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1

Lummus clean fuels from coal  

SciTech Connect

This report compares two direct, catalytic, hydroliquefaction processes - H-Coal and Lummus Clean Fuels From Coal (LCFFC). These processes are compared for two sets of operating conditions. In the first, the reactors are operated to produce a product suitable for use as fuel oil (fuel oil mode). In the second, the operating conditions are more severe, so the resulting product slates more closely resemble crude oil (syncrude mode). The comparisons are performed using conceptual designs based on single point run data, with a design basis of 25,000 tpd (moisture-free basis) of Illinois No. 6 coal. Although all cost comparisons are well within the estimated 25% accuracy of the estimates, LCFFC shows generally lower costs. Three types of economic evaluation are performed: computation of internal rate of return (IRR) with product values set to estimated market value, computation of overall average product cost ($/MM Btu) with the discount rate set at 20%, and calculation of average product cost with naphtha credited at estimated market value and the discount rate set at 20%. H-Coal has a lower cost only in the fuel oil mode analysis with naphtha valued at market price. The processes are also compared with respect to the potential for commercialization and anticipated operability differences. It is concluded that the lower hydrogen content of LCFFC product may offset its advantage of lower cost if it is used as refinery feed, and that the design of the LCFFC reactor may make it harder to control. Suggestions for future research are presented.

Gantt, J.E.; Hefferan, J.K.; Chorba, W.F.; Schachtschneider, A.B.; Schulze, J.R.

1980-12-01

2

Improved Coal Cleaning Process Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Physical coal cleaning is a mechanical process for removal of high ash constituents and pyritic sulphur from input fuels for coal-fired generating staions. Preparato...

1981-01-01

3

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

1994-06-21

4

Process for producing a clean hydrocarbon fuel from high calcium coal  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for substantially reducing the amount of at least one insoluble fluoride-forming species selected from the group consisting of Group IA species and Group IIA species. The species is present in a coal feed material comprising: forming a slurry of a coal feed; a fluoride acid in an amount to produce a first molar concentration of free-fluoride-ions; at least one fluoride-complexing species, the total of all fluoride-complexing species in the slurry being present in an amount to produce a second molar concentration, the second molar concentration being at least equal to that amount such that the ratio of the first molar concentration to the second molar concentration is substantially equal to the stoichiometric ratio of fluoride in at least one tightly-bound complexion so as to from tightly-bound complexions with substantially all free-fluoride ions in the slurry to produce a leached coal product and a spent leach liquor; and separating the leached coal product from the spent leach liquor.

Kindig, J.K.

1988-06-28

5

CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM COAL CLEANING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of criteria for assessing environmental pollutants associated with coal cleaning processes. The primary problem concerns emissions of pollutants to all three media--air, water, and land--and assessing their effects on humans and the environmen...

6

Clean low-calorific fuel gas from coal: a case study of the Caterpillar Tractor Company Coal Gasification Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1979, Caterpillar Tractor Company started up the first commercial coal gasification plant in the U.S. to produce cold, clean, desulfurized fuel gas from bituminous coal. The project represent a seven-year effort by the company to find another fuel supply for its York (PA) facility. Startup was followed by several months of debugging, which resulted in modifications

J. T. Stewart; K. M. Johnson

1982-01-01

7

Process for cleaning undeslimed coal  

SciTech Connect

A process for cleaning undeslimed coal includes the steps of determining the scalar value of cross-correlation function of the measured values of the percent magnetics and the bulk specific gravity of a heavy media and coal slurry being fed to a cyclone, comparing the value to a set-point value determined after start-up when the recirculating suspension in the feed slurry is normally clean, and diverting at least a portion of the heavy media suspension that is separated from the underflow of the cyclone from being mixed with the feed coal slurry, to thereby correspondingly recycle the slime content of the feed slurry, and concurrently increasing the flow of cleaner heavy media suspension to the feed coal slurry until the cross-correlation function is brought up to the set-point value. Also disclosed is an embodiment of the process for cleaning coal, wherein the overflow from the cyclone is screened and screened solution is split between a first recycle loop for cleaning the suspension and the heavy media sump. Similarly, the underflow from the cyclone is screened and then split between a separate recycle loop and the heavy media sump. Suspension is diverted to the heavy media sump from one or both recycle cleaning loops as necessary. The remaining portions of the split suspension flows from the two screening devices are, in turn, respectively split between two further sumps and the heavy media sump, with more suspension coming from the cyclone overflow screen when cleaner suspension is indicated as being necessary by the aforesaid statistical analysis.

Wells, C.H.

1983-09-20

8

Clean residual fuels from the Gulf HDS process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of natural gas and low sulfur coal in industrialized countries and almost universal concern for preserving the quality of the environment have made petroleum residues the principal source of industrial, commercial and utility fuels in many areas of the world. The rising demand for clean residual fuels could not be satisfied by naturally occurring low sulfur crudes alone.

L. W. Brunn; A. A. Montagna; J. A. Paraskos

1976-01-01

9

Process for producing fluid fuel from coal  

DOEpatents

Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

Hyde, Richard W. (Winchester, MA); Reber, Stephen A. (Waltham, MA); Schutte, August H. (Lexington, MA); Nadkarni, Ravindra M. (Arlington, MA)

1977-01-01

10

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992May 31, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion and emissions properties of (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder is being investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Combustion data such as SO, NO emissions,

Rajan

1992-01-01

11

Production of a clean carbon fuel derived from coal for use in stationary and mobile heat engines. [HYDROCARB process for production of CARBOLINE or carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a new process called HYDROCARB and the production of a new fuel product called CARBOLINE (an acronym for carbon-gasoline), which has potential world-wide economic usefulness. It is a clean carbon fuel which can be used in stationary, steam, and electrical power generating plants and for mobile transportation engines. The HYDROCARB process converts any abundantly

Steinberg

1986-01-01

12

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991August 31, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuels studied in this project are (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder. These fuels are investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The combustion experiments demonstrated that

Rajan

1992-01-01

13

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01

14

Clean power generation from coal  

SciTech Connect

The chapter gives an overview of power generation from coal, describing its environmental impacts, methods of cleaning coal before combustion, combustion methods, and post-combustion cleanup. It includes a section on carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilization. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods are covered. Coal conversion techniques covered are: pulverized coal combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, supercritical boilers, cyclone combustion, magnetohydrodynamics and gasification. 66 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

Butler, J.W.; Basu, P. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-09-15

15

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

1997-04-25

16

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications  

SciTech Connect

This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1993-01-18

17

Integrated coal cleaning and slurry preparation process  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for producing a coal slurry from a raw coal feedstock which contains coal and gangues. The process optimizes coal recovery, coal quality and the hydraulic characteristics of the pipeline slurry.

Halvorsen, W.J.

1981-01-13

18

Clean coal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fossil fuels such as coal can be powerful polluters of the environment. This article, part of site on the future of energy, introduces students to methods being implemented to make burning coal a cleaner process. Students read about the 1986 creation of the Clean Coal Technology Program and the coal-burning improvements it generated. Definitions of key terms are available, and a link is provided to an ABC News article about bacteria that have been bioengineered to clean coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

19

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991February 29, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main thrust of this research project is the combustion testing and evaluation of two fuels processed from Illinois high sulfur coals. These fuels are (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines containing 30% and 80% solids, and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from coal fines using corn starch as a binder. Combustion data from these two fuels are to

Rajan

1992-01-01

20

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991November 10, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuels studied in this project are (a) three flotation slurry fuels beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder, (c) a run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal. Combustion data such as SO, NO emissions, combustion efficiency and ash

Rajan

1992-01-01

21

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The combustion and emissions properties of (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder is being investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from these fuels are compared with similar parameters from a reference coal burnt in the same fluidized bed combustor. In the last quarter, the CFBC was brought on line and tests were performed on standard coal No. 3 from the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP). During this quarter, it was decided, that a more meaningful comparison could be obtained if, instead of using the IBCSP No. 3 coal as a standard, the run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Kerr-McGee Galatia plant could be used as the reference coal for purposes of comparing the combustion and emissions performance, since the slurry and pellet fuels mentioned in (a) and (b) above were processed from fines recovered form this same Illinois No. 5 seam coal. Accordingly, run-of-the mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Galatia plant were obtained, riffled and sieved to {minus}14+18 size for the combustion tests. Preliminary combustion tests have been made in the CFBC with this new coal. In preparation for the slurry tests, the moisture content of the beneficiated slurry samples was determined. Proximate and ultimate analyses of all the coal samples were performed. Using a Leeds and Northrup Model 7995-10 Microtrek particle size analyzer, the size distributions of the coal in the three slurry samples were determined. The mineral matter content of the coal in the three slurry samples and the Illinois No. 5 seam coal were investigated using energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

1992-10-01

22

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objectives for this one-year project are: (1) to demonstrate that new fuels derived from Illinois high sulfur coal, namely (a) coal-sorbent pellets and (b) coal-water slurry produced from froth flotation feed can be effectively utilized in a circulating fluidized bed combustor, (2) to compare the carbon conversion efficiencies, SO and NO emission levels and Ca\\/S ratios needed to

Rajan

1991-01-01

23

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives for this one-year project are: (1) to demonstrate that new fuels derived from Illinois high sulfur coal, namely (a) coal-sorbent pellets and (b) coal-water slurry produced from froth flotation feed can be effectively utilized in a circulating fluidized bed combustor, (2) to compare the carbon conversion efficiencies, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission levels and Ca/S ratios needed to meet EPA regulations from the above fuels with those measured under similar operating conditions with a standard IBCSP coal, and (3) to analyze ash and spent limestone residues with a view to proposing waste disposal strategies for the combustion residues resulting from these new fuel forms.

Rajan, S.

1991-01-01

24

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1997-08-28

25

Interfacial properties and coal cleaning in the LICADO process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LICADO LIquid CArbon DiOxide process is currently being investigated as a new technique for cleaning coal. It relies on the relative wettability of clean coal and mineral particles between liquid CO and water so that when liquid CO is dispersed into a coal-water slurry, it tends to form agglomerates with the clean coal particles and float them to the

1986-01-01

26

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15

27

ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: AN EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assembles and assesses technical and economic information on chemical coal cleaning processes. Sufficient data was located to evaluate 11 processes in detail. It was found that chemical coal cleaning processes can remove up to 99% of the pyritic sulfur and 40% of the o...

28

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The fuels studied in this project are (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder. These fuels are investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The combustion experiments demonstrated that the three coal-water slurry fuels and the pellet fuel could burn well in the CFBC unit. The combustion tests showed that the combustion efficiency of the slurry fuels and the pellets were quite comparable with that of the standard coal in the range of 91--98%. Sulfur dioxide emissions in lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels were low enough to satisfy EPA emissions requirements with Ca/S ratios of 1.5 or less. At these low Ca/S ratios, the slurry fuels and the pellet emitted less SO{sub 2} than the standard coal. Increasing the Ca/S ratios showed that the standard coal SO{sub 9} emissions reduced at a faster rate than the SO{sub 2} emissions from the pellet and slurry fuels, because of the more efficient dispersion and gas-solid contact of the standard coal particles. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels under the conditions of the present tests, while that from the pellets were between 0.6 to 0.75 lbs per million Btu depending on bed temperature. In comparison, the oxides of nitrogen emissions from the standard coal varied from 0.5 to 0.8 lbs per million Btu in the bed temperature range of 1475--1625{degrees}F.

Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

1992-12-31

29

Process yields diesel-like fuel from coal, peat, biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidatively solubilized coal, peat or biomass in alcohol is found to have all the characteristics of diesel fuel. The coal, pulverized to a mesh size of about 10, is slurried with an equal weight of water and heated to about 50 degrees C. Concentrated nitric acid is added and the slurry is dried and extracted with alcohol.

Schulz

1985-01-01

30

Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

NONE

1996-10-01

31

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The main thrust of this research project is the combustion testing and evaluation of two fuels processed from Illinois high sulfur coals. These fuels are (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines containing 30% and 80% solids, and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from coal fines using corn starch as a binder. Combustion data from these two fuels are to be compared with corresponding data obtained from a standard coal from the IBCSP coal bank. Parameters to be evaluated are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash composition, insofar as its influences disposal techniques. During the last quarter, the equipment was serviced and brought on line, and combustion tests were initiated.

Rajan, S.

1992-08-01

32

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1993-01-18

33

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--November 10, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The fuels studied in this project are (a) three flotation slurry fuels beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder, (c) a run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal. Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from the slurry and pellet fuels are compared with similar parameters from the reference coal burnt under similar conditions of bed temperature and fluidization velocity. The combustion tests performed in a 4 in. internal diameter CFBC showed that the combustion efficiency of the slurry fuels and the pellets were quite comparable with that of the standard coal in the range of 91--98%. Sulfur dioxide emissions in lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels were low enough to satisfy EPA emissions requirements with Ca/S ratios of 1.5 or less. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels under the conditions of the present tests, while that from the pellets were between 0.6 to 0.75 lbs per million Btu depending on bed temperature.

Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

34

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

1994-10-01

35

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

1992-05-01

36

Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable to coal-derived FT liquid fuels. After different gas clean up processes steps, the coal-derived syngas will produce FT liquid fuels that have similar properties to natural gas derived FT liquids.

Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

2006-02-28

37

Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO²⁻ impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe(SO), NaSO, and KSO caused jarosite (KFe(SO)(OH)) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe(SO)(OH)). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO²⁻

1990-01-01

38

Production of a Clean Carbon Fuel Derived from Coal for Use in Stationary and Mobile Heat Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the development of a new process called HYDROCARB and the production of a new fuel product called CARBOLINE (an acronym for carbon-gasoline), which has potential world-wide economic usefulness. It is a clean carbon fuel which can be u...

M. Steinberg

1986-01-01

39

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program ?Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications,? (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R&D, Golden, Colorado by Entech Global for process evaluation tests. The tests successfully demonstrated the capability of advanced column flotation as well as selective agglomeration to produce ultra-clean coal at specified levels of purity and recovery efficiency. Test results and the experience gained during the operation of the PDU have provided valuable insights into the processes studied. Based on the design data obtained from the test work and a set of project design criteria, two sets of conceptual designs for commercial CWF production plants have been developed, one using column flotation and the other using selective agglomeration process. Using these designs, Capital as well as Operating and Maintenance (O&M) cost estimates for the plants have been compiled. These estimates have then been used to derive the annualized cost of production of premium CWF on a commercial scale. Further, a series of sensitivity analysis have been completed to evaluate the effects of variations in selected cost components and process parameters on the overall economics of premium fuel production

NONE

1997-06-01

40

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a background against which requirements for further developments of coal cleaning technology and control techniques for the associated pollutants can be established, as part of a review of U.S. coal cleaning process technologies and related technologies for envir...

41

Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1994-02-18

42

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the cleaning of coal. The parametric tests on the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples were completed in this quarter. In these batch tests, liberation was found to be more responsible for the removal of both mineral matter and sulfur in the CECC treatment of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. The optimum conditions for processing this coal were determined using response surface analysis. The interaction of the effects of acid concentration and ferric ion were indicated by the statistical analysis to be significant. Precleaning the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal by conventional froth flotation did not seem to be beneficial to the CECC processing of this coal. The batch tests involving the bacterial regeneration of ferric ions for both coal samples were also completed. The effects of all five parameters were found to be significant. The optimum conditions for cleaning these coals by the CECC process using the bacterial regeneration scheme were also determined. 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

1991-01-01

43

Environmental Assessment of Coal Cleaning Processes. Second Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the second year's work for EPA by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. Program activities included systems studies, data acquisition, and general program support. (1) Systems stud...

A. W. Lemmon G. L. Robinson P. V. Voris S. E. Rogers

1979-01-01

44

Zinc Halide Hydrocracking Process for Distillate Fuels from Coal. Annual Technical Progress Report for 1975, Including the Quarter Ending January 31, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The further development of the zinc halide process to produce clean gaseous and liquid fuels from coal is described, with emphasis on the production of high-octane gasoline. The major effort has been on reconstruction of continuous, bench-scale zinc chlor...

1976-01-01

45

EPA PROGRAM STATUS REPORT: SYNTHETIC FUELS FROM COAL, INCLUDING PROCESS OVERVIEW WITH EMPHASIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The status of EPA's Synthetic Fuels from Coal Program as of July 1977 is presented. Processes with emphasis on environmental considerations are also described. This program is a part of EPA's interagency energy-related environmental research program directed toward providing the ...

46

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates

Gregory A. Hackett; Kirk R. Gerdes; Xueyan Song; Yun Chen; V. Shutthanandan; Mark H. Engelhard; Zihua Zhu; Suntharampillai Thevuthasan; Randall Gemmen

2012-01-01

47

New cleaning technologies advance coal; Part 2 - agglomeration, biological and chemical cleaning processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractiveness of any advanced coal cleaning process depends on various factors: SO removal potential, status of development, overall costs, complexity of the technology used, and environmental impacts. In addition, some of these processes may look more favorable than others for certain applications. For example, the wet HGMS and Two-Stage Flotation processes may be economical in conjunction with coal-water slurry

Onursal

1984-01-01

48

Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

Norton, G.

1990-09-21

49

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

1994-05-06

50

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1993. The project has three major objectives: (1) the primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) a secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics; and (3) a third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1993-07-28

51

The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal. [COMPCOAL Process  

SciTech Connect

This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

1992-01-01

52

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1, 1991November 30, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objectives for this one-year project are: (1) to demonstrate that new fuels derived from Illinois high sulfur coal, namely (a) coal-sorbent pellets and (b) coal-water slurry produced from froth flotation feed can be effectively utilized in a circulating fluidized bed combustor, (2) to compare the carbon conversion efficiencies, SO and NO emission levels and Ca\\/S ratios needed to

Rajan

1991-01-01

53

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous testing of the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) was completed successfully using Middle Wyodak and Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples. The CECC unit was run under the optimum conditions established for these coal samples. For the Middle Wyodak coal, the ash content was reduced from 6.96 percent to as low 1.61 percent, corresponding to an ash rejection (by weight) of about 83 percent. The ash and sulfur contents of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were reduced to as low as 1.8 percent and 0.9 percent. The average ash and sulfur rejections were calculated to be around 84 percent and 47 percent. The CECC continuous unit was used to treat -325 mesh Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples and gave ash and sulfur rejection values of as high as 77 percent and 66 percent. In these test, the clean -325 mesh coal particles were separated from the liberated mineral matter through microbubble column flotation, instead of wet-screening.

Basilio, C. I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

54

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

The continuous testing of the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) bench-scale unit (Task 6) was completed successfully in this quarter using Middle Wyodak and Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples. The CECC unit was run under the optimum conditions established for these coal samples in Task 4. For the Middle Wyodak coal, the ash content was reduced from 6.96% to as low 1.61%, corresponding to an ash rejection (by weight) of about 83%. The ash and sulfur contents of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were reduced to as low as 1.8% and 0.9%. The average ash and sulfur rejections were calculated to be around 84% and 47%. The CECC continuous unit was used to treat -325 mesh Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples and gave ash and sulfur rejection values of as high as 77% and 66%. In these test, the clean -325 mesh coal particles were separated from the liberated mineral matter through microbubble column flotation, instead of wet-screening.

Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

1991-01-01

55

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives for this one-year project are: (1) to demonstrate that new fuels derived from Illinois high sulfur coal, namely (a) coal-sorbent pellets and (b) coal-water slurry produced from froth flotation feed can be effectively utilized in a circulating fluidized bed combustor, (2) to compare the carbon conversion efficiencies, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission levels and Ca/S ratios needed to meet EPA regulations from the above fuels with those measured under similar operating conditions with a standard IBCSP coal, and (3) to analyze ash and spent limestone residues with a view to proposing waste disposal strategies for the combustion residues resulting from these new fuel forms.

Rajan, S.

1991-12-31

56

Organic Pollutants in Wastes and Process Streams of Coal Cleaning Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process waters and coal wastes from the physical cleaning of coals were collected at heavy media cyclone and water washing plants. The process wastewaters and leachates of the wastes were extracted and the organic compounds in these extracts were characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and combination gas chromotography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/ MS). Most of the identified compounds were aliphatic acids present

MICHAEL J. AVERY; JOHN J. RICHARD; GREGOR A. JUNK

1988-01-01

57

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Research and development report No. 53. Interim report No. 23, 1976--1977. Development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Volume IV. Product studies. Part 11. Processing of solvent refined coal minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent refining process of Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company for coal cleaning results in a residue termed coal mineral. This residue contains essentially all the ash and inorganic sulfur of the original coal plus some organic sulfur and undissolved carbon. The carbon content varies from 20% to 60% depending on the severity of treatment in the refining process.

