frequently, creating a high maintenance requirement if it is scaled-up to a commercial unit. The bench-scale continuous TES unit developed at NETL, on the other hand, separates positively and negatively charged particles by splitting the gaseous stream containing these particles in an electric field by means of a flow splitter, so that the oppositely charged particles can be directed into different compartments. This device is fundamentally different from the laboratory unit in that the former is a surface area-based separator, while the latter is a volume-based separator. The bench-scale unit is referred to as an entrained flow separator by the in-house researchers at NETL. Thus, the entrained flow TES unit is a significant improvement over the laboratory unit with regard to throughput capacity. In the present work, the entrained flow separator concept will be utilized for developing a proof-of concept (POC) separator that can be scaled-up to commercial size units. To accomplish this, it is necessary to develop a bench-scale separator that can achieve high Btu recoveries while maintaining the high degree of separation efficiencies. It is the objective of the present investigation to develop an efficient separator by studying the mechanisms of triboelectrification and investigating better ways of separating the charged particles. An important criterion for developing efficient separators is that they not only provide high separation efficiencies but also have high throughput capacities, which are essential ingredients for successful commercialization.

  5. Removal of organic contaminants from coal conversion process condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Luthy, R.G.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate treatment characteristics of a phenolic coal gasification process wastewater in which major treatment steps included solvent extraction with methylisobutyl ketone for phenol recovery and steam stripping for ammonia removal, followed by either activated sludge (AS) or powdered activated carbon-activated sludge (PAC/AS) processing. The study showed that solvent extracted wastewater did not require dilution prior to biological treatment; also, solvent extraction provided for lower effluent COD, TOC and colour for either AS or PAC/AS treatment, with the latter process showing better removal for these constituents. Activated sludge effluent showed favourable granular activated carbon adsorption characteristics, and lime-soda softening was demonstrated with PAC/AS effluent.

  6. Hydrogen production from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

  7. Investigation of operating variables in the fine coal dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Illinois basin coals contain minerals, including pyrite, which are finely disseminated in micron-size particles. To liberate these mineral matters from the coal matrix, an ultra-fine grinding operation is required, followed by a wet physical cleaning process, such as column flotation. However, the resulting product possesses large surface areas that conventional dewatering techniques cannot perform effectively, and this creates transportation, storage and handling problems at utility plants. To take full advantage of these cleaning technologies, a new dewatering and coal consolidation method must be developed at the downstream end of the deep coal-cleaning process. Following an initial study at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), briquetting was chosen to perform the dual purpose of dewatering and consolidating the fine coal. A bitumen-based emulsion, Orimulsion, proved to be an effective binder and dewatering agent in the briquetting process that assisted in the expulsion of water from the fine coal.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-07-01

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Three major topics are reported: (1) Feed coals and process oils form Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 259 was operated in the catalytic/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. Feed coals were conventionally cleaned and deep cleaned coal from the Ireland Mine (Pittsburgh seam). The catalyst used in both reactors was Shell 324 for most of the run; Amocat IC was used for start-up and (unstable) period A. (2) A special set of samples from Wilsonville Runs 258 and 259 was analyzed to provide clues for the cause of interstage deposition problems during Run 258, which was operated with subbituminous coal. (3) Eight technical sites were visited to provide input to the Analytical Needs Assessment and to refine ideas for proposed research under the Participants Program. The site visits are summarized. 11 refs., 18 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  10. Processing of the foots from the low-temperature carbonization of Cheremkhovo coals

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, E.G.; Zayurskaya, L.M.; Zotova, O.V.

    1983-01-01

    A technological scheme is proposed for the complex processing of the foots from the low-temperature carbonization of Cheremkhovo coals which ensures the maximum extraction of liquid fractions from them and the creation of a waste-free technology.

  11. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Kang, Chia-Chen C. (Princeton, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  12. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  13. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevyrev, Sergei; Bogomolov, Aleksandr; Alekssev, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  14. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  15. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    It is the objective of the present project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center and test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to developed based on (1) the charge characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel online tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech, and (2) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design, which has three subtasks, Charger Tests, Separator Tests, and Final POC Design. Work accomplished during the current reporting period pertains to the first two subtasks.

  16. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  17. Formulation and evaluation of highway transportation fuels from shale and coal oils: project identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Second annual report, March 20, 1980-March 19, 1981. [Broadcut fuel mixtures of petroleum, shale, and coal products

    SciTech Connect

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Project work is reported for the formulation and testing of diesel and broadcut fuels containing components from petroleum, shale oil, and coal liquids. Formulation of most of the fuels was based on refinery modeling studies in the first year of the project. Product blends were prepared with a variety of compositions for use in this project and to distribute to other, similar research programs. Engine testing was conducted in a single-cylinder CLR engine over a range of loads and speeds. Relative performance and emissions were determined in comparison with typical petroleum diesel fuel. With the eight diesel fuels tested, it was found that well refined shale oil products show only minor differences in engine performance and emissions which are related to differences in boiling range. A less refined coal distillate can be used at low concentrations with normal engine performance and increased emissions of particulates and hydrocarbons. Higher concentrations of coal distillate degrade both performance and emissions. Broadcut fuels were tested in the same engine with variable results. All fuels showed increased fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions. The increase was greater with higher naphtha content or lower cetane number of the blends. Particulates and nitrogen oxides were high for blends with high 90% distillation temperatures. Operation may have been improved by modifying fuel injection. Cetane and distillation specifications may be advisable for future blends. Additional multi-cylinder and durability testing is planned using diesel fuels and broadcut fuels. Nine gasolines are scheduled for testing in the next phase of the project.

  18. Fine coal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Mishra; R. R. Klimpel

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a survey of the current technology in fine coal processing, covering the major processing options available. The effective utilization of the nation's coal reserves depends on the production of a high quality, low cost product. As a result of overall efforts to curtail mining costs, modern trends toward intensive mechanization and non-selective mining have increased the quantities

  19. Pelletization studies of ultra-fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.H.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Handling of fine coal is an importance issue for coal as well as the utility industry. Reconstitution in the form of a pellet or briquette would be desirable if it could be done economically. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of three binders e.g., asphalt-emulsion, corn starch and Brewex, in forming pellets of ultra-fine clean coal. It was fond that asphalt emulsion and corn starch were not effective binders for ultra-fine clean coal, however, Brewex provided excellent quality of pellets, which exceeded all the minimum quality requirements of coal pellets.

  20. Milliken Clean Coal Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-15

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal-utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING PRACTICES FOR SULFUR REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the current level of coal cleaning activity in the U.S. n 1983, the U.S. DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA) expanded coal data collection activities to include information on the extent and type of coal preparation conducted in ea...

  2. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a PCB feed sample collected from Central Illinois Power`s Newton Power Station using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in a circuitry arrangement. The PCB feed sample having a low ash content of about 12% was further cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 90% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Microcel column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  3. Physical coal cleaning for utility boiler SOâ emission control. Final report Jul-Dec 77

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Hall; L. Hoffman; J. Hoffman; R. A. Schilling

    1978-01-01

    The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Various alternatives to physical coal cleaning (such as chemical coal cleaning, coal conversion, and fluidized-bed combustion) are also examined with respect to

  4. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 3.2: Screen novel catalyst systems; Task 3.3:, Evaluation of the preferred catalyst system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal-Derived Syngas`` experimental evaluations of the one-step synthesis of alternative fuels were carried out. The objective of this work was to develop novel processes for converting coal-derived syngas to fuels or fuel additives. Building on a technology base acquired during the development

  5. Coal cleaning test facility campaign report No. 2: Robinson seam subbituminous coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Parkinson; E. R. Torak

    1985-01-01

    Campaign Report No. 2, issued by EPRI's Coal Cleaning Test Facility (CCTF), presents the cleanability characteristics of Robinson Seam coal. In May, 1983, Central Illinois Light Company (CILCO) donated 300 tons of this Montana subbituminous coal to EPRI. CILCO was burning uncleaned Robinson Seam coal at their E.D. Edwards Station to comply with an Illinois state SOâ emission limit of

  6. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. PMID:6389110

  7. Developing anthracite coal water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmon, F.J.; Keller, D.V.; Marino, J.; Keller, D.S.; Ask, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Public law has directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal, particularly anthracite, at steam generating facilities. This study evaluates the feasibility of producing slurry fuel from anthracite coal and examines the combustion characteristics of the anthracite/water fuel slurry. The T-Process, a proprietary process developed by Otisca Industries, Ltd., Syracuse, NY, was used to produce anthracite-based coal water slurries for testing and combustion. Although it is feasible to manufacture anthracite water fuel, the slurries used in this research would not burn well without substantial amounts of natural gas cofiring. Stable combustion with reduced support fuel can probably be achieved by chemically or physically modifying the factors that affect combustion. Additional research to determine the differences between anthracite and bituminous slurries, to increase the residence time for anthracite slurries, and to manufacture slurries with oil rather than water needs to be conducted to help the DOD meet anthracite purchase/consumption targets. Coal, Combustion, Coal water fuel, Anthracite coal.

