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1

Lummus clean fuels from coal  

SciTech Connect

This report compares two direct, catalytic, hydroliquefaction processes - H-Coal and Lummus Clean Fuels From Coal (LCFFC). These processes are compared for two sets of operating conditions. In the first, the reactors are operated to produce a product suitable for use as fuel oil (fuel oil mode). In the second, the operating conditions are more severe, so the resulting product slates more closely resemble crude oil (syncrude mode). The comparisons are performed using conceptual designs based on single point run data, with a design basis of 25,000 tpd (moisture-free basis) of Illinois No. 6 coal. Although all cost comparisons are well within the estimated 25% accuracy of the estimates, LCFFC shows generally lower costs. Three types of economic evaluation are performed: computation of internal rate of return (IRR) with product values set to estimated market value, computation of overall average product cost ($/MM Btu) with the discount rate set at 20%, and calculation of average product cost with naphtha credited at estimated market value and the discount rate set at 20%. H-Coal has a lower cost only in the fuel oil mode analysis with naphtha valued at market price. The processes are also compared with respect to the potential for commercialization and anticipated operability differences. It is concluded that the lower hydrogen content of LCFFC product may offset its advantage of lower cost if it is used as refinery feed, and that the design of the LCFFC reactor may make it harder to control. Suggestions for future research are presented.

Gantt, J.E.; Hefferan, J.K.; Chorba, W.F.; Schachtschneider, A.B.; Schulze, J.R.

1980-12-01

2

Clean fuels from coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quickest path to synthetic fuels requires reviewing technologies now ; in use and finding engineering firms competent to reproduce and adapt these ; technologies with maximum effect. By gasifying coal with air, the engineer can ; produce power gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with nitrogen. By ; gasifying with oxygen and steam, one obtains blue water

A. M. Squires

1974-01-01

3

Production of Clean Fuel Gas From Bituminous Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for the production of low-Btu gas from bituminous coals via fluid bed gasification is described. Coal processing consists of pretreatment, gasification, and final burnup. Hot fuel gas is desulfurized with half-calcined dolomite and cleaned of pa...

G. Curran J. Clancey B. Pasek M. Pell

1973-01-01

4

Improved Coal Cleaning Process Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Physical coal cleaning is a mechanical process for removal of high ash constituents and pyritic sulphur from input fuels for coal-fired generating staions. Preparato...

1981-01-01

5

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

1994-01-01

6

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

1994-06-21

7

A novel process for recovering clean coal and water from coal tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of fine coals from coal preparation tailings and recycle of processing water are of both economic and environmental incentives, not only preserving natural resources but also reducing environmental consequences of discharging large volume of tailings. A novel single stage process capable of recovering fine coals in liquid fuels and clarifying water for recycle is described. This process integrates three

C. Duong; J. Choung; Z. Xu; J. Szymanski

2000-01-01

8

CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM COAL CLEANING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of criteria for assessing environmental pollutants associated with coal cleaning processes. The primary problem concerns emissions of pollutants to all three media--air, water, and land--and assessing their effects on humans and the environmen...

9

Process for cleaning undeslimed coal  

SciTech Connect

A process for cleaning undeslimed coal includes the steps of determining the scalar value of cross-correlation function of the measured values of the percent magnetics and the bulk specific gravity of a heavy media and coal slurry being fed to a cyclone, comparing the value to a set-point value determined after start-up when the recirculating suspension in the feed slurry is normally clean, and diverting at least a portion of the heavy media suspension that is separated from the underflow of the cyclone from being mixed with the feed coal slurry, to thereby correspondingly recycle the slime content of the feed slurry, and concurrently increasing the flow of cleaner heavy media suspension to the feed coal slurry until the cross-correlation function is brought up to the set-point value. Also disclosed is an embodiment of the process for cleaning coal, wherein the overflow from the cyclone is screened and screened solution is split between a first recycle loop for cleaning the suspension and the heavy media sump. Similarly, the underflow from the cyclone is screened and then split between a separate recycle loop and the heavy media sump. Suspension is diverted to the heavy media sump from one or both recycle cleaning loops as necessary. The remaining portions of the split suspension flows from the two screening devices are, in turn, respectively split between two further sumps and the heavy media sump, with more suspension coming from the cyclone overflow screen when cleaner suspension is indicated as being necessary by the aforesaid statistical analysis.

Wells, C.H.

1983-09-20

10

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01

11

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

1997-04-25

12

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications  

SciTech Connect

This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1993-01-18

13

Fuel Production from Coal by the Mobil Oil Process Using Nuclear High-Temperature Process Heat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have sever...

G. Hoffmann

1982-01-01

14

Coal can be a Clean Fuel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Redevelopment and expansion of United States coal resources are economic necessities. Environmentalists' objections to the less expensive, available United States coal, that introduces large amounts of SOx and particulates into the air, may be overcome with the options of coal cleaning, tall stacks, material recovery and stack cleaning. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

15

Recovery of Alumina from Fly Ash: Use of Coal Cleaning Refuse as a Mineralizer in the Lime-Sinter Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficiency of alumina recovery from coal fly ash by the lime-sinter process is improved by the addition of a small amount of coal cleaning refuse. Approximately 5.0 wt % refuse increases alumina recovery from 55% to 90% for subbituminous coal ashes an...

N. R. Fronczak G. Burnet

1983-01-01

16

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1997-08-28

17

Clean Coal as Fuel for Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean coal suitable for turbines must not contain more than extremely small amounts of volatile sodium and potassium compounds and low levels of particulate ash. Turbines are expected to tolerate in the region of 100 ppb concentration of volatile alkali and inlet particulate loading at 6 to 8 ppmw. These specifications are required for cleaning intervals of 2,500 hours and

G Domazetis

18

Recovery of alumina from fly ash: use of coal cleaning refuse as a mineralizer in the lime-sinter process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of alumina recovery from coal fly ash by the lime-sinter process is improved by the addition of a small amount of coal cleaning refuse. Approximately 5.0 wt % refuse increases alumina recovery from 55% to 90% for subbituminous coal ashes and reduces the required sintering temperature from 1380 to 1200°C. Mixtures of fly ash and various amounts of

N. R. Fronczak; G. Burnet

1983-01-01

19

Clean Coal?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and accompanying essay examine carbon capture and storage and clean-coal technology, providing statistics for overall annual U.S. consumption as well as average household usage. Turning solid coal into a clean-burning fuel gas (syngas) and capture and storage pros and cons are discussed.

Pbs, Wgbh -.; Domain, Teachers'

20

Garbage and coal combination for clean burning fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

Columbia University professor Dr. Helmut Schulz gasification process to produce an inexpensive, clean-burning, high-energy fuel gas while helping to solve the problem of municipal waste disposal. Dr. Schulz contends that the process could produce the equivalent of 200 million barrels a year if it were used by the 50 largest US cities. The Simplex process combines coal with garbage in specially formulated briquettes which can be efficiently pyrolyzed to at a high temperatures. The patented briquetting procedure allows the use of eastern coals and permits efficient gas distribution. Simplex gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) burns at the same flame temperature as natural gas, simplifying fuel substitution. The ratio can be modified to synthesize methanol fuel. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-03-27

21

Advanced Process for the Production of Clean Coal by Chemical Leaching Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

If coal must be used in industry to replace oil that becomes scarce, the coal should be demineralized to get a clean, high-heating-value, noncorrosive, free flowing solid fuel. Alkali leaching of coal under ambient pressure followed by acid leaching under milder conditions affords a convenient process for cleaning coal up to a degree of demineralization of 75%. The conditions for

D. K. SHARMA; S. K. SINGH

1995-01-01

22

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The fuels studied in this project are (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder. These fuels are investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The combustion experiments demonstrated that the three coal-water slurry fuels and the pellet fuel could burn well in the CFBC unit. The combustion tests showed that the combustion efficiency of the slurry fuels and the pellets were quite comparable with that of the standard coal in the range of 91--98%. Sulfur dioxide emissions in lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels were low enough to satisfy EPA emissions requirements with Ca/S ratios of 1.5 or less. At these low Ca/S ratios, the slurry fuels and the pellet emitted less SO{sub 2} than the standard coal. Increasing the Ca/S ratios showed that the standard coal SO{sub 9} emissions reduced at a faster rate than the SO{sub 2} emissions from the pellet and slurry fuels, because of the more efficient dispersion and gas-solid contact of the standard coal particles. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels under the conditions of the present tests, while that from the pellets were between 0.6 to 0.75 lbs per million Btu depending on bed temperature. In comparison, the oxides of nitrogen emissions from the standard coal varied from 0.5 to 0.8 lbs per million Btu in the bed temperature range of 1475--1625{degrees}F.

Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

1992-12-31

23

Design of novel coal mining\\/preparation systems for clean coal-based fuels. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the investigation deriving novel coal mining\\/preparation systems for clean coal-based fuel. Efforts include the examination of unit operation at each phase of surface mining, underground mining, transportation and preparation processes. Part of the study deals with the analysis of alternatives within each phase which have the strongest interface potential for mining\\/preparation. Part one discusses

J. H. Kelley; J. L. Chang; F. F. Peng; K. D. Schmidt; E. S. Whitley

1982-01-01

24

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

1994-10-01

25

CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--November 10, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The fuels studied in this project are (a) three flotation slurry fuels beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder, (c) a run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal. Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from the slurry and pellet fuels are compared with similar parameters from the reference coal burnt under similar conditions of bed temperature and fluidization velocity. The combustion tests performed in a 4 in. internal diameter CFBC showed that the combustion efficiency of the slurry fuels and the pellets were quite comparable with that of the standard coal in the range of 91--98%. Sulfur dioxide emissions in lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels were low enough to satisfy EPA emissions requirements with Ca/S ratios of 1.5 or less. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were generally on the order of 0.3 lbs per million Btu from the slurry fuels under the conditions of the present tests, while that from the pellets were between 0.6 to 0.75 lbs per million Btu depending on bed temperature.

Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

26

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1993-01-18

27

Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

Not Available

1990-07-31

28

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

1992-05-01

29

PRECIPITATION OF IRON, SODIUM, AND POTASSIUM IMPURITIES FROM SYNTHETIC SOLUTIONS MODELING SPENT ACID STREAMS FROM A CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on treating model spent acid streams from a chemical coal cleaning process by double salt precipitation indicated that simple heating of solutions containing Fe2(SO4)3, Na2SO4, and K2SO4 caused jarosite (KFe3(SO47)2(OH)6) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6), and precipitate yields were higher than when Na2SO4 was the only alkali sulfate present. Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the

Glenn A. Norton; Richard G. Richardson; Richard Markuszewski; Audrey D. Levine

1990-01-01

30

Production of a Clean Carbon Fuel Derived from Coal for Use in Stationary and Mobile Heat Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the development of a new process called HYDROCARB and the production of a new fuel product called CARBOLINE (an acronym for carbon-gasoline), which has potential world-wide economic usefulness. It is a clean carbon fuel which can be u...

M. Steinberg

1986-01-01

31

Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable to coal-derived FT liquid fuels. After different gas clean up processes steps, the coal-derived syngas will produce FT liquid fuels that have similar properties to natural gas derived FT liquids.

Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

2006-02-28

32

Process for the production of fuel gas from coal  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

1982-01-01

33

Study of Ammonia Removal from Coal-Gasified Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power-generation (IGCC) systems, ammonia in gasified fuel is passed through a hot\\/dry type gas clean-up facility into a gas turbine. The ammonia is converted to nitrogen oxides in the gas turbine combustion process. Therefore, ammonia removal from coal-gasified fuel effectively reduces NOx emissions in IGCC systems. We clarified the optimum NO\\/NH3 ratio, the optimum concentration

Takeharu Hasegawa; Mikio Sato

1998-01-01

34

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES. SECOND ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the second year's work for EPA by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. Program activities included systems studies, data acquisition, and general program support. (1) Systems studies have been directed at...

35

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

Liberation studies on the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were completed in this quarter. The results obtained from the 65 {times} 150 mesh samples showed that the amount of mineral matter and pyrite liberated by the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process increases with time. The free mineral matter undergoes some reduction in size during the CECC treatment and the majority of the liberated mineral particles in this sample are finer than 150 mesh. This is opposite that found for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, which may explain the better response of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal to CECC treatment. The continuous bench-scale unit was modified during the quarter to satisfy the health and safety requirements of the university. The unit was modified to ensure that any spill or leakage can be contained. Due to these modifications, continuous testing work was delayed.

Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

1991-01-01

36

Clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

The term clean coal technology'' entered the energy vocabulary in the 1980s. It describes a new generation of advanced coal technology, environmentally cleaner and in many cases more efficient and less costly than conventional coal-burning processes. These new power generating and pollution control concepts are the products of years of research and development in hundreds of government and private laboratories throughout the world. Their emergence in the 1980s is bringing about a new coal age -- one that not only responds to past problems with some of the most sophisticated technology available in the world today but offers a bright future for coal as well. Coal is the nation's most plentiful fossil fuel. One quarter of all the world's known coal lies within US borders. Coal also is an energy bargain. Even with the sharp decline in world oil and gas prices in the mid-1980s, coal has remained the least expensive fossil fuel in the US. In the future, coal can do more to help this country and our trading partners grow economically while enhancing national energy security -- if it can be used in greater amounts without endangering the Earth's fragile ecology. The new suite of advanced, clean coal technologies will help achieve that objective. They will ensure that the US can continue using its most abundant energy resource while maintaining a commitment to a clean, healthy environment.

Not Available

1991-01-01

37

A granulation\\/sintering method for the codisposal of solid residues from coal conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stabilization process for coal cleaning and coal combustion-related wastes has been developed that uses the energy derived from the fuel contained in the coal cleaning waste. The wastes are pulverized, when necessary, formed into granules in a rotary pan agglomerator, and then fired to a sintering temperature. The resulting readily disposable product consists of rock-hard granules that are highly

G. Burnet; A. J. Gokhale; R. F. Meisinger

1988-01-01

38

Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

Norton, G.

1990-09-21

39

The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal. [COMPCOAL Process  

SciTech Connect

This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

1992-01-01

40

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1993. The project has three major objectives: (1) the primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) a secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics; and (3) a third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1993-07-28

41

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

The continuous testing of the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) bench-scale unit (Task 6) was completed successfully in this quarter using Middle Wyodak and Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples. The CECC unit was run under the optimum conditions established for these coal samples in Task 4. For the Middle Wyodak coal, the ash content was reduced from 6.96% to as low 1.61%, corresponding to an ash rejection (by weight) of about 83%. The ash and sulfur contents of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were reduced to as low as 1.8% and 0.9%. The average ash and sulfur rejections were calculated to be around 84% and 47%. The CECC continuous unit was used to treat -325 mesh Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples and gave ash and sulfur rejection values of as high as 77% and 66%. In these test, the clean -325 mesh coal particles were separated from the liberated mineral matter through microbubble column flotation, instead of wet-screening.

Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

1991-01-01

42

Combustion behaviour of ultra clean coal obtained by chemical demineralisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing environmental concern caused by the use of fossil fuels and the concomitant need for improved combustion efficiency is leading to the development of new coal cleaning and utilisation processes. However, the benefits achieved by the removal of most mineral matter from coal either by physical or chemical methods can be annulled if poor coal combustibility characteristics are attained.

F. Rubiera; A. Arenillas; B. Arias; J. J. Pis; I. Suárez-Ruiz; K. M. Steel; J. W. Patrick

2003-01-01

43

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31

44

A CO-UTILIZATION OF COAL WITH E-FUEL FROM ENERTECH'S SLURRYCARBtm PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

In August 1999, EnerTech Environmental, LLC (EnerTech) and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement to develop the first SlurryCarb{trademark} facility for converting Municipal Sewage Sludge (MSS) into a high-density slurry fuel, which could be co-utilized with coal in various industrial applications. Funded primarily by private investors, this program was divided into two major phases, Project Definition (Phase 0) and Design, Construction, and Operation (Phase 1). Project Definition, performed during this reporting period, was designed to define the project from a technical, economic, and scheduling standpoint. Once defined, much of the project risk would be appropriately mitigated thereby providing stakeholders, such as FETC, less risk when investing in the more costly Phase 1, which includes the design, construction, and operation of the first SlurryCarb{trademark} facility. Since May 1999, EnerTech has made significant progress in the tasks required in Phase 0 for bringing this project to Phase 1. These accomplishments have enhanced the probability for success thereby reducing the risk to the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) for its investment in the project. Phase 0 technical accomplishments include: Locating and securing a project site for the 60 dry ton per day (DTPD) SlurryCarb{trademark} facility; Locating and securing a project partner who will supply the necessary MSS for the project revenue stream; Completing the basic engineering of the project, which included value engineering for reducing technical risk and lowering project costs (final drawings, detail technical review, test runs on process development unit, fuel production for fuel usage research, and final cost estimate all pending); Research and a market study necessary for finding a potential fuel user, which included working with General Electric Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with a focus on coal utilization (locate actual fuel user and detailed combustion research pending); Beginning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process necessary for the DOE involvement (final NEPA report pending); Completing the basic design for the fuel delivery system and developing a research protocol for testing required by the fuel user (actual fuel testing pending); and Locating engineering, procurement, and construction firm (EPC) to provide a fixed price guaranteed schedule for the project (EPC contract negotiation pending). For this project, a semi-annual technical progress report is required to describe the technical progress made during the duration of the budget period.

Susan L. Hoang

2000-03-02

45

Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process  

DOEpatents

A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

Klima, Mark S. (Finleyville, PA) [Finleyville, PA; Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA) [McMurray, PA; Killmeyer, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA

1991-01-01

46

Clean coal technology waste characterization  

SciTech Connect

Clean coal technologies signify a new generation of highly efficient, environmentally clean, coal-based energy processes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology Program, which has a major goal of improving the options available to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants. To accomplish this goal, DOE is pursuing the development and demonstration of technologies that will result in more efficient and effective emission controls. This paper summarizes the available data on the characteristics of the solid wastes from these various clean coal technologies, with particular emphasis on waste as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and coal gasification. The available data indicate that the majority of solid wastes resulting from these technologies would not be classified as hazardous under RCRA standards. 29 refs.

Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.

1989-01-01

47

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Air Force is evaluating various feedstock sources of endothermic fuels. The technical feasibility of producing endothermic fuel from the naphtha by-product from Great Plains Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota was evaluated. The capital and operating costs of deriving the fuel from coal naphtha were also estimated. The coal naphtha from Great Plains was successfully processed to remove

R. W. Johnson; W. C. Zackro; G. Czajkowski; P. P. Shah; A. P. Kelly

1989-01-01

48

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

1992-05-01

49

Experimental studies of the production of lightweight aggregate from fly ash/coal cleaning refuse mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work, a granulation/sintering process have been developed for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate from coal cleaning refuse and fly ash. The resulting granules have the properties required of a lightweight aggregate. It is important to note, ...

G. Burnet A. J. Gokhale

1987-01-01

50

Clean energy from waste and coal  

SciTech Connect

Development of any new technology has traditionally been a controversial subject due to high expectations shared by proponents and results which many times fall short of these expectations. Solid and liquid waste management has been seen both success and failure in the implementation of new technology. For example, promises to commercially produce liquid or gaseous fuels and/or chemicals from municipal solid waste (MSW) or refuse derived fuel (RDF) have so far been unfulfilled after several attempts at demonstrating various technologies.

Khan, M.R. (ed.)

1992-01-01

51

Clean Coal Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current abstract publication issued monthly, announces worldwide information on all aspects of clean coal, including mechanical coal cleaning, desulfurization, coal gasification and liquefaction, flue gas cleanup, and advanced coal combustion.

1988-01-01

52

Motor Fuels and SNG from Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The classical coal-conversion processes for the production of motor fuels must be adapted to present economic and production conditions. Only the process sequence for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis plants has undergone continuous further development, stimulate...

H. Hiller

1980-01-01

53

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

2012-01-01

54

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Western Research Institute (WRI) COMPCOAL{trademark} process which is designed to produce a stable, high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) and other low-rank coals. The process is designed to overcome the problems of oxidation and spontaneous combustion, readsorption of moisture, and dust formation from the friable coal. PRB coal is susceptible to low-temperature oxidation and self-heating, particularly after it has been dried. This report describes a method WRI has developed to prevent self-heating of dried PRB coal. The ``accelerated aging`` not only stabilizes the dried coal, but it also increases the heating value of the COMPCOAL product. The stabilized COMPCOAL product has a heating value of 12,000 to 12,700 Btu/lb, contains 35 to 40 wt % volatiles, and is comparable to unprocessed PRB coal in self-heating and low-temperature oxidation characteristics. Importantly, the self-heating tendency can be controlled by slightly adjusting the ``aging`` step in the process.

NONE

1993-07-01

55

Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

Kacprzak, Andrzej; Koby?ecki, Rafa?; Bis, Zbigniew

2011-12-01

56

Transportation Fuels from Indirect Coal Liquefaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal can be converted to liquid fuels via three generically defined technologies: pyrolysis, direct hydroliquefaction, and indirect liquefaction. This paper presents a general overview of the indirect liquefaction technology and a discussion of processes ...

R. R. Schehl

1982-01-01

57

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30

58

Production of automotive fuels from coal in South Africa  

SciTech Connect

Automotive fuels from resources such as coal, shale, and tar sands will become increasingly important. Their rate of introduction will vary from country to country, depending on local circumstances. This paper relates the South African scenario for the production of synthetic automotive fuels from coal, describes the plants and processes used, and discusses the properties of the products.

Hoogendoorn, J.C.

1981-01-01

59

A novel process for preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal by high pressure water jet comminution technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process for the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal is presented in this paper. High pressure water jet mill replacing the ball mill is employed for coal comminution in the new preparation process, which is the essential difference from the traditional one. To compare the new preparation process with the traditional one, the comparison experiments were performed, with froth

Longlian Cui; Liqian An; Weili Gong; Hejin Jiang

2007-01-01

60

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

The work done during this quarter included the sample characterization (Task 3) of the Middle Wyodak and Upper Freeport coal and the continuation of the parametric testing (Subtask 4.1) of the Middle Wyodak coal samples. The proximate and ultimate analyses of the Upper Freeport coal sample were completed, as well as the FTIR spectroscopic and SEM characterization of the coal surface. Results of the parametric testing of the wet-screened Middle Wyodak coal were similar to those obtained for the dry-screened samples. The ash mineral rejection was found to be affected significantly by changes in the temperature and acid concentration, but not by the percent solids and ferric ion concentration. The FTIR spectra of the CECC-processed coal indicated oxidation of the coal surface. The signals attributed to clay minerals were found to be more significant in the spectra of the refuse than in that of the product. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Yoon, Roe-Hoan.

1989-01-01

61

Possibility use fuel gas from coal for energy supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article about of coal gasification and theoretical process, necessity and requirement of production of fuel gas from coal, our state use of coal gases power station. The cost of building this stations are going to be low consequently it will be harm environment. By providing energetic resources, it helps to reduce the movement of residents to the city.

A. Tumenbayar; C. Dashpuntsag

2007-01-01

62

EVALUATION OF THE FLASH DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR COAL CLEANING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a program to develop (on the laboratory, bench, and pilot scale) operating conditions for key steps in the 'flash' process for desulfurizing coal by chemical and thermal treatment. Laboratory and bench scale data on high-sulfur eastern U.S. coals prove...

63

Recovering clean coal from anthracite culm: Coal Quality Development Center Campaign Report No. 8: Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovering Clean Coal from Anthracite Culm contains the results of an investigation into the cleanability of coarse anthracite (termed ''culm'') excavated from a refuse bank in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. This characterization consisted of five interrelated efforts: Unprocessed Coarse Culm Characterization, Laboratory Froth Flotation Testing, Impurities Liberation Investigation, Culm-Cleaning Evaluation, and Combustion Characteristics Comparison. Significant cleanability characterization findings were that: although

E. R. Torak; A. K. Bhowmick; J. R. Cavalet; T. H. Parsons

1987-01-01

64

Liquid fuels from coal derived synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern synthesis gas chemistry has evolved from technology first developed in Germany early this century. Since that time worldwide interest in the production of liquid fuels from coal has gone through cycles reflecting the perceived availability of petroleum. In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported an indirect coal liquefaction program to investigate new techniques for the production

W. S. Jones; J. Shen; E. Schmetz

1986-01-01

65

Use of multiple radiotracers produced from intrinsic elements to trace float-sink components of coal in the flotation process for cleaning coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple radioisotope tracer method has been delineated, developed, and demonstrated for automating the research on and characterization of the froth flotation process for a New Mexico subbituminous coal. The method allows a real-time measurement of the amounts of three specific float-sink coal components of interest. A rational basis for this method was that the two short-lived radioisotopes, Na-24 and

Agyemang-Boateng

1985-01-01

66

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project is engineering development of advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies for cleaning coal. Development of these technologies is an important step in the Department of Energy program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected United States coals and that this fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for a portion of the premium fuels (oil and natural gas) burned by electric utility and industrial boilers in this country. Capturing a relatively small fraction of the total utility and industrial oil-fired boiler fuel market would have a significant impact on domestic coal production and reduce national dependence on petroleum fuels. Significant potential export markets also exist in Europe and the Pacific Rim for cost-effective premium fuels prepared from ultra-clean coal. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs, and boiler derating are kept to a minimum. Also, retrofit boiler emissions must be compatible with national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for the ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of ultra-clean coal discussed below. The cost-shared contract effort is for 48 months beginning September 30, 1992, and ending September 30, 1996. This report discusses the technical progress made during the second 3 months of the project, January 1 to March 31, 1993.

Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1993-04-26

67

The study and practice of clean coal pressure filter and dewatering process  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces the current status of dewatering of the flotation clean coal and the problems in China. The industrial application of the dewatering process and the newly developed clean coal pressure filter is represented. And the results indicated that this filter press possesses such advantages as fast speed in filter lower moisture in filter cake, convenience in operation, obvious saving on energy, etc. It will have a broad applications.

Xie, G.; Wu, L.; Ou, Z.

1999-07-01

68

Healy clean coal project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

Not Available

1992-03-01

69

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. The resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. 3 figs. (VC)

Not Available

1991-09-01

70

A granulation/sintering method for the codisposal of solid residues from coal conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

A stabilization process for coal cleaning and coal combustion-related wastes has been developed that uses the energy derived from the fuel contained in the coal cleaning waste. The wastes are pulverized, when necessary, formed into granules in a rotary pan agglomerator, and then fired to a sintering temperature. The resulting readily disposable product consists of rock-hard granules that are highly resistant to environmental degradation. The green (nondried and nonfired) granules satisfy durability tests that measure the capability to be handled and stored. The sintered granules meet requirements of the standard ASTM and EP leaching tests and a freeze-thaw cycle test. The strength of the sintered granules compares favorably with the strength of natural aggregates. The process has been applied to coal cleaning refuse alone and to refuse/fly ash and refuse/FGD sludge mixtures.

Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.; Meisinger, R.F. (Ames Lab., U.S.D.O.E. and Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US))

1988-06-01

71

A granulation/sintering method for the codisposal of solid residues from coal conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

A stabilization process for coal cleaning and coal combustion-related wastes has been developed that uses the energy derived from the fuel contained in the coal cleaning waste. The wastes are pulverized, when necessary, formed into granules in a rotary pan agglomerator, and then fired to a sintering temperature. The resulting readily disposable product consists of rock-hard granules that are highly resistant to environmental degradation. The green (nondried and nonfired) granules satisfy durability tests that measure the capability to be handled and stored. The sintered granules meet requirements of the standard ASTM and EP leaching tests and a freeze-thaw cycle test. The strength of the sintered granules compares favorably with the strength of natural aggregates. The process has been applied to coal cleaning refuse alone and to refuse/fly ash and refuse/FGD sludge mixtures.

Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.; Meisinger, R.F. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA))

1988-01-01

72

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop the process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During the last year's effort, it was reported that a combination of metal ion and surfactant provided a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

Parekh, B.K.

1991-01-01

73

Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: the example of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and

Mark Jaccard

2007-01-01

74

Carbon black from coal by the HYDROCARB process  

SciTech Connect

The HYDROCARB process was conceived and developed for the purpose of producing a clean carbon fuel and coproduct gaseous and liquid fuel coproducts from any carbonaceous feedstock and particularly from coal. The process basically consists of two major steps. In the first step, coal is hydrogenated to produce methane. In this step, the carbonaceous raw material is gasified with a recycled hydrogen-rich gas stream to form a light hydrocarbon, methane-rich gas, while the non-volatile ash remains behind. With the optional addition of limestone to the feed material, sulfur in the feedstock is removed as non-volatile calcium sulfide which is later oxidized to calcium sulfate for disposal. The methane-rich gas which also contains carbon monoxide and smaller amounts of water and carbon dioxide is sent to a recuperative condenser. For the production of methanol, the carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the process gas is catalytically combined to produce methanol. The deoxygenated methane-rich gas stream is then sent to a methane decomposer where the methane is cracked to pure particulate carbon and hydrogen gas. The pure carbon is removed as a clan product and most of the hydrogen-rich gas is returned to the coal hydrogenator. The two basic steps are than coal hydrogasification in a hydropyrolysis reactor (HPR) and methane decomposition in a methane pyrolysis reactor (MPR). 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1991-05-01

75

Experimental studies of the production of lightweight aggregate from fly ash\\/coal cleaning refuse mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a granulation\\/sintering process have been developed for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate from coal cleaning refuse and fly ash. The resulting granules have the properties required of a lightweight aggregate. It is important to note, however, that while these properties can be measured and evaluated, it is difficult to identify a good aggregate other than by showing

G. Burnet; A. J. Gokhale

1987-01-01

76

Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels. [From coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are

S. H. Kalfayan; R. F. Fedors; W. W. Reilly

1979-01-01

77

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1996-07-25

78

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect

The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

None

1997-12-31

79

Coal gasification process. [improvement by adding coal and clean recycle gas to the product gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement in the Koppers--Totzek coal gasification system comprises the step of adding cool and clean recycle gas to the product gas as it leaves the gasifier unit, thereby eliminating the use of water sprays to quench the product gas.

Hess

1976-01-01

80

Clean coal technology: The new coal era  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

Not Available

1994-01-01

81

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1995-07-31

82

LICADO Process for Super-Clean Coal. Phase I. Final Report, October 1983-July 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research program exploring the use of liquid CO sub 2 as a non-aqueous medium for cleaning ultrafine coal has been developed. The study of this new method, called LICADO process, was initiated in October 1983. The overall objectives of this project are ...

B. I. Morsi D. He G. E. Klinzing S. H. Chiang S. M. Chi

1985-01-01

83

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES; FIRST ANNUAL REPORT; VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the first year's work on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. A short base of engineering, ecological, pollution control, and cost data is being established through data gathering and systems analysis efforts. In addition to program ...

84

Dry gas cleaning in coal gasification systems for fuel cells using composite sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite sorbents, for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds and alkali and heavy metals from coal gasifier products in an integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) system, were prepared. Iron oxide and zinc ferrite were selected as desulfurization sorbents and they were synthesized by precipitation from either ferric chloride, ferric nitride, or ferric and zinc nitride solution. In these solutions, fine

Mayumi Tsukada; Kouetsu Abe; Yuichi Yonemochi; Ayu Ameyama; Hidehiro Kamiya; Shinji Kambara; Hiroshi Moritomi; Takashi Uehara

2008-01-01

85

REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

2004-04-23

86

REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2005-05-18

87

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

2004-09-17

88

EPA COAL CLEANING PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes work during Fiscal Year 1979 by 12 organizations, both public and private, under EPA's Coal Cleaning Program, a program that explores the possibilities for wider use of coal as an environmentally acceptable energy source. Many aspects of coal were studied, in...

89

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Task 1 of the work, in which processes to produce each of the three jet

M. W. Furlong; J. D. Fox; J. G. Masin; D. J. Soderberg

1988-01-01

90

Cleaning coal with coal: coal humic acids for removal of acids, alkali, salinity, and heavy metal pollutants associated with the use of coal as a fuel. Completion report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of humic acid (HA) (a constituent of low rank coal) and fly ash (FA) as potential scrubber chemicals for the treatment of water pollution arising from coal combustion effluents is investigated. HA is characterized and purification processes are described. Cation binding by HA is believed to occur via 3 main mechanisms: (1) ortho-phenolic-carboxylic chelation, (2) intra- and intermolecular

S. E. Manahan; J. B. Green; J. Godwin; B. Ting

1978-01-01

91

Cleaning Coal with Coal: Coal Humic Acids for Removal of Acids, Alkali, Salinity, and Heavy Metal Pollutants Associated with the Use of Coal as a Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of humic acid (HA) (a constituent of low rank coal) and fly ash (FA) as potential scrubber chemicals for the treatment of water pollution arising from coal combustion effluents is investigated. HA is characterized and purification processes are de...

S. E. Manahan, J. B. Green, J. Godwin, B. Ting

1978-01-01

92

Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

1976-01-01

93

Environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. second annual report. Annual report no. 2, Oct 77-Nov 78  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the second year's work for EPA by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. Program activities included systems studies, data acquisition, and general program support. (1) Systems studies have been directed at: updating, refining, and developing new data on the technology of coal cleaning; summarizing previous efforts on the study of pollution control

A. W. Jr Lemmon; G. L. Robinson; P. V. Voris; S. E. Rogers

1979-01-01

94

Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

1997-09-29

95

An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants  

SciTech Connect

Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

2008-07-01

96

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoco and Lummus Crest are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during

M. W. Furlong; J. D. Fox; J. G. Masin; D. J. Soderberg

1987-01-01

97

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2005-11-17

98

Low-Sulfur Fuel Oil from Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-sulfur bituminous coal suspended in coal tar was hydrodesulfurized by continuous processing through a fixed bed of pelletized cobalt molybdate on alumina catalyst, under conditions of highly turbulent flow of hydrogen to prevent obstruction of the ...

P. M. Yavorsky S. Akhtar S. Friedman

1971-01-01

99

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured

M. W. Furlong; J. D. Fox; J. G. Masin

1988-01-01

100

Clean fuel from bioconversion of solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Investigating the use of unicellular algae to produce glycolic acid for subsequent conversion to methane by anaerobic digestion, SRC (1) evaluated a defined medium that supports rapid autotrophic algae growth, (2) estimated the glycolic acid production rates of four genera of algae, choosing Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for further study, (3) determined the effects of temperature, pH, light source and intensity, and atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration on glycolic acid excretion of C. pyrenoidosa, (4) demonstrated the influence of varing CO/sub 2/ concentrations on the growth and glycolic acid production of C. pyrenoidosa and C. reinhardtii, (5) developed a procedure for separating and quantitating gylcolic acid in a culture medium, and (6) introduced a method of screening and isolating mutants of C. reinhardtii that produce more glycolic acid. Test results recommend further study of isolated mutants of C. reinhardtii in order to optimize the physiological conditions that would result in high levels of glycolic acid, and also exploration of the abiotic formation of formaldehyde from glycolic acid as another route to a usable fuel.

Feighner, S.D.; Rosenberg, A.; Mason, L.; Sikka, H.C.; Saxena, J.; Howard, P.H.

1981-12-01

101

3. Huber Breaker (center) and Coal Fuel Conveyor leading from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Huber Breaker (center) and Coal Fuel Conveyor leading from Breaker to Power Station (out of frame), View looking Southwest Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

102

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal-derived liquids and were removed in the refining process. Trace quantities of organo-oxygenate compounds were suspected to be present in the refined fuels. Compounds were identified and quantified as part of an effort to determine the effect of these compounds in fuel instability. Results of the analysis showed trace levels of phenols, naphthols, benzofurans, hexanol, and hydrogenated naphthols were present in levels below 100 ppM. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Knudson, C.L.

1990-06-01

103

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

Parekh, B.K.

1991-01-01

104

Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and\\/or astm no. 2 fuel oil is recovered  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the

R. F. Bauman; D. F. Ryan

1982-01-01

105

Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and\\/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the

Richard F. Bauman; Daniel F. Ryan

1982-01-01

106

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly progress report No. 10, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 10 (January--March, 1995), preliminary work continued for the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant. Towards this end, laboratory flotation testing and refurbishing of the column have been started. The final version of the Subtask 4.2 Advanced Flotation Process Optimization Research topical report was issued, as was a draft version of the Subtask 4.3 report discussing the formulation of coal-water slurry fuels (CWF) from advanced flotation products. A number of product samples from Subtask 4.4 testing were sent to both Combustion Engineering and Penn State for combustion testing. The evaluation of toxic trace element analyses of column flotation products also continued. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr PDU was essentially completed with the approval of various process flow, plant layout, electrical, and vendor equipment drawings. The final version of the Subtask 6.5 -- Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Design and Test Plan Report was issued during this reporting quarter. Design and construction of this 25 lb/hr selective agglomeration test unit was completed and preliminary testing started. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU began following the selection of TIC. The Industrial Company as the construction subcontractor.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1995-04-27

107

The Clean Coal Technology Program: Lessons learned  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is a unique partnership between the federal government and industry that has as its primary goal the successful introduction of new clean coal utilization technologies into the energy marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program are establishing a technology base that will enable the nation to meet more stringent energy and environmental goals. Most of the, demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under circumstances typical of commercial operations. These features allow the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. Each application addresses one of the following four market sectors: advanced electric power generation; environmental control devices; coal processing for clean fuels; and industrial applications. The purpose of this report is fourfold: Explain the CCT program as a model for successful joint government industry partnership for selecting and demonstrating technologies that have promise for adaptation to the energy marketplace; set forth the process by which the process has been implemented and the changes that have been made to improve that process; outline efforts employed to inform potential users and other interested parties about the technologies being developed; and examine some of the questions which must be considered in determining if the CCT Program model can be applied to other programs.