Biswas

1979-01-01

58

Physical coal cleaning: Characterization of constituents in waste and process streams: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of coal is employed to remove ash-forming minerals and pyrites. The cleaning increases the value of coal and simultaneously leads to a lessening of undesirable emissions when the coal is burned. However, the solid wastes and leachates of wastes arising from the cleaning of coal need to be characterized more fully and systematically. In this present work, physical coal cleaning was studied using standard sampling procedures (Section 2.0), state-of-the-art analytical techniques, and advanced procedures developed especially for this study (Section 3.0). Characterization of organic components in wastes and leachates of wastes (Section 4.0) revealed that no harmful organic materials would be released into the environment. In fact, harmful organic components were removed from some polluted waters used in the coal cleaning process. The element composition of the wastes and leachates were determined by spark source mass spectrometry (Section 5.0) which provided a simultaneous and economical monitor of up to 75 elements. Mass spectrometric procedures developed for the study of the elements should be generally applicable to studies of elemental concentrations in all coals and coal waste. The mineral forms in the coals, coal wastes and leachates were determined using x-ray diffraction analyses (Section 6.0). These results, as well as the elemental data from spark source mass spectrometry supported the expected lowering of the mineral and elemental concentrations in the cleaned coal and the corresponding increase in these concentrations in the coal waste relative to the amounts of minerals and elements in the feed coals that were tested. 14 refs., 106, figs., 71 tabs.

Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Avery, M.J.; Conzemius, R.J.; Benson, J.E.; Chriswell, C.D.

1986-12-01

59

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31

60

Nature and Origin of Asphaltenes in Processed Coals: The Chemistry and Mechanisms of Coal Conversion to Clean Fuel. Annual Report, March 1976--February 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been undertaken to develop a fundamental understanding of the chemistry and structure of coal and coal products and the mechanisms involved in the conversion of coal to soluble products under typical solvent refining conditions. Illinois, Ken...

D. D. Whitehurst M. Farcasiu T. O. Mitchell J. J. Dickert

1977-01-01

61

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1997-12-31

62

Mulled Coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy and private industry, considerable progress has been made in: preparation of coal-water fuels; combustion of low-ash coal-based fuel forms; and in processes to provide deeply-cleaned coal. Since the inception of the project, we have: developed formulations for stabilizing wet filter cake into a granular free flowing material (Mulled Coal); applied the formulation to wet cake from a variety of coal sources ranging from anthracite to subbituminous coal; evaluated effects of moisture loss on mull properties; and developed design concepts for equipment for preparing the Mulled Coal and converting it into Coal Water Fuel.

Not Available

1991-11-01

63

Low-sulfur fuel oil from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-S residual fuel oil is produced by hydroconversion of coal in an ebullated bed system without downstream processing and with a minimum amount of H, producing a fuel of high calorific value and low S content. Pulverized coal is mixed with recycle slurry oil to form a coal-oil slurry. This slurry is passed through a heater into the lower part

H. H. Stotler; M. Calderon; C. A. Johnson

1971-01-01

64

APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR EFFLUENT CONTROL FROM COAL CLEANING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the potential applicability of oil agglomeration for the control of black water effluents from coal cleaning plants processing four different coals. Removal and recovery of the coal from each of the black waters produced aqueous suspensions of mineral matter ...

65

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

1992-05-01

66

Cost of Liquid Fuels from Coal. Part IV. Products from Direct Liquefaction Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an EAS evaluation of the three most developed direct liquefaction processes - Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), Hydrocarbon Research's H-Coal, and German liquefaction technology; and it indicates the possible economic effect o...

D. F. Hemming J. M. Holmes M. Teper

1983-01-01

67

Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

Kacprzak, Andrzej; Koby?ecki, Rafa?; Bis, Zbigniew

2011-12-01

68

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

2012-01-01

69

Regulating Pollution from a Fossil Fuel with Learning in the Clean Substitute  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model to examine how environmental regulation in the form of a cap on aggregate emissions from a fossil fuel (e.g., coal) will affect the arrival of a clean substitute (e.g., solar energy). This clean substitute is an \\

Ujjayant Chakravorty; Andrew Leach; Michel Moreau

70

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Western Research Institute (WRI) COMPCOAL{trademark} process which is designed to produce a stable, high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) and other low-rank coals. The process is designed to overcome the problems of oxidation and spontaneous combustion, readsorption of moisture, and dust formation from the friable coal. PRB coal is susceptible to low-temperature oxidation and self-heating, particularly after it has been dried. This report describes a method WRI has developed to prevent self-heating of dried PRB coal. The ``accelerated aging`` not only stabilizes the dried coal, but it also increases the heating value of the COMPCOAL product. The stabilized COMPCOAL product has a heating value of 12,000 to 12,700 Btu/lb, contains 35 to 40 wt % volatiles, and is comparable to unprocessed PRB coal in self-heating and low-temperature oxidation characteristics. Importantly, the self-heating tendency can be controlled by slightly adjusting the ``aging`` step in the process.

NONE

1993-07-01

71

Development of a Process for Producing an Ashless, Low-Sulfur Fuel from Coal. Volume IV. Product Studies. Part 4. Sulfur Removal from Coal Minerals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulfur removal from residual solids of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process is investigated. The residue, called coal minerals, contains various amounts of ferrous oxide, silica, carbon, and alumina. The preferential oxidation technique for sulfur remov...

1974-01-01

72

Environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes; master test plan. Final report June 1977January 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives a master test plan, presenting the objectives and general structure of a field testing program designed for an environmental source assessment of coal cleaning processes. The report, to be used to prepare test plans for individual coal cleaning sites, reflects the common thread running through a series of various sites. It includes the background and objectives of

D. A. Tolle; D. W. Neuendorf; P. Van Voris

1979-01-01

73

Coal and the environment abstract series. Bibliography on disposal of refuse from coal mines and coal cleaning plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subjects covered in this bibliography include the analysis and characterization of coal refuse; various methods of handling, storing, and disposing of coal refuse; the environmental problems such as refuse drainage quality and combustion of refuse piles; the control of environmental problems; and the uses for refuse which have been investigated. The coal cleaning process itself is very closely related

V. E. Gleason; R. D. Hill

1978-01-01

74

The characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sample Bank for characterization of coal includes full seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and subseam sections. The data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur froms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. The pyrolysis of coal was studied the reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, was studied for reactivity to air, CO2, H2 and steam. The catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes was examined. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported.

Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P. L.; Lovell, H. L.; Vastola, F. J.; Given, P. H.; Suhr, N. H.; Jenkins, R. G.

1982-06-01

75

Zinc halide hydrocracking process for distillate fuels from coal. Annual technical progress report, February 1, 1977January 31, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major efforts during the year were (1) to construct a 1 TPD Process Development Unit (PDU) for conversion of coal to distillate fuels using a molten zinc chloride catalyst and (2) to explore the effects of operating variables on a 2 lb\\/hr continuous bench-scale unit and develop correlations predicting conversion and product yields with Montana subbituminous coal. Construction of

M. Pell; W. A. Parker; J. T. Maskew; C. W. Zielke; R. T. Struck

1978-01-01

76

Results from the Third LLL Underground Coal Gasification Experiment at Hoe Creek.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple ...

C. B. Thorsness D. R. Stephens R. J. Cena R. W. Hill W. R. Aiman

1980-01-01

77

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4  

SciTech Connect

This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the 4th quarter of the project from July 1 to September 30, 1993.

Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1993-11-04

78

EVALUATION OF THE FLASH DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR COAL CLEANING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to develop (on the laboratory, bench, and pilot scale) operating conditions for key steps in the 'flash' process for desulfurizing coal by chemical and thermal treatment. Laboratory and bench scale data on high-sulfur eastern U.S. coals prove...

79

Repowering with clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

Freier, M.D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1996-02-01

80

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project is engineering development of advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies for cleaning coal. Development of these technologies is an important step in the Department of Energy program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected United States coals and that this fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for a portion of the premium fuels (oil and natural gas) burned by electric utility and industrial boilers in this country. Capturing a relatively small fraction of the total utility and industrial oil-fired boiler fuel market would have a significant impact on domestic coal production and reduce national dependence on petroleum fuels. Significant potential export markets also exist in Europe and the Pacific Rim for cost-effective premium fuels prepared from ultra-clean coal. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs, and boiler derating are kept to a minimum. Also, retrofit boiler emissions must be compatible with national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for the ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of ultra-clean coal discussed below. The cost-shared contract effort is for 48 months beginning September 30, 1992, and ending September 30, 1996. This report discusses the technical progress made during the second 3 months of the project, January 1 to March 31, 1993.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1993-04-26

81

Filtering coal liquids: cleaning of coal oils by filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major task with the development of coal liquefaction processes is the removal of solids (unsolved residual coal, mineral components, and catalyst) from the hydrogenation products. Depending on the characteristics of these hydrogenation products, various cleaning processes were suggested and tried out. However, the separation of solids from coal hydrogenation products obtained from the extraction process presents more problems. In

I. Romey; R. Pass

1981-01-01

82

Environmental Assessment of Coal Cleaning Processes; First Annual Report; Volume I. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of the first year's work on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. A short base of engineering, ecological, pollution control, and cost data is being established through data gathering and systems analysis efforts...

A. W. Lemmon S. E. Rogers G. L. Robinson V. Q. Hale G. E. Raines

1979-01-01

83

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t\\/hr process development unit. The project began in

N. Moro; G. L. Shields; F. J. Smit; M. C. Jha

1995-01-01

84

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1996-10-30

85

Coal recovery from coal fines cleaning wastes by agglomeration with vegetable oils: effects of oil type and concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to obtain high calorific value products from coal fines cleaning wastes by agglomeration with vegetable oils. These residues are mainly being disposed of in dumps, causing important economic and environmental problems. Three Spanish coal fines wastes from different coal cleaning plants were agglomerated with crude and refined sunflower and soybean oils over a wide

Marta I Alonso; Adolfo F Valds; Rosa M Mart??nez-Tarazona; Ana B Garcia

1999-01-01

86

Perspectives on the potential of clean coal technologies to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses how emerging clean coal technologies can play an important role in reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. A major issue is whether they will be commercially available for widespread deployment within the time frame needed to meet requirements of acid rain control legislation. On the basis of current reviews and past reports, it appears that clean coal

Fultz

1989-01-01

87

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop the process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During the last year's effort, it was reported that a combination of metal ion and surfactant provided a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

Parekh, B.K.

1991-01-01

88

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF ADVANCED PROCESSES FOR CONVERSION OF COAL AND BIOMASS INTO CLEAN ENERGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Biomass and coal conversion into clean energy is compared on an economic and environmental basis in three regional scenarios: (1) electric power from direct combustion of wood versus conventional coal combustion in the South Central U.S., (2) synthetic pipeline gas from anaerobic...

89

Mulled Coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Technical progress report No. 6, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy and private industry, considerable progress has been made in: preparation of coal-water fuels; combustion of low-ash coal-based fuel forms; and in processes to provide deeply-cleaned coal. Since the inception of the project, we have: developed formulations for stabilizing wet filter cake into a granular free flowing material (Mulled Coal); applied the formulation to wet cake from a variety of coal sources ranging from anthracite to subbituminous coal; evaluated effects of moisture loss on mull properties; and developed design concepts for equipment for preparing the Mulled Coal and converting it into Coal Water Fuel.

Not Available

1991-11-01

90

Carbon black from coal by the HYDROCARB process  

SciTech Connect

The HYDROCARB process was conceived and developed for the purpose of producing a clean carbon fuel and coproduct gaseous and liquid fuel coproducts from any carbonaceous feedstock and particularly from coal. The process basically consists of two major steps. In the first step, coal is hydrogenated to produce methane. In this step, the carbonaceous raw material is gasified with a recycled hydrogen-rich gas stream to form a light hydrocarbon, methane-rich gas, while the non-volatile ash remains behind. With the optional addition of limestone to the feed material, sulfur in the feedstock is removed as non-volatile calcium sulfide which is later oxidized to calcium sulfate for disposal. The methane-rich gas which also contains carbon monoxide and smaller amounts of water and carbon dioxide is sent to a recuperative condenser. For the production of methanol, the carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the process gas is catalytically combined to produce methanol. The deoxygenated methane-rich gas stream is then sent to a methane decomposer where the methane is cracked to pure particulate carbon and hydrogen gas. The pure carbon is removed as a clan product and most of the hydrogen-rich gas is returned to the coal hydrogenator. The two basic steps are than coal hydrogasification in a hydropyrolysis reactor (HPR) and methane decomposition in a methane pyrolysis reactor (MPR). 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1991-05-01

91

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1996-07-25

92

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

1997-06-27

93

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01

94

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1995-07-31

95

Truck ramp construction from clean coal technology waste products  

SciTech Connect

The construction and performance of a truck ramp made from clean coal technology waste products are described. The specific waste product used in this project was generated at the power plant located on the campus of The Ohio State University in Columbus. The ramp is used by University vehicles depositing hard trash at a central disposal facility on the OSU campus. Laboratory tests which had been conducted on samples made from the power plant waste product clearly showed that, when the material is property compacted, strengths could be obtained that were much higher than those of the natural soils the clean coal waste would replace. In addition, the permeability and swelling characteristics of the waste product should make it an attractive alternative to importing select borrow materials. Based on the results of the laboratory tests, a decision was made to use the power plant waste in the truck ramp rather than the soil that was called for in the original design. Prior to the start of construction, the area on which the ramp was to be located was covered with an impermeable geomembrane. Drain lines were installed on top of the geomembrane so that water that might leach through the ramp could be collected. The waste product from the power plant was placed on the geomembrane in 20 to 30 centimeter lifts by University maintenance personnel without special equipment. A drain line was installed across the toe of the ramp to intercept surface runoff, and a wearing surface of 7 to 15 centimeters of crushed limestone was placed over the compacted ash. The finished ramp structure recycled approximately 180 metric tons of the power plant byproduct. After over a year in service there is no indication of erosion or rutting in the ramp surface. Tests performed on the leachate and runoff water have shown the high pH characteristic of these materials, but concentrations of metals fall below the established limits.

Wolfe, W.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1993-12-31

96

Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project

Conocophillips

2007-01-01

97

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase

Albert C. Tsang

2004-01-01

98

Clean coal technology: The new coal era  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

Not Available

1994-01-01

99

Coal cleaning: progress and potential  

SciTech Connect

Results from a detailed analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) reductions achievable through ''deep'' physical coal cleaning (PCC) at 20 coal-fired power plants in the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois region are presented here. These plants all have capacities larger than 500 MWe, are currently without any flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) systems, and burn coal of greater than 1% sulfur content (in 1980). Their aggregate emissions of 2.4 million tons of SO/sub 2/ per year represents 55% of the SO/sub 2/ inventory for these states. The principal coal supplies for each power plant were identified and characterized as to coal seam and county of origin, so that published coal-washability data could be matched to each supplier. The SO/sub 2/ reductions that would result from deep cleaning (Level 4) and moderate cleaning (Level 3) of each coal were calculated using a PCC computer model. For deep cleaning, percentage reductions in sulfur content ranged from zero to 52%, with a mean value of 29% and costs ranged from a low of 364/ton SO/sub 2/ removed to over $2000/ton SO/sub 2/ removed. Because coal suppliers to these power plants employ some voluntary coal cleaning, the anticipated emissions reduction from current levels if deep cleaning were used should be near 20%. These emissions reductions were projected using conventional coal cleaning circuit designs. The basic elements of typical commercial PCC designs are briefly described and current research and development activities in physical, chemical, and biological desulfurization of coal are reviewed. Possible governmental actions to either encourage or mandate coal cleaning are identified and evaluated. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

1985-01-01

100

On the utilization of waste vegetable oils (WVO) as agglomerants to recover coal from coal fines cleaning wastes (CFCW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal fines cleaning wastes (CFCW) from two different Spanish coal cleaning plants were agglomerated with waste vegetable oils (WVO) of household origin over a wide range of oil concentration with the aim of recovering high-calorific value\\/low-ash content coal. The results were evaluated in terms of organic matter recovery (OMR) and ash rejection (AR) from CFCW. In addition to the WVO

Adolfo F. Valds; Ana B. Garcia

2006-01-01

101

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse

Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

2002-01-01

102

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse

Albert Tsang

2003-01-01

103

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

2004-09-17

104

REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

2004-04-23

105

EPA COAL CLEANING PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes work during Fiscal Year 1979 by 12 organizations, both public and private, under EPA's Coal Cleaning Program, a program that explores the possibilities for wider use of coal as an environmentally acceptable energy source. Many aspects of coal were studied, in...

106

Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

1997-09-29

107

Stoker test evaluations using clean pellet fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chain-grate stoker at the powerhouse of the Ohio State Reformatory was modified for use of clean pellet fuel for combustion demonstrations. Clean pellet fuel for the Mansfield tests was prepared from a series of production test runs at the Cleveland Research Center using relatively high sulfur industrial coal ranging from about 3.1 to 4.5% sulfur. Accordingly, pellets of a

W. H. Marlowe; C. W. Brody; T. E. Ban; C. J. Nelson

1980-01-01

108

Coal conversion and the Clean Air Act: help from DOE  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a large number of fuels conversions have occurred since the 1973-1974 oil embargo, there are still many opportunities for additional conversions. Many of the conversions which have occurred to date have been under federal order because of the legal benefits which accrue to them under the Clean Air Act. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act changed the thrust of the

S. A. Frank; S. A. Spiewak

1982-01-01

109

Coal cleans up its act  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives an overview of current clean coal conversion processes. Gasification of coal is seen as preferable to combustion, along with CO{sub 2} separation technologies. One scheme which minimises the parasitic energy requirement for CO{sub 2} separation is based on the calcium-based carbonation-calcination reaction (CCR) process which utilises limestone at 600-700{sup o}C. The key to success lies in process integration by combining various modules in one step of operation. Current stages of development vary from conceptualisation to pilot demonstration and commercial process construction. Projects mentioned include the FutureGen project and the HyPr-ring chemical looping process. 2 figs.

Liang-Shih Fan; Mahesh Lyer [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-10-15

110

An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants  

SciTech Connect

Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

2008-07-01

111

Process for removing solids from coal tar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for removing solids from coal tar for the preparation of a coal tar pitch containing liquid comprising (1) centrifuging the coal tar at a suitable viscosity to separate a large particle size solids fraction from a first liquid fraction containing pitch and small particle size solids, and (2) filtering the large particle size fraction while maintaining the solids

N. S. Boodman; E. L. Farr; N. B. Green; R. J. Osterholm

1984-01-01

112

Low-Sulfur Fuel Oil from Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-sulfur bituminous coal suspended in coal tar was hydrodesulfurized by continuous processing through a fixed bed of pelletized cobalt molybdate on alumina catalyst, under conditions of highly turbulent flow of hydrogen to prevent obstruction of the ...

P. M. Yavorsky S. Akhtar S. Friedman

1971-01-01

113

3. Huber Breaker (center) and Coal Fuel Conveyor leading from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Huber Breaker (center) and Coal Fuel Conveyor leading from Breaker to Power Station (out of frame), View looking Southwest Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

114

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly progress report No. 10, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 10 (January--March, 1995), preliminary work continued for the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant. Towards this end, laboratory flotation testing and refurbishing of the column have been started. The final version of the Subtask 4.2 Advanced Flotation Process Optimization Research topical report was issued, as was a draft version of the Subtask 4.3 report discussing the formulation of coal-water slurry fuels (CWF) from advanced flotation products. A number of product samples from Subtask 4.4 testing were sent to both Combustion Engineering and Penn State for combustion testing. The evaluation of toxic trace element analyses of column flotation products also continued. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr PDU was essentially completed with the approval of various process flow, plant layout, electrical, and vendor equipment drawings. The final version of the Subtask 6.5 -- Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Design and Test Plan Report was issued during this reporting quarter. Design and construction of this 25 lb/hr selective agglomeration test unit was completed and preliminary testing started. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU began following the selection of TIC. The Industrial Company as the construction subcontractor.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1995-04-27

115

Power Gas and Combined Cycles: Clean Power From Fossil Fuels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The combined-cycle system is currently regarded as a useful procedure for producing electricity. This system can burn natural gas and oil distillates in addition to coal. In the future when natural gas stocks will be low, coal may become an important fuel for such systems. Considerable effort must be made for research on coal gasification and

Metz, William D.