  8. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Hogg, R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Fonseca, A. (CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Most of the coal presently used by the utility industry is cleaned at preparation plants employing wet processes. Water, while being the mainstay of coal washing, is also one of the least desirable components in the final product. Coarse coal (+3/4 inch) is easily dewatered to a 3--4 percent moisture level using conventional vibrating screens and centrifuges. However, the main problem of excess product moisture occurs in fine (minus 28 mesh) coal and refuse. Even though fines may constitute only about 20 percent of a contemporary cleaning plant feed, they account for two-thirds of the product surface moisture. This high surface moisture offsets many of the benefits of coal cleaning, and can easily undercut the ongoing programs on recovery of fine clean coal from refuse as well as producing an ultra-fine super clean coal fuel. Currently, most of the coal preparation plants utilize vacuum disk type technology for dewatering of the fine coal, providing dewatered product containing about 25 percent moisture. The coal industry would prefer to have a product moisture in the range of 10 to 15 percent, thereby avoiding thermal drying of coal. Hyperbaric filtration. has shown potential in lowering moisture in fine coal to about 20 percent level. This project will develop fundamental information on particle-liquid interaction during hyperbaric filtration and apply the knowledge in developing optimum conditions for the pilot plant testing of the hyperbaric filter system.

  9. Regeneration of hydrofluoric acid and selective separation of Si(IV) in a process for producing ultra-clean coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Steel; John W. Patrick

    2004-01-01

    A technique for selectively separating approximately 65 wt.% of the Si(IV) in coal has been developed. The technique first uses aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) to react with aluminosilicates and quartz to form fluoride complexed Al and Si species in solution. Aluminium cations, in the form of Al(NO3)3, are then added to the solution to complex fluoride as AlF2+ and hydrolyse

  10. Catalytic oxidation process cleans volatile organics from exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J.

    1994-06-27

    Unsteady-state catalytic oxidation is the basis of a technology now becoming available in the US for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from industrial exhaust streams. The technology originated in Russia and is being developed for the US market by Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems, St. Louis. At least 149 of the 189 pollutants identified by EPA are VOCs. EPA estimates that the initial cost to industry for equipment to remove the hazardous materials will be about $350 million. The expected annual maintenance bill to treat the major pollution sources is about $182 million. Catalytic oxidizers are applicable to most, but not all, VOC removal applications. The advantages in most cases are VOC removal efficiencies of at least 99%, half the energy requirement of other systems, low operating temperatures, stable operation with variable flow rates and VOC concentrations, and low capital and operating costs.

  11. Process development for production of coal/sorbent agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a process flow diagram to economically produce a clean-burning fuel from fine Illinois coal. To accomplish this, the process of pelletizing fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, was investigated. Carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide (in the presence of moisture) to produce a bonding matrix of calcium carbonate, was investigated as a method for improving pellet quality and reducing binder costs. Proper moisture level is critical to allow the reaction to occur. If too much moisture is present in a pellet, the pore spaces are filled and carbon dioxide must diffuse through the water to reach the calcium hydroxide and react. This severely slows or stops the reaction. The ideal situation is when there is just enough moisture to coat the calcium hydroxide allowing for the reaction to proceed. The process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-scale as a method of hardening iron ore pellets (Imperato, 1966). Two potential combustion options are being considered for the coal/calcium hydroxide pellets: fluidized bed combustors and industrial stoker boilers.

  12. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kehoe

    1992-01-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge,

  13. Testing of advanced liquefaction concepts in HTI Run ALC-1: Coal cleaning and recycle solvent treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P. [CONSOL, Inc., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.] [CONSOL, Inc., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Derbyshire, F.L.; Givens, E.N. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Hu, J.; Lee, T.L.K. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States); Miller, J.E.; Stephens, H.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peluso, M. [LDP Associates, Hamilton Square, NJ (United States)] [LDP Associates, Hamilton Square, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Liquefaction Concepts Program to promote the development of new and emerging technology that has potential to reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by direct coal liquefaction. Laboratory research performed by researchers at CAER, CONSOL, Sandia, and LDP Associates in Phase I is being developed further and tested at the bench scale at HTI. HTI Run ALC-1, conducted in the spring of 1996, was the first of four planned tests. In Run ALC-1, feed coal ash reduction (coal cleaning) by oil agglomeration, and recycle solvent quality improvement through dewaxing and hydrotreatment of the recycle distillate were evaluated. HTI`s bench liquefaction Run ALC-1 consisted of 25 days of operation. Major accomplishments were: 1) oil agglomeration reduced the ash content of Black Thunder Mine coal by 40%, from 5.5% to 3.3%; 2) excellent coal conversion of 98% was obtained with oil agglomerated coal, about 3% higher than the raw Black Thunder Mine coal, increasing the potential product yield by 2-3% on an MAF coal basis; 3) agglomerates were liquefied with no handling problems; 4) fresh catalyst make-up rate was decreased by 30%, with no apparent detrimental operating characteristics, both when agglomerates were fed and when raw coal was fed (with solvent dewaxing and hydrotreating); 5) recycle solvent treatment by dewaxing and hydrotreating was demonstrated, but steady-state operation was not achieved; and 6) there was some success in achieving extinction recycle of the heaviest liquid products. Performance data have not been finalized; they will be available for full evaluation in the new future.

  14. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  15. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  16. Process for improving low quality coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, M.

    1985-04-02

    A process for improving low quality coal is disclosed, comprising subjecting a crushed low quality coal to a press treatment and a heat treatment. The process of the invention permits the production of improved coal from low quality coal, said improved coal having a high mechanical strength and a high density, and so forth, which realize the ease of handling in storage and transportation without a danger of spontaneous combustion.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies -- froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 20, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2}, per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals y advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is a quarterly report which provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period. A brief description of the work done prior to this report is also provided.

  18. The possibility of using clean coal in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.K.; Khairudin, M.Y. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Perai (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    The Asia-Pacific region will see tremendous growth in demand for electricity in the next few decades and will be an important market for generation equipment and associated services. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries alone anticipate additional power demand of more than 37,000 NM by the year 2000, with an estimated total expenditure of US $85 billion. Trends in recent years show natural gas-fired combined cycle in plants to be fast gaining in popularity over conventional thermal plants. The advantages include increased primary energy conversion efficiency coupled with significant reduction in pollutant emissions, shorter construction times, faster loading rates and reduced staffing requirements. In the computer model used for generation capacity expansion planning in Tenaga Nasional Berhad, clean coal technology models are not used as candidate plants. In the opinion of the authors, this results from a lack of comprehensive data regarding the operating characteristics and the capital and operating costs of such plants, making it difficult to compare to more proven technologies. We also believe that the economics of such plants have not been sufficiently demonstrated at full scale. The authors believe, however, that in the future, coal-fired combined cycle plants will offer enormous possibilities in Malaysia as an urgency to develop this form of clean coal technology in other countries will assure widespread commercial realization of the technology. The anticipated increase in electricity demand brings to the region many business opportunities. As an example, gas turbine component parts, which are used both in conventional systems and clean coal systems, initially can be locally manufactured with technology transfer from original equipment manufacturers; these technology transfers can progress into fall-licenses to local manufacturers.

  19. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

    1992-01-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

  20. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

    1992-12-31

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

  1. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake is subjected to pressure for a short time, the free water present is released from the filter cake. Laboratory studies have shown that depending on the coal type a filter cake containing about 15% moisture could be obtained using the two-stage filtration technique. It was also noted that applying intermittent breaks in vacuum force during cake formation, which disturbed the cake structure, helped in removing moisture from the filter cakes. In this project a novel approach of cleaning coal using column flotation was also developed. With this approach the feed capacity of the column is increased significantly, and the column was also able to recover coarser size coal which usually gets lost in the process. The outcome of the research benefits the coal industry, utility industry, and indirectly the general public. The benefits can be counted in terms of clean energy, cleaner environment, and lower cost power.

  2. Syngas redox (SGR) process to produce hydrogen from coal derived syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Puneet Gupta; Luis G. Velazquez-Vargas; Liang-Shih Fan

    2007-01-01

    The syngas redox (SGR) process to produce hydrogen from coal derived syngas is described. The process involves reduction of a metal oxide to metallic form with syngas and subsequent regeneration with steam to generate hydrogen in a cyclic operation. Metal oxides of Ni, Cu, Cd, Co, Mn, Sn, and Fe were evaluated for this process based upon thermodynamic equilibrium limitations.

  3. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project, Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Assessment has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate environmental issues associated with a project that will be cost-shared by DOE and private industry under the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program. The proposed action is a coke oven gas cleaning technology demonstration project proposed to be installed and operated at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Sparrows Point Plant, in Baltimore County, Maryland. Alternatives to the proposed action, which include no action, delayed action, and the use of alternate sites or technologies, are discussed. Three basic steel manufacturing operations are carried out at the Sparrows Point Plant: (1) pyrolytic conversion of coal to coke (carbon) in coke ovens; (2) combination of coke, iron ore, and limestone in a blast furnace to produce iron; and (3) refinement of iron to steel in oxygen or open-hearth furnaces. The Coke Works at the plant consists of three operational coke batteries and two Coal Chemicals plants. Bituminous coal is heated in a coke oven in the absence of air to remove its volatile components. About 70% of the coal feed is converted to coke; the remaining 30% consists of by-product gases and vapors. These by-product gases are treated in the Coal Chemicals plants to recover usable and marketable products, including coke oven gas, which is used to fuel the ovens and furnaces within the plant. The analysis concluded that no significant, environmental impacts would result from the proposed project. 12 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, John M.

    2010-01-01

    All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

  6. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  7. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  8. Process for coal liquefaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. J. Beukes; L. J. Dry; C. Kleynjan

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the liquefaction of coal. The comminuted coal is slurried in a solvent or pasting oil and digested, normally under hydrogen pressure, e.g. of 50 to 250 atmospheres partial pressure, under catalytic conditions, at temperatures between about 380 and 500°C., preferably 400 to 470°C. And residence times between about 10 and 100 minutes. Solvent or

  9. Emissions Resulting from the Full-Scale Cofiring of Pelletized Refuse-Derived Fuel and Coal 

    E-print Network

    Ohlsson, O. O.; Daugherty, K.; Venables, B.