Not Available

1994-07-01

108

CLEAN FUELS FROM AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an experimental investigation of the operating parameters for a mobile waste conversion system based on the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station's partial oxidation pyrolysis process. The object of the testing was to determine the combination of...

109

Process for particulate removal from coal liquids  

DOEpatents

Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01

110

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process. Technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Liberation studies on the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were completed in this quarter. The results obtained from the 65 {times} 150 mesh samples showed that the amount of mineral matter and pyrite liberated by the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process increases with time. The free mineral matter undergoes some reduction in size during the CECC treatment and the majority of the liberated mineral particles in this sample are finer than 150 mesh. This is opposite that found for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, which may explain the better response of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal to CECC treatment. The continuous bench-scale unit was modified during the quarter to satisfy the health and safety requirements of the university. The unit was modified to ensure that any spill or leakage can be contained. Due to these modifications, continuous testing work was delayed.

Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

1991-12-31

111

Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of

R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness; R. J. Cena; W. R. Aiman; D. R. Stephens

1980-01-01

112

Processing of Centrifuged Solids from Liquefied Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The centrifuged residues from coal liquefaction processes present two problems which the Pittsburgh ETC has found to be controllable by thermal processing of the material: the residues contain significant amounts of carbon and oil that should be recovered...

M. Weintraub S. Akhtar P. M. Yavorsky R. J. Belt

1978-01-01

113

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet

M. W. Furlong; J. D. Fox; J. G. Masin; D. J. Soderberg

1990-01-01

114

Power Gas and Combined Cycles: Clean Power From Fossil Fuels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The combined-cycle system is currently regarded as a useful procedure for producing electricity. This system can burn natural gas and oil distillates in addition to coal. In the future when natural gas stocks will be low, coal may become an important fuel for such systems. Considerable effort must be made for research on coal gasification and…

Metz, William D.

1973-01-01

115

Healy clean coal project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New source Performance standards. During this past quarter, engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustion flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems. Balance of plant equipment procurement specifications continue to be prepared. Construction activities commenced as the access road construction got under way. Temporary ash pond construction and drilling of the supply well will be completed during the next quarter.

Not Available

1992-08-01

116

Hydration and weathering reactions in by-products from clean coal technologies: effects on material properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three landfill test cells were constructed using AFBC by-products and Class F coal fly ash at a site in central Illinois and were monitored over a 5 year period as part of a DOE METC effort to characterize by-products from clean coal technologies. The field programme documented rapid loss of structural integrity in cell 1, which contained no fly ash,

Andrew Weinberg; Ray Hemmings

1997-01-01

117

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

2006-03-31

118

Environmental Benefits of Clean Coal Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program is a government and industry co-funded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of facilities built across the country. These projects are carried out...

2001-01-01

119

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1996-04-30

120

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2008-03-31

121

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from

M. W. Furlong; J. D. Fox; J. G. Masin

1989-01-01

122

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from

M. W. Furlong; J. D. Fox; J. G. Masin

1988-01-01

123

Comparative kinetic analysis of raw and cleaned coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, thermogravimetry (TG\\/DTG) was used to determine the kinetic analysis of different coals and effect of cleaning process on kinetic parameters of raw and cleaned coal samples from Soma, Tuncbilek and Afsin Elbistan regions. Kinetic parameters of the samples were determined using Arrhenius and Coats and Redfern kinetic models and the results are discussed.

K. E. Ozbas; M. V. Kök; C. Hicyilmaz

2002-01-01

124

Clean coal technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce COâ emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to

P. H. Abelson

1990-01-01

125

Experimental studies of the production of lightweight aggregate from fly ash/coal cleaning refuse mixtures  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a granulation/sintering process have been developed for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate from coal cleaning refuse and fly ash. The resulting granules have the properties required of a lightweight aggregate. It is important to note, however, that while these properties can be measured and evaluated, it is difficult to identify a good aggregate other than by showing that it can be used to make good concrete. Tests on the aggregate alone are helpful in assessing its suitability, but the final criterion must be performance in concrete. This evaluation remains to be done for the refuse/fly ash aggregate. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

1987-01-01

126

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

NONE

1995-04-01

127

Process for Cleaning and Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Low Btu Fuel Gases. Interim Report, January--March 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proposed to remodel the PDU by incorporation of appropriate sub-systems to permit operation in continuous process mode. The PDU will be operated for a period of time sufficient to demonstrate process viability. It has been relocated to an inproved s...

R. H. Moore D. C. Ham G. E. Stegen

1976-01-01

128

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus Crest are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. In addition to the maximum jet fuel schemes, conceptual designs have also been formulated for maximizing profits from refining of the Great Plains by-products. Conceptual processing schemes for profitable production of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X have been developed, as has a maximum profit'' case. All four of these additional cases have now been transferred to Lummus for design and integration studies. Development of these schemes required the use of linear programming technology. This technology includes not only conventional refining processes which have been adapted for use with coal-derived liquids (e.g. hydrotreating, hydrocracking), but also processes which may be uniquely suited to the Great Plains by-products such as cresylic acid extraction, hydordealkylation, and needle coking. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1987-01-01

129

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2006-05-17

130

Production of jet fuels from coal derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoco and Lummus Crest have developed seven cases for upgrading by-product liquids from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels, and in several of the cases, saleable chemicals in addition to jet fuels. The analysis shows that the various grades of jet fuel can be produced from the Great Plains tar oil, but not economically. However, the phenolic

B. A. Fleming; J. D. Fox; M. W. Furlong; J. G. Masin; L. P. Sault; D. F. Tatterson; L. L. Fornoff; M. A. Link; E. Stahlnecker; K. Torster

1988-01-01

131

Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

1977-01-01

132

Physical and chemical coal cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

1981-02-01

133

Dry superconducting magnetic cleaning of pulverized coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are wet and dry methods of cleaning pulverized coal for thermal power stations. However, it may be desirable to use a dry process because dewatering finely pulverized coal is difficult and expensive, and burning wet coal reduces the thermal efficiency of the combustion process. It has been shown that high gradient magnetic filters can be constructed which will extract

S. Zhou; E. S. Garbett; R. F. Boucher

1996-01-01

134

Perspectives on the potential of clean coal technologies to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how emerging clean coal technologies can play an important role in reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. A major issue is whether they will be commercially available for widespread deployment within the time frame needed to meet requirements of acid rain control legislation. On the basis of current reviews and past reports, it appears that clean coal technologies should contribute, but in all likelihood not significantly, to the nationwide reduction of acid rain during the next 15 years. Few utilities have plans to use clean coal technologies in this time frame, and although utilities indicated that they would give much greater consideration to using such technologies if acid rain control legislation were enacted, the technologies are generally not expected to penetrate the market within the next 15 years. Greater emphasis on funding multiple demonstrations of the more promising clean coal technologies could accelerate their successful demonstration and allow them to play a greater and more timely role in reducing acid rain-causing emissions.

Fultz, K.O.

1989-10-01

135

BENCH-SCALE PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ECONOMIC ANALYSES OF ELECTROSTATIC DRY COAL CLEANING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of preliminary performance evaluations and economic analyses of the Advanced Energy Dynamics (AED) electrostatic dry coal-cleaning process. Grab samples of coal feed product coals were obtained from 25 operating physical coal cleaning (PCC) plants. These ...

136

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal-derived liquids and were removed

Knudson

1990-01-01

137

Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

Not Available

1990-07-31

138

Brazing as a means of sealing ceramic membranes for use in advanced coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen that will enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes

K. Scott Weil; John S. Hardy; Joseph P. Rice; Jin Yong Y. Kim

2006-01-01

139

Method for cleaning fine coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for cleaning fine coal is provided which includes: mixing the coal with a fluid of such a specific gravity that clean coal particles would float while refuse particles would sink therein, pretreating the coalfluid slurry by adding a surfactant, subjecting the mixture to ultrasonic dispersion, and separating the entire mixture into higher and lower specific gravity fluid streams

Smit

1985-01-01

140

Clean coal project nears commercial operation  

SciTech Connect

A first for NYSEG and the US: a clean coal system that turns power plant waste into sales. This article describes a power plant on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake in upstate New York, where New York State Electric and Gas Corp. (NYSEG) has finished building and is now operating an advanced clean coal system that represents a first for the US and a milestone for the nation's coal-burning utilities. The system's state-of-the-art technologies show how this country can use its vast coal reserves while reducing the fuel's impact on the environment.

Baron, E.S. II

1995-02-01

141

Fischer--Tropsch process: gasoline from coal. [11 refs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines has done considerable development work in the area of synthesis of liquid fuels. At present, work is proceeding on the thesis that the most viable process would be a combined plant for the production of both synthetic oil and a substitute natural gas from coal gasification. The original work at the Bureau culminated in the development

A. J. Forney; W. P. Haynes; J. J. Elliott; M. F. Zarochak

1975-01-01

142

Application of ultrasonic techniques to chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report, April 15, 1980-August 15, 1981. [Ultrasonic augmentation  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic activation was applied to several coal cleaning processes, including chlorinolysis, oxydesulfurization, and sodium hypochlorite leaching, in small-scale batch treatment processing of Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning, and Western Kentucky No. 11 coals. In all cases, ultrasonic energy application demonstrated effects that would translate in production to processing efficiencies and/or capital equipment savings. Specifically, in the chlorinolysis reaction, pyritic sulfur was removed 23 times faster with ultrasonics than without it. (Organic sulfur could not be removed from the coal examined with or without ultrasonics in the chlorinolysis process). In sodium hypochlorite leaching, the total sulfur extraction rate was 3 times faster with ultrasonics. Two separate benefits were seen with oxydesulfurization: ultrasonics doubled the reaction rate and at slightly accelerated rates allowed a pressure reduction from 960 to 500 psi, which would be a significant cost efficiency in production. With these results, it was recommended that ultrasonic processing be investigated with a process involving interactions similarly amenable to ultrasonic enhancement, i.e., molten salt leaching, which is reported to have the potential not only for more extensive sulfur extraction than the other experimental processes, but for ash removal as well.

Tarpley, W.B. Jr.; Twesme, E.N.; Howard, P.L.; Moulder, G.R.

1981-08-01

143

Coal desulfurization by perchloroethylene processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of filtration for clean coal and the ash-pyrite from PCE processing was determined. The filtration rates were very rapid and the specific filter cake resistance was 7.3 à 10⁡ in.⁝š. There was no statistical difference between the specific resistance for cleaned coal and for the ash pyrite. The sulfur balance for PCE treated coals was balanced. The sulfur

H. Leehe; G. A. Atwood; G. Snell

1992-01-01

144

Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

E.T. (Skip) Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

2002-12-31

145

Method for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal by drying the low rank coal and thereafter cooling the dried coal to a temperature below about 100/sup 0/F. Optionally the dried coal is partially oxidized prior to cooling and optionally the dried coal is mixed with a deactivating fluid.

Li, Y.H.; Bonnecaze, B.F.; Matthews, J.D.; Skinner, J.L.; Wunderlich, D.K.