1973-01-01

116

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

Parekh, B.K.

1991-01-01

117

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal-derived liquids and were removed in the refining process. Trace quantities of organo-oxygenate compounds were suspected to be present in the refined fuels. Compounds were identified and quantified as part of an effort to determine the effect of these compounds in fuel instability. Results of the analysis showed trace levels of phenols, naphthols, benzofurans, hexanol, and hydrogenated naphthols were present in levels below 100 ppM. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Knudson, C.L.

1990-06-01

118

COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

T.D. Wheelock

1999-03-01

119

Development program for MHD power generation: coal devolatilization. Final report, Volume VI, July 1, 1975September 30, 1976. [Exhaust gas from MHD generator used to pyrolyze coal for production of clean fuel gas of CO and H2  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many MHD power cycles which look attractive for producing electric power from coal is the Chemical Regeneration Cycle. In this cycle, pulverized coal is injected into and entrained in the hot exhaust of an MHD power genertor. A large percentage (approximately 70%) of the entrained coal devolatilizes under the rapid heating conditions, and the devolatilized fraction reacts

S. K. Ubhayakar; R. Gannon; D. Stickler

1977-01-01

120

Experimental study of an extractive coking process to produce low-sulfur liquid fuels from bituminous coal. Quarterly report, May 1, 1976July 31, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of a coal liquefaction process using hydrogenated solvent to produce gas, low-sulfur, low-ash coal liquid and high-ash coke from bituminous coal is being investigated. After some initial difficulties were resolved, conversions of moisture-and-ash-free coal to coal liquid with efficiencies of 39 to 49 percent have been attained. If this efficiency can be improved, the potential for coal liquefaction

E. Interess; S. A. Reber; R. M. Nadkarni; R. W. Hyde

1976-01-01

121

Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The

J. A. Caton; K. D. Kihm

1993-01-01

122

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark}

Thomas Lynch

2004-01-01

123

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels  

SciTech Connect

The ash deposition and performance behavior of a cross-section of coal-water fuels (CWFs) were investigated during comprehensive pilot-scale testing under Task 5 of the Department of Energy's Combustion and Fuel Characterization of Coal-Water Fuels project. The key results from this effort including combustion, furnace slagging, convective pass fouling, fly ash erosion and electrostatic precipitator collection characteristics of the test fuels, are summarized in this report. Data were obtained on twelve different CWFs as well as three baseline pulverized coals. Three coal types were fired at different levels of coal beneficiation to assess the effects of coal cleaning on performance. Five CWFs prepared from the same feed coal by different manufactures were tested to assess the effects of slurry processing. CWFs prepared from both standard grind and microfine grind coals were evaluated. In addition a microfine CWF was fired at fuel temperatures up to 220{degree}F to evaluate the effect of thermal atomization on performance. 8 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

Chow, O.K.; Durant, J.F.; Griffith, B.F.; Miemiec, L.S.; Levasseur, A.A.; Teigen, B.C.

1987-07-01

124

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1996-04-30

125

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

2006-03-31

126

Process for Cleaning and Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Low Btu Fuel Gases. Interim Report, January--March 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proposed to remodel the PDU by incorporation of appropriate sub-systems to permit operation in continuous process mode. The PDU will be operated for a period of time sufficient to demonstrate process viability. It has been relocated to an inproved s...

R. H. Moore D. C. Ham G. E. Stegen

1976-01-01

127

Process for cleaning and removal of sulfur compounds from low Btu fuel gases. Interim report, January--March 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed to remodel the PDU by incorporation of appropriate sub-systems to permit operation in continuous process mode. The PDU will be operated for a period of time sufficient to demonstrate process viability. It has been relocated to an inproved support facility and repaired to a state of near readiness for operation. During early pilot plant operation relatively high

R. H. Moore; D. C. Ham; G. E. Stegen

1976-01-01

128

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2008-03-31

129

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process: development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 20. Volume IV. Product studies. Part II. Processing of coal minerals for the period 1975--1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent refined process for coal liquefaction results in a residue, termed coal minerals, containing approximately 50% carbon and the remainder mineral material. Silica, alumina, iron, and sulfur (pyrites) make up the majority of the minerals. The gasification of the carbon as fuel and the recovery of iron and sulfur are the main concern of this study. Pulverized coal minerals

Moh; T. T. L

1978-01-01

130

Coal slagging burner for producing clean low-sulfur fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process is described for combusting coal containing about 2% to 8% sulfur by weight to release and recover the heat content thereof while producing a low-sulfur off-gas which comprises: combusting finely divided coal in a slagging cyclone burner under conditions of incomplete combustion to convert the sulfur content of the coal to hydrogen sulfide, carrying out the incomplete combustion

M. T. Hepworth; G. R. Wicker

1986-01-01

131

Process for particulate removal from coal liquids  

DOEpatents

Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01

132

Sustainable development with clean coal  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

NONE

1997-08-01

133

Fossil Fuels. Pace and Focus of the Clean Coal Technology Program Need to Be Assessed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal, one of the nation's most abundant energy resources, provides about 25 percent of the nation's energy needs. At the same time, however, emissions resulting from the burning of coal are major contributors to air pollution problems, particularly acid r...

J. A. Fowler M. R. Clark F. J. Kovalak R. G. Kleigleng F. W. Imbrogno

1990-01-01

134

Fuel Flexibility for Dry Low Emission Gas Turbines - Cleanly Burning Biofuels, Coal Liquids and Petroleum Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

successfully used with natural gas in combustion turbines to meet stringent emissions standards. However, the burning of liquid fuels in DLE systems is still a challenging task due to the complexities of fuel vaporization and air premixing. Lean, Premixed, Prevaporized (LPP) combustion has always provided the promise of obtaining low pollutant emissions while burning liquid fuels such as kerosene and

Michael J. Ramotowski; Richard J. Roby; Leo D. Eskin; Michael S. Klassen

135

Apparatus for manufacturing fluid coal-oil-water fuel mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is disclosed for manufacturing a coal-oil-water fuel mixture comprising a grinder for grinding coal to a relatively fine particle size, a mixer for controllably mixing the coal particle with oil, water and a high molecular weight organic mixture. These devices may be used in combination with coal cleaning apparatus for removal of ash and impurities from the coal.

Poetschke

1983-01-01

136

Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

E.T. (Skip) Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

2002-12-31

137

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus Crest are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. In addition to the maximum jet fuel schemes, conceptual designs have also been formulated for maximizing profits from refining of the Great Plains by-products. Conceptual processing schemes for profitable production of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X have been developed, as has a maximum profit'' case. All four of these additional cases have now been transferred to Lummus for design and integration studies. Development of these schemes required the use of linear programming technology. This technology includes not only conventional refining processes which have been adapted for use with coal-derived liquids (e.g. hydrotreating, hydrocracking), but also processes which may be uniquely suited to the Great Plains by-products such as cresylic acid extraction, hydordealkylation, and needle coking. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1987-01-01

138

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2006-05-17

139

Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

NONE

2005-05-01

140

Physical and chemical coal cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

1981-02-01

141

BENCH-SCALE PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ECONOMIC ANALYSES OF ELECTROSTATIC DRY COAL CLEANING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of preliminary performance evaluations and economic analyses of the Advanced Energy Dynamics (AED) electrostatic dry coal-cleaning process. Grab samples of coal feed product coals were obtained from 25 operating physical coal cleaning (PCC) plants. These ...

142

Brazing as a means of sealing ceramic membranes for use in advanced coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen that will enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes

K. Scott Weil; John S. Hardy; Joseph P. Rice; Jin Yong Y. Kim

2006-01-01

143

Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibilities of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results on coal cleaning is in progress in the Phase II study. Illinois No. 6, Ohio Lower Kittanning, and West Virginia Pocahontas coals are investigated during this reporting period to determine the most effective way of using the magnetizing method for coal cleaning. The results show that the best separation performance is obtained on finely ground coals. Up to 91% ash reduction (from 22% to 3.3% ash content) at 70% coal recovery can be obtained with the magnetizing approach when Illinois No. 6 coal is processed at 90% passing 500 mesh. Even at a coarser sizes such as 90% passing 200 mesh, 86% ash reduction with 71% coal recovery can still be obtained. Although the results are probably better than using the froth flotation method, direct comparison tests will be conducted in the next reporting period.

Hwang, J.Y.

1990-01-01

144

Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibilities of minerals have been established in Phase 1 study. The application of the results on coal cleaning for the Phase 2 study is completed this quarter. Illinois No. 6, Ohio Lower Kittanning, and West Virginia Pocahontas coals have been investigated to determine the most effective way of using the magnetizing method for coal cleaning. The results show that the best separation performance is obtained on finely ground coals. Up to 91% ash reduction (from 22% to 3.3% ash content) and 93% pyritic sulfur reduction at 70% BTU recovery can be obtained with the magnetizing approach when Illinois No. 6 coal is processed at 90% passing 500 mesh. Even at a coarser sizes such as 90% passing 200 mesh, 86% ash reduction and 87% pyritic sulfur reduction with 74% coal TBU recovery can still be obtained. Similar results are obtained for Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas coal.

Hwang, J.Y.

1990-01-01

145

MULTIPLE CATALYSTS PRODUCE A SYNTHETIC FUEL FROM COAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent government study indicates that oil prices will be substantially higher within the next few years. Thus liquid fuels from coal, will be required. The study concludes, however, that the considerable effort, time and money spent to date in trying to make gasoline from coal will be of no help in reducing in the 1990's our almost entire dependence

DONALD F. OTHMER

1989-01-01

146

Application of ultrasonic techniques to chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report, April 15, 1980-August 15, 1981. [Ultrasonic augmentation  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic activation was applied to several coal cleaning processes, including chlorinolysis, oxydesulfurization, and sodium hypochlorite leaching, in small-scale batch treatment processing of Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning, and Western Kentucky No. 11 coals. In all cases, ultrasonic energy application demonstrated effects that would translate in production to processing efficiencies and/or capital equipment savings. Specifically, in the chlorinolysis reaction, pyritic sulfur was removed 23 times faster with ultrasonics than without it. (Organic sulfur could not be removed from the coal examined with or without ultrasonics in the chlorinolysis process). In sodium hypochlorite leaching, the total sulfur extraction rate was 3 times faster with ultrasonics. Two separate benefits were seen with oxydesulfurization: ultrasonics doubled the reaction rate and at slightly accelerated rates allowed a pressure reduction from 960 to 500 psi, which would be a significant cost efficiency in production. With these results, it was recommended that ultrasonic processing be investigated with a process involving interactions similarly amenable to ultrasonic enhancement, i.e., molten salt leaching, which is reported to have the potential not only for more extensive sulfur extraction than the other experimental processes, but for ash removal as well.

Tarpley, W.B. Jr.; Twesme, E.N.; Howard, P.L.; Moulder, G.R.

1981-08-01

147

Coal cleaning by froth flotation  

SciTech Connect

A number of experiments were conducted to determine the flotation characteristics of Iowa coals in which various conditions were applied to study the effect of different parameters such as frother dosage, oily collectors, pyrite depressants, and various combinations of these reagents. Flotation tests were also conducted with Appalachian coals for comparison. Iowa coals did not respond as well to froth flotation as Appalachian coals. Although Iowa coal floated very flowly and incompletely with only a frother (methyl isobutyl carbinol or MIBC), it floated rapidly when a large dosage of an oily collector (No. 200 LLS fuel oil) was employed in addition. No. 1 fuel oil was not nearly as effective as a collector for this application. The order of addition of flotation reagents appeared very important for achieving a high recovery of Iowa coal. Appalachian coals floated rapidly with only a frother or an alkaline solution. A small amount of an oily collector increased the recovery of Appalachian coals significantly. The results of these flotation experiments showed that little mineral matter was removed when a high recovery was achieved. The use of ultrasonics did seem to improve mineral matter liberation. Bubble-particle attachment was studied from a theoretical view point. This study showed that the mechanism of attachment differs depending on the relative size of bubbles and particles. The study indicated that micro-bubbles could separate mineral matter from low rank coal more selectively than macro-bubbles could. A general kinetic model was proposed to represent the rate of flotation of coal. For two Appalachian coals, the model successfully represented the flotation kinetics of uniformly sized coal and for coal consisting of two sizes of particles. 115 references, 33 figures, 34 tables.

Han, C.

1984-01-01

148

WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

Doug Strickland

2001-09-28

149

Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full implementation of coal fuel sources will require more effective methods of providing clean coal'' as a fuel source. Methods must be developed to reduce the sulfur content of coal which significantly contributes to environmental pollution. This project is designed to develop methods for precombustion coal remediation by implementing recent advantages in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study

Walsh

1991-01-01

150

H sub 2 S removal from fuel gas during coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has already developed the U-GAS Process to produce fuel gas from coal. The U-GAS process uses a single-stage fluidized-bed reactor efficiently convert any type of coal either run-of-mine or washed, into low- or medium-Btu fuel gas that can be used in industrial plants or utility power plants. (2) The process has been developed during

J. Abbasian; A. Rehmat; D. Leppin; D. D. Banerjee

1990-01-01

151

Primary Clean Machine Process Validation for Mark IV Fuel and Fuel in Aluminum Canisters Test Plan and Test Specification (OCRWM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Primary Clean Machine (PCM) is to reduce the canister particulate loading in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) to ensure that fuel particulate loadings satisfy safety basis requirements. Adequate fuel cleaning can be verified by visually ...

A. L. Pitner

2001-01-01

152

Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibility of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results on coal cleaning is in progress in the Phase II study. The task in Phase II study for coal selection, preparation, and characterization is completed in this reporting period. The optimization of adsorption conditions for {minus}48 mesh ROM coals and flotation concentrates is about completed. Experiments have shown that successful coal cleaning can be obtained with this magnetizing reagent approach. The task to adapt the approach to various processing schemes is just initiated.

Hwang, J.Y.

1989-01-01

153

NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

Hamid Farzan

2001-09-24

154

Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels. [From coal  

SciTech Connect

The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

Kalfayan, S.H.; Fedors, R.F.; Reilly, W.W.

1979-06-01

155

Environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes; first annual report. Volume I. Executive summary. Annual report July 1976September 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of the first year's work on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. A short base of engineering, ecological, pollution control, and cost data is being established through data gathering and systems analysis efforts. In addition to program management, three task areas are defined: system studies, data acquisition, and general program support. Early availability is anticipated

A. W. Jr Lemmon; S. E. Rogers; G. L. Robinson; V. Q. Hale; G. E. Raines

1979-01-01

156

Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered  

DOEpatents

An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

Bauman, Richard F. (Houston, TX); Ryan, Daniel F. (Friendswood, TX)

1982-01-01

157

Recent Trends in the Cleaning of Diesel Fuels via Desulfurization Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a selective review of new approaches and emerging technologies for ultra-clean (ultra-low sulfur) diesel fuels. The issues of diesel deep desulfurization are becoming more serious because the crude oils are getting higher in sulfur content, while the regulated sulfur limits are becoming lower and lower. Deep reduction of diesel sulfur (from 500 to <15 ppmw sulfur) is

S. A. Hanafi; M. S. Mohamed

2011-01-01

158

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 90% pyrite sulfur rejection at a Btu recovery greater than 90% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass storage, grinding environments and media, surface modification during

B. I. Morsi; S. H. Chiang; A. Sharkey; J. Blachere; G. Klinzing; R. Streeter; R. Gray; R. Venkatadri; Y. S. Cheng; P. Chiarelli; L. Perez; S. Kim; M. Ciocco; H. Bi

1990-01-01

159

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 90% pyrite sulfur rejection at a energy recovery greater than 90% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing.

B. I. Morsi; S. H. Chiang; A. Sharkey; J. Blachere; G. Klinzing; G. Araujo; H. Bi; P. Campbell; M. Ciocco; L. Hittle; S. Kim; L. Perez

1991-01-01

160

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 90% pyrite sulfur rejection at a energy recovery greater than 90% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing.

B. I. Morsi; S.-H. Chiang; A. Sharkey; J. Blachere; G. Klinzing; R. Streeter; R. Gray; G. Araujo; R. Venkatadri; H. Bi; P. Campbell; M. Ciocco; L. Hittle; S. Kim; P. Chiarelli; Y. Kim; L. Perez; Y. S. Cheng

1990-01-01

161

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection while operating at a Btu recovery greater than 90% based on run-of-mine coal. The project consists of the following tasks: Project Planning; Method for Analysis of Samples; Development

B. I. Morsi; S. H. Chiang; A. Sharkey; J. Blachere; G. Klinzing; R. Streeter; R. Gray; R. Venkatadri; Y. S. Chen; P. Chiarelli; L. Perez; S. Kim; M. Ciocco; H. Bi

1989-01-01

162

Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals  

SciTech Connect

To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and computerized. These data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur forms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. During the contract period more than 5000 samples were prepared and distributed. A theoretical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of coal has been completed. The reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, has been studied with regard to reactivity to air, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and steam. Another area research has concerned the catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported here. The products of this research can be found in 23 DOE Technical Research Reports and 49 published papers. As another mechanism of technology transfer, the results have been conveyed via more than 70 papers presented at a variety of scientific meetings. References to all of these are contained in this report.

Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Vastola, F.J.; Given, P.H.; Suhr, N.H.; Jenkins, R.G.

1982-06-01

163

Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

1998-03-01

164

Coal liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, R.W.; Tao, J.C.; Znaimer, S.