    1988-01-01

    Full-scale cofiring tests of binder-enhanced pellets of densified, refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur coal were conducted during June and July of 1987 in Boiler #5 at Argonne National Laboratory. These tests were conducted with industry...

  10. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1997-01-15

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {micro}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In this investigation a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation was studied. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles and to use froth flotation to separate these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units will be relatively large agglomerates (30--50 {micro}m in size) rather than fine coal particles (1--10 {micro}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is demonstrated in this study that the process is very sensitive to fluctuations in operating parameters. It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases as well as the agitation conditions in order to promote selectivity. Both kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors play a critical role in determining overall system response.

  11. Coal and coal mine drainage. [Industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olem

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of the effects of coal mining on hydrology and stream water quality is presented. The technology for abatement and control is considered. Regulatory activities are also discussed. Environmental assessments of acid mine drainage, coal cleaning processes, coal slurry pipelines and effluents from coal storage piles are given. Included are 67 references.

  12. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Analysis of coal-derived synthetic crude from HRI CTSL Run CC-15 and HRI Run CMSL-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Kim, J.; Shay, J. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (US DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89883), IIT Research Institute, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research applied a suite of petroleum inspection tests to two direct coal liquefactions net product oils produced in two direct coal liquefaction processing runs. Two technical reports, authored by NIPER, are presented here. The following assessment briefly describes the two coal liquefaction runs and highlights the major findings of the project. It generally is concluded that the methods used in these studies can help define the value of liquefaction products and the requirements for further processing. The application of these methods adds substantially to our understanding of the coal liquefaction process and the chemistry of coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract.

  13. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  14. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry ultra-fine coal (DC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. (VC)

  15. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  16. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  17. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  18. Chemical cleaning of coal by molten caustic leaching after pretreatment by low-temperature devolatilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D. Chriswell; Surender M. Kaushik; Navin D. Shah; Richard Markuszewski

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of coal by devolatization at temperatures ranging from about 420.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for from about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes before leaching with molten caustic leads to a significant reduction in carbonate formation, greatly reducing the cost of cleaning coal on a per ton basis.

  19. Converting Waste into Clean Renewable Fuel

    E-print Network

    Converting Waste into Clean Renewable Fuel Presented at TechRealization August 27th, 2008 #12 and development located in Richland, WA Executive team headquartered in Bend, OR Exclusive license for Plasma ­ Waste and biomass gasification ­ Standard cleaning of synthesis gas ­ Ultra-deep cleaning of synthesis

  20. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  1. Development of mixed conducting membranes for clean coal energy delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Leo; Shaomin Liu; Joăo C. Diniz da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Mixed conducting membranes can be used for the separation of oxygen from air in both coal gasification and oxy-fuel power plants. In this review paper, the basic perovskite and non-perovskite structures, composition, properties and performance are addressed. Two typical perovskite materials, BSCF and LSCF, show promise in industrial applications as their oxygen fluxes are at least one order of magnitude

  2. Coal conversion and synthetic-fuel production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, R.; Atkins, W. T.; Bass, R. M.; Dascher, R.; Dunkin, J.; Luce, N.; Seward, W.; Warren, D.

    1980-01-01

    Report evaluates potential coal gasification and synthetic-fuel production technologies for 1985 to 1990. Book includes overview of present and future technical and economic potential, ways of evaluating gasification facility designs, discussion of promising processes, characterization of potential markets, and list of available gasification systems.

  3. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  4. Chemical cleaning of reverse osmosis membranes used for treating wastewater from a rolling mill process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Jun Jung; Yoshiaki Kiso; Toshiro Yamada; Toshiyuki Shibata; Tae-Gwan Lee

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of fouling material and the effects of chemical cleaning were examined for a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, which was used for the treatment of wastewater from a rolling mill process in the steel industry. The bulk foulant accumulated in the membrane module consisted mainly of CaSO4·2H2O, and the organic contaminants were contained at a very low level. The

  5. Granuflow and Mulled coal: Alternative processes for fine coal recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.

    1999-07-01

    Granuflow and Mulled Coal were developed in parallel to enhance the ability to recover and process wet coal fines. There are some similarities in the processes; however, the end products are quite different. This paper will compare the properties of the two products prepared from the same coal and identify the unique properties of each. Criteria for selecting between the two processes, including cost, will be discussed.

  6. Western countries' neglect of clean coal research criticized

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, D.

    1986-03-14

    Western governments have been criticized by the Paris-based International Energy Agency for not spending enough money on research into ways of reducing the environmental damage caused by burning coal to produce electricity. In the report on the energy research policies of its 20 member-countries - which include all the major Western industrialized nations apart from France - the agency says that there is still a substantial disparity between the declared policy of many governments of giving greatly increased emphasis to environmentally acceptable ways of using coal, and the modest sums devoted nationally to developing the appropriate technology. In particular, it points out that research into the use of coal to produce energy receives about the same amount of money as research into renewable energy sources - in each case, about 9% of the overall energy research budget of the IEA countries - despite the great difference in the present and short- to medium-term future contributions from these two broad energy options. ''Continuation of this situation is bound to erode the credibility of the recent re-endorsement by (IEA) Energy Ministers of a more vigorous drive towards the clean use of coal,'' the report says.

  7. Highly active catalysts from inexpensive raw materials for coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Ohtsuka; Kenji Asami

    1997-01-01

    The present review article focuses on novel methods of converting inexpensive raw materials to active catalysts for low-temperature coal gasification, which can produce clean fuels and valuable feedstock with high thermal efficiency. Precipitation methods using NH3, urea, and Ca(OH)2 make it possible to prepare active, Cl-free iron catalysts on brown coals from an aqueous solution of FeCl3 as the major

  8. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  9. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  10. Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. Previously it has been decided that corn starch would be used as binder and a roller-and-die mill would be used for pellet manufacture. A quality starch binder has been identified and tested. To potentially lower binder costs, a starch that costs about 50% of the high quality starch was tested. Results indicate that the lower cost starch will not lower binder cost because more is required to produce a comparable quality pellet. Also, a petroleum in water emulsion was evaluated as a potential binder. The compound seemed to have adhesive properties but was found to be a poor binder. Arrangements have been made to collect a waste slurry from the mine previously described.

  11. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  12. Gas turbine combustion of a minimally cleaned, coal-derived low-BTU gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Blanton; D. P. Smith

    1985-01-01

    As part of the joint GE\\/DoE Water-Cooled Components Test Program,Âą a series of tests were performed involving the combustion of a minimally cleaned low-Btu coal gas in a pressurized gas turbine simulator. The fuel gas was produced in a 1-ton\\/hr advanced fixed-bed gasifier using Illinois number6 coal, and filtered of particulate in a full-pressure, full-temperature cyclone separator. The resulting product

  13. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOEpatents

    Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1988-05-31

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Kenneth J. (Floreffe, PA); Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

    1989-01-01

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

  15. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium: Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-23

    In the dewatering project, two different approaches are taken. One approach involves displacing the water on the surface of coal by a hydrophobic substance that can be readily recovered and recycled. This novel concept, referred to as the Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process, is based on improved understanding of the surface chemistry of dewatering. The other approach is to use disposable dewatering substances in mechanical dewatering. The objectives of the proposed work are (1) to test the HD process on a variety of coals from the Appalachian coal fields, and (2) to identify suitable dewatering reagents that would enable mechanical dewatering to reduce the moisture to the levels satisfactory to electrical utilities and other coal users. The objective of the spiral separation project is to use computer modeling to develop better, more efficient spiral designs for coal cleaning. The fully-developed model will predict spiral performance based on variations in spiral profile, flow rate, and pitch. Specific goals are to: (1) design spirals capable of making separations at a specific gravity of 1.5, and (2) broaden the size range at which spirals make effective separations.

  16. A novel process for preparation of active carbon from sapropelitic coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai V. Bodoev; Rene Gruber; Vladimir A. Kucherenko; Jean-Michel Guet; Tat'anya Khabarova; Nathalie Cohaut; Olivier Heintz; Nadejda N. Rokosova

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is the preparation of active carbons starting from sapropelitic coals. Firstly, a traditional route of manufacturing, coking and activation (820°C) was carried out. The specific area (BET) of the activated semicokes of six sapropelitic coal samples varied from a few square meters to about five hundred (for Taimylir coal). Secondly, using Taimylir coal, a novel

  17. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  18. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H?S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H?S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N? adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N?-H?S-H?-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N?-H?S-Hg and N?-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H? and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N?-H?S-Hg and N?-Hg atmospheres. PMID:25079999

  19. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

  20. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  1. Compression ignition characteristics of coal slurry fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brehob

    1985-01-01

    Slow and medium speed compression ignition engines are devices with the potential for conversion to coal fueling. Recent work focuses on coal slurried in a liquid carrier. Engine studies on coal slurry to date have investigated the slurries' wear, thermal efficiency, and injection performance. Previously lacking information on the compression ignition characteristics of coal slurries, specifically, the ignition delay times

  2. Potential supply of synthetic fuels from Alaskan hydroelectric power and coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Steinberg; J. R. Powell

    1981-01-01

    It is proposed to develop and utilize the large potential hydroelectric power resources in Alaska to produce hydrogen by the electrolytic decomposition of water and to combine the hydrogen with the large Alaskan coal reserves to produce synthetic liquid and gaseous fuels. It is estimated that in this manner, as much as 1.8 million bbls\\/day of gasoline or 6.2 billion

  3. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  4. Combination of thermochemical recuperative coal gasification cycle and fuel cell for power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prapan Kuchonthara; Sankar Bhattacharya; Atsushi Tsutsumi

    2005-01-01

    An integrated power generation cycle combining thermochemical recuperation, brown coal gasification and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was proposed based on the concept of thermochemical recuperative energy. Process simulation combining the coal gasifier, gas turbine cycle, and SOFC module was conducted using the ASPEN Plus process simulation tool. The simulation indicated that the cycle efficiency increases from 39.5% (HHV)

  5. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  6. Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal mines. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Ho, Ken [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach.