1983-08-02

146

Production of jet fuels from coal derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amoco Oil Company has conducted bench- and pilot plant-scale experiments to produce jet fuels from the tar oil from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task 1 are not severe enough to saturate the aromatics in the tar oil to meet jet fuel specifications. Alternatives were investigated. Jet

M. Furlong; J. Fox; J. Masin

1989-01-01

147

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports detailed process designs and cost assessments for production of clean liquid fuels (methanol and dimethyl ether) by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Gasification of c oal pro- duces a synthesis gas that can be converted to liquid fuel by synthesis over appropriate catalysts. Recycling of unconverted synthesis gas back to the synthesis reactor enables a larger fraction of

Eric D. Larson; Ren Tingjin

2003-01-01

148

Fundamental studies in the conversion of coals to fuels of increased hydrogen content. Volume 2. The chemistry and mechanisms of coal conversion to clean fuel: Appendixes. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has been carried out to investigate thermal coal dissolution at short reaction times as a first step toward exploring the interrelationship of thermal and catalytic processes in coal liquefaction. Related studies have examined the mechanisms of coal liquefaction in high boiling solvents. Coal conversions were examined at a variety of conditions. Reaction products were characterized by numerous techniques to

F. J. Derbyshire; G. A. Odoerfer; L. R. Rudnick; P. Varghese; D. D. Whitehurst

1981-01-01

149

Preparation of clean coal by flotation following ultra fine liberation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of current fundamental research at the Department of Process Engineering, University of Miskolc on the processing of clean coal from Mecsek bituminous coal, Southern Hungary. The theoretical possibility of the separation of different petrographic components was proven experimentally and their liberation degree was determined based on the petrographic composition, flotation kinetic study of isolated components

Ljudmilla Bokányi; Barnabás Csöke

2003-01-01

150

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01

151

Symposium of Clean Coal Technology 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This proceedings compiles presentations for the Symposium on Clean Coal Technology 1992. Are compiled 'Strategy of clean coal technology in Japan' by NEDO, Japan, 'Status of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program of the United States Department of En...

1994-01-01

152

Direct analysis of organic compounds in aqueous by?products from fossil fuel conversion processes: Oil shale retorting, synthane coal gasification and coed coal liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole water samples are injected directly into a gas Chromatograph equipped with a packed Tenax?GC column. Polar compounds are separated with good resolution under the temperature programming conditions employed. The by?product water from oil shale retorting contains carboxylic acids in the homologous series ranging from acetic to decanoic acid. Various amides, cresols and phenol are present in trace amounts. Coal

C. H. Ho; B. R. Clark; M. R. Guerin

1976-01-01

153

Environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes; first annual report. Volume I. Executive summary. Annual report July 1976September 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of the first year's work on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. A short base of engineering, ecological, pollution control, and cost data is being established through data gathering and systems analysis efforts. In addition to program management, three task areas are defined: system studies, data acquisition, and general program support. Early availability is anticipated

A. W. Jr Lemmon; S. E. Rogers; G. L. Robinson; V. Q. Hale; G. E. Raines

1979-01-01

154

Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

1998-03-01

155

Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered  

DOEpatents

An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

Bauman, Richard F. (Houston, TX); Ryan, Daniel F. (Friendswood, TX)

1982-01-01

156

Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals  

SciTech Connect

To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and computerized. These data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur forms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. During the contract period more than 5000 samples were prepared and distributed. A theoretical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of coal has been completed. The reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, has been studied with regard to reactivity to air, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and steam. Another area research has concerned the catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported here. The products of this research can be found in 23 DOE Technical Research Reports and 49 published papers. As another mechanism of technology transfer, the results have been conveyed via more than 70 papers presented at a variety of scientific meetings. References to all of these are contained in this report.

Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Vastola, F.J.; Given, P.H.; Suhr, N.H.; Jenkins, R.G.

1982-06-01

157

Vibration mills in the manufacturing technology of slurry fuel from unbeneficiated coal sludge  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) is economically viable provided that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount water in the fuel is at most 45%. Two impoundments were revealed that have considerable reserves of waste coal useful for commercial manufacture of CWSF without the beneficiation step. One of the CWSF manufacture steps is the comminution of coal sludge to have a particle size required by the combustion conditions. Vibration mills, which are more compact and energy-intensive that drum mills, can be used in the CWSG manufacture process. The rheological characteristics of CWSF obtained from unbeneficiated waste coal were determined.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russia)

2008-08-15

158

Process for removing sulfur from coal  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

1983-08-11

159

Process for removing sulfur from coal  

DOEpatents

A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

Aida, Tetsuo (Ames, IA) [Ames, IA; Squires, Thomas G. (Gilbert, IA) [Gilbert, IA; Venier, Clifford G. (Ames, IA) [Ames, IA

1985-02-05

160

COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION  

SciTech Connect

The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

1998-09-30

161

Recent Trends in the Cleaning of Diesel Fuels via Desulfurization Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a selective review of new approaches and emerging technologies for ultra-clean (ultra-low sulfur) diesel fuels. The issues of diesel deep desulfurization are becoming more serious because the crude oils are getting higher in sulfur content, while the regulated sulfur limits are becoming lower and lower. Deep reduction of diesel sulfur (from 500 to <15 ppmw sulfur) is

S. A. Hanafi; M. S. Mohamed

2011-01-01

162

Advanced Technology for Ancillary Coal Cleaning Operations: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present program is aimed at, helping to realize the benefits that may be achieved from using competitively available clean coal as an alternative to petroleum-derived and natural gas-based fuels and/or as a substitute for costly back-end environmental...

1988-01-01

163

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 12 (July--September 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at Lady Dunn. Under Subtask 4.4, additional toxic trace element analysis of column flotation samples finalized the data set. Data analysis indicates that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements. The final Subtask 6.3 Selective Agglomeration Process Optimization topical report was issued this quarter. Preliminary Subtask 6.4 work investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation indicated that selective agglomeration products formulate slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Work continued on Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing. Results indicate that a 2 lb ash/MBtu product could be produced at a 100-mesh topsize with the Elkhorn No. 3 coal. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module neared completion this quarter with the completion of additional revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU and advanced flotation module was completed this quarter and startup and shakedown testing began.

Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

1995-10-31

164

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syncrude from the Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) Process, derived from Illinois No. 6 coal, was refined to produce transportation fuels in an extensive program of laboratory and pilot plant studies. It was demonstrated that advanced, commercial petroleum processing technology can be used to refine this syncrude to gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. ITSL syndrude differs from petroleum crude in

1985-01-01

165

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process. Technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The continuous testing of the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) bench-scale unit (Task 6) was completed successfully in this quarter using Middle Wyodak and Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples. The CECC unit was run under the optimum conditions established for these coal samples in Task 4. For the Middle Wyodak coal, the ash content was reduced from 6.96% to as low 1.61%, corresponding to an ash rejection (by weight) of about 83%. The ash and sulfur contents of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were reduced to as low as 1.8% and 0.9%. The average ash and sulfur rejections were calculated to be around 84% and 47%. The CECC continuous unit was used to treat -325 mesh Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples and gave ash and sulfur rejection values of as high as 77% and 66%. In these test, the clean -325 mesh coal particles were separated from the liberated mineral matter through microbubble column flotation, instead of wet-screening.

Basilio, C.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

1991-12-31

166

Perspective on coal beneficiation  

SciTech Connect

A brief introduction to coal beneficiation processes is given. The paper includes a brief review of current commerical practices and presents several developmental coal cleaning methods. Recent advances in coal beneficiation methods are driven by environmental concerns and the desire to produce superclean or ultraclean coal to make coal-water slurry fuels. Coal-water slurry fuels are being developed as a potential replacement for No. 6 fuel oil in oil-fired power plants. However, most of the novel coal cleaning technologies are still developmental in nature. It is felt that coal beneficiation research should be directed to developing a better understanding of coal morphology and to developing innovative coal cleaning methods that can yield high ash and sulfur removals from coal in a cost-effective manner. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Singh, S.P.N.

1986-03-27

167

Economic Feasibility Study: Fuel Grade Methanol from Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plant to make fuel grade methanol from coal based on Texaco partial oxidation pressure gasifiers and low pressure methanol synthesis is described. A nominal plant size of 5,000 T/D was selected to take advantage of scale in minimizing unit investment. T...

A. McGeorge

1976-01-01

168

Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals  

SciTech Connect

Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

1990-09-01

169

Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

1993-03-01

170

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies  

SciTech Connect

If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

Yoon, R.H., Phillips, D.I., Sohn, S.M., Luttrell, G.H. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Center for Coal and Mineral Processing, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

171

Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles ...

J. W. Wilson Y. Ding R. Q. Honaker

1995-01-01

172

Mountain fuel resources 30 tons per day entrained flow coal gasification process development unit  

SciTech Connect

Pressurized gasification of coal in experimental entrained flow gasifiers was studied rather extensively during the period between 1953 and 1962 at the U.S. Bureau of Mines Morgantown Coal Research Center. A laboratory-scale gasifier with some similarity to the Bureau of Mines unit was operated by the Eyring Research Institute (MFI) between 1974 and 1978. This work was followed by extensive process design studies carried out by Mountain Fuel Resources which also led to the issuance of a U.S. patent. One of the important conclusions from this study was that feeding the dry coal to an entrained flow gasifier with recycle product gas was inherently more efficient than feeding the coal as a water slurry. A 30 tons per day process development unit (PDU) was designed, constructed and operated between 1980 and 1984 to provide data for further scale-up of system components. Controlled continuous dry-feeding of pulverized coal into the gasifier at pressures between 100 and 260 psia (600 and 1700 kPa) was achieved. The unit was operated for more than 2000 hours on six different feedstocks. Most of the tests were conducted with Utah bituminous coal, achieving above 90 percent carbon conversion without char recycle.

Chen, C.; Coates, R.L.

1986-01-01

173

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

NONE

1997-05-01

174

Combustion characterization of coal-water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

As a result of coal cleaning operations, a substantial amount of coal is disposed as waste into the ponds, effecting and endangering the environment. This study includes a technique to recover and utilize the waste coal fines from the preparation plant effluent streams and tailing ponds. Due to the large moisture content of the recovered coal fines, this investigation is focused on the utilization of coal fines in the coal-water slurry fuel. It is our belief that a blend of plant coal and waste coal fines can be used to produce a coal-water slurry fuel with the desired combustion characteristics required by the industry. The coal blend is composed of 85% clean coal and 15% recovered coal fines. The coal-water slurry is prepared at 60% solids with a viscosity less than 500 centipose and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. This paper contains analysis of clean coal, recovered coal fines, and coal-water slurry fuel as well as combustion characteristics.

Masudi, Houshang; Samudrala, S.

1996-12-31

175

Advanced clean coal technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author argues that, although coal may be an interim solution, the development of technologies providing effective use of coal is important to bridge the gap between present and future energy supply situations

S. Azuhata

2001-01-01

176

Manufacture of hydrogen from coal. [Koppers-Totzek and U-Gas processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study for the conversion of coal to fluid fuels, we have developed three process designs for the conversion of Montana subbituminous coal to hydrogen based on three different gasifier technologies: Koppers-Totzek suspension gasification, U-GAS fluidized-bed gasification, and Fluidized Steam-Iron Process. For comparison with methane from coal, a fourth design, based on the HYGAS Process has been

C. L. Tsaros; J. L. Arora; K. B. Burnham

1975-01-01

177

Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

NONE

1997-10-01

178

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Vol 16. Analysis of phenolic species in coal-derived aviation fuels. Interim report, September 1988July 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal derived liquids and were removed in the refining process. Trace quantities of organo-oxygenate compounds

F. D. Guffey; D. E. Hunter

1990-01-01

179

Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the DOE-sponsored contract Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal-Derived Syngas'' experimental evaluations of the one-step synthesis of alternative fuels were carried out. The objective of this work was to develop novel processes for converting coal-derived syngas to fuels or fuel additives. Building on a technology base acquired during the development

1993-01-01

180

Effect of coal cleaning on fugitive elements. Second progress report. [Before and after cleaning - 24 elements, 20 coals  

SciTech Connect

Twenty coals were cleaned by cleaning Procedure A to evaluate the effect of the cleaning on both the major and trace constituents of coal. Generally, the results of the analyses and the agreement obtained in the great majority of material balances indicated that the cleaning strategies employed were particularly effective and the separations needed to attain the objectives of the project were achieved. The concentrations of each constituent were calculated in the cleaned coal obtained by each of the individual cleaning operations. This involved heavy media cleaning of the coarser fractions and hydraulic classification of the fines. From a conventional coal cleaning viewpoint, the Btu recovery was quite good for most of the coals with an average recovery of 94 percent. Some trends are evident. Ash, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluorine, lead, manganese, zinc, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, magnesium, titanium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus were removed effectively; pyritic sulfur, cobalt, copper, mercury, and selenium were removed less effectively. With few exceptions, the Eastern and Midwestern coals were cleaned much more effectively than the Western coals. As expected, trace and major element control was more effective in some coals than in others. The magnitude of the difference was, perhaps, not expected. Great differences in response to cleaning were exhibited by each coal. These studies with 20 coals, as well as previous limited rough cleaning studies at BCR with eight coals, have confirmed that removal of some potentially harmful trace elements can be effected by coal cleaning.