1985-04-09

165

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01

166

Catalyst for coal liquefaction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from

Derk T. A. Huibers; Chia-Chen C. Kang

1984-01-01

167

Direct analysis of organic compounds in aqueous by?products from fossil fuel conversion processes: Oil shale retorting, synthane coal gasification and coed coal liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole water samples are injected directly into a gas Chromatograph equipped with a packed Tenax?GC column. Polar compounds are separated with good resolution under the temperature programming conditions employed. The by?product water from oil shale retorting contains carboxylic acids in the homologous series ranging from acetic to decanoic acid. Various amides, cresols and phenol are present in trace amounts. Coal

C. H. Ho; B. R. Clark; M. R. Guerin

1976-01-01

168

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design. Samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels have been manufactured from the Great Plains tar oil. Larger samples of JP-8 have also been produced and shipped to the US Air Force for further testing. Lummus-Crest Inc. is now completing a preliminary process design for the profitable production of JP-8 and has made recommendations for a production run to produce larger quantities of JP-8. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

1989-01-01

169

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 13, October--December, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. During Quarter 13 (October--December 1995), testing of the GranuFlow dewatering process indicated a 3--4% reduction in cake moisture for screen-bowl and solid-bowl centrifuge products. The Orimulsion additions were also found to reduce the potential dustiness of the fine coal, as well as improve solids recovery in the screen-bowl centrifuge. Based on these results, Lady Dunn management now plans to use a screen bowl centrifuge to dewater their Microcel{trademark} column froth product. Subtask 3.3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-slurry formulation, indicated that selective agglomeration products can be formulated into slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that a very fine grind is required to meet the 2 lb ash/MBtu product specification for the Winifrede coal, while the Hiawatha coal requires a grind in the 100- to 150-mesh topsize range. Detailed design work remaining involves the preparation and issuing of the final task report. Utilizing this detailed design, a construction bid package was prepared and submitted to three Colorado based contractors for quotes as part of Task 9.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1996-01-31

170

Vibration mills in the manufacturing technology of slurry fuel from unbeneficiated coal sludge  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) is economically viable provided that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount water in the fuel is at most 45%. Two impoundments were revealed that have considerable reserves of waste coal useful for commercial manufacture of CWSF without the beneficiation step. One of the CWSF manufacture steps is the comminution of coal sludge to have a particle size required by the combustion conditions. Vibration mills, which are more compact and energy-intensive that drum mills, can be used in the CWSG manufacture process. The rheological characteristics of CWSF obtained from unbeneficiated waste coal were determined.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russia)

2008-08-15

171

Cleaning coal with coal: coal humic acids for removal of acid, iron, heavy metals, and organic pollutants associated with use of coal as a fuel. Completion report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cation exchangers were prepared by surface oxidizing Missouri bituminous coal with 6 M nitric acid through which air was bubbled. This treatment introduces oxygen-containing functional groups on the coal surface producing an ion exchanger with acid-base properties and the capability of chelating metal ions. The sodium form of the ion exchanger removed sulfuric acid from water raising the pH from

Manahan

1975-01-01

172

Primary Clean Machine Process Validation for Mark 4 Fuel & Fuel in Aluminum Canisters Test Plan & Test Specification (OCRWM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Primary Clean Machine (PCM) is to reduce the canister particulate loading in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) to ensure that fuel particulate loadings satisfy safety basis requirements. Adequate fuel cleaning can be verified by visually examining each fuel element to be loaded into an MCO basket. However, to reduce the need for visual examination of the fuel,

2001-01-01

173

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design in the later phases of the contract. Samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels have been manufactured from the Great Plains tar oil. Larger samples of JP-8 are nearly completed. Specification of a design basis for profitable production of JP-8 is under way. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

1988-01-01

174

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 12 (July--September 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at Lady Dunn. Under Subtask 4.4, additional toxic trace element analysis of column flotation samples finalized the data set. Data analysis indicates that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements. The final Subtask 6.3 Selective Agglomeration Process Optimization topical report was issued this quarter. Preliminary Subtask 6.4 work investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation indicated that selective agglomeration products formulate slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Work continued on Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing. Results indicate that a 2 lb ash/MBtu product could be produced at a 100-mesh topsize with the Elkhorn No. 3 coal. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module neared completion this quarter with the completion of additional revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU and advanced flotation module was completed this quarter and startup and shakedown testing began.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1995-10-31

175

Economic feasibility study: fuel grade methanol from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant to make fuel grade methanol from coal based on Texaco partial oxidation pressure gasifiers and low pressure methanol synthesis is described. A nominal plant size of 5,000 T\\/D was selected to take advantage of scale in minimizing unit investment. The plant would consume 8,702 tons of high sulfur bituminous coal per stream day and is estimated to cost

McGeorge

1976-01-01

176

Evaluation of pollution control in fossil fuel conversion processes. Coal treatment. Section 1: Meyers process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses the Meyers process whereby pyritic sulfur is removed from coal by the action of a solution of ferric sulfate. The coal is not converted, and it essentially retains its original heating value. The pyritic sulfur leaves the process as elemental sulfur and iron sulfates. The quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous effluents are estimated, as well as

E. M. Magee

1975-01-01

177

Coal slurry fuels preparation and utilization: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Proceedings on a symposium of coal slurry fuels is presented. Research is discussed in the following areas: Coal Slurryability; Slurry Fuel Rheology; Slurry Fuel Atomization; Beneficiated Coal Slurry Fuels; Coal-Based Fuel Options; Fundamentals of Slurry Fuel Combustion; Small Scale Combustion Tests; Large Scale Combustion Tests; Ultrafine Coals and Heat Engines; Slurry Fuel Burners and Combustors; Slurry Fuel Retrofit Engineering; Demonstration Projects; Slurry Preparation Processes; Slurry Fuel Transportation and Handling; and Commercial Ventures. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS)

Not Available

1986-01-01

178

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process. Technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The continuous testing of the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) bench-scale unit (Task 6) was completed successfully in this quarter using Middle Wyodak and Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples. The CECC unit was run under the optimum conditions established for these coal samples in Task 4. For the Middle Wyodak coal, the ash content was reduced from 6.96% to as low 1.61%, corresponding to an ash rejection (by weight) of about 83%. The ash and sulfur contents of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were reduced to as low as 1.8% and 0.9%. The average ash and sulfur rejections were calculated to be around 84% and 47%. The CECC continuous unit was used to treat -325 mesh Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples and gave ash and sulfur rejection values of as high as 77% and 66%. In these test, the clean -325 mesh coal particles were separated from the liberated mineral matter through microbubble column flotation, instead of wet-screening.

Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

1991-12-31

179

Development of a method for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from beneficiation processes  

SciTech Connect

A novel method was developed for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from sonication and other cleaning processes. This method employs a unique flow-cell to permit the dynamic measurement of dye adsorption on coal and mineral particle surfaces. The rates and extents of adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were found to be dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A significant correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to absorb significantly more of the dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite, or clean coal'' surfaces. By using dyes of differing adsorption selectivity, it is demonstrated that sonication reduces the apparent mineral content on the surface of coal. 9 refs., 7 fig., 3 tabs.

Slomka, B.J.; Seward, K.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

1989-01-01

180

Process for removing sulfur from coal  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

1983-08-11

181

Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

Hwang, J.Y.

1992-01-01

182

Gas cleaning challenges for coal-fired oxy-fuel technology with carbon capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the three major carbon capture technologies associated with carbon capture and storage (CCS), oxy-fuel technology is currently undergoing rapid development with a number of international demonstration projects commencing in the progression towards commercialisation. The CO2 gas quality from oxy-fuel differs from pre- and post-combustion technologies, having higher levels of inert gases, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen gases and

Terry Wall; Rohan Stanger; Yinghui Liu

183

Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

Not Available

1990-09-01

184

Utilities' Potential Use of Clean Coal Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article discusses past work on the Clean Coal Technology program and the preliminary results of our nationwide questionnaire survey on utilities' plans to use clean coal technologies. Comments address the possible impact that clean air legislation mi...

1990-01-01

185

Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals  

SciTech Connect

Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

1990-09-01

186

Development of a coal cleaning control system  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy selected the Battelle-Electric Power Research Institute-Science Applications International Corporation team to evaluate and develop on-line slurry ash, percent solids, and sulfur analysis instrumentation and process control technology. The project's objectives were (1) to develop an accurate, versatile, easy to use, on-line coal slurry analyzer and (2) to develop control strategies for analysis, control, and optimization of advanced and conventional coal-cleaning plant. The project's scope included (1) the installation of a slurry test loop, ash, percent solids, and sulfur instruments; (2) evaluation of instrument accuracy with various coals, under various slurry conditions; and (3) assessment of the cost and benefits to be derived from on-line analysis and control 12 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs.

Conkle, H.N.; Barnes, R.H.; Orban, J.E.; Webb, P.R.

1990-03-09

187

Coal cleaning by gas agglomeration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas...

T. D. Wheelock

1999-01-01

188

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Vol 16. Analysis of phenolic species in coal-derived aviation fuels. Interim report, September 1988-July 1989  

SciTech Connect

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal derived liquids and were removed in the refining process. Trace quantities of organo-oxygenate compounds were suspected to be present in the refined fuels. Compounds were identified and quantified as part of an effort to determine the effect of these compounds in fuel instability.

Guffey, F.D.; Hunter, D.E.

1990-06-01

189

Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles ...

J. W. Wilson Y. Ding R. Q. Honaker

1995-01-01

190

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

NONE

1997-05-01

191

Stoker test evaluations using clean pellet fuel  

SciTech Connect

A chain-grate stoker at the powerhouse of the Ohio State Reformatory was modified for use of clean pellet fuel for combustion demonstrations. Clean pellet fuel for the Mansfield tests was prepared from a series of production test runs at the Cleveland Research Center using relatively high sulfur industrial coal ranging from about 3.1 to 4.5% sulfur. Accordingly, pellets of a relatively high sulfur content were produced. Also, sulfur fixation in the pellets for the Mansfield tests was not as extensive as that from the Massillon tests. Subsequent small scale bench tests and prior pilot plant tests showed how this could be improved if necessary by use of alkaline additions. Table A provides a summary of modifications made on the Mansfield stoker along with the outcome and general observations. Through the use of the developed firing system stack conditions invariably remained free of visible emissions and black, sooty type smoke was not observed, verifying the smokeless nature of the fuel. Optimum conditions apparently exist for (a) ideal ignition, (b) sulfur emission minimization, and (c) particulate emission minimization. These reported test runs had the primary objective of demonstrating the capability of the fuel to continuously ignite and fire using a stoker-boiler designed for normal bituminous coal operating under a range of firing conditions. This was adequately demonstrated; however, the test runs were of insufficient duration to attain optimum firing conditions for all environmental control measures. Nevertheless, extensive sulfur and particulate arresting was evident and compliance conditions are attainable for more than about 75% of the counties of Ohio using coal that exceeds 3 1/2% sulfur for production of clean pellet fuel.

Marlowe, W.H.; Brody, C.W.; Ban, T.E.; Nelson, C.J.

1980-10-01

192

Environmental and economic comparison of advanced processes for conversion of coal and biomass into clean energy. Final report Sep 77Dec 78  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass and coal conversion into clean energy is compared on an economic and environmental basis in three regional scenarios: (1) electric power from direct combustion of wood versus conventional coal combustion in the South Central U.S.; (2) synthetic pipeline gas from anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and manure versus high-Btu gasification of coal (HYGAS) in the Midwest; and (3) synthetic

R. A. Stenzel; B. T. Kown; M. C. Weekes; B. R. Gilbert; C. M. Harper

1981-01-01

193

Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict environmental requirements. DOE provided $117,327,000 of the total project cost of $282,300,000, or 41.6 percent. Construction for the demonstration project was started in May 1995, and completed in November 1997. Operations were initiated in January 1998, and completed in December 1999. The evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from the AIDEA's Final Report (Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, 2001), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-09-01

194

Combustion characterization of coal-water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

As a result of coal cleaning operations, a substantial amount of coal is disposed as waste into the ponds, effecting and endangering the environment. This study includes a technique to recover and utilize the waste coal fines from the preparation plant effluent streams and tailing ponds. Due to the large moisture content of the recovered coal fines, this investigation is focused on the utilization of coal fines in the coal-water slurry fuel. It is our belief that a blend of plant coal and waste coal fines can be used to produce a coal-water slurry fuel with the desired combustion characteristics required by the industry. The coal blend is composed of 85% clean coal and 15% recovered coal fines. The coal-water slurry is prepared at 60% solids with a viscosity less than 500 centipose and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. This paper contains analysis of clean coal, recovered coal fines, and coal-water slurry fuel as well as combustion characteristics.

Masudi, Houshang; Samudrala, S.

1996-12-31

195

Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

NONE

1997-10-01

196

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 9 (October--December, 1995), parametric and optimization testing was completed for the Taggart, Sunnyside, and Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column. The detailed design of the 2-t/hr PDU grinding, flotation, and dewatering circuits neared completion with the specification of the major pieces of capital equipment to be purchased for these areas. Selective agglomeration test work investigated the properties of various industrial grades of heptane for use during bench- and PDU-scale testing. It was decided to use a hydrotreated grade of commercial heptane due to its low cost and low concentration of aromatic compounds. The final Subtask 6.4 CWF Formulation Studies Test Plan was issued. A draft version of the Subtask 6.5 Preliminary Design and Test Plan Report was also issued, discussing the progress made in the design of the bench-scale selective agglomeration unit. PDU construction work moved forward through the issuing of 26 request for quotations and 21 award packages for capital equipment.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)

1995-01-25

197

Process for removal of solids from solvent refined coal solutions  

SciTech Connect

A method for separating solids from a liquefied coal slurry resulting from the SRC process utilizes an improved carbon filteraid material prepared by flash heating thermally expandable coal particles under controlled conditions.

Shea, F.L.

1982-01-26

198

Burning coal more cleanly and efficiently  

SciTech Connect

Clean coal-burning technologies, long an object of research, have become a political hot potato overnight, caught up in the debate over how best to control acid rain. Suddenly a host of U.S. government officials have come forward, all determined to ''do something about acid rain.'' But what should be done. Some want to mandate pollution controls, like scrubbers, on existing coal-burning power plants; other want to push for new, cleaner ways to burn coal. Regardless of what Governemnt officials decide, engineers who have looked into the problem have reached a firm conclusion: the new technologies promise better pollution control at lower cost than attempts to patch the old systems; they also solve another utility problem-how to add small increments of generating capacity in only a few years. Unlike scrubbers, which capture pollutants from coal boilers as they flow up the stack, the new methods-fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification-consume hydrocarbons and remove gaseous pollutants (such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide) during the combustion process itself. Integrating emission control into the combustion or gasification process is less costly, less energy-intensive, and more efficient than removing pollutants from the flue gas. The new alternatives will make better use of utility and ratepayer money, proponents of the new technologies maintain.

Not Available

1986-08-01

199

Utilities' potential use of clean coal technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging clean coal technologies could help significantly reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants. However, it is uncertain whether this technology will be commercially available and widely deployed in time to meet the requirements of proposed acid rain legislation. Although utilities said they would give much greater consideration to these technologies once legislation is enacted, they indicated that their investment decisions

Rezendes

1990-01-01

200

Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

Phase I study, which investigates the fundamental chemistry and properties of magnetizing reagents, is completed in this reporting period. Phase II study is initiated to apply the results of Phase I study for coal cleaning. Coal samples for Phase II work have been selected, ordered, and received. Processing and characterization of coal samples are in progress. Preliminary tests show that significant ash and sulfur reduction can be obtained with the magnetizing reagent method. The work is slightly behind the schedule due to the delay of coal shipment. Since the coal samples have been received, the schedule will be caught up in the next quarter. The major work for the next quarter will be the processing and characterization of coals and the optimization of magnetizing conditions for each coal.

Hwang, J.Y.

1989-01-01

201

Control of pyrite surface chemistry in physical coal cleaning. Eleventh quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the development of microbubble flotation, flotation also shows considerable promise as a method for cleaning micronized coal to produce superclean and ultraclean fuels. One major goal is to use flotation, as a low-cost physical beneficiation process,...

G. H. Luttrell R. H. Yoon P. R. Richardson

1992-01-01

202

Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the DOE-sponsored contract Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal-Derived Syngas'' experimental evaluations of the one-step synthesis of alternative fuels were carried out. The objective of this work was to develop novel processes for converting coal-derived syngas to fuels or fuel additives. Building on a technology base acquired during the development

1993-01-01

203

Process development for production of coal/sorbent agglomerates. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this work was to develop a process flow diagram to economically produce a clean-burning fuel from fine Illinois coal. To accomplish this, the process of pelletizing fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, was investigated...

D. M. Rapp

1991-01-01

204

Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

2005-05-01

205

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01

206

Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1989-08-28

207

The examination of pretreatment and end use technologies for dirty fuels produced from coal gasification, coal pyrolysis, oil shale processing, and heavy oil recovery: Final technology status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify pretreatment (upgrading) and end use technologies which: (1) reduce environmental, health and safety impacts, (2) reduce pollution control costs, or (3) reduce upgrading costs of ''dirty fuels'' while producing higher value energy products. A comprehensive list of technologies was developed for upgrading the various dirty fuels to higher value and products. Fifty-two

D. P. Raden; G. C. Page

1987-01-01

208

Zero Emission Steam Technology: Clean Electric Power from Fossil Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

As demand for electricity grows, the United States needs practical technologies for generating electricity without causing environmental harm--such as the Zero Emission Steam Technology (ZEST) developed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc. However, further research is required to reduce the scientific and economic risks before the U.S. electric power industry will embrace ZEST. Therefore, Clean Energy Systems, Inc., along with energy-generation

2001-01-01

209

Clean coal technologies in Asia  

SciTech Connect

Asia`s growing need for cleaner coal technology will likely translate into increased opportunities for independent developers and equipment suppliers. Coal is projected to play a central role in meeting Asia`s rapidly growing electric power demand. In order to minimize the negative effects of coal comsumption, the application of clean coal technologies (CCTs) will be increasingly important for the viability of coal-fired plants developed by independent power producers. The environmental impact of coal consumption has created a growing market for clean coal technologies in Asia. A study commissioned by the US DOE estimates the market for new and retrofit installation of coal facilities in Asia to be between $410 billion and $560 billion between 1993 and 2010. Actual expenditures for CCTs during the same period are likely to be much less, but still significant. Cost continues to be a factor limiting the more wide spread application of these technologies. In most cases, the application of CCTs leads to a 15 percent to 20 percent increase in capital costs and 10 to 20 percent in operating costs.

Evans, P.

1995-04-01

210

ADVANCED HETEROGENEOUS REBURN FUEL FROM COAL AND HOG MANURE  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to investigate whether the nitrogen content inherent in hog manure and alkali used as a catalyst during processing could be combined with coal to produce a reburn fuel that would result in advanced reburning NO{sub x} control without the addition of either alkali or ammonia/urea. Fresh hog manure was processed in a cold-charge, 1-gal, batch autoclave system at 275 C under a reducing atmosphere in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Instead of the expected organic liquid, the resulting product was a waxy solid material. The waxy nature of the material made size reduction and feeding difficult as the material agglomerated and tended to melt, plugging the feeder. The material was eventually broken up and sized manually and a water-cooled feeder was designed and fabricated. Two reburn tests were performed in a pilot-scale combustor. The first test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture comprising lignite and air-dried, raw hog manure. The second test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture made of lignite and the processed hog manure. Neither reburn fuel reduced NO{sub x} levels in the combustor flue gas. Increased slagging and ash deposition were observed during both reburn tests. The material-handling and ash-fouling issues encountered during this study indicate that the use of waste-based reburn fuels could pose practical difficulties in implementation on a larger scale.

Melanie D. Jensen; Ronald C. Timpe; Jason D. Laumb

2003-09-01

211

Potential of novel MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves as supports for catalytic conversion of coal-derived liquids into clean transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect

The world will continue to rely on liquid fuels to fulfill the world's transportation energy needs. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world would last for 220 years at the world's annual consumption rate in 1996, while the known oil reserves as of 1997 would last a mere 40 years at the world's consumption rate of 1996. Thus the conversion of coal derived liquids into transportation fuels will be an area of long-term research. Heightened awareness and knowledge on the detrimental effects of automobile emissions and pollution from liquid fuels has led society to articulate its desire for improved air quality through stringent environmental regulations concerning fuel quality. These fuel quality standards are getting all the more stringent. A specific example is that of sulfur content in diesel; the now common sulfur content of 500 wppm is set to come down to 30 wppm. Coal derived liquids will, thus, require extensive processing and one important process is hydrotreating. Such fuel quality standards will make the task of hydrotreating at refineries technologically more challenging. One promising approach is to develop hydrotreating catalysts with steep increase in activity. In 1992 researchers at Mobil Technology Company invented a new class of molecular sieves with pore diameters of 2--15 nm, i.e., mesoporous in nature. These mesoporous molecular sieves have high surface area in uniform mesopores and are expected to be of importance in hydroprocessing liquids, which contain large heteroatom-containing molecules such as alkylated dibenzothiophenes. This paper reviews research initiatives, with some of the earliest ones emerging from this laboratory, in the use of mesoporous aluminosilicate-supported catalysts for hydrogenation and hydrotreating.

Turaga, U.; Song, C.

1999-07-01

212

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation  

SciTech Connect

a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

213

40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. 60.253 Section...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation and Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a)...

2013-07-01

214

Assessment and control of environmental contamination from trace elements in coal processing wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with discarded refuse from coal cleaning and processing are recognized, including waste-bank instability, acid drainage from disposal areas, and noxious emissions from burning wastes. EPA, and other organizations, support efforts to develop methods for controlling forms of environmental contamination. Attention has turned to the environmental hazards posed by the vast array of potentially harmful trace elements in

E. M. Wewerka; J. M. Williams; P. L. Wanek

1976-01-01

215

Zero Emission Steam Technology: Clean Electric Power from Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

As demand for electricity grows, the United States needs practical technologies for generating electricity without causing environmental harm--such as the Zero Emission Steam Technology (ZEST) developed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc. However, further research is required to reduce the scientific and economic risks before the U.S. electric power industry will embrace ZEST. Therefore, Clean Energy Systems, Inc., along with energy-generation stakeholders and in partnership with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, proposes to build a ZEST research facility for performing research.