  7. Multijet atmospheric glow plasma cleaning of ablation debris from micro-via drilling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eung Suok Lee; Hae Il Park; Hong Koo Baik; Se-Jong Lee; Kie Moon Song; Myung Keun Hwang; Chang Su Huh

    2002-01-01

    We devised a multi-jet atmospheric glow plasma system and successfully verified a possibility to ignite and maintain an atmospheric pressure discharge using helium, argon or a mixture of helium and oxygen gas. In this study, as an alternative method to the conventional wet cleaning process, the multi-jet atmospheric glow plasma system was applied to clean the ablation debris inside the

  8. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2006-01-31

    Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  9. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

    2006-01-02

    Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  10. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO[sub 2] removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  11. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  12. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried

  13. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the production of economically significant amounts of ethyl and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, from coal is disclosed wherein coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500.degree. C. to 1100.degree. C. at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CARBON RECOVERY SYSTEMS FROM FINE COAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Chugh; D. Patil; A. Patwardhan; R. Q. Honaker; B. K. Parekh; D. Tao; Latif Khan

    2000-01-01

    The project involves the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly system for the economical recovery of carbon from fine-coal refuse ponds. The project will be conducted in two phases. Phase I was involved in the development and evaluation of process equipment and techniques to be used in carbon recovery, product dewatering and reconstitution, and refuse management. Phase II will integrate

  15. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))

    1987-05-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  1. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  2. Upgrading Upper Kittanning Seam coal quality to improve power plant performance: Coal cleaning test facility campaign report No. 6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G Moorhead; E. R. Torak; R. J. Jenko; J. R. Cavalet

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive Coal Cleanability Characterization to assess the effects of improved coal quality on boiler performance is presented. In 1984, Boston Edison donated Upper Kittanning Seam coal (mined in Nicholas County, West Virginia) for cleaning in commercial-scale equipment at EPRI's Coal Cleaning Test Facility (CCIF). This high volatile A bituminous coal is quite amenable to both water-based and heavy-medium coal

  3. Strategic considerations for clean coal R&D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. McMullan; B. C. Williams; S McCahey

    2001-01-01

    While present interest in coal-fired power generation is centred on the developing countries, with new natural-gas-fired power stations predominating in the developed world, in the long term coal will return to being the fuel of choice for power generation for much of the world. To minimise the global impact of coal use it is essential, therefore, that coal technologies are

  4. TOXECON clean coal demonstration for mercury and multi-pollutant control at the Presque Isle Power Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Derenne; Paul Sartorelli; Jean Bustard; Robin Stewart; Sharon Sjostrom; Paul Johnson; Michael McMillian; Fred Sudhoff; Ramsay Chang

    2009-01-01

    We Energies and DOE, under a Clean Coal Power Initiative program, are working together to design, install, evaluate and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON™ air pollution control process as an integrated emissions control system for mercury and particulate matter from three 90 MW units at the Presque Isle Power Plant located in Marquette, Michigan.The process involves the injection of activated carbon between

  5. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  6. CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY: AN ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the paper focuses on past (since 1920) and current coal use and pollutant emissions in the U.S., it also discusses where the U.S. may be going in terms of pollutant emissions over the next several decades. Conclusions of this look at coal use include the fact that increa...

  7. Coal char reactivity as a fuel selection criterion for coal-based hydrogen-rich gas production in the process of steam gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Smoli?ski

    2011-01-01

    The fuel’s reactivity can be defined as a parameter determining its processability in thermochemical processes applied to convert them into energy and\\/or energy carriers. It depends on many factors, like chemical composition and physical properties of a fuel as well as process parameters. As such it may provide important information on the process results in terms of product output and

  8. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  9. Jet fuels from synthetic crudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the technical problems in the conversion of a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or a coal synthetic crude oil into a suitable aviation turbine fuel. Three syncrudes were used, one from shale and two from coal, chosen as representative of typical crudes from future commercial production. The material was used to produce jet fuels of varying specifications by distillation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Attention is given to process requirements, hydrotreating process conditions, the methods used to analyze the final products, the conditions for shale oil processing, and the coal liquid processing conditions. The results of the investigation show that jet fuels of defined specifications can be made from oil shale and coal syncrudes using readily available commercial processes.

  10. Concentration and size measurements of fly ash particles from the clean gas side of a pressurised pulverised coal combustion test facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Meyer; H. Umhauer; K. Reuter; A. Schiel; G. Kasper; M. Förster

    2008-01-01

    One of the most significant problems related to pressurised pulverised coal combustion (PPCC) is the separation of the fly ash at operating conditions (gas temperatures of 1400 °C and a pressure of (up to) 16 bar). To determine the efficiency of an advanced multi-stage separation device, which was made to deliver clean gas (upstream of a turbine) with a required maximum particle

  11. The impact of leachate from clean coal technology waste on the stability of clay and synthetic liners. Topical report, March 1, 1995March 31, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    This project was developed to provide design criteria for landfill disposal sites used for sludges such as those generated using the Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) tested at the Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe Power Plant. The CCT wastes used were produced at the Arapahoe Plant Unit No. 4, which was equipped with the integrated dry NOâ\\/SOâ emissions control system

  12. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this system and is justified with a thermodynamic analysis and an experimental determination of the reaction rate law.

  13. New Clean Coal Cycle Optimized Using Pinch Technology 

    E-print Network

    Rossiter, A. P.; O'Donnell, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    transport reaction technology, developed originally for Fluid Catalytic Cracking plants, is used in the coal conversion steps; and pulverized limestone is circulated with the coal to capture the sulfur that is released during this process. Both gas turbines...

  14. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF OTM SYNGAS PROCESS AND TESTING OF SYNGAS-DERIVED ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS IN DIESEL ENGINES AND FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. (Skip) Robinson; James P. Meagher; Ravi Prasad

    2001-10-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1 through September 15, 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1--materials development; Task 2--composite element development; Task 3--tube fabrication; Task 4--reactor design and process optimization; Task 5--catalyst development; Task 6--P-1 operation; Task 8--fuels and engine testing; and Task 10--project management. OTM benchmark material, LCM1, exceeds the commercial oxygen flux target and was determined to be sufficiently robust to carry on process development activities. Work will continue on second-generation OTM materials that will satisfy commercial life targets. Three fabrication techniques for composite elements were determined to be technically feasible. These techniques will be studied and a lead manufacturing process for both small and large-scale elements will be selected in the next Budget Period. Experiments in six P-0 reactors, the long tube tester (LTT) and the P-1 pilot plant were conducted. Significant progress in process optimization was made through both the experimental program and modeling studies of alternate reactor designs and process configurations. Three tailored catalyst candidates for use in OTM process reactors were identified. Fuels for the International diesel engine and Nuvera fuel cell tests were ordered and delivered. Fuels testing and engine development work is now underway.

  16. High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  17. Environmentally critical elements in channel and cleaned samples of Illinois coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Ruch, R.R.; Damberger, H.H.; Harvey, R.D.; Steele, J.D.; Ho, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen trace and minor elements that occur in coal are listed among 189 substances identified as 'hazardous air pollutants' (HAPs) in the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. We investigated the occurrence and cleanability of the 16 HAPs in Illinois coals, as a contribution to the discussion about the potential effect of pending environmental regulations on the future use of these coals in power generation. The average ash content of the samples of conventionally cleaned as-shipped coals is about 20% lower than that of standard channel samples. Conventional cleaning reduces the average concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Th in the as-shipped coals by more than 20% relative to channel samples. Thus, basing assessments of health risks from emissions of HAPs during coal combustion on channel samples without appropriate adjustment would overestimate the risk. Additional cleaning by froth-flotation reduces the ash content of finely-ground as-shipped coals by as much as 76% at an 80% combustibles recovery. Although the average froth-flotation cleanability for the majority of HAPs is less than that for ash, the cleanabilities in some individual cases approaches, or even exceeds, the cleanability for ash, depending on the modes of occurrences of the elements. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. First quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1992--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Most of the coal presently used by the utility industry is cleaned at preparation plants employing wet processes. Water, while being the mainstay of coal washing, is also one of the least desirable components in the final product. Coarse coal (+3/4 inch) is easily dewatered to a 3--4 percent moisture level using conventional vibrating screens and centrifuges. However, the main problem of excess product moisture occurs in fine (minus 28 mesh) coal and refuse. Even though fines may constitute only about 20 percent of a contemporary cleaning plant feed, they account for two-thirds of the product surface moisture. This high surface moisture offsets many of the benefits of coal cleaning, and can easily undercut the ongoing programs on recovery of fine clean coal from refuse as well as producing an ultra-fine super clean coal fuel. Currently, most of the coal preparation plants utilize vacuum disk type technology for dewatering of the fine coal, providing dewatered product containing about 25 percent moisture. The coal industry would prefer to have a product moisture in the range of 10 to 15 percent, thereby avoiding thermal drying of coal. Hyperbaric filtration. has shown potential in lowering moisture in fine coal to about 20 percent level. This project will develop fundamental information on particle-liquid interaction during hyperbaric filtration and apply the knowledge in developing optimum conditions for the pilot plant testing of the hyperbaric filter system.