Ford, C.T.

1980-01-01

181

Clean coal-preparation barriers in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poland is the second biggest European producer of hard coal. This raw product is cleaned in 49 preparation plants. Production capacities of the preparation plants depend on the demand for coal. The clean-coal production mostly depends on the quality demands of customers. Polish hard-coal is of good quality. It is enough to remove grains of clean stone to get saleable

Wies?aw Blaschke; Ryszard Nycz

2003-01-01

182

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01

183

Cleaning Up Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the percentages, coal is still King. Coal-fired power plants generate more than 50% of US electricity. But every year those utilities also pour forth 70% of the sulfur dioxide and significant portions of other pollutants that cause acid rain and contribute to global warming. Now the US is trying a novel market-based approach to reducing those emissions. The

Elizabeth Corcoran

1991-01-01

184

Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues  

SciTech Connect

The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

2008-07-01

185

Production of methanol and methanol-related fuels from coal. [Reviews  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of available information on processes for the production of methanol and methanol-related fuels from natural gas and coal. Existing commercial technology for the production of methanol from synthesis gas by the high-, low-, and intermediate-pressure processes is described. The technological and economic factors involved in the optimization of a methanol production plant are discussed. Production of synthesis gas and methanol from coal is reviewed, both from the standpoint of existing technology using Lurgi gasifiers and proposed processes using other gasifiers. An overview of the technology and economics of the Mobil MTG process for converting methanol to gasoline is presented. A search was made for obsolete or discarded processes that might be useful for the production of low-purity methanol for fuels purposes. It was concluded that none of these older processes offers any advantage over current commercial technology for fuel-grade methanol production.

Salmon, R.; Edwards, M.S.; Wham, R.M.

1980-05-01

186

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

187

Process for separating anthracite coal from impurities  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for separating a first mixture including previously mined anthracite coal, klinker-type cinder ash and other refuse consisting of: a. separating the first mixture to produce a refuse portion and a second mixture consisting of anthracite and klinker-type cinder ash, b. reducing the average particle size in the second mixture to a uniform size, c. subjecting the second mixture to a separating magnetic field to produce a klinker-type cinder ash portion and an anthracite coal portion.

Stiller, D.W.; Stiller, A.H.

1985-05-06

188

Clean Coal Technology: Selective Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen oxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers, (An Update of Topical Report Number 9). Topical Report Number 23.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) is a government and industry co-funded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of facilities built across the country. These projects are carried o...

2005-01-01

189

Nanobubble generation and its applications in froth flotation (part IV): mechanical cells and specially designed column flotation of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is the world's most abundant fossil fuel. Coal froth flotation is a widely used cleaning process to separate coal from mineral impurities. Flotation of coarse coal particles, ultrafine coal particles and oxidized coal particles is well known to be difficult and complex. In this paper, the nanobubbles' effects on the flotation of the varying particle size, particle density and

Maoming FAN; Daniel TAO; Rick HONAKER; Zhenfu LUO

2010-01-01

190

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

2004-01-01

191

REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

2004-01-01

192

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation  

SciTech Connect

a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

193

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

1992-01-01

194

Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion.  

PubMed

Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study. PMID:24328080

Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto

2014-01-01

195

Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 15. Thermal Stability of Coal-Derived Jet Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were com...

C. Song H. H. Schobert J. Perison R. M. Copenhaver S. Eser

1990-01-01

196

Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 14. Oxygenates Content of Coal-Derived Jet Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were com...

C. L. Knudson

1990-01-01

197

Process for producing fuel gases from carbonaceous material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a process for converting crude carbon such as coal, carbonaceous wastes and the like into valuable chemical products and\\/or energy. A mass of solid crude carbonaceous fuel is fed into a high temperature liquid which acts as a solvent for carbon at a temperature sufficient to carbonize the mass and by which the carbon is separated from impurities.

Rasor

1981-01-01

198

Coal and biomass to fuels and power.  

PubMed

Systems with CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) that coproduce transportation fuels and electricity from coal plus biomass can address simultaneously challenges of climate change from fossil energy and dependence on imported oil. Under a strong carbon policy, such systems can provide competitively clean low-carbon energy from secure domestic feedstocks by exploiting the negative emissions benefit of underground storage of biomass-derived CO(2), the low cost of coal, the scale economies of coal energy conversion, the inherently low cost of CO(2) capture, the thermodynamic advantages of coproduction, and expected high oil prices. Such systems require much less biomass to make low-carbon fuels than do biofuels processes. The economics are especially attractive when these coproduction systems are deployed as alternatives to CCS for stand-alone fossil fuel power plants. If CCS proves to be viable as a major carbon mitigation option, the main obstacles to deployment of coproduction systems as power generators would be institutional. PMID:22432630

Williams, Robert H; Liu, Guangjian; Kreutz, Thomas G; Larson, Eric D

2011-01-01

199

Clean coal technology development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is found in huge amounts throughout the world and is expected to play a crucial role as an abundant energy source. However, one critical issue in promoting coal utilization is controlling environmental pollution. Clean coal technologies are needed to utilize coal in an environmentally acceptable way and to improve coal utilization efficiency. This paper describes coal's role in China's

Wenying Chen; Ruina Xu

2010-01-01

200

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01

201

COST BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF PHYSICALLY CLEANED COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies and quantifies several benefits associated with the use of physically cleaned coal in the operation of utility electric power plants. The benefits occur in: coal and ash handling, boiler operation, and gas handling and cleaning. Cleaning removes sulfur from ...

202

Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant e...

1998-01-01

203

Motor fuels and chemicals from coal via the Sasol Synthol route  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of synthetic motor fuels and chemicals from coal by the Sasol procedures is discussed. This process is based on the Fischer-Tropsch reaction by passing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a specific ratio over iron catalysts at elevated temperatures and pressures. Two parallel reactor systems are discussed. The smaller system employs fixed-bed reactors, using a precipitated iron catalyst and

J. C. Hoogendoorn

1981-01-01

204

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During this contract period adsorption of di-, tri-, and tetra-valent metal ions, and octadecylamine onto the clean coal was studied. The adsorption of divalent copper ions provided three charge reversal points (or zero-point-of-charges) for the clean coal. The lowest amount of moisture in the filter cake was obtained near the two charge reversal points of the copper-coal system. For the tri-valent aluminum ions and tetra-valent titanium ions one charge reversal, at pH 8.0 and pH 5.0 was observed, respectively. The moisture in the filter cake was lowest near the zero point of charge (ZPC) or both the metal ions. Adsorption of octadecylamine onto the coal provided one ZPC at pH {approximately}7. 0. However, moisture content of the filter cake was not significantly lowered at this pH Morphology of the filter cake obtained without the addition of metal ions or surfactant, showed segregation of large particle at the bottom of filter cake. Efforts are in progress to determine effect of combining metal ions and various (nonionic and anionic) surfactant on filtration, and utilizing a better approach to study the in-situ morphology of the filter cake. 13 figs.

Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). Center for Applied Energy Research)

1991-01-01

205

Coal and the Environment Abstract Series. Bibliography on Disposal of Refuse from Coal Mines and Coal Cleaning Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subjects covered in this bibliography include the analysis and characterization of coal refuse; various methods of handling, storing, and disposing of coal refuse; the environmental problems such as refuse drainage quality and combustion of refuse pil...

V. E. Gleason R. D. Hill

1978-01-01

206

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc.,

Parekh

1991-01-01

207

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process. Technical progress report, eighth quarter, January 1, 1990-March 31, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research continued on the cleaning of coal. The parametric tests on the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples were completed in this quarter. In these batch tests, liberation was found to be more responsible for the removal of both mineral matter and sulfur in th...

R. H. Yoon

1991-01-01

208

Clean Coal Program Research Activities  

SciTech Connect

Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

2009-03-31

209

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop the process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. During the last year`s effort, it was reported that a combination of metal ion and surfactant provided a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

Parekh, B.K.

1991-12-31

210

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation techniques provides a low ash product, however, due to high surface area of particles the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effects of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combination of metal ion and surfactant found to be effective in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake.

Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1992-08-01

211

Reaction of CO 2 with clean coal technology ash to reduce trace element mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of coal in power plants generates solids (e.g., fly ash, bottom ash) and flue gas (e.g., SOx, CO2). New Clean Air Act mandated reduction of SOx emissions from coal burning power plants. As a result, a variety of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) are implemented to comply with these amendments. However, most of the CCT processes transfer environmentally sensitive

T. A. Tawfic; K. J. Reddy; S. P. Gloss; J. I. Drever

1995-01-01

212

Coal gasification for industrial fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is presented of the characteristics of the various gaseous fuels which can be manufactured from coal, taking into account certain hazards involved in the presence of high concentrations of carbon monoxide. The process technology for manufacturing the gases is reviewed. The various types of gas producers that are available or under development are discussed, giving attention to the

E. J. Ferretti; K. C. Baczewski; A. C. Mengon

1975-01-01

213

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2007-03-17

214

Synthesis and analysis of jet fuel from shale oil and coal syncrudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-two jet fuel samples of varying properties were produced from shale oil and coal syncrudes, and analyzed to assess their suitability for use. TOSCO II shale oil and H-COAL and COED syncrudes were used as starting materials. The processes used were among those commonly in use in petroleum processing-distillation, hydrogenation and catalytic hydrocracking. The processing conditions required to meet two levels of specifications regarding aromatic, hydrogen, sulfur and nitrogen contents at two yield levels were determined and found to be more demanding than normally required in petroleum processing. Analysis of the samples produced indicated that if the more stringent specifications of 13.5% hydrogen (min.) and 0.02% nitrogen (max.) were met, products similar in properties to conventional jet fuels were obtained. In general, shale oil was easier to process (catalyst deactivation was seen when processing coal syncrudes), consumed less hydrogen and yielded superior products. Based on these considerations, shale oil appears to be preferred to coal as a petroleum substitute for jet fuel production.

Gallagher, J. P.; Collins, T. A.; Nelson, T. J.; Pedersen, M. J.; Robison, M. G.; Wisinski, L. J.

1976-01-01

215

Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April--June 1976. [Change to Texaco gasification process from Koppers-Totzek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall progress on the Clean Boiler Fuel Demonstration Plant was maintained on schedule. A major new development involved the decision to change to the Texaco gasifier from Koppers-Totzek, which required new engineering effort in many sections and a rework of the overall plant heat and mass balances. Coalcon completed a total of nine calibration runs on the coal feed apparatus

P. C. White; G. A. Rial

1976-01-01

216

Clean Diesel Production from Coal Based Syngas via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Technology Status and Demands in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of fuels\\/chemicals from syngas (CO + H2) derived from coal is receiving increasing attention under the background of the resource depletion and the unstable prices of petroleum oil. The fuels, especially diesel obtained from the syngas conversion via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), are proved to be of very high quality that will contribute much in environmental protection and raising the

Yong-Wang Li

217

Determination of total sulfur by ion chromatography following peroxide oxidation in spent caustic from the chemical cleaning of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total sulfur in samples of spent caustic arising from the chemical cleaning of coal has been determined by ion chromatography after oxidation of all sulfur species to sulfate. Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide first under basic conditions and subsequently under strongly acidic conditions was required for quantitative conversion of all sulfur species to sulfate. The effects of pH, sample size, and

Colin D. Chriswell; David R. Mroch; Richard. Markuszewski

1986-01-01

218

Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses policy instruments for promoting the market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) into China's electricity sector and the evaluation of corresponding effects. Based on the reality that coal will remain the predominant fuel to generate electricity and conventional pulverized coal boiler power plants have serious impacts on environment degradation, development of clean coal technologies could be one

Hao Wang; Toshihiko Nakata

2009-01-01

219

MEYERS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR CHEMICAL DESULFURIZATION OF COAL. VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of bench-scale development of the Meyers Process (for chemical removal of sulfur from coal) for desulfurization of both fine and coarse coal. More than 90% of the pyrite was removed from run-of-mine (ROM) fine coal and clean coarse coal, and more than 80%...