Smith, J R

2001-07-31

216

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11

217

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01

218

Clean coal power system  

SciTech Connect

A coal burning power plant which produces electricity at high efficiency and with very low levels of atmospheric contamination. A fluidized bed of limestone and coal is used to burn the coal with little air pollution, and a large quantity of specially constructed heat pipes transfer the heat to a closed cycle gas turbine with very low temperature loss. The preferred embodiments of the heat pipes are constructed with steel casing, have a thin aluminum oxide layer on their surfaces to prevent hydrogen permeation into the casing and have a plasma sprayed coating of ceramic on the portion within the fluidized bed to prevent erosion of the heat pipe casing by the solid particles within the bed.

Eastman, G.Y.

1983-04-19

219

Coal and biomass to fuels and power.  

PubMed

Systems with CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) that coproduce transportation fuels and electricity from coal plus biomass can address simultaneously challenges of climate change from fossil energy and dependence on imported oil. Under a strong carbon policy, such systems can provide competitively clean low-carbon energy from secure domestic feedstocks by exploiting the negative emissions benefit of underground storage of biomass-derived CO(2), the low cost of coal, the scale economies of coal energy conversion, the inherently low cost of CO(2) capture, the thermodynamic advantages of coproduction, and expected high oil prices. Such systems require much less biomass to make low-carbon fuels than do biofuels processes. The economics are especially attractive when these coproduction systems are deployed as alternatives to CCS for stand-alone fossil fuel power plants. If CCS proves to be viable as a major carbon mitigation option, the main obstacles to deployment of coproduction systems as power generators would be institutional. PMID:22432630

Williams, Robert H; Liu, Guangjian; Kreutz, Thomas G; Larson, Eric D

2011-01-01

220

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

1992-01-01

221

Zinc Halide Hydrocracking Process for Distillate Fuels from Coal. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, February 1--April 30,1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1 TPD Process Development Unit is 97% complete with the Regeneration Section the only major remaining item. Break-in testing of the Liquefaction Section was delayed by failures of the Rix hydrogen compressors, but hot hydrogen pressure testing is subs...

R. T. Struck M. Pell W. A. Parker J. T. Maskew C. W. Zielke

1978-01-01

222

THE ''CLEAN-UP'' PROCESS: A CHEMICAL CHOP PROCESS. (I. Application to Zirconium-Clad Fuel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new head-end process for zirconium-clad fuel. Essentially, this consists of an electrochemical pre-treatment of the oxide-protected zirconium-canning, followed by chemical attack, based on the 'Zirflex' decanning concept. Such a pre-treatment may be carried out either on the whole can surface or on local peripheral bands. The first leads to a faster 'Zirflex' decanning operation; the second

R. Kroebel; E. Lopez-Menchero; J. M. Pivato

1968-01-01

223

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01

224

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During this contract period adsorption of di-, tri-, and tetra-valent metal ions, and octadecylamine onto the clean coal was studied. The adsorption of divalent copper ions provided three charge reversal points (or zero-point-of-charges) for the clean coal. The lowest amount of moisture in the filter cake was obtained near the two charge reversal points of the copper-coal system. For the tri-valent aluminum ions and tetra-valent titanium ions one charge reversal, at pH 8.0 and pH 5.0 was observed, respectively. The moisture in the filter cake was lowest near the zero point of charge (ZPC) or both the metal ions. Adsorption of octadecylamine onto the coal provided one ZPC at pH {approximately}7. 0. However, moisture content of the filter cake was not significantly lowered at this pH Morphology of the filter cake obtained without the addition of metal ions or surfactant, showed segregation of large particle at the bottom of filter cake. Efforts are in progress to determine effect of combining metal ions and various (nonionic and anionic) surfactant on filtration, and utilizing a better approach to study the in-situ morphology of the filter cake. 13 figs.

Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). Center for Applied Energy Research)

1991-01-01

225

A comparison of direct and indirect liquefaction technologies for making fluid fuels from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct and indirect liquefaction technologies for making synthetic liquid fuels from coal are com- pared. It is shown that although direct liquefaction conversion processes might be more energy- efficient, overall system efficiencies for direct and indirect liquefaction are typically comparable if end-use as well as production efficiencies are taken into account. It is shown that some synfuels derived via indirect

Robert H. Williams; Eric D. Larson

2003-01-01

226

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 9, April--June 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1991-01-01

227

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 18, July--September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; M. J. Hargrove

1993-01-01

228

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 10, July--September 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1991-01-01

229

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 13, April--June 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1992-01-01

230

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 16, January--March 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1993-01-01

231

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 14, July--September 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1993-01-01

232

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 12, January--March 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1992-01-01

233

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 15, October--December 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1993-01-01

234

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 17, April--June 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1993-01-01

235

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches

O. K. Chow; N. Y. Nsakala

1991-01-01

236

A New Route to Liquid Fuels from Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many decades to come, the transformation of coal to high-grade liquid fuels and chemicals will be a continuing challenge. Chemically speaking, this conversion requires a gradual rearrangement of the carbon and hydrogen atoms and the addition of hydrogen, or the complete transformation of coal into building blocks containing a single carbon atom, and putting them together selectively with hydrogen

S. L. Meisel

1981-01-01

237

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process. Technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continuous testing of the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) bench-scale unit (Task 6) was completed successfully in this quarter using Middle Wyodak and Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples. The CECC unit was run under the optimum conditions est...

C. I. Basilio R. H. Yoon

1991-01-01

238

APEC experts` group on clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Expert`s Group on Clean Coal Technology`s Technical Seminar held in Jakarta, Indonesia, from October 10-13, 1994 are presented. A total of 28 papers were presented at the seminar. These papers addressed issues of relevance to APEC member economies associated with the application of clean coal technologies (CCTs) and created a forum where information and ideas about CCTs and their application in the Asia-Pacific Region could be exchanged. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1994-12-31

239

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation techniques provides a low ash product, however, due to high surface area of particles the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combination of metal ion and surfactant found to be effective in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1992-08-01

240

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop the process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During the last year`s effort, it was reported that a combination of metal ion and surfactant provided a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

Parekh, B.K.

1991-12-31

241

ULTRASONIC CLEANING. I. FILM REMOVAL FROM ORGANIC MODERATED FUEL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of removal, through specially designed ultrasonic ; hardware, of heat-transfer-limiting films which form on the surface of reactor ; fuel plates was investigated. The removal of a variety of film deposits ; simulating the range of coatings expected in the OMRE was carried out on coupon ; specimens. The most effective ultrasonic activation method was direct coupling ;

W. B. Tarpley; R. Pheasant

1963-01-01

242

Clean Coal Program Research Activities  

SciTech Connect

Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

2009-03-31

243

Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992February 28, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from

Rajan

1993-01-01

244

Experimental study of an extractive coking process to produce low-sulfur liquid fuels from bituminous coal. Quarterly report, October 25, 1975January 30, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the delayed coking process for the extractive coking of bituminous coals. The first two pilot plant runs using hydrotreated solvent have been completed at Foster Wheeler. For both, the slurrying mode of operation was used. The first run gave a conversion of 45 percent of the moisture-and-ash-free coal,

S. A. Reber; R. M. Nadkarni; R. W. Hyde

1976-01-01

245

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2007-03-17

246

Fossil Fuels: Coal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of coal as an energy source. Topics include the history of coal usage, applications of coal as an energy source, and major suppliers of coal (the United States). There is also discussion of how coal is created, located, and produced, and technologies for burning it more cleanly. The lesson includes a hands-on activity in which students measure the ash content of various types of coal.

Pratte, John

247

Open-Cycle Gas Turbine\\/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine\\/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the

R. P. Shah; J. C. Corman

1977-01-01

248

Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

Not Available

1991-12-01

249

Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

Not Available

1991-12-01

250

The Impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilitiesand Coal Mines: Evidence from the Stock Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

If new environmental regulation imposes significant costs on firms, it should be detected in their stock prices. We use event study methodology to analyze whether President George H. Bushs Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) proposals of June 1989, which were quite different from what had been expected, depressed stock prices in affected electricity generating and coal mining companies. We find

Christopher Knittel; Shulamit Kahn

2002-01-01

251

Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April--June 1976. [Change to Texaco gasification process from Koppers-Totzek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall progress on the Clean Boiler Fuel Demonstration Plant was maintained on schedule. A major new development involved the decision to change to the Texaco gasifier from Koppers-Totzek, which required new engineering effort in many sections and a rework of the overall plant heat and mass balances. Coalcon completed a total of nine calibration runs on the coal feed apparatus

P. C. White; G. A. Rial

1976-01-01

252

Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses policy instruments for promoting the market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) into China's electricity sector and the evaluation of corresponding effects. Based on the reality that coal will remain the predominant fuel to generate electricity and conventional pulverized coal boiler power plants have serious impacts on environment degradation, development of clean coal technologies could be one

Hao Wang; Toshihiko Nakata

2009-01-01

253

Experimental study of an extractive coking process to produce low-sulfur liquid fuels from bituminous coal. Final report, January 1975July 1977. [Delayed coking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delayed coking process is technically feasible. The following specific results of those detailed in the previous section contribute to this conclusion: coal conversions at near optimal conditions are greater than 50% of the M.A.F. coal; simulated process solvent is readily hydrotreated to a material with improved hydrogen-donor properties; the solvent properties can be modified by distillation; lower extraction temperatures

W. Interess; R. M. Nadkarni; R. W. Hyde; S. A. Reber

1977-01-01

254

Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from preparation plant recovered coal containing limestone sorbent and gasification tar as binder, and (d) a standard run-of-mine Illinois seam coal. The fuels will be tested in a laboratory scale 411 diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor. Progress this quarter has centered on the development of a hydraulic press based pellet mill capable of the high compaction pressures necessary to produce the gasification tar containing pellets outlined in (c) above. Limited quantities of the pellets have been made, and the process is being fine tuned before proceeding into the production mode. Tests show that the moisture content of the coal is an important parameter that needs to be fixed within narrow limits for a given coal and binder combination to produce acceptable pellets. Combustion tests with these pellet fuels and the standard coal are scheduled for the next quarter.

Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

1993-05-01

255

Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand  

SciTech Connect

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

NONE

1997-05-01

256

Coal and the environment abstract series: bibliography on disposal of refuse from coal mines and coal cleaning plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous public and private efforts have contributed to the knowledge concerning coal's environmental problems and to their control. This knowledge is well documented, and BCR has been extensively involved in compiling and disseminating it. One facet of this activity has been the establishment of environmental libraries at BCR for use by the public as well as the coal industry, and

1978-01-01

257

Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The first experimental facility incorporates General Electric locomotive engine components (injection pump, fuel line, and nozzle) and a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the moving parts of the pump. The second experimental facility is based on an accumulator injector from General Electric. Instrumentation includes instantaneous needle lift and fuel line pressure. A pressurized visualization chamber was used to provide a spray environment which simulated the engine gas density and permitted the use of spray diagnostic techniques. The study was divided into two phases: (1) overall characterization of the spray, and (2) detailed droplet size and size distribution characterization. In addition to this overall characterization of the spray, the second phase of this study characterized the details of the atomization quality.

Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

1993-06-01

258

Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

NONE

1995-12-31

259

Underground coal gasification of steeply dipping coal beds; a second generation synthetic fuels process  

SciTech Connect

In situ gasification of steeply dipping coal beds (UCG-SDB) has significant advantages over the more conventional horizontal UCG. In fact, the UCG-SDB process appears to be both technically and operationally competitive with surface gasifiers. The results of the Rawlins UCG-SDB field test program suggest that the process can compete with more conventional sources of synthesis gas on an economic basis. The SDB process mechanism has several advantages over the horizontal process and performs in a fashion similar to surface packedbed reactors. The oxygen requirements for the process are quite low and the degree of process control observed at Rawlins is very attractive.

Davis, B.E.; Ahner, P.F.; Singelton, A.H.

1982-08-01

260

Clean coal technology: Export finance programs  

SciTech Connect

Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

Not Available

1993-09-30

261

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1995-02-01

262

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1996-02-01

263

TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM COAL WITH LOW CO2 EMISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present energy and carbon balances and cost estimates based on detailed Aspen Plus process simulations for five plant designs to co-produce dimethyl ether (DME) and electricity from coal. Four of the designs include capture of CO2 for long-term underground storage. We also illustrate the potential DME offers for reducing emissions by facilitating a shift to more energy-efficient vehicles.

Fuat Celik; Eric D. Larson; Robert H. Williams

264

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 9, April--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the second quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: completed drop tube furnace devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; completed writing a summary topical report including all results to date on he nine fuels tested; and presented three technical papers on the project results at the 16th International Conference on Coal & Slurry Technologies.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-08-01

265

Seventh international symposium on coal slurry fuels preparation and utilization: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Seventh International Symposium on ''Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization'' consisted of the following fifteen sessions: (1) fundamentals of coal slurryability; (2) slurry fuel rheology; (3) slurry fuel rheology and fuel specifications; (4) cleaned coal and other slurry fuel forms; (5) slurry fuel atomization; (6) fundamentals of coal slurry fuel combustion; (7) small-scale combustion tests (corrosion, erosion and deposits); (8) slurry fuel burners/combustors; (9) ultrafine coal slurries and heat engine applications; (10) large-scale combustion tests; (11) demonstration projects; (12) slurry fuel retrofit engineering; (13) slurry preparation processes/commercial ventures; (14) slurry fuel delivery/transportation; and (15) fuel switching economics. All papers in this proceedings have been processed for inclusion the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1985-01-01

266

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition\\/erosion\\/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled

Wenglarz

1994-01-01

267

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

268

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

269

Clean Coal Day '93 Hokkaido Seminar koen kirokushu. (Lectures at Clean Coal Day '93 Hokkaido Seminar).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper collects lectures given at Clean Coal Day Hokkaido Seminar 1993. Clean coal combustion technologies include electric dust collection, catalytic denitrification, and stack gas desulfurization (collectively the three item set), and low-NOx combus...

1993-01-01

270

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels development Unit (AFDU). The program will initially involve a continuation of the work performed under the Liquid Phase Methanol Program but will later draw upon information and technologies generated in current and future DOE-funded contracts, as well as test commercially available catalysts. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-22

271

Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for reducing sulfur and ash content of bituminous coal. It comprises: grinding the bituminous feed coal to particle size of less than or equal to 600 micrometers to form a fine coal; mixing the fine coal with water and less than 10% by weight of dry coal of a bridging oil to form a coal-water-oil

W. Pawlak; J. S. Janiak; A. A. Turak; B. L. Ignasiak

1990-01-01

272

Secondary atomization of coal-water fuel droplets resulting from exposure to intense radiant heating environments  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal-water fuels (CWF) for direct firing in heat engines presents some challenges because conventional turbine combustors and diesel engines require short duration, intense combustion processes. It is generally understood that burning times required for efficient carbon utilization in these systems is a function of the fuel droplet size. For CWF droplets, the early stages of heating are critical. Under certain heating conditions, water is evaporated from a droplet leaving a relatively slow burning agglomerate of coal particles. Under other heating conditions, however, fuel droplets may boil explosively producing many small fragments having characteristically shorter combustion times. The behavior of CWF in a combustor depends on a number of factors including droplet size, the amount and size distribution of coal particle inclusions, and the primary mode and rate of droplet heating. A detailed knowledge of slurry droplet evaporation mechanisms is required, therefore, for accurate prediction of slurry droplet combustion times and for the design of CWF-fired heat engines. The objective of this work is to determine the radiant energy flux conditions required to achieve explosive boiling CWF droplets. Radiant heating is important because, when considering coal particle sizes typical of highly beneficiated micronized CWF (2 to 3 microns mean radius) proposed for use in heat engine applications, the black body radiation prevalent in combustion environments can penetrate into the droplet. The resulting internal heating of coal particles can result in superheating of the water within the droplet and thereby establish conditions necessary for explosive boiling.

Maloney, D.J.; Spann, J.F.

1986-04-01

273

Fractional distillation of hydrocarbons from coal  

SciTech Connect

Process and apparatus is disclosed for recovering volatile distillates from coal, and other solid carbonaceous fuel sources, by heating the top surface of a bilayer of coal formed of an upper layer of recycled coal and a lower layer of green coal, maintaining the lower level of green coal at a temperature cool enough to condense constituents distilled from the upper layer of recycle coal, and recycling the once passed green coal as recycle coal.

Esztergar, E.P.

1983-07-26

274

Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, H-Coal Pilot Plant, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. , Catlettsburg, Kentucky, 1981. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control technology survey was conducted at the H-Coal Pilot Facility, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Incorporated (SIC-5161) in Catlettsburg, Kentucky on July 27 and 28, 1981. The survey was conducted to assess the technologies in use for preventing occupational exposures to hazardous agents in coal conversion operations. The H-Coal process generated coal derived liquids in which exposures to polynuclear aromatics (PNA)

Telesca

1982-01-01

275

Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300.degree.-550.degree. C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-500.degree. C. for a limited time of only about 1-5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300.degree. C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

Longanbach, James R. (Columbus, OH)

1983-08-09

276

Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

Not Available

1993-12-01

277

Process for the hydroconversion of coal  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a process for producing coal derived, hydrogen-rich donor fractions from fractions of coal liquefaction products for use in the hydroconversion of coal. Coal liquefaction products are subjected to a critical solvent deashing process to produce various deashed coal fractions which can only be obtained by practicing that process. Thereafter, the various deashed coal fractions are subjected to hydrogen addition to produce heretofore unavailable hydrogen-rich donor fractions. These hydrogen-rich donor fractions may be recycled to supplant a portion of the liquefaction process solvent or blended with other fractions produced by the deashing process to provide improved fuel products.

Baldwin, R.A.; Davis, R.E.; Janka, R.C.

1980-02-19

278

Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. Tenth quarterly report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full implementation of coal fuel sources will require more effective methods of providing ``clean coal`` as a fuel source. Methods must be developed to reduce the sulfur content of coal which significantly contributes to environmental pollution. This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study

Walsh

1992-01-01

279

Conditions of utilization of coal mining and processing sludges as slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

The results of this study have shown that coal sludge can be used as slurry fuel (like coal-water fuel (CWF)) providing that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount in the fuel is at least 55%. The conventional CWF preparation technologies are inapplicable to the fabrication of water-sludge fuel; therefore, special technologies with allowance for the ash content, the particle size, and the water content of coal sludge are demanded.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15

280

Process for obtaining liquid fuel-oil and\\/or gaseous hydrocarbons from solid carbonaceous feed stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for forming a fuel-oil from coal is disclosed. The coal is treated in a low temperature carbonization retort to give coke, coal-gas and tar-oil. The coke is converted to water-gas which is then synthesized in a Fischer-Tropsch synthesizer to form fuel-oil. The tar-oil is hydrogenated in a hydro-treater by hydrogen produced from the coal-gas. Hydrogen is produced from

Hollaway

1978-01-01

281

Extraction of Phenols from Coal Conversion Process Condensate Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Condensate water samples from two typical coal-conversion processes were analyzed for phenols by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Significant amounts of phenol, dihydroxybenzenes and the trihydroxybenzene ph...

C. J. King D. C. Greminger

1979-01-01

282

Upgrading low rank coal using the Koppelman Series C process  

SciTech Connect

Development of the K-Fuel technology began after the energy shortage of the early 1970s in the United States led energy producers to develop the huge deposits of low-sulfur coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. PRB coal is a subbituminous C coal containing about 30 wt % moisture and having heating values of about 18.6 megajoules/kg (8150 Btu/lb). PRB coal contains from 0.3 to 0.5 wt % sulfur, which is nearly all combined with the organic matrix in the coal. It is in much demand for boiler fuel because of the low-sulfur content and the low price. However, the low-heating value limits the markets for PRB coal to boilers specially designed for the high- moisture coal. Thus, the advantages of the low-sulfur content are not available to many potential customers having boilers that were designed for bituminous coal. This year about 250 million tons of coal is shipped from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The high- moisture content and, consequently, the low-heating value of this coal causes the transportation and combustion of the coal to be inefficient. When the moisture is removed and the heating value increased the same bundle of energy can be shipped using one- third less train loads. Also, the dried product can be burned much more efficiently in boiler systems. This increase in efficiency reduces the carbon dioxide emissions caused by use of the low-heating value coal. Also, the processing used to remove water and restructure the coal removes sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and chlorides from the coal. This precombustion cleaning is much less costly than stack scrubbing. PRB coal, and other low-rank coals, tend to be highly reactive when freshly mined. These reactive coals must be mixed regularly (every week or two) when fresh, but become somewhat more stable after they have aged for several weeks. PRB coal is relatively dusty and subject to self-ignition compared to bituminous coals. When dried using conventional technology, PRB coal is even more dusty and more susceptible to spontaneous combustion than the raw coal. Also, PRB coal, if dried at low temperature, typically readsorbs about two- thirds of the moisture removed by drying. This readsorption of moisture releases the heat of adsorption of the water which is a major cause of self- heating of low-rank coals at low temperature.