  19. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic aviation kerosene (Syn. Jet-A), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Liquid hydrogen aircraft configurations, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. These aircraft appear viable, particularly for long haul use, where aircraft fueled with coal derived LH2 would consume 9 percent less coal resources than would aircraft fueled with coal derived Syn. Jet-A. Distribution of hydrogen from the point of manufacture to airports may pose problems. Synthetic JET-A would appear to cause fewer concerns to the air transportation industry. Of the three candidate fuels, LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and an aircraft fueled with coal derived LCH4 may provide both the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  20. Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean energy fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1976. [16 references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Spackman; A. Davis; P. L. Walker; H. L. Lovell; R. H. Essenhigh; F. J. Vastola; P. H. Given

    1977-01-01

    Under Facet I, 49 coal samples have been added to the Penn State\\/ERDA Sample Bank. Sixty-six characterized coal samples and 734 sets of analytical data were provided upon request to other agencies. Facet IV-A research on reactor development and operation has led to the construction of a cold model for the flow of gases through the combustion pot. Flow analyses

  1. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The direct coal hydrogenation (Bergius method) has been proposed as the optimum process for liquid fuels production, as distinct by the best hydrogen economy, thus reducing the consumption of need nuclear energy. The present concept allows for simultaneous achievement of a number of aims: production of motor fuels without CO2 emissions (thus without carbon tax) based upon domestic energy carriers — coals, supply of the electricity produced in the nuclear power plant to the national grid to cover the peak demand. Such concept broadens the palette of liquid fuels supply, thus heightens energy safety of the country or e.g. whole of the EU. In an emergency case (for instance — disturbances of gas deliveries) the supply of produced H2 directly to the gas grid is also not excluded too. The performed preliminary cost evaluation indicates that the coal—nuclear symbiont can be well economic. Finally, the most radical option of coal-nuclear alliance is mentioned — the production of liquid fuels in the Fischer—Tropsch process from CO2 as a raw material sequestered from a coal power plant. The latter would use the oxy-combustion technique profiting on the O2 obtained earlier together with H2 what would facilitate the sequestration of CO2 at the plant. Unfortunately, this variant requires for reduction of CO2 to C much more hydrogen, achievable effectively in High Temperature Reactors commercially still unavailable. But on the basis of coal alone great resources — natural, technological and human of the coal sector can be best utilized too. Summarizing: the coal-nuclear synergy is the optimum far-sighted concept of safe development of the EU energy and fuels sector.

  2. Federal coal cleaning research and development program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Jr. Dietz; G. E. Voelker

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Fossil Energy Coal Preparation Research and Development Program has made significant technical accomplishments in the areas of microcharacterization, chemical benefaction, physical benefaction and comminution. These advances are discussed.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-11-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  5. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-11-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-field: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  6. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  7. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  8. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  9. [Alternative fuel vehicles for clean cities]. Final report from the City of Philadelphia Managing Director`s Office

    SciTech Connect

    Hadalski, J.M.

    1995-09-30

    The City of Philadelphia was awarded a grant for the ``development of a Public Information Component for the Clean Cities Program involving alternative fuels usage within the city of Philadelphia and the surrounding counties in the Philadelphia region``. During the summer of 1993, it was felt that the public needed considerable information on the costs, benefits, emission data, conversion information, and infrastructure requirements. Embodied in the 1993 proposal was the notion that a model could be developed within some type of structure charged with the tasks of market introduction of alternative fuels in the Greater Philadelphia area in a concerted, comprehensive way. As originally envisioned, in executing this grant, the City had several objectives in mind. Among these were the following: the organizing of various media events to showcase alternative fuels usage; (2) to begin a networking process with fleet managers in the area; (3) to provide sources of information to fleet managers and others interested in, and concerned with the conversion to alternative fuels; (4) documentation on research and analysis associated with alternative fuels.

  10. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-01-01

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results

  11. Potential liquid-fuel savings from crop residue and high-sulfur coal combustion in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, M.H.; Hitzhusen, F.J.

    1980-09-01

    This paper attempts to compare the liquid fuels consumption of mining and hauling of western coal to Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois where both high sulfur coal and crop residues are abundant, with that of harvesting and hauling of crop residues to coal burning electric utilities. The main objective of this paper is to determine whether or not a blend of coal and crop residues consumes less liquid fuels than a blend of high and low sulfur coal in six high crop residue producing states. The specific objectives are: (1) to estimate the liquid fuel consumption (per ton of coal) of mining and hauling western coal for the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois; (2) to estimate the expected liquid fuel consumption per ton of crop residues (if used as coal supplement) in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois; (3) to compare the total liquid fuel consumption of western and high sulfur coal blend with an equivalent amount of crop residue and high sulfur coal blend (having the same Btu and sulfur content); and (4) to extrapolate some of the results of the analysis of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois to Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa.

  12. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Gieré, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and ?(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The ?(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The ?(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest ?(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  13. A life cycle comparison of electricity from biomass and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1999-07-01

    It has become widely accepted that biomass power offers opportunities for reduced environmental impacts compared to fossil fuel-based systems. Intuitively obvious are the facts that per kilowatt-hour of energy produced, biomass systems will emit less CO{sub 2} and consume less nonrenewable energy. To quantify the magnitude of these and other environmental benefits and drawbacks, life cycle assessments (LCA) on the production of electricity from biomass and coal systems have been performed. Each assessment was conducted in a cradle-to-grave manner to cover all processes necessary for the operation of the power plant, including raw material extraction, feed preparation, transportation, and waste disposal and recycling. Results demonstrate significant differences between the biomass and coal systems. Per kWh of electricity produced, the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by the biomass system is only 4.5% of that emitted by the average coal power plant operating in the US today. This is due to the absorption of CO{sub 2} from the power plant by the growing biomass. The life cycle energy balance of the coal systems is significantly lower than the biomass system because of the consumption of a non-renewable resource. For each unit of energy consumed by the biomass system, almost 16 units of electricity are produced; the average coal system produces only 0.3 units of electricity per unit of energy consumed. Not counting the coal consumed, the net energy produced is still lower than that of the biomass system because of energy used in processes related to flue gas clean-up.

  14. Changes in pressure loss and face velocity of ceramic candle filters caused by reverse cleaning in hot coal gas filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Itoa; T. Tanakaa; S. Kawamurab

    1998-01-01

    Hot coal gas filtration using ceramic candle filters with off-line cleaning showed rapid changes in pressure loss and face velocity during filter cleaning, due to the injection of cleaning gas and the decrease of filtration area. These changes had the capacity to affect facilities which are sensitive to pressure change and filter durability. From this point of view, on-line pulse

  15. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    PubMed

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette sample composition was similar to biomass fuels but had significant advantages due to addition of waste plastics that have high energy content compared to other waste types. Addition of PP and HDPE presented better benefits than addition of PET due to lower softening temperature and lower oxygen content. It should be noted that while harmful emissions such as dioxins, furans and mercury can result from burning plastics, WTE facilities have been able to control these emissions to meet US EPA standards. This research provides a drop-in coal replacement that reduces demand on landfill space and replaces a significant fraction of fossil-derived fuel with a renewable alternative. PMID:25453320

  16. Compression ignition of coal slurry fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Brehob; R. F. Sawyer

    1985-01-01

    Slow- and medium-speed compression ignition engines have the potential for conversion to coal fueling. Previous engine studies on coal slurries have investigated wear, thermal efficiency, and injection performance without evaluating the ignition characteristics. The ignition delay times and conditions for ignition of 45 mass % coal in methanol, diesel No. 2, and water are compared to diesel No. 2 and

  17. Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction

    E-print Network

    and dimethyl ether) by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Gasification of coal pro- duces a synthesis gas synthesis gas back to the synthesis reactor enables a larger fraction of the coal energy to be converted to liquid fuel. Passing synthesis gas once over the synthesis catalyst, with unconverted synthesis gas used

  18. Coal-slurry fuels for environmental benefit

    SciTech Connect

    Trass, O.; Gandolfi, E.

    1999-07-01

    Following a brief review of various coal-slurry fuels (CFS), their history and current status, different plausible approaches for further utilization of such fuels are discussed, with potential environmental benefits highlighted. These include (i) beneficiation of the coal for CSF preparation, preferably as an integral part of the preparation process; (ii) extending the life of tailing ponds if waste coal is used for CSF preparation; (iii) the well-confirmed NO{sub x} reduction potential, and (iv) addition of limestone or other adsorbent additives for sulfur capture during and after combustion. In the last case, limestone addition already to the fuel, rather than post-combustion, provides an economic means of reducing sulfurous emissions. For fluidized bed combustion, particularly when pressurized (PFBC), feeding the fuel as a high-consistency slurry is desirable and, again, limestone addition is beneficial. Further, as calcium utilization is usually quite low, reprocessing and recycling of the FBC combustion ashes is also an attractive possibility. A recent test program with ash recycle in an FBC system, where the Szego Mill{trademark} was used for reprocessing the ash, has yield good results.

  19. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2002-07-30

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  20. Fuel compositions comprising coal-liquid fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Niimi, H.; Nobe, T.; Wada, T.

    1981-01-20

    The invention provides: a fuel composition comprising 100 parts by weight of a coal-liquid fuel mixture and 0.02 to 1.0 part by weight of at least one additive selected from the group consisting of dibenzylidene sorbitol, ditoluylidene sorbitol, tribenzylidene sorbitol, tritoluylidene sorbitol and hydrogenated castor oil; and a fuel composition comprising 100 parts by weight of a coal-liquid fuel mixture, 0.02 to 1.0 part by weight of at least one additive selected from the group consisting of dibenzylidene sorbitol, ditoluylidene sorbitol, tribenzylidene sorbitol, tritoluylidene sorbitol and hydrogenated castor oil, and 1 to 10 parts by weight of water. The composition shows high stability over a prolonged period of time, preventing the separation into layers of the components.