220

Assessing coal conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion covers the level of coal-conversion processes in the U.S., which is currently at the process developement unit to pilot-plant stage and which will require 10-15 yr to reach the stage of commercial-scale operating plants; various types of coal-gasification processes, e.g., those using hydrogasification; the use of coal liquefaction to produce an entire range of possible products, including fuel

John Talty

1978-01-01

221

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1995-02-01

222

Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

NONE

1995-12-31

223

Chemical coal cleaning using selective oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal of both mineral and organic sulfur from Illinois coals using low temperature selective oxidation. This overall objective is to develop new methods for either physical/chemical or physical/microbial cleaning of Illinois coal. Innovative approaches to achieve deep cleaned products, containing both ash and sulfur contents less than 0.5 percent, will be considered. Experiments focus on developing cost-effective methods for the removal of organic sulfur and finely disseminated mineral impurities, especially fine pyrite particles, from coal. Rates and mechanisms for organic sulfur removal will be studied. Chemical reagent recycling and/or reagent wastes will be studied. Chemical reagent recycling and/or reagent wastes handling are included. Bench scale studies are performed.

Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

1991-01-01

224

POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1996June 30, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of

R.-H. Yoon; A. Mesenyashin; E. S. Yan; G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel

1996-01-01

225

Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose

J. W. Wilson; R. Q. Honaker; Y. Ding; K. Ho

1996-01-01

226

Babcock and Wilcox clean-coal program  

SciTech Connect

The issue of acid rain is being addressed on a world-wide basis. The major industrial nations are all implementing new laws that are directed at reducing the emissions of gases that are believed to contribute to acid rain. The United States has been a pioneer in this area with a major clean-air bill that became law in the early 1970s and amended in the late 1970s. In the mid-1980s, the U.S. embarked on a program to develop new clean-coal technologies, which would provide a cost-effective means of further reducing gaseous emissions from fossil-fired power facilities. The clean coal program at Babcock and Wilcox is presented.

Doyle, J.B. (Babcock and Wilcox Energy Service Div., Denver, CO (US)); Kulig, J.S. (Babcock and Wilcox Energy Services Div., Barberton, OH (US)); Rackley, J.M. (Babcock and Wilcox Research and Development Div., Alliance, OH (US))

1989-01-01

227

Advanced staged combustion system for power generation from coal  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process and apparatus for generating electricity from coal comprising a vertically stacked, three-stage combustor in which a sorbent is calcined in a calciner zone of the combustor and transferred to a carbonizer zone disposed below the calciner zone, coal introduced into the carbonizer zone is carbonized, producing char and spent sorbent, both of which are transferred to a combustor zone disposed below the carbonizer zone, in which the char is combusted at a substoichemetic air-to-coal ratio, producing a fuel gas. The fuel gas is cleaned and combusted in a turbine combustor, producing a flue gas which is introduced into a gas turbine for producing electricity.

1993-09-14

228

Surface and Electrochemical Studies in Coal Cleaning: Technical Progress Report, January 1, 1987-March 31, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is concerned with the development of better ways to remove sulfur and ash forming minerals from coal prior to combustion. Precombustion cleaning methods include: (1) physical separation processes; and (2) chemical treatment methods. Where app...

S. Chander F. F. Aplan

1987-01-01

229

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2006-01-01

230

REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2005-01-01

231

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2005-01-01

232

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2006-01-01

233

The thermal efficiency and cost of producing hydrogen and other synthetic aircraft fuels from coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made of the cost and thermal efficiency of producing liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and synthetic aviation kerosene from coal. These results are combined with estimates of the cost and energy losses associated with transporting, storing, and transferring the fuels to aircraft. The results of hydrogen-fueled and kerosene-fueled aircraft performance studies are utilized to compare the economic viability and efficiency of coal resource utilization of synthetic aviation fuels.

Witcofski, R. D.

1976-01-01

234

The thermal efficiency and cost of producing hydrogen and other synthetic aircraft fuels from coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made of the cost and thermal efficiency of producing liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and synthetic aviation kerosene from coal. These results are combined with estimates of the cost and energy losses associated with transporting, storing, and transferring the fuels to aircraft. The results of hydrogen-fueled and kerosene-fueled aircraft performance studies are utilized to compare the economic viability and efficiency of coal resource utilization of synthetic aviation fuels.

Witcofski, R. D.

1977-01-01

235

Synthetic liquid fuels from oil shale, tar sands, and coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceedings contains 12 papers discussing - the national and international outlooks for synthetic, liquid hydrocarbons; thermal analysis of oil shales; oil shale processing; oil reserves in shales of the Green River formation in Colorado; disposal of oil shale ash; retorting of coal, oil shale and tar sands; coal liquefaction; some solutions for future gas supply; and Alberta's synthetic crude oil

1970-01-01

236

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

237

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

Conkle, H.N.

1992-09-29

238

Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

Not Available

1993-12-01

239

Mulled coal - a beneficiation coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Technical progress report No. 9, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the DOE and private industry, considerable progress has been made in: preparation of coal-water fuels; combustion of low-ash coal-based fuel forms; processes to provide deeply-cleaned coal. Developments in advanced beneficiation of coal to meet stringent requirements for low ash and low sulfur can be anticipated to further complicate the problem areas associated with this product. This is attributable to the beneficiated coal being procured in very fine particles with high surface areas, modified surface characteristics, reduced particle size distribution range, and high inherent moisture. Experience in the storage, handling, and transport of highly beneficiated coal has been limited. This is understandable, as quantities of such product are only now becoming available in meaningful quantities. During this reporting period the authors have: developed a suite of empirical tests covering water retention, rewetting, mull stability, angle of repose, dusting, etc.; a standardized suite for testing handling properties has been developed; initiated screening studies of alternate mulling agent formulations; mulls from six different coals and coals cleaned at different levels are being prepared for evaluation.

Not Available

1993-01-01

240

Conditions of utilization of coal mining and processing sludges as slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

The results of this study have shown that coal sludge can be used as slurry fuel (like coal-water fuel (CWF)) providing that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount in the fuel is at least 55%. The conventional CWF preparation technologies are inapplicable to the fabrication of water-sludge fuel; therefore, special technologies with allowance for the ash content, the particle size, and the water content of coal sludge are demanded.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15

241

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2006-09-17

242

Clean coal technology programs: program update 2006  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2006 is to provide an updated status of the DOE commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCTs). These demonstrations are performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2006 provides 1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation's energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation's most abundant energy resource - coal; 2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and 3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, with fact sheets for demonstration projects that are active, recently completed, withdrawn or ended, including status as of June 30 2006. 4 apps.

NONE

2006-09-15

243

Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

None

2009-10-01

244

Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal  

DOEpatents

An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

Akers, David J. (Indiana, PA); Ekechukwu, Kenneth N. (Silver Spring, MD); Aluko, Mobolaji E. (Burtonsville, MD); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

2000-01-01

245

A Research and Development Program for Catalysis in Coal Conversion Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of catalysts in coal conversion processes is reviewed, and a research and development program is recommended for catalysis in future conversion technology. Emphasis is on those processes leading to clean fuels for electric power generation. The ar...

H. Katzman

1974-01-01

246

Fifteenth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 235 papers arranged under the following topical sections: coal utilization and characterization; utilization properties of low-rank fuels; C1 chemistry; IGCC; ash utilization at mine site; ash technology; geographic information systems; utilities perspective; gas cleaning in power generation systems; environmental policy concerns; coal waste utilization; coal handling and transportation; use of biomass/low-rank fuels; pulverized coal combustion; chemicals from coal; coal production and preparation; mercury emission from coal combustion; syngas conversion; flue gas cleanup; fluidized-bed combustors; materials and chemical feedstocks from coal; trace metals emission from coal combustion; improved component development and demonstration; direct/indirect coal conversion; coal/liquid slurry; pyrolysis; underground coal gasification; coal processing for chemicals and materials; and applied coal geology. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1998-12-31

247

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-11-01

248

Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1November 30, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal

J. W. Wilson; Y. Ding; R. Q. Honaker

1995-01-01

249

Synthetic, coal-derived fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefaction and gasification processes for increasing the usage of coal are reviewed, noting their importance as an interim energy source until fusion and solar technologies are suitable for all energy requirements. Coal is ranked from anthracites to hydrogen-free graphites, with bituminous coals containing the lowest water concentrations relative to resource size and availability. Current processes for converting coal to gas

G. R. Hill

1980-01-01

250

POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1996--June 30, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not en...

R. H. Yoon A. Mesenyashin E. S. Yan G. H. Luttrell G. T. Adel

1996-01-01

251

Transportation fuels from indirect coal liquefaction. [US DOE; reviews and considers work in other countries  

SciTech Connect

Coal can be converted to liquid fuels via three generically defined technologies: pyrolysis, direct hydroliquefaction, and indirect liquefaction. This paper presents a general overview of the indirect liquefaction technology and a discussion of processes tht are commercially available as well as those in the development stage. Finally, the objective of the DOE research and development program in conversion of synthesis gas derived from coal to transportation fuels is summarized. The current outlook for indirect liquefaction is encouraging. New facilities are being built in South Africe and New Zealand, and commercial plants could be designed and built for operation in the United States using proven technology. At the same time, developments in gasification as well as liquefaction catalysts and reactor technology promise significant improvements in indirect liquefaction processes in the years to come.

Schehl, R.R.

1982-01-01

252

Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

1997-07-01

253

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized...

1991-01-01

254

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued drop tube devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; and started writing a summary topical report to include all results on the nine fuels tested.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-07-01

255

Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under ...

2009-01-01

256

Fuel-staging coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel-staging burner assembly and method in which a burner nozzle has separate, concentrically disposed elements to burn coarse and fine coal particles under different combustion conditions to reduce the production of nitrogen oxides from the combustion of coal as a fuel. The burner assembly further includes a control nozzle for maintaining a swirling motion in the combustion flame and

Vatsky

1980-01-01

257

Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses  

SciTech Connect

The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

NONE

1998-01-01

258

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels  

SciTech Connect

Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base. Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms. Deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. During the third quarter of this contract (May 1 through July 31, 1987) the primary activities were involved with: Completion and submission for approval by the DOE of the topical report describing the market survey, the coal selection and the fuel specification methodologies used in carrying out Task 1. The determination of the washability of the first five coals selected in Task 1. Upgrading and improvement of the pilot wash circuit to improve both the product quality and yield. Initiation of a data base survey to select an appropriate coal for the Vortec contract; and continuation of the coal procurement, cleaning, fuel preparation and delivery activities.

Not Available

1987-09-01

259

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

260

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

Brown, D.M.

1992-05-19

261

High-density jet fuels from coal syncrudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-energy jet fuels have long been a research goal, particularly for military applications. If the volumetric energy content of jet fuel can be increased, an aircraft can travel a greater distance with a given volume of fuel. Commercial jet fuels are hydrocarbon mixtures derived from petroleum containing paraffins (alkanes), aromatics and naphthenes (cycloalkanes). Paraffins have excellent burning properties, but low

1987-01-01

262

Preparation and analyses of low-rank coals for combustion applications. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1985March 31, 1985. [Physical and chemical cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the second quarter of activity on an 18-month project to prepare low-rank coal (LRC) fuel for research applications in DOE advanced combustion technologies programs. Coals from five mines were characterized by physical and chemical cleaning and hot water drying amenability tests. Subbituminous coal from the Eagle Butte Mine was selected from the five for future use as

F. J. Smit; D. J. Maas

1985-01-01

263

Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning on fugitive elements. Final report. Phase II. Part I. Effect of cleaning  

SciTech Connect

Twenty run-of-mine coals were subjected to conventional cleaning processes as well as to more extensive, non-conventional processes to evaluate the effect of such cleaning on fugitive elements - those elements which might be released to the surroundings and cause environmental problems. Based on the results, significant reductions were obtained in many of the trace elements reported to be pollutants when released during coal utilization. The cleaning was particularly effective in the removal of the trace elements arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, lead, manganese, vanadium, and zinc, and of the major elements silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, magnesium, titanium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. The response of trace elements to cleaning was as variable as the response of sulfur, ash, and Btu content, which are customarily evaluated during conventional cleaning. Some similarities were found generally among those coals from similar geographic regions. Ineffective removal of most mineral constituents from the Western coals could be attributed to the low initial concentrations of impurities in these coals. Each step in the cleaning process was evaluated separately, and more effective trace-element removals were obtained from cleaning the coarser sizes. This study also provided an opportunity to demonstrate BCR's analytical capabilities as effective tools for solving potential coal-industry problems in this area. The analytical methods used in this study have been incorporated into a comprehensive and usable manual which can be found under separate cover as Part II of this final report. A state-of-the-art report on the effect of coal mining, preparation, transportation, and utilization on fugitive elements can also be found under separate cover as Part III of this final report.