Merriam, N.W., Western Research Institute

1998-01-01

283

Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nations energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nations most abundant energy resourcecoal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

None

2009-10-01

284

Clean coal technology programs: program update 2006  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2006 is to provide an updated status of the DOE commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCTs). These demonstrations are performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2006 provides 1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation's energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation's most abundant energy resource - coal; 2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and 3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, with fact sheets for demonstration projects that are active, recently completed, withdrawn or ended, including status as of June 30 2006. 4 apps.

NONE

2006-09-15

285

Rubber tires are clean burning, superior fuel, ASME told  

SciTech Connect

A power plant in Modesto, Calif. has turned the cliche, burning rubber, into a formula for generating electricity from the incineration of discarded tires, according to a paper presented at the 13th National Waste Processing Conference and Exhibit, held on May 1-4, 1988, at the Wyndham Franklin Plaza Hotel, Philadelphia. The tires can be a clean-burning fuel providing a heating value (approximately 14,650 Btu/lb.) superior to bituminous coal. In addition to producing energy, steel can be reclaimed from the incineration of steel belted radial tires and sold for scrap, and zinc can be smelted from fly ash collected by the plant's air pollution control equipment.

Not Available

1988-07-01

286

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, the authors will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. This quarter pellet production work commenced and planning for collection and processing of a preparation plant fines fraction is underway.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Berger, R.

1994-12-31

287

Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

Not Available

1983-03-01

288

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued drop tube devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; and started writing a summary topical report to include all results on the nine fuels tested.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-07-01

289

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

Not Available

1993-01-01

290

Coal conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is processed sequentially over a range of temperatures up to a maximum of 750° F. and preferably considerably less to obtain a clean burning coke, refinable petroleum and bitumen products, fertilizer minerals, combustible gases and water; the process is capable of producing a highly porous, easily crushed coke substantially free of pollutants and almost entirely depleted of oil so

1984-01-01

291

Evaluation of pollution control in fossil fuel conversion processes. Coal treatment: Section 1. Meyers process. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses the Meyers process whereby pyritic sulfur is removed from coal by the action of a solution of ferric sulfate. The coal is not converted, and it essentially retains its original heating value. The pyritic sulfur leaves the process as elemental sulfur and iron sulfates. The quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous effluents are estimated, as well as

Magee

1975-01-01

292

Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. [Laccase from Polyporus versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the

Walsh

1990-01-01

293

Codisposal of coal solid wastes by a granulation\\/sintering process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal cleaning and combustion wastes pose serious environmental problems due to leaching, dusting and smoldering at disposal sites. The wastes can be stabilized by a granulation\\/sintering process that yields impervious, vitreous granules resistant to environmental degradation. Work is reported for mixtures of coal cleaning waste and power plant fly ash. The sintering is carried out using principally the energy (fuel)

A. J. Gokhale; G. Burnet

1987-01-01

294

Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

NONE

1998-01-01

295

Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Product Characteristics and Management Practices  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown (DOE FETC) efforts in the areas of fossil fuels and clean coal technology (CCT) have included involvement with both conventional and advanced process coal conversion by-products. In 1993, DOE submitted a Report to Congress on "Barriers to the Increased Utilization of Coal Combustion Desulfurization Byproducts by Governmental and Commercial Sectors" that provided an outline of activities to remove the barriers identified in the report. DOE charged itself with participation in this process, and the work proposed in this document facilitates DOE's response to its own recommendations for action. The work reflects DOE's commitment to the coal combustion by-product (CCB) industry, to the advancement of clean coal technology, and to cooperation with other government agencies. Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of this task. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of background information collected for DOE in preparation of the Report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization.

Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

1998-02-01

296

Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal  

DOEpatents

An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

Akers, David J. (Indiana, PA); Ekechukwu, Kenneth N. (Silver Spring, MD); Aluko, Mobolaji E. (Burtonsville, MD); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

2000-01-01

297

Chemical coal cleaning using selective oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of high sulfur coals contributes substantially to the problems associated with acid rain. Current and pending clean air legislation is designed to reduce this problem by cutting the levels of sulfur dioxide that may be released into the atmosphere. These new laws prevent the direct and efficient utilization of many important Illinois coals reserves which, unfortunately are high in sulfur. This may present the already troubled Illinois coal industry with a difficult future if solutions to the sulfur problem are not found. During this quarter samples of IBCSP coals 101 and 106 have been obtained and aliquots ground to different particle sizes. Proximate, total sulfur, BTU and particle size distributions have been performed on these samples. From these analyses it is clear that no preferential losses of coal components occurred during the coal preparation task. Particle size analysis showed that preparation of samples with different mean particle volumes had been successful. Some preliminary results obtained for an Illinois No. 6 coal using mixtures of acetic acid, water and hydrogen peroxide showed that it is possible to remove nearly 25% of it's organic sulfur within 5 minutes at only 60{degrees}C with no significant loss of carbon. The extent of sulfur removal is very encouraging especially if the low temperatures and inexpensive reagents that were used are considered. 7 figs. 2 tabs.

Palmer, S.R. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Geology); Hippo, E. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

1990-01-01

298

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels  

SciTech Connect

Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base. Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms. Deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. During the third quarter of this contract (May 1 through July 31, 1987) the primary activities were involved with: Completion and submission for approval by the DOE of the topical report describing the market survey, the coal selection and the fuel specification methodologies used in carrying out Task 1. The determination of the washability of the first five coals selected in Task 1. Upgrading and improvement of the pilot wash circuit to improve both the product quality and yield. Initiation of a data base survey to select an appropriate coal for the Vortec contract; and continuation of the coal procurement, cleaning, fuel preparation and delivery activities.

Not Available

1987-09-01

299

Environmental studies of materials from the H-coal liquefaction process development unit  

SciTech Connect

H-coal is a process for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce synthetic fuels. Its development has progressed from bench-scale testing through operation of a 2.7 Mg/d (3 ton/d) Process Development Unit. A large-scale H-Coal pilot plant is presently operating at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, and there are plans for the construction of a commercial H-Coal liquefaction facility by the end of the decade. Two of the environmental concerns of the developing direct coal liquefaction industry are accidental spills of synthetic oils and treatment/storage of solid wastes. As a means of obtaining preliminary information on the severity of these potential impacts well in advance of commercialization, samples of product oils and solid wastes were obtained from the H-Coal Process Development Unit (PDU). These samples were subjected to a battery of rapid screening tests, including chemical characterization and bioassays with a variety of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Water-soluble fraction (WSFs) of H-Coal PDU oils had considerably higher concentrations of phenols and anilines and were commonly one to two orders of magnitude more toxic to aquatic organisms than WSFs of analogous petroleum crude oil. Whole H-Coal PDU oils were also more toxic to the cricket than petroleum-based oils, and some H-Coal samples showed evidence of teratogenicity. Leachates from H-Coal PDU solid wastes, on the other hand, had relatively low concentrations of selected elements and had essentially no acute toxicity to a variety of aquatic and terrestrial species. These studies indicate that environmental effects of product oil spills from a commercial H-Coal liquefaction plant are likely to be more severe than those of conventional petroleum spills. Product upgrading or special transportation and storage techniques may be needed to ensure environmentally sound commercialization of the H-Coal process.

Cada, G.F.

1982-12-01

300

Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

1997-07-01

301

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

Not Available

1994-03-01

302

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

Brown, D.M.

1992-05-19

303

Appalachian clean coal technology consortium  

SciTech Connect

Novel chemicals that can be used for increasing the efficiency of fine coal dewatering was developed at Virginia Tech. During the past quarter, Reagent A was tested on three different coal samples in laboratory vacuum filtration tests. these included flotation products from Middle Fork plant, Elkview Mining Company, and CONSOL, Inc. the tests conducted with the Middle Fork coal sample (100 mesh x 0) showed that cake moisture can be reduced by more than 10% beyond what can be achieved without using dewatering aid. This improvement was achieved at 1 lb/ton of Reagent A and 0.1 inch cake thickness. At 0. 5 inches of cake thickness, this improvement was limited to 8% at the same reagent dosage. the results obtained with the Elkview coal (28 mesh x 0) showed similar advantages in using the novel dewatering aid. Depending on the reagent dosage, cake thickness, drying cycle time and temperature, it was possible to reduce the cake moisture to 12 to 14% rage. In addition to achieving lower cake moisture, the use of Reagent A substantially decreased the cake formation time, indicating that the reagent improves the kinetics of dewatering, The test results obtained with CONSOL coal were not as good as with the other coals tested in the present work, which may be attributed to possible oxidation and/or contamination.

Yoon, R.-H.; Basim, B.; Luttrell, G.H.; Phillips, D.I. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jiang, D.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Meloy, T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-01-28

304

Cleaning of Croweburg Seam coal to improve boiler performance  

SciTech Connect

Recently an Oklahoma law was enacted that mandates that Oklahoma coal-fired utilities must burn a minimum of ten percent Oklahoma-mined coal. Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO), burning raw Croweburg Seam coal from Oklahoma as part of a blend, was interested in determining if cleaning the Croweburg Seam coal could reduce boiler slagging and fouling problems experienced at its Northeastern Station's Units 3 and 4. Studies of the Croweburg Seam coal performed at CQ Inc. in Homer City, Pennsylvania were used to determine the potential of physical cleaning for upgrading this coal. The test program involved commercial-scale cleaning tests with heavy-medium cyclones, two-stage water only cyclones, and froth flotation cells, well as extensive laboratory and pilot-scale tests. The coal evaluated during the test program responded well to cleaning. Results indicate the ash slagging and fouling can be significantly improved by cleaning. Significant reductions in ash, specific ash constituents, and trace element concentrations were also demonstrated along with increased heating value. Finally, although the raw coal tested can be classified as compliance'' prior to cleaning, the cleaning tests show that further reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions potential were possible, along with high energy recoveries and increased heating values and can be beneficial for improved plant performance.

Dospoy, R.L.

1991-01-01

305

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

NONE

1995-04-01

306

40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. 60.253...Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a...comes first, an owner or operator of pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment...

2010-07-01

307

Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean energy fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1977  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one coal samples have been added to the Penn State/ERDA Coal Sample Bank. Ninety-six sets of analytical data and 114 coal samples were provided upon request to other agencies engaged in coal research. Mass spectrometer and reactor systems have been used successfully in measuring the amount of vaporization (and pyrolysis) products of hydrocarbons in low concentrations in a helium carrier gas. Research has shown, using small angle x-ray scattering, that the pore structure of a char is a function of the rank of the parent coal and maximum heat treatment temperature. Carbon deposition on chars from the cracking of methane decreases subsequent reactivity of the char to air. The decrease in reactivity appears to be due to a decrease in active surface area and deactivation of catalytic impurities. Experimental results previously obtained concerning the combustion of char and anthracite have been analyzed with respect to a simple theory of radiative flame propagation and the computer model has been used to investigate the effects of fuel particle density variations. In the study of the combustion characteristics of coal-oil-water emulsions, furnace efficiency peaked at about 5% coal addition, at 10% water, and 20% excess air.

Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P. L.; Lovell, H. L.; Essenhigh, R. H.; Vastola, F. J.; Given, P. H.

1977-06-01

308

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels  

SciTech Connect

Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

Not Available

1992-06-01

309

Emission characteristics of granulated fuel produced from sewage sludge and coal slime.  

PubMed

The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member countries, including Poland, where one can now observe an intensive development of sewage system networks and new sewage treatment plants. At the same time, these countries have few installations for thermal sewage sludge utilization (e.g., there is only one installation of that type in Poland). Simultaneously, there are many coal-fired mechanical stoker-fired boilers in some of these countries. This paper presents suggestions for the production of granulated fuel from sewage sludge and coal slime. Additionally, among others, lime was added to the fuel to decrease the sulfur compounds emission. Results are presented of research on fuel with two average grain diameters (approximately 15 and 35 mm). The fuel with such diameters is adapted to the requirements of the combustion process taking place in a stoker-fired boiler. The research was aimed at identifying the behavior of the burning fuel, with special attention paid to its emission properties (e.g., to the emissions of oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and carbon monoxide [CO], among others). The concentration and emission values were compared with similar results obtained while burning hard coal. The combustion process was carried out in a laboratory stand where realization of the large-scale tests is possible. The laboratory stand used made simulation possible for a wide range of burning processes in mechanical stoker-fired boilers. PMID:21243903

Wzorek, Ma?gorzata; Kozio?, Micha?; Scierski, Waldemar

2010-12-01

310

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 10, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport fuels; completed editing of the first three quarterly reports and sent them to the publishing office; presented the project results at the Annual Contractors` Conference.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-11-01

311

Catalyst for coal liquefaction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved catalyst is claimed for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst

D. T. A. Huibers; C. C. C. Kang

1984-01-01

312

The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

1992-09-01

313

Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibilities of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results on coal cleaning is in progress in the Phase II study. Illinois No. 6, Ohio Lower Kittanning, and West Virginia Pocahontas coals have been prepared(simulating the industrial operations) and characterized. The adsorption conditions for {minus}48 mesh ROM coals and flotation concentrates have been optimized. Magnetic separation of the reagent conditioned coals shows that both ash and pyritic sulfur can be significantly reduced. Comparing with the repeated flotation approach for coal cleaning, the magnetizing reagent enhanced magnetic separation method shows better performance on cleaning the flotation concentration at {minus}48 mesh.

Hwang, J.Y.

1989-01-01

314

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes sampling and analysis methods involving a laboratory-scale coal gasification facility used to study the generation, sampling, chemical analysis, process evaluation, and environmental assessment of pollutants from coal gasification. It describes methods for pa...

315

Liquid fuels from coal: analysis of a partial transition from oil to coal; light liquids in Zimbabwe's liquid fuels base  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the feasibility of a coal based light liquids program as a way to localize forces that determine the flow of oil into the Zimbabwean economy. Methods in End-use Energy Analysis and Econometrics in which the utilization of petroleum energy is related to economic and industrial activity are used to gain insight into the structure and behavior of petroleum utilization in that country and to forecast future requirements of this resource. The feasibility of coal liquefaction as a substitute for imported oil is assessed by the use of engineering economics in which the technical economics of competing oil supply technologies are analyzed and the best option is selected. Coal conversion technologies are numerous but all except the Fischer-Trosch indirect coal liquefaction technology are deficient in reliability as commercial ventures. The Fischer-Tropsch process by coincidence better matches Zimbabwe's product configuration than the less commercially advanced technologies. Using present value analysis to compare the coal liquefaction and the import option indicates that it is better to continue importing oil than to resort to a coal base for a portion of the oil supplies. An extended analysis taking special consideration of the risk and uncertainty factors characteristic of Zimbabwe's oil supply system indicates that the coal option is better than the import option. The relative infancy of the coal liquefaction industry and the possibility that activities responsible for the risk and uncertainty in the oil supply system will be removed in the future, however, make the adoption of the coal option an unusually risky undertaking.

Maya, R.S.

1986-01-01

316

The economics of liquid transportation fuels from coal: Past, present and future  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the technologies for producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and traces their evolution. Estimates of how their economics have changed with continuing research and development are also given.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1993-08-01

317

Temperature-programmed decomposition desorption of mercury species over activated carbon sorbents for mercury removal from coal-derived fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

The mercury (Hg{sup 0}) removal process for coal-derived fuel gas in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process will be one of the important issues for the development of a clean and highly efficient coal power generation system. Recently, iron-based sorbents, such as iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), supported iron oxides on TiO{sub 2}, and iron sulfides, were proposed as active mercury sorbents. The H{sub 2}S is one of the main impurity compounds in coal-derived fuel gas; therefore, H{sub 2}S injection is not necessary in this system. HCl is also another impurity in coal-derived fuel gas. In this study, the contribution of HCl to the mercury removal from coal-derived fuel gas by a commercial activated carbon (AC) was studied using a temperature-programmed decomposition desorption (TPDD) technique. The TPDD technique was applied to understand the decomposition characteristics of the mercury species on the sorbents. The Hg{sup 0}-removal experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 80-300{sup o}C using simulated fuel gas and a commercial AC, and the TPDD experiments were carried out in a U-tube reactor in an inert carrier gas (He or N{sub 2}) after mercury removal. The following results were obtained from this study: (1) HCl contributed to the mercury removal from the coal-derived fuel gas by the AC. (2) The mercury species captured on the AC in the HCl{sup -} and H{sub 2}S-presence system was more stable than that of the H{sub 2}S-presence system. (3) The stability of the mercury surface species formed on the AC in the H{sub 2}S-absence and HCl-presence system was similar to that of mercury chloride (HgClx) species. 25 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

M. Azhar Uddin; Masaki Ozaki; Eiji Sasaoka; Shengji Wu [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

2009-09-15

318

An option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide global greenhouse effect including estimates for reduced CO emissions technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technical option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect has been devised. The option concerns a ''hydrogen economy'' based on coal. We have developed a very efficient process called HYDROCARB, which effectively splits coal into carbon and hydrogen. This process produces a clean, pure carbon fuel from coal for application in both mobile

Steinberg

1988-01-01

319

Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

Hwang, J.Y.

1992-10-01

320

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 18, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Continued with data and sample analysis from the pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, air-dried and mulled microagglomerate products; air-dried Pittsburgh No. 8 as-is and mulled products for upcoming Task 3 combustion testing; and prepared two abstracts for presentation for the March 1 994 Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems Conference.

Chow, O.K.; Hargrove, M.J.

1993-11-01

321

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01

322

U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal  

SciTech Connect

Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of hydrogen is discussed. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of hydrogen manufactured are presented.

Dihu, R.J.; Patel, J.G.

1982-01-01

323

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE\\/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub

B. I. Morsi; S. H. Chiang; A. Sharkey; J. Blachere; G. Klinzing; G. Araujo; Y. S. Cheng; R. Gray; R. Streeter; H. Bi; P. Campbell; P. Chiarlli; M. Ciocco; L. Hittle; S. Kim; Y. Kim; L. Perez; R. Venkatadri

1992-01-01

324

Algae fuel clean electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

O'Sullivan, D.

1993-02-08

325

Coal-Cleaning Test Facility: 1984 test plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the 1984 test plan for the EPRI Coal-Cleaning Test Facility (CCTF). Testing in 1984 is divided into two major categories: coal cleanability characterization and development and demonstration projects. To the extent practical, R and D in both categories is performed simultaneously in order to minimize CCTF testing costs. The objective of CCTF coal cleanability characterization is to provide, for specific US steam coals, the data required to improve design and operation of commercial coal-cleaning plants. Such characterization involves a series of both laboratory and flowsheet tests using commercial-scale cleaning, sizing, and dewatering processes. The cleanability characterization of eight important steam coals is planned for 1984. The objective of development and demonstration projects is to develop and demonstrate new coal-cleaning technology and improve the cost-effectiveness of existing technology. Specific development and demonstration projects included in the 1984 test plan schedule are multistage froth flotation; three-phase slurry density measurement; evaluation of wet versus dry laboratory-scale screening; mass flow measurement for coal slurries; and demonstration of a new, high-g solid-bowl centrifuge to enhance refuse and coal dewatering. 38 figures, 34 tables.

Torak, E.R.; Parkinson, J.W.; Moorhead, R.G.; Cavalet, J.R.; Bhowmick, A.K.