  1. Clean coal reference plants: Atmospheric CFB. Topical report, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rubow, L.N.; Harvey, L.E.; Buchanan, T.L.; Carpenter, R.G.; Hyre, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the US energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which correspond to the center`s areas of technology development, including atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. A measure of success in the CCT program will be the commercial acceptance of the new technologies being demonstrated. The dissemination of project information to potential users is being accomplished by producing a series of reference plant designs which will provide the users a basis for the selection of technologies applicable to their future energy requirements. As a part of DOE`s monitoring and evaluation of the CCT Projects, Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has been contracted to assist in this effort by producing the design of a commercial size Reference Plant, utilizing technologies developed in the CCT Program. This report, the first in a series, describes the design of a 400 MW electric power plant, utilizing an atmospheric pressure, circulating fluidized bed combustor (ACFB) similar to the one which was demonstrated at Colorado-Ute`s Nucla station, funded in Round 1 of the CCT Program. The intent of the reference plant design effort was to portray a commercial power plant with attributes considered important to the utility industry. The logical choice for the ACFB combustor was Pyropower since they supplied the ACFB for the Nucla Project.

  2. Design of coal processing plants in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.C. [James C. Donnelly and Associates, Wangi Wangi, New South Wales (Australia); Hoare, I.C. [CSIRO, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    Planning of a new plant involves investigation of many factors both technical and economic. A wide range of preparation processes and equipment is on offer, but the nature of the coal to be treated and the product specifications usually dictate process selection. Simple or moderately difficult separation can be achieved with jigs, spirals or water washing cyclones. Coal which is difficult to treat, or which has to be separated at partition density lower than 1.5, is normally washed in a heavy medium process. In large plants it is usual to separate the coal into large, small and fine fractions and beneficiate each fraction in a circuit designed to suit the particle size handled. A good deal of information is required to enable design to proceed. It includes: sizing analyses on each coal type; comprehensive washability analysis on each size fraction of each coal type; froth flotation, oil agglomeration and filtration tests; flocculation and sedimentation tests on tailings; site survey plans and geotechnical reports; analysis of ground water and mine water likely to be used in the coal preparation process; compaction tests on rejects and tailings for design of reject emplacements. Basic decisions include plant capacity, hours to be worked each week, the number of products required and specifications for these. The sizes of raw coal and clean coal stockpiles must be determined and the degree of unmanned automation to be adopted for coal handling and selection of stockyard machines. When all these decisions are made, a block type Process Flow Sheet should be prepared in accordance with standard formats as set down by ISO-924 and ISO-561 or AS-1414. This sets out the basic processes and solids flow rates.

  3. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

  4. Healy clean coal project. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

  5. The influence of surface phenomena on the dewatering of fine clean coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Singh

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents results of experimental work carried out to study the role of surface active agents in the dewatering of fine clean coal. The fundamental phenomena which determine their mode of action are examined, and the mechanism of surfactant-enhanced dewatering is investigated in terms of the surface chemical phenomena and the physical processes involved in the dewatering. The performance

  6. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  7. Underground coal gasification: A new clean coal utilization technique for India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Khadse; Mohammed Qayyumi; Sanjay Mahajani; Preeti Aghalayam

    2007-01-01

    Energy demand of India is continuously increasing. Coal is the major fossil fuel in India and continues to play a pivotal role in the energy sector. India has relatively large reserves of coal (253 billion tonnes) compared to crude oil (728 million tonnes) and natural gas (686 billion cubic meters). Coal meets about 60% of the commercial energy needs and

  8. The proceedings of the 23rd international technical conference on coal utilization and fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sakkestad, B.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Advanced combustion systems; Alternative fuels; Coal liquefaction; New strategies for coal to accommodate climate change and deregulation; International highlights; Combustion by-product utilization; Co-firing; Flue gas treatment; Low NOx burners; CO{sub 2} mitigation; Power plant upgrades; Latin American coal perspective; Coal fines utilization; Upgraded coal for the power industry; Hot gas particulate cleanup; Coal conversion; Hydraulics and transportation; Coal briquetting and coal beneficiation; Air toxics; Materials and equipment; and Coal-water fuels preparation. 104 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  9. Application of sonic energy to caustic cleaning of coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Akhtar Hussain Zaidi

    1997-01-01

    The combined effect of sonic energy and sodium hydroxide on the desulphurisation of different high sulphur and high ash content coals has been investigated in the temperature range from ambient to 60°C and at atmospheric pressure. The sonication of coal samples led to a maximum reduction of 59 wt.% in total sulphur in a low rank coal, while 13 to

  10. Precombustion Cleaning of Coal By Triboelectric Separation of Minerals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVE TRIGWELL; KEVIN B. TENNAL; MALAY K. MAZUMDER; DAVID A. LINDQUIST

    2003-01-01

    In one method of electrostatic beneficiation, pulverized coal is tribocharged by contact with electrically grounded copper. Coal maceral and mineral particles charge with positive and negative polarities, respectively. The charged particles are passed through a separator consisting of two plate electrodes, across which a high voltage is applied, and the positively charged coal particles are separated from the negatively charged

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO[sub x] combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  14. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  15. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  16. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  17. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 2.2: Definition of preferred catalyst system; Task 2.3: Process variable scans on the preferred catalyst system; Task 2.4: Life-test on the preferred catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO{sub 2} removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  18. Combustion studies of coal-derived solid fuels. Part IV. Correlation of ignition temperatures from thermogravimetry and free-floating experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of TG as an efficient and practical method to characterize the combustion properties of fuels used in large-scale combustors is of considerable interest. Relative ignition temperatures of a lignite, an anthracite, a bituminous coal and three chars derived from this coal were measured by a free-floating technique. These temperatures were correlated with those estimated from TG burning profiles of the fuels. ?? 1992.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technologies (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process. Quarterly report No. 7, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

  1. Manufacture of coke from a coal extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Gray; G. M. Kimber; D. E. Shipley

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for the production of coke having a low mineral matter content, which process comprises digesting coal in a high boiling aromatic oil solvent at a temperature within the range of 350°C to 480°C., separating insoluble matter from the coal digest to give a coal extract and coking the coal extract.

  2. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  3. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  4. Syngas redox (SGR) process to produce hydrogen from coal derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Puneet Gupta; Luis G. Velazquez-Vargas; Liang-Shih Fan [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The syngas redox (SGR) process to produce hydrogen from coal derived syngas is described. The process involves reduction of a metal oxide to metallic form with syngas and subsequent regeneration with steam to generate hydrogen in a cyclic operation. Metal oxides of Ni, Cu, Cd, Co, Mn, Sn, and Fe were evaluated for this process based upon thermodynamic equilibrium limitations. It was found that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} provided the best conversion of syngas to combustion products CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O along with a high conversion of steam to hydrogen. Other oxides provide high conversion of syngas but were found lacking in producing hydrogen from steam. Composite particles with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the key ingredient were developed that undergo multiple redox cycles without loss of activity. Analysis of process economics with respect to particle recyclability showed that the particles should undergo at least a 100 redox cycles without diminishing its activity. Process modifications to address carbon formation on reaction of syngas with iron oxide are discussed. Detailed process simulation showed that the SGR process is capable of converting 74% of the coal energy into hydrogen energy (higher heating value (HHV) basis) while delivering a pure CO{sub 2} stream without the need for costly separation technology. 38 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

  6. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  7. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  8. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  9. A review of standards of performance for new stationary sources - coal preparation plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    This study has reviewed and assessed the need to revise the new source performance standards (NSPS) for coal preparation plants. These standards limited particulate emissions or opacities from pneumatic coal cleaning equipment, coal dryers, coal processing and conveying, coal storage, and coal transfer and loading. Control device performances have not changed to justify changing the particulate standards. Emissions of SO2

  10. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-28

    The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Methanol production and heterogeneous catalysis utilizing transition elements supported on metal oxides with spinel structure are discussed. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. {open_quotes}Methods for the determination of the Clean Air Act Title III metallic HAPS in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, J. [Standard Laboratories, Inc., Evansville, IN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Clean Air Act was amended in 1990 and additional requirements were added to Title III {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} Title III identified one hundred eighty-nine hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) and Congress directed the EPA to study the effects of emissions of these HAPS on public health and the environment. EPA is to report to Congress in the fall of 1995 concerning their findings and make recommendations regarding fossil fuel fired combustion units. The outcome of the EPA recommendations will be of great interest to coal producers and users. Of the one hundred eighty-nine listed HAPS, eleven are trace metals found in coal. The producers and users may be required to analyze coal for these HAPS, to determine if selective mining and/or beneficiation can lower their occurrence, to determine their fate in the combustion process, etc. Indeed many coal companies have begun to study their reserves to aid the EPA investigation. Currently there are no EPA promulgated test methodologies for these elements in coal. Moreover, the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) does not provide standards for the analyses of all of the eleven HAPS either. In view of this lack of standardized analytical protocols the commercial laboratory is left with finding the best methods for meeting these analytical needs. This paper describes how Standard Laboratories, Inc. as a whole and particularly its Environmental Laboratory Division has met this need.