1984-07-01

326

H-Coal and coal-to-methanol liquefaction processes: process engineering evaluation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a technical and economic evaluation of the H-Coal process and the coal-to-methanol process for the production of liquid fuels from coal. Evaluations are based on capital cost estimates, in mid-1982 dollars, for commercial size, self-contained plants with a nominal liquid product capacity of 50,000 fuel oil equivalent (FOE) bbl\\/sd (FOE bbl = 5.85 x

E. V. Paul; D. J. Dharia; S. J. Fay

1983-01-01

327

Chemical coal cleaning using selective oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This project investigates the removal of sulfur from coal using selective oxidation. All preparation and analysis of the IBCSP coals is complete. During this quarter desulfurization studies have been performed in which particle size, reaction time and reaction temperature parameters were varied. Results obtained to data support the following preliminary conclusions: (1) No improvement in desulfurization was achieved by grinding to very small particle sizes. (2) The sulfur contents of IBC 101 and 106 samples can be reduced by 40% and 50% respectively at room temperature, by 54% and 63% at 50{degrees}C and by 69% and 71% at 104{degrees}C. (3) Although sulfur contents are reduced at higher temperatures the yield of solid coal is also reduced and hence the potential as a desulfurization process is diminished. (4) Nearly 80% of the total sulfur can be removed from both the 101 and 106 coals but about 30% of the weight of the coal dissolves. Similarly at 10% coal weight loss about 60% of the sulfur in the IBC 106 coal and about 40% of the sulfur in the IBC 101 coal can be removed using the peroxyacetic acid procedure. (5) Although most of the sulfur removal can be attributed to pyrite removal, some organic sulfur removal has been observed. (6) Peroxyacetic acid can be used to improve the ash contents of the coals. (7) The peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal may be an alternative method for the determination of organic sulfur contents. (8) Selective oxidation also shows potential as a pretreatment step for the removal of even more organic sulfur. One product derived from the IBC 101 coal using this approach had a sulfur content of the only 0.98%, a sulfur reduction of nearly 80%. 8 figs.

Palmer, S.T. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology); Hippo, E.J. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

1991-01-01

328

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01

329

Economics of the H-Coal Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies reported herein start from two basic overall plant integration schemes and then examine the sensitivity of the required fuel oil price to some of the more probable expected variations in process and financial parameters. In the H-Coal process, crushed and dried coal is slurried with recycle oils, mixed with hydrogen and liquefied in direct contact with catalyst in

J. G. Kunesh; M. Calderon; G. A. Popper; M. S. Rakow

1978-01-01

330

COAL CLEANING BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of experimental work on HGMS coal c leaning will be presented with emphasis on the r elation between cleaning results and coal characteristics. I INTRODUCTION High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a particle separation technique which is based on the differences in the magnetic properties of the particles. A survey of the principles, theory, experimental work and applications has

C. P. van Driel; J. Sikkenga; C. B. W. Kerkdijk

1984-01-01

331

Coal Cleaning Test Facility: 1986 plan. [Homer City, PA  

SciTech Connect

One of the major projects of the Electric Power Research Institute is the Coal Cleaning Test Facility (CCTF), a 25-ton per hour, commercial-scale, research and development facility established to advance coal-cleaning technology and investigate its potential for reducing the cost of generating electricity. The CCTF is a proving ground for coal-cleaning and dewatering strategies and for developing and demonstrating new coal-cleaning equipment and processes. The CCTF 1986 Plan defines CCTF objectives, gives highlights of past accomplishments, and describes in detail its planned 1986 activities, including scheduled Coal Cleanability Characterizations and Development and Demonstration projects (the CCTF's major activities) as well as separately-funded projects and facility upgrades planned for 1986. The CCTF 1986 Plan also describes the method of characterizing the cleanability of a coal and its approach to Development and Demonstration (D and D) projects (designed to improve understanding of proven coal-cleaning technologies and to accelerate the development and use of emerging technologies). The final section of the CCTF 1986 Plan presents the formal and informal means by which the CCTF communicates its findings to the electric utility industry and others. Various appendices provide more detailed information about test methods, D and D project selection methodology, analytical laboratory requirements, and CCTF flowsheet configurations. 26 refs., 41 figs., 46 tabs.

Bencho, J.R.; Hoffman, N.; McCollough, D.E.; Moorhead, R.G.; Parkinson, J.W.; Torak, E.R.; Akers, D.J.; Cavalet, J.R.

1986-05-01

332

DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL FINE COAL CLEANING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the proposed project was to develop a novel fine coal separator having the ability to clean 1 mm x 0 size coal in a single processing unit. The novel fine coal separator, named as EG(Enhanced Gravity) Float Cell, utilizes a centrifugal field to clean 1 mm x 250 micron size coal, whereas a flotation environment to clean minus 250 micron coal size fraction. Unlike a conventional enhanced gravity concentrator, which rotates to produce a centrifugal field requiring more energy, the EG Float Cell is fed with a tangential feed slurry to generate an enhanced gravity field without any rotating part. A prototype EG Float Cell unit having a maximum diameter of 60 cm (24 inch) was fabricated during the first-half of the project period followed by a series of exploratory tests to make suitable design modification. Test data indicated that there was a significant concentration of coarse heavy materials in the coarse tailings discharge of the EG Float Cell. The increase in weight (%) of 1 mm x 250 micron (16 x 60 mesh) size fraction from 48.9% in the feed to 72.2% in the coarse tailings discharge and the corresponding increase in the ash content from 56.9% to 87.0% is indicative of the effectiveness of the enhanced gravity section of the EG Float Cell. However, the performance of the flotation section needs to be improved. Some of the possible design modifications may include more effective air sparging system for the flotation section to produce finer bubbles and a better wash water distributor.

Manoj K. Mohanty

2005-06-01

333

Coal: world energy security. The Clearwater clean coal conference  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered include: oxy-fuel (overview, demonstrations, experimental studies, burner developments, emissions, fundamental and advanced concepts); post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture; coal conversion to chemicals and fuels; advanced materials; hydrogen production from opportunity fuels; mercury abatement options for power plants; and carbon capture and storage in volume 1. Subjects covered in volume 2 include: advanced modelling; advanced concepts for emission control; gasification technology; biomass; low NOx technology; computer simulations; multi emissions control; chemical looping; and options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions.

Sakkestad, B. (ed.)

2009-07-01

334

Proceedings: Fourteenth annual EPRI conference on fuel science  

SciTech Connect

EPRI's Fourteenth Annual Contractors' Conference on Fuel Science was held on May 18--19, 1989 in Palo Alto, CA. The conference featured results of work on coal science, coal liquefaction, methanol production, and coal oil coprocessing and coal upgrading. The following topics were discussed: recent development in coal liquefaction at the Wilsonville Clean Coal Research Center; British coal's liquid solvent extraction (LSE) process; feedstock reactivity in coal/oil co-processing; utility applications for coal-oil coprocessed fuels; effect of coal rank and quality on two-stage liquefaction; organic sulfur compounds in coals; the perchloroethylene refining process of high-sulfur coals; extraction of sulfur coals; extraction of sulfur from coal; agglomeration of bituminous and subbituminous coals; solubilization of coals by cell-free extracts derived from polyporus versicolor; remediation technologies and services; preliminary results from proof-of-concept testing of heavy liquid cyclone cleaning technology; clean-up of soil contaminated with tarry/oily organics; midwest ore processing company's coal benefication technology: recent prep plant, scale and laboratory activities; combustion characterization of coal-oil agglomerate fuels; status report on the liquid phase methanol project; biomimetic catalysis; hydroxylation of C{sub 2} {minus} C{sub 3} and cycloc{sub 6} hydrocarbons with Fe cluster catalysts as models for methane monooxygenase enzyme; methanol production scenarios; and modeling studies of the BNL low temperature methanol catalyst. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-05-01

335

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Annual technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

Parekh, B.K.

1991-12-31

336

Liquid products derived from brown coal in BCL process  

SciTech Connect

The BCL (Brown Coal Liquefaction) process developed for Victorian brown coal is a two-stage liquefaction process which consists of 4 unit sections: dewatering, primary hydrogenation (PH), solvent de-ashing (DA) and secondary hydrogenation (SH). The liquid products produced in the PH and SH sections are distillates with b.p. < 420 C and with b.p. < 240 C, respectively, and their properties are different due to differences in the hydrogenation conditions and activities of catalysts used. The former contains much aromatic and hetero-atom-containing compounds than the latter. This paper reveals the yields and properties of the liquid products derived from the brown coal in the BCL process, and the compounds in these products that were analyzed by GC/MC and capillary GC. This paper discusses the change in the compounds in the solvent fraction during recycling and the effects of PH conditions on the naphtha. In addition, the results of hydrogenation of the vaporized fraction in gas-liquid separator of the PH section are also discussed to simplify the BCL process. These results are useful as basic data for production of chemicals from the coal-derived liquids.

Okuma, O.; Yanai, S.; Komatsu, N.

1999-07-01

337

Development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Volume IV. Product studies. Part 10. Final report of coal liquids catalyst work performed at Oklahoma State University. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process, June 17, 1970June 16, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a summary of the coal liquids catalyst work at Oklahoma State University. The broad overall objective of this work has been to specifically tailor heterogeneous catalysts for upgrading coal derived liquids. The more specific goal has been to assess the effects of catalyst support pore properties on sulfur and nitrogen removal from certain coal liquids.

Crynes

1979-01-01

338

Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibilities of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results to study the feasibility for coal cleaning has been completed in the Phase II study. The most effective approach to clean Illinois No. 6, Ohio Lower Kittanning, and West Virginia Pocahontas coals using the magnetizing method has been determined. Phase III study is in progress during this quarter. Experimental work includes the determination of various separation parameters, including the separator and matrix selection, magnetic reagent dosage, particle size, magnetic field intensity, and retention time.

Hwang, J.Y.

1990-01-01

339

A fossil-fuel based recipe for clean energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zero-emission process of hydrogen production from fossil fuel through a system of reactions involving hydroxide, carbon, CO, CO2 and water is described here. It provides for a complete sequestration of carbon (CO2 and CO) from coal\\/natural-gas burning plants. The CO and or CO2 produced in coal or natural gas burning power plants and the heat may be used for

Surendra K Saxena; Vadym Drozd; Andriy Durygin

2008-01-01

340

New solid fuels from coal and biomass waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to DOE's 'Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge,' McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), (the R&D affiliate of B&W), and Minergy Corporation developed a project evaluate sludge derived fuel (SDF) produced from sewage sludge. Our approach is to...

H. Farzan

2001-01-01

341

Recovery of minerals from US coals  

SciTech Connect

Projections show that domestic coal will serve for the majority of energy supplies during the next decades. Thorough chemical cleaning of this coal can be accomplished in long residence time, slurry transport systems to produce high-quality fuel product. Concurrently, mineral recovery from coals will supplement existing ores. This paper describes this concept and given preliminary engineering considerations for mineral recovery during transport operations.

Vanderborgh, N.E.

1982-01-01

342

Reactivity of whole coals, selected pure maceral fractions, and cleaned coal products: Final report, January 1--December 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

A long-term program is currently underway to determine the process response properties of pure single coal maceral fractions in order to predict the behavior of various whole coals of different maceral compositions and rank. The primary objectives of the study are to: (1) evaluate the reactivity of whole coals and macerals from other seams, covering the same broad rank range studied in the first phase of the program; (2) assess the degree of applicability of predictive equations for coals in general; and (3) evaluate the combustion characteristics of clean coals. This year, Argonne Premium samples were examined, as well as a number of coals obtained from various points throughout the US and the world (SIU coals). The coals were examined to determine if the relationships developed last year could be extrapolated to a wider rank range and maceral composition than the Hartshorne coals used in the last year's study. Efforts continued on modeling of the data obtained last year. Three cleaned and feed samples were obtained from OTISCA, Inc. Also, three feed and cleaned coals were obtained from the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and prepared. These coals will also be tested in the coming year's test matrix. A series of supercritical extraction (SCE) products, as well as the feeds, have also been tested. These samples were used to examine the effect of thermal desulfurization processing on combustion properties. A set of 50 samples has been obtained from the Pennsylvania State University. Twenty-five of these samples are of a rank series from the Lower Kittaning seam and will be used to further test and develop previously defined relationships. A second series is a set of high-sulfur coals. 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Crelling, J.C.; Hippo, E.J.

1989-03-01

343

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable

R. T. LeCren; L. H. Cowell; M. A. Galica; M. D. Stephenson; C. S. When

1992-01-01

344

Stack emissions from refuse?derived fuel admix to boiler coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions tests were run on a boiler fueled with coal and admixtures of fuel pellets prepared from solid wastes. The tests showed that use of the admixtures significantly lowered the sulfur dioxide and hydrocarbons in the stack gas while raising the lead emissions manyfold.

Jerry W. Jackson; Joe O. Ledbetter

1977-01-01

345

Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations...

J. W. Wilson R. Q. Honaker Y. Ding

1997-01-01

346

Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proceedings on a symposium of coal slurry fuels is presented. Research is discussed in the following areas: Coal Slurryability; Slurry Fuel Rheology; Slurry Fuel Atomization; Beneficiated Coal Slurry Fuels; Coal-Based Fuel Options; Fundamentals of Slurry ...

1986-01-01

347

Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for

Wallman

1991-01-01

348

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01

349

Motor fuels and chemicals from coal via the Sasol Synthol route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of synthetic motor fuels and chemicals from coal by the Sasol procedures is discussed. This process is based on the Fischer-Tropsch reaction by passing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a specific ratio over iron catalysts at elevated temperatures and pressures. Two parallel reactor systems are discussed. The smaller system employs fixed-bed reactors, using a precipitated iron catalyst and produces predominantly heavy hydrocarbons of an aliphatic nature with carbon chains up to 100. These straight-chain hydrocarbons yield excellent waxes and high quality diesel oil. The larger system uses a powdered iron catalyst in a circulating fluid-bed reactor, a concept developed from American catalytic cracker technology. This system has the advantage of high production capacity and scale-up potential, and produces light olefins which can be used either as petrochemical feedstock or refined and added to the motor fuel pool, and ethylene which is augmented by ethane cracking. Analysis of product selectivities and values shows that co-production of chemicals and motor fuels from coal is profitable and efficient.

Hoogendoorn, J. C.

1981-03-01

350

Development of an extraction process for removal of heteroatoms from coal liquids. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this contract was to develop an extraction process for upgrading coal liquids; and in doing so, to reduce the hydrogen requirement in downstream upgrading processes and to yield valuable byproducts. This goal was to be achieved by developing a novel carbon dioxide extraction process for heteroatom removal from coal-derived naphtha, diesel, and jet fuel. The research plan called for the optimization of three critical process variables using a statistically-designed experimental matrix. The commercial potential of the new process was to be evaluated by demonstrating quantitatively the effectiveness of heteroatom removal from three different feedstocks and by conducting a comparative economic analysis of alternate heteroatom removal technologies. Accomplishments are described for the following tasks: food procurement and analysis process variable screening studies; and process assessment.

Not Available

1994-04-01

351

Coal-Water Fuel from Fine Coal for Use in a Fire-Tube Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama (UA) and the Mining Division of Jim Walter Resources, Inc. (JWRI), was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler to burn coal-water fuel (CWF). Atomization tests were performed on an EER nozzle using JWRI CWF prior to the boiler

BRUCE HAMILTON; PANDU YELAMAMCHILI; DAVID W. ARNOLD

1997-01-01

352

Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaing for Premium Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect

The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel? column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications -- Less than 2 pounds of ash per million Btu (860 grams per gigajoule) and

Frank J. Smit; Gene L. Schields; Mehesh C. Jha; Nick Moro

1997-09-26

353

Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 2.2: Definition of preferred catalyst system; Task 2.3: Process variable scans on the preferred catalyst system; Task 2.4: Life-test on the preferred catalyst system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of c...

B. L. Bhatt

1992-01-01

354

Evaluation of pollution control in fossil fuel conversion processes. Liquefaction: Section 3. H-Coal Process. Final task report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of a review of the H-Coal Process of Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., from the standpoint of its effect on the environment. Quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous effluents are specified, where possible, as well as the thermal efficiency of the process. Techniques for controlling pollution are outlined and discussed. For the purpose of reducing environmental impact, a number

Jahnig

1975-01-01

355

High temperature electrochemical separation of H sub 2 S from coal gasification process streams  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is economically attractive by the lack of adsorbents and the lack of a Claus process for sulfur recovery. Research conducted during the present quarter is highlighted, with an emphasis on progress towards the goal of an economically viable H{sub 2}S removal technology for use in coal gasification facilities providing polished fuel for co-generation coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities. Polishing application of this technology to coal gasification synthesis gas has been demonstrated with H{sub 2}S removals as high as 89.1% recorded. No successful runs with stainless steel housings have yet been achieved. However, since stoichiometric CO{sub 2} removal with stainless steel housings has been achieved, H{sub 2}S removal is achievable.

Winnick, J.

1992-01-01

356

From in situ coal to the final coal product: A case study of the Danville Coal Member (Indiana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in the handling process.A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in the handling process.

Mastalerz, M.; Padgett, P. L.

1999-01-01

357

After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak [University of Colorado at Boulder, CO (United States)

2009-04-15

358

Coal Cleaning Using Resonance Disintegration for Mercury and Sulfur Reduction Prior to Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Coal-cleaning processes have been utilized to increase the heating value of coal by extracting ash-forming minerals in the coal. These processes involve the crushing or grinding of raw coal followed by physical separation processes, taking advantage of the density difference between carbonaceous particles and mineral particles. In addition to the desired increase in the heating value of coal, a significant reduction of the sulfur content of the coal fed to a combustion unit is effected by the removal of pyrite and other sulfides found in the mineral matter. WRI is assisting PulseWave to develop an alternate, more efficient method of liberating and separating the undesirable mineral matter from the carbonaceous matter in coal. The approach is based on PulseWave's patented resonance disintegration technology that reduces that particle size of materials by application of destructive resonance, shock waves, and vortex generating forces. Illinois No.5 coal, a Wyodak coal, and a Pittsburgh No.8 coal were processed using the resonance disintegration apparatus then subjected to conventional density separations. Initial microscopic results indicate that up to 90% of the pyrite could be liberated from the coal in the machine, but limitations in the density separations reduced overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. Approximately 30-80% of the pyritic sulfur and 30-50% of the mercury was removed from the coal. The three coals (both with and without the pyritic phase separated out) were tested in WRI's 250,000 Btu/hr Combustion Test Facility, designed to replicate a coal-fired utility boiler. The flue gases were characterized for elemental, particle bound, and total mercury in addition to sulfur. The results indicated that pre-combustion cleaning could reduce a large fraction of the mercury emissions.

Andrew Lucero

2005-04-01

359

Process for selective grinding of coal  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

Venkatachari, Mukund K. (San Francisco, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA)

1991-01-01

360

Biological production of fuels from coal derived gases: Quarterly report, December 20, 1986-March 20, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Coal may be converted to a more convenient energy source and a valuable chemical feedstock by gasification and removing undesirable components. In most gasification processes, the coal is hydrogasified by adding steam and energy at 20-70 atm and at temperatures as high as 1500/degree/C. A gas consisting of more than 50 percent hydrogen and carbon monoxide is usually produced, having a heating value of about 450 Btu per SCF. In addition to carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H/sub 2/), small amounts of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), methane (CH/sub 4/), hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), and carbonyl sulfide (COS) are also produced. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through indirect biological liquefaction. Two tasks are to be undertaken in the two year study: a review of biological processes for synthesis gas conversion as shown in the literature; and microbiological screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions. Organisms obtained from both pure cultures or natural bacterial sources such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, and coal pile mud will be evaluated and screened. Results are presented. 19 refs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

361

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

NONE

1997-05-01

362

Characteristics of American Coals in Relation to Their Conversion into Clean Energy Fuels. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, April-June 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Penn State Coal Sample Bank was expanded to include four new samples from southwestern Pennsylvania and four from eastern Kentucky. A total of 69 coal samples and 487 selected printouts of coal data were provided to the coal research community. The ef...

A. Davis H. L. Lovell P. L. Walker R. H. Essenhigh W. Spackman

1979-01-01

363

The foul side of 'clean coal'  

SciTech Connect

As power plants face new air pollution control, ash piles and their environmental threats are poised to grow. Recent studies have shown that carcinogens and other contaminants in piles of waste ash from coal-fired power plants can leach into water supplies at concentrations exceeding drinking water standards. Last year an ash dam broke at the 55-year old power plant in Kingston, TN, destroying homes and rising doubts about clean coal. Despite the huge amounts of ash generated in the USA (131 mtons per year) no federal regulations control the fate of ash from coal-fired plants. 56% of this is not used in products such as concrete. The EPA has found proof of water contamination from many operating ash sites which are wet impoundments, ponds or reservoirs of some sort. Several member of Congress have show support for new ash-handling requirements and an inventory of waste sites. Meanwhile, the Kingston disaster may well drive utilities to consider dry handling. 3 photos.