  13. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation: Processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, processes, and apparatus for coal liquefaction and hydrogenation. Included are patents for catalytic two-stage, catalytic single-step, fixed-bed, hydrogen-donor, internal heat transfer, and multi-phase processes. Topics also include catalyst production, catalyst recovery, desulfurization, pretreatment of coals, energy recovery processes, solvent product separation, hydrogenating gases, and pollution control. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Dewatering: Coal and mineral processing. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of dewatering. Included is coverage of techniques, processes, and evaluations applied to coal processing, coal slurry preparation, ash treatments, and processing of other mineral ores. Mechanical devices, heating devices, filtering techniques, air drying, the use of surfactants and flocculants, and design techniques in dewatering systems are discussed. Dewatering of peats, sewage sludges, and industrial sludges are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  16. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  17. Disposition of salt-waste from pyrochemical nuclear fuel processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vance

    2007-01-01

    Waste salts from pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuel can be immobilised in sodalite if consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 750 deg. C\\/100 MPa in thick stainless steel 316 cans. Other canning materials for this purpose also look possible. Spodiosite-based waste forms do not look promising in terms of leach resistance and their incorporation of alkali ions and compatibility

  18. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  19. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Yan; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; R.-H. Yoon

    1999-03-10

    It is the objective of the project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and to test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to be developed based on (i) the charging characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel on-line tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech and (ii) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals. During the past quarter, most of the personnel assigned to this project have been performing work elements associated with the engineering design (Task 3) of the TES process. This activity has been subdivided into three subtasks, i.e., Charger Tests (Subtask 3.1), Separator Tests (Subtask 3.2), and Final POC Design (Subtask 3.3). In Subtask 3.1, several different tribocharging devices have been constructed using materials of various work functions. They are currently being tested to establish the best materials to be used for designing and manufacturing the optimum tribochargers that can maximum charge differences between coal and mineral matter. In Subtask 3.2, bench-scale cleaning tests have been conducted to study the effects of the various operating and design parameters on the performance of the electrostatic separator. Two different TES units have been tested to date. One uses drum-type electrodes to separate charged particles, while the other uses plate-type electrodes for the separation. The test results showed that a major improvement in separation efficiency can be achieved by recycling the middlings back to the feed stream. It has also been established that the major source of inefficiency arises from the difficulty in separating ultrafine particles. Understanding the behavior of the ultrafine particles and finding appropriate methods of handling them would be the key to further improving the separation efficiency of the TES process. It has been established that the optimum lies in the 62 and 350 microns when using the plate type separator. Finally, in Subtask 3.3, engineering work has been initiated in order to address issues related to the design, scale-up, construction and operation of a POC-scale TES unit.

  20. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cells for coal and natural gas fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krumplet, M.; Ackerman, J.P.; Cook, G.M.; Pierce, R.D.

    1984-02-01

    System designs of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants are described for central stations using coal and on-site generators operating on natural gas. Fuel-to-busbar efficiencies are near 50% in coal based systems with turbine bottoming and in simple gas based systems. Coal based systems with more advanced but not fully developed components, and more complex gas based systems approach 60% efficiency.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cells for coal and natural gas fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Cook, G.M.; Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    System designs of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants are described for central stations using coal and on-site generators operating on natural gas. Fuel-to-busbar efficiencies are near 50% in coal based systems with turbine bottoming and in simple gas based systems. Coal based systems with more advanced but not fully developed components, and more complex gas based systems approach 60% efficiency.

  3. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  4. Full-scale laboratory simulation facility to test particulate and organic emissions from a Third World residential combustion process. 1. Facility description and results of tests of three rural China residential coals, a U. S. coal, and wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Harris; D. F. Natschke; R. S. Chapman; J. L. Mumford

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives results of a series of 12 tests for 3 coals from a rural area of China with abnormally high lung cancer rates, a U.S. coal, and pine wood fuel. It also discusses a residential combustion simulator, built at EPA's Research Triangle Park, NC, facility to conduct emission tests of residential fuels in a facility designed for the

  5. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  6. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  7. VERIFICATION TESTING OF EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF A-55 CLEAN FUELS IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of testing three fuels in a small (732 kW) firetube package boiler to determine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), particulate matter (PM), and total hydrocarbons (THCs). The tests were part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verificat...

  8. Effect of a starch-based filter aid on the dewatering of fine clean coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanqun GONG; Guangyuan XIE; Yingjie ZHANG; Ziliang WANG; Jin WANG; Linghui XIE; Zhenfu LUO

    2010-01-01

    The dewatering of fine, flotation cleaned coals from Huaibei and Xuzhou (bituminous) and Yongcheng (anthracite) were studied. The supernatant and filter cake were examined to determine the rate and extent of flocculation and dewatering. A starch-based filter aid was used to increase flocculation and dewatering rates. The filtration constant, K, and compression index, s, of the Yongcheng slurry were measured

  9. ENGLISH-RUSSIAN, RUSSIAN-ENGLISH GLOSSARY OF COAL CLEANING TERMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is an English-Russian, Russian-English glossary of coal cleaning terms, compiled as a joint U.S./Soviet effort. The need for the glossary resulted from the growing number of language-specific terms used during information exchanges within the framework of the U.S./U....

  10. Use of surfactants to aid the dewatering of fine clean coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Singh; L. Besra; P. S. R. Reddy; D. K. Sengupta

    1998-01-01

    Vacuum filtration of clean coal slurries and flocculated slurries with cationic, anionic and nonionic surfactants has been investigated. Significant reductions in filter cake moisture content were obtained for all types of surfactant. The most effective surfactant was CTAB. The final moisture content of filter cakes was reduced from 21 to 11.7 wt% by using a moderate dosage of flocculant followed

  11. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  12. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

  13. POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental evaluation of 38 screening test runs using a laboratory-scale, fixed-bed coal gasifier to study pollutants generated during the gasification of various coals. Pollutants were identified and quantitative analyses performed for tars, aqu...

  14. Coal pyrolysis and coal briquetting for production of smokeless fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Semiha Arayici

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of direct production of smokeless fuel, a moderate temperature coking was applied. Coals used for this purposes are named as No:800 in International Classification and cause considerable amounts of smoke emissions due to their high tar contents, when burned. Following a preheating treatment at 120° C, the smokeless fuels (semicokes) were produced by coking of the

  15. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  16. Upgrading low-rank coal with K-Fuel technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, R.H. [KFx, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Merriam, N. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Kohn, J. [KFx, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The K-Fuel process is a demonstrated technology that physically and chemically transforms low rank coals and other carbonaceous feedstocks to high-energy solid fuel. K-Fuel technology can enhance low-rank coals, wood and any biomass into high-energy K-Fuel, a product comparable to bituminous coal. The transformation occurs through the use of heat and pressure in specially configured pressure vessels. Through process control, the K-Fuel technology mirrors and speeds up the natural mechanism of coalification, the transformation of biomass into coal. In nature the coalification process takes centuries to convert biomass to peat, lignite, bituminous coal and finally to anthracite. This change takes place when biomass is exposed to pressure and increased temperatures. In this natural progression, the primary chemical changes are the loss of oxygen and the loss of water. K-Fuel applies more extreme pressures and temperatures to the feedstock reducing the coalification period to minutes and bringing on the same primary chemical changes as occur in nature. KFx is currently building the first commercial K-Fuel plant, based on the Series C process, in Gillette, Wyoming to upgrade Powder River Basin subbituminous coal. The plant will produce 500,000 tons per year of high-energy, low-sulfur coal for sale to electric utilities on the Eastern coast of the US. KFx has a contract in place with the Ohio Valley Electric Corporation, a subsidiary of American Electric Power Corporation, for part of the production of the Gillette plant. This paper describes the K-Fuel Series C process and the opportunities for K-Fuel in the US and in the Czech Republic, India, Indonesia, and Turkey.

  17. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V. [and others

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  18. Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas: Second quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-30

    A base case process for economic studies of making fuel alcohols from syngas has been developed. It uses existing technologies which have been demonstrated to be feasible or have already been commercialized. The process consists of the following steps: coal or natural gas (reforming or partial oxidation) to syngas; syngas to methanol by ICI technology; methanol to light olefins by proprietary UCC technology using molecular sieves; olefins to alcohols by hydroformylation (with a homogeneous rhodium catalyst) followed by hydrogenation. Process economics for the two natural gas-based routes have been developed. With insights gained from this, an optimized and integrated multi-step process has been conceptualized which allows estimation of the lowest cost at which fuel alcohols can be produced. A 60% methanol and 40% higher alcohol mix was assumed to be a suitable fuel alcohol blend for gasoline. At a natural gas price of $2/MMBTU, the cost of producing this, by either partial oxidation or reforming, is $1.12/gal. An integrated process with autothermal reforming at 750 psia and methanol synthesis at 700 psia allows incorporation of the best features of reforming and partial oxidation as well as elimination of syngas compression. The production cost of fuel alcohols by this process is estimated to be $0.90/gal. This is, therefore, the lowest cost at which fuel alcohols can be produced by an integrated, multi-step process. An ''ideal'' process has also been conceptualized which establishes a target production cost that new technology should strive for to be competitive. This process incorporates autothermal reforming for producing syngas followed by conversion to fuel alcohols using emerging technologies. The target production cost is estimated to be $0.65/gal. 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Deep cleaning of a hvA bituminous coal using a polyethylene oxide.polypropylene oxide block co-polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Polat, H.; Polat, M.; Chander, S. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Deep cleaning of a hvA bituminous coal using flotation process was investigated in this study. A -1/4 inch raw coal containing about 35% ash was subjected to initial flotation tests at nominal feed sizes of -600 {mu}m and -212 {mu}m. In both cases a clean coal product of 13% ash with a combustible matter recovery of about 80% was obtained. Since the ash content was much too high for deep cleaning, a second sample which was the product of a conventional coal preparation plant was used in subsequent studies. It contained about 7% ash. The material was wet ground to nominal feed sizes of -600 {mu}m, -212 {mu}m and -65 {mu}m, respectively, and floated using n-dodecane as collector. The reduction in ash was marginal for the -600 {mu}m and -212 {mu}m coals. However, a clean coal product of 3.9% ash could be obtained with a high yield using -65 {mu}m feed. The product quality was further improved by introducing a mild oil agglomeration stage prior to flotation and by using an ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer as an additive. The ash content of the clean coal so obtained was 2.5% with a combustible matter recovery of about 76%.