Johnson, J.

2009-02-15

364

Passamaquoddy Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Public design report  

SciTech Connect

The Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} was conceived and developed specifically to address two problems experienced by the Dragon cement plant; meeting increasingly stringent gas emission limits for sulfur dioxide, and disposing of kiln dust, containing alkali oxides, which had to be wasted in order to avoid kiln operating and product quality problems. The idea involved making the kiln dust into a slurry in order to leach out the species (primarily potassium and sulfur) which rendered it unacceptable for return to kiln feed. This slurry, the liquid part of which is an alkaline solution, acts as a scrubbing reagent for SO{sub 2} in the flue gas while CO{sub 2} in the gas serves to precipitate soluble calcium and release sulfate for combination with the potassium. The effect of the process is to scrub SO{sub 2} from kiln flue gas, extract the volatile species from the dust allowing it to be returned to the kiln, and yield a leachate comprising potassium sulfate which can be crystallized (using heat recovered from the flue gas) and sold as fertilizer. Apart from widespread application in the cement industry, it was evident that, if the process could be demonstrated, its potential would extend to any plant burning fossil fuel where an alkaline waste either occurs intrinsically or can be juxtaposed. Obvious candidates appeared to include the pulp and paper industry and waste incineration. The chemistry was proved in a 1/100th scale pilot plant using actual kiln dust and a slip stream of kiln gas. A full scale demonstration installation was commissioned in 1989 by CDN (USA), the owners of the Dragon plant with the financial support of the US Department of Energy under its innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

Not Available

1993-08-01

365

Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and

J. R. Watson; T. S. McClanhan; R. W. Weatherington

1983-01-01

366

Combination process for upgrading oil products of coal, shale oil and crude oil to produce jet fuels, diesel fuels and gasoline  

SciTech Connect

A combination process for upgrading hydrocarbon fractions obtained from raw shale oil, oil products of coal processing and select fractions of crude oils comprising sulfur, nitrogen and metal contaminants to produce jet fuel product fractions such as JP4, JP5, JP8 and other turbine-type fuel materials provided. The combination of integrated processing steps involving hydrotreating, acid extraction of basic nitrogen compounds and hydrofining thereof to produce a feed composition suitable for catalytic reforming in the absence of significant hydrocracking whereby jet fuel boiling range material is produced significantly reduces by the combination the hydrogen requirements of the process. A further significant contribution to the combination operation resides in the utilization of a catalytic cracking operation of restricted severity to particularly convert high-boiling portions of the hydrocarbon feed fractions to product boiling in the jet fuel boiling range desired before acid extraction of basic nitrogen compounds and further refining thereof as above provided by hydrotreating, reforming and hydrofining of the select product of the reforming operation. Thus, the combination operation of the invention substantially maximizes the yield of desired jet fuel products under hydrogenating conditions particularly conserving the consumption of hydrogen.

Johnson, C.A.; Hettinger, R. Jr.; Moore, H.F.; Ward, C.

1983-10-11

367

Research on coal-water fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed / Badanie spalania zawiesinowych paliw w?glowo-wodnych w cyrkulacyjnej warstwie fluidalnej  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper the problem of heavily-watered fuel combustion has been undertaken as the requirements of qualitative coals combusted in power stations have been growing. Coal mines that want to fulfill expectations of power engineers have been forced to extend and modernize the coal enrichment plants. This causes growing quantity of waste materials that arise during the process of wet coal enrichment containing smaller and smaller under-grains. In this situation the idea of combustion of transported waste materials, for example in a hydraulic way to the nearby power stations appears attractive because of a possible elimination of the necessary deep dehydration and drying as well as because of elimination of the finest coal fraction loss arising during discharging of silted water from coal wet cleaning plants. The paper presents experimental research results, analyzing the process of combustion of coal-water suspension depending on the process conditions. Combustion of coal-water suspensions in fluidized beds meets very well the difficult conditions, which should be obtained to use the examined fuel efficiently and ecologically. The suitable construction of the research stand enables recognition of the mechanism of coal-water suspension contact with the inert material, that affects the fluidized bed. The form of this contact determines conditions of heat and mass exchange, which influence the course of a combustion process. The specificity of coal-water fuel combustion in a fluidized bed changes mechanism and kinetics of the process.

Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka

2012-10-01

368

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

369

Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

Not Available

1994-06-14

370

Process for the separation of entrained organic fluids from gaseous streams in a coal deashing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for the prevention of the deposition of entrained soluble coal products from vaporous solvent recovered from a heavy fraction comprising insoluble coal products and some solvent and soluble coal products. The heavy fraction is produced in a coal deashing system employing solvent at elevated temperatures and pressures near the critical conditions of the solvent. The heavy

1983-01-01

371

Coal gasification pilot plant support studies. Subtask 3-3. Improved methods of removal, recovery, or conversion of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in raw product gases from coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from three exploratory programs to improve the processing techniques for the removal, conversion, or recovery of sulfur and nitrogen compounds without gas quenching in coal gasification processes. The areas of investigation were the following: (1) fuel gas desulfurization, (2) catalytic ammonia decomposition in fuel gas streams, and (3) catalytic hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in fuel gas streams.

Not Available

1980-12-01

372

Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and

W. Spackman; A. Davis; P. L. Walker; H. L. Lovell; F. J. Vastola; P. H. Given; N. H. Suhr; R. G. Jenkins

1982-01-01

373

Catalytic oxidation process cleans volatile organics from exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Unsteady-state catalytic oxidation is the basis of a technology now becoming available in the US for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from industrial exhaust streams. The technology originated in Russia and is being developed for the US market by Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems, St. Louis. At least 149 of the 189 pollutants identified by EPA are VOCs. EPA estimates that the initial cost to industry for equipment to remove the hazardous materials will be about $350 million. The expected annual maintenance bill to treat the major pollution sources is about $182 million. Catalytic oxidizers are applicable to most, but not all, VOC removal applications. The advantages in most cases are VOC removal efficiencies of at least 99%, half the energy requirement of other systems, low operating temperatures, stable operation with variable flow rates and VOC concentrations, and low capital and operating costs.

Haggin, J.

1994-06-27

374

Catalytic hydrogenation of coal-derived liquids. Interim report, March 1977May 1977. [Co molybdate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the object of this research to convert coal to clean distillate fuels. This program will be limited to research on the product from existing coal liquefaction processes. Liquefied coal will be converted by a catalytic hydrogenation at elevated temperatures and pressures. Samples of the products from PAMCO, H-Oil, COED, and SYNTHOIL will be obtained. They will be heated

L. Berg; F. P. McCandless

1977-01-01

375

Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities were focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies were conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing and a spiral model was developed by West Virginia University. For the University of Kentucky the advisory board approved a project entitled: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Project management and administration will be provided by Virginia Tech., for the first year. Progress reports for coal dewatering and destabilization of flotation froth studies are presented in this report.

Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jiang, X.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Meloy, T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-10-01

376

WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power

Doug Strickland

2001-01-01

377

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 16, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the first quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Reported results of drop tube furnace data analyses to determine devolatilization kinetics; reported the results from the re-analyzed pilot-scale ash deposits from the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-05-01

378

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product; however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of the advanced flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach utilized synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant addition to lower the moisture of clean coal using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combinations of metal ions and surfactants in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. Surface chemical study indicated a direct correlation between the point-of-zero charge (PZC) of metal ion/fine coal system and lowering of moisture in the filter cake. Adsorption of either metal ions or surfactants alone did not provide a significant reduction of moisture in the filter cake. However, a combination of the two provided a filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture. Filtration tests conducted using a laboratory vacuum drum filter indicated that the results obtained in batch filtration could be reproduced on a continuous filtration unit. FT-IR studies indicated that anionic surfactant and metal ions form complex species which adsorbs on the fine coal and results in improved moisture reduction during filtration. Recommendations are offered for testing this novel dewatering process on a pilot scale at a coal preparation plant in Illinois.

Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1992-12-31

379

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical--can continue in its role as a key component in the U.S. and world energy markets. The CCT Program also has global importance in providing clean, efficient coal-based technology to a burgeoning energy market in developing countries largely dependent on coal. Based on 1997 data, world energy consumption is expected to increase 60 percent by 2020, with almost half of the energy increment occurring in developing Asia (including China and India). By 2020, energy consumption in developing Asia is projected to surpass consumption in North America. The energy form contributing most to the growth is electricity, as developing Asia establishes its energy infrastructure. Coal, the predominant indigenous fuel, in that region will be the fuel of choice in electricity production. The CCTs offer a means to mitigate potential environmental problems associated with unprecedented energy growth, and to enhance the U.S. economy through foreign equipment sales and engineering services.

NONE

2000-09-01

380

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01

381

Integrated coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

Effron, Edward (Springfield, NJ)

1978-01-01

382

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

NONE

1995-07-01

383

Clean coal. U.S.-China cooperation in energy security  

SciTech Connect

This work discusses how coal fits into the strategies of the USA and China to attain energy security while avoiding adverse environmental impacts. It begins by describing China's policy choices for clean coal, before discussing the implications of a clean coal strategy for China. The U.S. choices in a coal-based strategy of energy security is then covered. Finally, a joint US-China clean coal strategy, including the technology sharing option, is discussed.

Wendt, D.

2008-05-15

384

Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

1983-12-01

385

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 13, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport feed coal; published two technical papers at conferences; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1992-09-01

386

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

Not Available

1992-02-15

387

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

Not Available

1990-08-06

388

Innovative Clean Coal Technology: Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT-121 relative to competing technology.

Not Available

1990-11-15

389

Innovative Clean Coal Technologies (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

Not Available

1992-05-15

390

Feasibility Study of Using a Coal/Water/Oil Emulsion as a Clean Liquid Fuel: Phase 2. Interim Report, October--December 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major conclusion from our study of coal particle size is that particle size distribution for coals of different hardness will be different when pulverized at the same plate separation. The major conclusion from our study of emulsions of coal, No. 2 oi...

J. P. Dooher

1977-01-01

391

Termisk foergasning och gasrening foer energiproduktion ur avfall. Experimentella studied av gasrening samt process- och miljoestudie. (Thermal gasification and gas cleaning for energy production from refuse. Experimental studies of gas cleaning and study of processes and environment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To generate and improve the understanding of catalysis (tar and ammonia conversion) and of absorbtion (mainly of hydrochloride) when using dolomite as a gas cleaning agent for gas from thermal gasification of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel), laboratory experime...

C. Ekstroem B. G. Espenaes H. Alden

1990-01-01

392

Physical Coal Cleaning for Utility Boiler SO2 Emission Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)....

E. H. Hall L. Hoffman J. Hoffman R. A. Schilling

1978-01-01

393

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01

394

The Transition to Road Transport Fuels from Coal: A Preliminary Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earlier papers have concluded that when supplies of natural crude oil become scarce and expensive; a substitute liquid fuel for road transport could be made from coal. In the first part of the present paper, an estimate is made of the cost and other resou...

J. Porter

1979-01-01

395

Clean salt process final report  

SciTech Connect

A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

Herting, D.L.

1996-09-30

396

Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

Not Available

1993-09-09

397

CLEANING AND DEGREASING PROCESS CHANGES  

EPA Science Inventory

This guide describes cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce waste in cleaning and degreasing operations. he focus is primarily on process changes that use different technologies for cleaning or eliminate the need for cleaning solvent as part of a production operation. uf...

398

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

2009-01-31

399

A multi-product cogeneration system using combined coal gasification and combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system has been developed for clean and highly efficient utilization of coal. The coal is first gasified and the fuel gas is then used for industrial purposes in town gas or as a fuel for gas turbines. The char residue from the gasifier is burned in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor to generate steam for power generation, process heating,

Mengxiang Fang; Zhongyang Luo; Xuantian Li; Qinghui Wang; Mingjiang Ni; Kefa Cen

1998-01-01

400

Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - Micro-agglomerate flotation - which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 [mu]m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 [mu]m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

1993-01-01

401

Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 3, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Energy International Corporation (El) was awarded a contract to evaluate a new concept for utilization of the fine coal wetcake produced by many of the physical beneficiation processes now under development. EI proposed development of a stabilized wetcake with properties that would facilitate storage, handling, transport, and subsequent conversion of the material into Coal-Water Fuel (CWF) at the point of use. The effort was performed in three phases. Phase I established the technical feasibility of stabilizing the fine coal ``wetcake`` in a form that can be readily handled and converted into a desired fuel form at the combustion site. The preferred form of stabilized ``wetcake`` was a granular free flowing material with the moisture encapsulated with the fine coal particles. The product was termed Mulled Coal. Phase I results indicated that the Mulled Coal was not only suitable as a CWF intermediate, but also had potential as a solid fuel. Phase II demonstrated the utilization of the Mulled Coal process to store and move fine coal products as a stable ``wetcake.`` Tasks in this phase tested components of the various systems required for storage, handling and combustion of the fine coals. Phase III expanded the technology by: 1. Evaluating Mulled Coal from representative coals from all producing regions in the US. 2. Development of bench-scale tests. 3. Design, construction, and operation of a 1 ton/hr continuous processing unit. 4. Evaluation of the effects of beneficiation. and 5. Developing an estimate of capital and operating costs for commercial units.

Not Available

1993-08-01

402

Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process  

SciTech Connect

Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-07-01

403

Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

Brodzik, P.

2007-04-15

404

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

Not Available

1994-07-01

405

Upgrading coal liquids to gas turbine fuels. II - Compatibility of coal liquids with petroleum fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compatibility of three coal liquids with some petroleum fuels has been determined. Synthoil and H-Coal were incompatible with No. 2 distillate fuel, No. 6 fuel oil, and heavy coker gas oil. Synthoil was compatible with clarified slurry oil (heavy product from catalytic cracking unit); H-Coal was incompatible. The 950-F fractions of Synthoil and H-Coal were completely compatible with the

A. V. Cabal; S. E. Voltz; T. R. Stein

1977-01-01

406

Clean fuels and clean cars: Will they match  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of clean fuels and clean cars will be discussed. Since the first emission standards were enacted in the 1960s, vehicle exhaust emission levels have been reduced by 96% for hydrocarbons, 96% for carbon monoxide (CO), and 76% for oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]). These reductions were achieved through improvements in vehicle technology, both in the base engine and

2009-01-01

407

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Quarterly report, November 1, 1986--January 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Under the Department of Energy`s Advanced Combustor Technology Program, approximately 11 combustor contractors (under 13 contracts) are developing combustion systems (during 1987--1989) for use in residential, commercial, light industrial and industrial retrofit markets. Sufficient quantities of well-characterized, coal-based fuels possessing specific, appropriate specifications are required by the contractors. Fuels may be dry pulverized coal or coal liquid fuels. In support of these equipment development efforts, the team of Energy International and Dravo Engineers will provide such fuels. During the first quarter of this contract effort, the primary activities were involved with: (1)``Analysis of Fuel Needs`` which includes a market analysis, a resource assessment, and development of specifications for fuels. (2) Completing the initial version of those analyses and reviewing the preliminary coal selection recommendations with DOE-PETC project management. (3) Initiating the procurement of coal supplies for initial candidates. (4) Determination of supply requirements (i.e., specifications, quantities, schedule) with combustor developers. (5) Development and scoping of coal supply and process strategies. The progress on the above activities is reported here. The major coal fields of the US were reviewed to correlate with the market needs analysis. The coals selected for developmental testing will need to satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and stretch the fuel processing (deep cleaning) capabilities beyond the current state-of-the-art.

Not Available

1987-03-01

408

Preliminary engineering evaluation of promising coal liquefaction concepts. Final report. [Original and three process modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several potentially attractive coal liquefaction concepts were evaluated to guide EPRI in planning future research projects. Each concept was developed into a fully-integrated design, self-sufficient in fuel and power, processing 10,000 tons of coal per day in the liquefaction section. Emphasis was placed on producing clean-burning solid and liquid fuels suitable for electric power generation. Six processes were investigated: flash

D. Agarwal; J. J. Cicalese; J. H. Harkins; M. T. McShane; D. J. Oriolo; J. R. Polek

1979-01-01

409

Analysis of fly ash produced from combustion of refuse-derived fuel and coal mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Ca, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br, Hf, Ni, Sc, V, and the rare earths. Smaller particles in the RDF fly ash had higher concentrations of As, Cd, Ga, K, Na, Sb, and the rare earths. RDF fly ash contains four distinct morphologies, exhibits a high specific surface area, and does not resemble fly ash derived from a conventional coal-fired power plant. The morphology of the ash helps explain the high solubility of many species in the RDF-rich fractions.

Taylor, D.R. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins); Tompkins, M.A.; Kirton, S.E.; Mauney, T.; Natusch, D.F.S.

1982-03-01

410

Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition for Coal-Derived Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop and demonstrate catalytic approaches for decomposing a significant percentage (up to 90 percent) of the NH{sub 3} present in fuel gas to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at elevated temperatures (550 to 900{degrees}C). The NH{sub 3} concentration considered in this study was {similar_to}1,800 to 2,000 ppmv, which is typical of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifiers such as the Texaco coal gasifier being employed at the TECO Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant. Catalysts containing Ni, Co, Mo, and W were candidates for the study. Before undertaking any experiments, a detailed thermodynamic evaluation was conducted to determine the concentration of NH{sub 3} in equilibrium with the Texaco gasifier coal gas. Thermodynamic evaluations were also performed to evaluate the stability of the catalytic phases (for the various catalysts under consideration) under NH3 decomposition conditions to be used in this study. Two catalytic approaches for decomposing NH{sub 3} have been experimentally evaluated. The first approach evaluated during the early phases of this project involved the screening of catalysts that could be combined with the hot-gas desulfurization sorbents (e.g., zinc titanate) for simultaneous NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S removal. In a commercial system, this approach would reduce capital costs by eliminating a process step. The second approach evaluated was high-temperature catalytic decomposition at 800 to 900{degrees} C. In a commercial hot-gas cleanup system this could be carried out after radiative cooling of the gas to 800 to 900{degrees}C but up stream of the convective cooler, the hot particulate filter, and the hot-gas desulfurization reactor. Both approaches were tested in the presence of up to 7,500 ppmv H{sub 2}S in simulated fuel gas or actual fuel gas from a coal gasifier.

Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.; Portzer, J.W.; Turk, B.S. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Krishnan, G.N. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hung, S.L.; Ayala, R.E. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

1996-12-31

411

A Course in Coal Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course introduces graduate students and advanced undergraduates to coal science and technology. Topics include: (1) the nature and occurrence of coal, (2) its chemical and physical characteristics, (3) methods of cleaning and preparing coal, and (4) processes for converting coal into clean solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, as well as coke.

Wheelock, T. D.

1978-01-01

412

A Course in Coal Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course introduces graduate students and advanced undergraduates to coal science and technology. Topics include: (1) the nature and occurrence of coal, (2) its chemical and physical characteristics, (3) methods of cleaning and preparing coal, and (4) processes for converting coal into clean solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, as well as coke.

Wheelock, T. D.

1978-01-01

413

Clean Coal Technology: Coolside and LIMB: Sorbent Injection Demonstrations Nearing Completion. Topical Report Number 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first full-scale, commercial demonstration of two emerging sorbent injection technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from existing coal-fired power plants is under way. These two clean coal technologies - Coolside and Limestone Inj...

L. Miller T. W. Becker

1990-01-01

414

Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation?s urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

Huffman, Gerald

2012-12-31

415

Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel  

SciTech Connect

In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

1995-12-31

416

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15

417

Coal Derived Fuel Gases for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compat...

1979-01-01

418

COMPUTER ECONOMICS OF PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING AND FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION. FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a computer model developed by TVA to simulate the performance and determine the economics of coal cleaning, or coal cleaning combined with flue gas desulfurization (FGD), for power plant emission control processes over a wide range of user-specified condition...

419

Process for the hydroconversion of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a process for producing