  20. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  1. Coal-fueled diesel technology development: Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. N.; Hayden, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment due to the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  2. Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. [Coal-fuel oils, coal-fuel oils-water and coal-water

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, E.T.

    1980-05-01

    For the past two and one-half years Atlantic Research has been conducting a research program which involved development and combustion of slurries of coal in oil and in water. In Phase II good candidate slurries chosen from Phase I were burned in an experimental furnace and their combustion performance evaluated. Two slurry fuels were chosen for the combustion study. One consisted of a 50/40/10 (weight) coal/oil/water mixture, and the other was a 65/35 coal/water slurry stabilized with modified corn starch. The emphasis was placed on the coal/water slurry. Firings were conducted in a one MMBTUH experimental furnace constructed and instrumented for the purpose. A specially designed swirl burner/atomizer was developed for use with the coal/water slurry. Both slurries were burned successfully. Numerous firings were performed of up to one-half duration each. In the case of the coal/water slurry a small amount of gas assist was usually used, although this was eliminated in several shorter duration tests. Thermochemical calculations for coal/water slurries are presented. The presence of water in the slurry represents a relatively small energy penalty. A slurry made from a good coal will have a calorific value in the range of 10,000 Btu/lb. The heat required to vaporize the water of a 70/30 mixture is only about 300 Btu/lb slurry, or about 3 percent. Analysis of the results led to the conclusion that significant improvement in the burning maybe achievable, possibly to the point where combustion rates would be comparable to those of heavy oil. Because of the availability of coal, its cost advantage relative to oil, and especially because of the ease of handling of a liquid fuel, coal/water slurry appears to have considerable potential as a future fuel.

  3. Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-11-01

    The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-20

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-20

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  6. Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elodie Salmon; Françoise Behar; François Lorant; Patrick G. Hatcher; Paul-Marie Marquaire

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we develop a theoretical approach to evaluate maturation process of kerogen-like material, involving molecular dynamic reactive modeling with a reactive force field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal evolution of terrestrial organic matter. To achieve this, a structural model is first constructed based on models from the literature

  7. 26 CFR 1.179A-1 - Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property. 1.179A-1 Section...Recapture of deduction for qualified clean-fuel vehicle property and qualified clean-fuel...

  8. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200-250 kg/hr and obtain scale-up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC-scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design (Task 3). Work accomplished during this reporting period are summarized as follows: (i) An on-line tribocharge analyzer has been developed to study triboelectrification. (ii) The effects of aeration rate, feed rate and particle size on the tribocbarging mechanisms using the on-line tribocharge analyzer. (iii) A continuous bench-scale tnboelectrostatic separator has been constructed. (iv) Shakedown testing of the bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator is on-going.

  9. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  10. Emissions Resulting from the Full-Scale Cofiring of Pelletized Refuse-Derived Fuel and Coal

    E-print Network

    Ohlsson, O. O.; Daugherty, K.; Venables, B.

    content. This paper describes the dRDF/coal cofiring tests, the emissions and ash samples that were taken, the analyses that were conducted on these samples, preliminary test results, and future research plans....

  11. Beam optimization for dry cleaning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.; Baker, Thomas J.; O'Keeffe, Terence R.

    1996-04-01

    Alternative cleaning and surface preparation methods have been gaining interest recently because of the restrictions on the use of chlorofluorocarbons, their inability to clean contaminants less than 0.5 micron in size, water and chemical consumption and the hazardous waste disposal. These factors have also led to economic hardships to US manufacturers who have to compete on a global scale with countries not currently imposing environmental restrictions. Work on an Excimer Laser based cleaning process has been looked at for some time. In 1991, Allen and Tam1 used this DUV laser in conjunction with water or isopropyl alcohol to create a hydrostatic shock, formed by extreme heating of this liquid. This shock would scatter the contaminant along the surface. Although useful, it had an inherent drawback in that it lacked preferential directionality and could re-contaminate cleaned areas. Engelsberg has demonstrated that using DUV photons in combination with an inert laminar flowing gas provides the directionality needed for the removal of surface contaminants. This is known as the Radiance ProcessSM. The process does not cause underlying molecular structure damage of the bulk material and it is a competitive cleaning process from both a pricing and speed perspective. The actual mechanism behind the Radiance ProcessSM is unclear. A contaminant is held to the surface by a number of bonds which include covalent, ionic, hydrogen, electrostatic, dipole-dipole or Van der Waals.

  12. Clean coal conversion options using Fischer–Tropsch technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André P Steynberg; Herman G Nel

    2004-01-01

    Material and energy balances were prepared for two coal conversion options for the co-production of liquid hydrocarbon products and electricity. The results are compared to the alternative approach of producing liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas. It is concluded that the capital cost for coal conversion must be higher but that cash operating costs may be similar. There are important synergistic

  13. Evaluation of the emission characteristics of trace metals from coal and fuel oil fired power plants and their fate during combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Srinivasa Reddy; Shaik Basha; H. V. Joshi; B. Jha

    2005-01-01

    Coal as well as fuel oil combustion generates emissions of potentially toxic trace pollutants including organic and inorganic chemical compounds besides major pollutants. A study on As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn emissions from a 220MW coal-fired power plant equipped with a electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and 6MW oil fired-power plant was carried out,

  14. Type II preliminary pilot-plant evaluation of a coal-liquefaction residue - water slurry using vaccum-tower bottoms from the H-Coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    About 6.7 tons of vacuum tower bottoms (residue) which were obtained during the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal from the H-Coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky were successfully gasified at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory. The single 9.5-hour run with H-Coal liquefaction residue-water slurry was completed at 750 to 760 psig gasifier pressure. The run consisted of two test periods, each at a different gasifier temperature. Over 99.6 percent conversion of carbon in the feed to syngas was achieved yielding 32.9 to 33.7 standard cubic feet of dry syngas per pound of residue charged. The oxygen requirement was about 1.0 pound of oxygen per pound of residue. The dry syngas contained 78.5 to 79.7 (vol.) percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen.

  15. APPLICATION OF CLEAN TECHNOLOGY ON MANGOSTEEN PROCESSING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suchada Chaisawadi

    2005-01-01

    The objective in this study was waste utilization on mangosteen processing. Application of clean technology has been developed to serve the need of zero discharge during the process. The production process using clean technology on mangosteen processing has been designed. The designed processing in this study consists of freeze drying process and waste utilization process. The freeze drying process has

  16. Technology assessment report for industrial boiler applications: coal cleaning and low sulfur coal. Final report, Sep 78Jul 79

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Buroff; B. Hylton; S. Keith; J. Strauss; L. McCandless

    1979-01-01

    The report assesses the use of three pollution control technologies--low sulfur coals, physical coal cleaning (PCC), and chemical coal cleaning (CCC)--to comply with SO2 emission regulations. It is one of a series to be used in determining the technological basis for a new source performance standard for industrial boilers. Candidate systems were selected after consideration of 7 naturally occurring low

  17. An investigation of operating variables in the fine coal dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T.

    1998-07-01

    Illinois basin coals contain minerals, including pyrite, which are finely disseminated in micron-size particles. To liberate these mineral matters from the coal matrix, an ultra-fine grinding operation is required, followed by a wet physical cleaning process, such as column flotation. However, the resulting product possesses large surface areas that conventional dewatering techniques cannot perform effectively, and this creates transportation, storage and handling problems at utility plants. To take full advantage of these cleaning technologies, a new dewatering and coal consolidation method must be developed at the downstream end of the deep coal-cleaning process. Following an initial study at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), briquetting was chosen to perform the dual purpose of dewatering and consolidating the fine coal. A bitumen-based emulsion, Orimulsion, proved to be an effective binder and dewatering agent in the briquetting process that assisted in the expulsion of water from the fine coal. This paper describes the investigation aimed at examining the relationships between several controllable operating variables. An experimental matrix was designed to examine a range of operating parameters based on earlier work conducted at the Department of Mining Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla. A total of 13 experiments were performed using Illinois No. 6 coal samples that had a size fraction of 16 mesh x 0 and a moisture content of 31%. Based on results obtained from previous experiments and because of the complexity of the briquetting process, only two variables, roll speed and the briquetting form pressure, were studied for their influence on moisture content, abrasion resistance and friability of briquettes. Concurring with results from previous work, the curing time of the briquettes formed had a significant impact on the moisture content and friability of the compacted fine coal product. Also, the statistical regression models generated from these results successfully established basic relationships between the operating parameters of roll speed and briquette form pressure.

  18. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  19. Development of the Shell-Koppers coal gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, E. V.; van der Burgt, M. J.

    1981-03-01

    The Shell-Koppers process for the gasification of coal under pressure is based on the principles of entrained-bed technology. It is characterized by practically complete gasification of virtually all solid fuels, production of a clean gas without by-products, high throughput, high thermal efficiency, efficient heat recovery, and environmental acceptability. The gas produced is 93 to 98 vol % hydrogen and carbon monoxide and is suitable for the manufacture of hydrogen or reducing gas, and, with further processing, substitute natural gas. It can also be used for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol, and liquid hydrocarbons. The process can be applied as an integral part of a combined-cycle power station featuring both gas and steam turbines, which will yield electricity generation at 42 to 45% efficiency for a wide range of feed coals. A 150 t/day gasifier has been put into operation successfully at Harburg, Germany, achieving a conversion of 99% for hard coal, and units of a capacity up to 2500 t/day are planned for the end of the 1980s.

  20. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.