Ford, C.T.; Price, A.A.

1980-09-01

264

Appalachian clean coal technology consortium  

SciTech Connect

Novel chemicals that can be used for increasing the efficiency of fine coal dewatering was developed at Virginia Tech. During the past quarter, Reagent A was tested on three different coal samples in laboratory vacuum filtration tests. these included flotation products from Middle Fork plant, Elkview Mining Company, and CONSOL, Inc. the tests conducted with the Middle Fork coal sample (100 mesh x 0) showed that cake moisture can be reduced by more than 10% beyond what can be achieved without using dewatering aid. This improvement was achieved at 1 lb/ton of Reagent A and 0.1 inch cake thickness. At 0. 5 inches of cake thickness, this improvement was limited to 8% at the same reagent dosage. the results obtained with the Elkview coal (28 mesh x 0) showed similar advantages in using the novel dewatering aid. Depending on the reagent dosage, cake thickness, drying cycle time and temperature, it was possible to reduce the cake moisture to 12 to 14% rage. In addition to achieving lower cake moisture, the use of Reagent A substantially decreased the cake formation time, indicating that the reagent improves the kinetics of dewatering, The test results obtained with CONSOL coal were not as good as with the other coals tested in the present work, which may be attributed to possible oxidation and/or contamination.

Yoon, R.-H.; Basim, B.; Luttrell, G.H.; Phillips, D.I. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jiang, D.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Meloy, T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-01-28

265

Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. Tenth quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

Full implementation of coal fuel sources will require more effective methods of providing ``clean coal`` as a fuel source. Methods must be developed to reduce the sulfur content of coal which significantly contributes to environmental pollution. This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies.

Walsh, C.T.

1992-04-29

266

Cleaning of Croweburg Seam coal to improve boiler performance  

SciTech Connect

Recently an Oklahoma law was enacted that mandates that Oklahoma coal-fired utilities must burn a minimum of ten percent Oklahoma-mined coal. Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO), burning raw Croweburg Seam coal from Oklahoma as part of a blend, was interested in determining if cleaning the Croweburg Seam coal could reduce boiler slagging and fouling problems experienced at its Northeastern Station's Units 3 and 4. Studies of the Croweburg Seam coal performed at CQ Inc. in Homer City, Pennsylvania were used to determine the potential of physical cleaning for upgrading this coal. The test program involved commercial-scale cleaning tests with heavy-medium cyclones, two-stage water only cyclones, and froth flotation cells, well as extensive laboratory and pilot-scale tests. The coal evaluated during the test program responded well to cleaning. Results indicate the ash slagging and fouling can be significantly improved by cleaning. Significant reductions in ash, specific ash constituents, and trace element concentrations were also demonstrated along with increased heating value. Finally, although the raw coal tested can be classified as compliance'' prior to cleaning, the cleaning tests show that further reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions potential were possible, along with high energy recoveries and increased heating values and can be beneficial for improved plant performance.

Dospoy, R.L.

1991-01-01

267

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 15. Thermal stability of coal-derived jet fuels. Final report, September 1988December 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal derived liquids and were

S. Eser; C. Song; R. M. Copenhaver; J. Perison; H. H. Schobert

1990-01-01

268

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 14. Oxygenates content of coal-derived jet fuels. Interim report, 26 November 1986-31 July 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal-derived liquids and were removed

Knudson

1990-01-01

269

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

Not Available

1994-03-01

270

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 12. Preliminary process design and cost estimate and production-run recommendation. Final report, March-December 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design for the production of JP-8 jet fuel and other salable products from the Great Plains by-products is given. The design incorporates experimental results from Tasks 2 and 3 with the scoping design from Task 1. The experimental results demonstrated the need for more severe hydrotreating conditions to convert the tar oil to jet fuel than was estimated

M. Furlong; J. Fox; J. Masin; E. Stahlnecker; G. Schreiber

1989-01-01

271

Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

Hózer, Zoltán; Szabó, Emese; Pintér, Tamás; Varjú, Ilona Baracska; Bujtás, Tibor; Farkas, Gábor; Vajda, Nóra

2009-07-01

272

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

NONE

1995-04-01

273

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

NONE

1995-04-01

274

40 CFR 60.253 - Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. 60.253...Processing Plants § 60.253 Standards for pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment. (a...comes first, an owner or operator of pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment...

2010-07-01

275

Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning on fugitive elements. Final report, Phase III  

SciTech Connect

Trace elements in coal, including mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, and selenium, have been pointed to with increasing frequency over the past several years as potential environmental pollutants. One means of controlling potential trace-element problems as they relate to coal is to remove these trace constituents prior to combustion. The trace elements associated with the ash and pyritic sulfur might be removed during the coal-cleaning process. This report describes the continuation of the evaluation of coal cleaning as a means of reducing the level of trace elements in combustion emissions. In this third phase of the study, feed coal, clean coal, and refuse samples were obtained from six coal preparation plants to evaluate the effect of coal cleaning on trace and major elements. As a control, the six feed coals were also cleaned at the BCR laboratory. Based on the results, significant reductions were obtained in many of the trace elements reported to be pollutants when released during coal utilization. Additionally, washability data were demonstrated to be effective predictors of plant performance in trace- and major-element removal. No evidence was found that the preparation plant itself provided a source of trace-element contamination. The removal of trace elements from coal at the preparation plant has the potential for transferring potential problems from air pollution, as a result of burning the coal, to water or solid waste pollution from waste disposal sites and water run-off from those sites. Based on a strict RCRA evaluation, no problems were indicated from disposal of the refuse containing higher concentrations of trace elements than in the coal. From an evaluation based on EPA's Multimedia Environmental Goals, some problems may be indicated. 39 references, 3 figures, 53 tables.

Ford, C.T.; Price, A.A.

1982-07-01

276

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

277

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR COAL GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes sampling and analysis methods involving a laboratory-scale coal gasification facility used to study the generation, sampling, chemical analysis, process evaluation, and environmental assessment of pollutants from coal gasification. It describes methods for pa...

278

Stabilization of coal cleaning wastes. Fossil Energy Program. Technical progress report, 1 January 1986-31 March 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes current research on the stabilization of waste from the mining and cleaning of coal by sintering. The refuse used is from subbituminous coal processed in the River King Coal Preparation Plant, Freeburg, IL. For the work described in this report, the refuse was ground in a single pass through a Holmes hammer mill having a screen with

G. Burnet; A. Gokhale; A. J. Weier

1986-01-01

279

Clean coal fluidized-bed technology in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) for power generation is a rapidly growing technology in Poland. The ability of CFBs to burn a wide variety of fuels, while meeting strict emission-control regulations, makes them an ideal choice for burning such fuels as high-sulfur coal, lignite, peat, oil, sludge, petroleum coke, gas and wastes. All these fuels are burned cleanly

W. Nowak

2003-01-01

280

Characterization and supply of coal based fuels  

SciTech Connect

Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

Not Available

1992-06-01

281

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. volume 8. heteroatom removal by catalytic processing. Interim report, 1 January30 August 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of the production of jet fuel from the liquid by-products streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh

J. R. Rindt; M. D. Hetland; C. L. Knudson; W. G. Willson

1989-01-01

282

The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

1992-09-01

283

Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report discusses waste composition from fluidized bed coal combustion. Also presented is analytical data from the leaching of waste sampled from storage soils and of soil samples collected. 6 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

284

Emission characteristics of granulated fuel produced from sewage sludge and coal slime.  

PubMed

The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member countries, including Poland, where one can now observe an intensive development of sewage system networks and new sewage treatment plants. At the same time, these countries have few installations for thermal sewage sludge utilization (e.g., there is only one installation of that type in Poland). Simultaneously, there are many coal-fired mechanical stoker-fired boilers in some of these countries. This paper presents suggestions for the production of granulated fuel from sewage sludge and coal slime. Additionally, among others, lime was added to the fuel to decrease the sulfur compounds emission. Results are presented of research on fuel with two average grain diameters (approximately 15 and 35 mm). The fuel with such diameters is adapted to the requirements of the combustion process taking place in a stoker-fired boiler. The research was aimed at identifying the behavior of the burning fuel, with special attention paid to its emission properties (e.g., to the emissions of oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and carbon monoxide [CO], among others). The concentration and emission values were compared with similar results obtained while burning hard coal. The combustion process was carried out in a laboratory stand where realization of the large-scale tests is possible. The laboratory stand used made simulation possible for a wide range of burning processes in mechanical stoker-fired boilers. PMID:21243903

Wzorek, Ma?gorzata; Kozio?, Micha?; Scierski, Waldemar

2010-12-01

285

The economics of liquid transportation fuels from coal: Past, present and future  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the technologies for producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and traces their evolution. Estimates of how their economics have changed with continuing research and development are also given.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1993-08-01

286

Placid—A clean process for recycling lead from batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Placid process is a hydrometallurgical technique for recovering lead from spent battery pastes. The process, when used in combination with a pyrometallurgy process, has the potential to recover high-purity lead and offers significant environmental improvements.

Díaz, Gustavo; Andrews, David

1996-01-01

287

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 10, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport fuels; completed editing of the first three quarterly reports and sent them to the publishing office; presented the project results at the Annual Contractors` Conference.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1991-11-01

288

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

SciTech Connect

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01

289

Outlook for the HPI ((Hydrocarbon Processing Industry))\\/King Coal's rebirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey covers current projects for coal gasification; the probable extent of coal gasification activities in the U.S.; the production of liquid fuels from coal; the production of methanol from coal by use of the Lurgi, Winkler, or Koppers-Totzek gasification processes and scale-up methanol processes; technology currently available for coal conversion; and the economics of coal conversion.

Wall

1974-01-01

290

Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01

291

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 18, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Continued with data and sample analysis from the pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, air-dried and mulled microagglomerate products; air-dried Pittsburgh No. 8 as-is and mulled products for upcoming Task 3 combustion testing; and prepared two abstracts for presentation for the March 1 994 Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems Conference.

Chow, O.K.; Hargrove, M.J.

1993-11-01

292

Evaluation of coal-derived JP-5 fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an experimental program are presented in which a comprehensive study has been conducted on JP-type aviation fuels made from coal-derived synthetic crude oil. Based upon data from pilot plant experiment, it can be said that it will be difficult to convert coal syncrudes from the COED process into a jet fuel having all the properties of the present

C. J. Nowack; J. Solash; R. J. Delfosse

1977-01-01

293

Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process. Technical progress report for the 7th quarter, October 1, 1989-December 31, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research continued on coal cleaning. In this quarter, the parametric tests (Subtask 4.1) were continued on wet-screened Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples. This coal was used because of the poor response of the Upper Freeport coal to CECC treatment. The degree...

R. H. Yoon

1989-01-01

294

Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

Not Available

1994-01-01

295

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design for the production of JP-8 jet fuel and other salable products from the Great Plains by-products is given. The design incorporates experimental results from Tasks 2 and 3 with the scoping design from Task 1. The experimental results demonstrated the need for more severe hydrotreating conditions to convert the tar oil to jet fuel than was estimated

M. Furlong; J. Fox; J. Masin; E. Stahlnecker; G. Schreiber; R. Klein

1989-01-01

296

Development of a process for producing an ashless, low-sulfur fuel from coal. Volume IV. Product studies. Part 10. Final report of coal liquids catalyst work performed at Oklahoma State University. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process, June 17, 1970June 16, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a summary of the coal liquids catalyst work at Oklahoma State University. The broad overall objective of this work has been to specifically tailor heterogeneous catalysts for upgrading coal derived liquids. The more specific goal has been to assess the effects of catalyst support pore properties on sulfur and nitrogen removal from certain coal liquids.

Crynes

1979-01-01

297

Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1990-01-01

298

Agenda and briefing book: Clean Coal Technology Coordinating Committee, September 16, 1991, Louisville, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

A considerable amount of time was spent discussing the Clean Air Act Amendments pending before Congress. Several members pointed out provisions of the legislation that would have serious impacts on the coal industry and the electric utility industry. The need for increased electricity in Florida raised the question about coal fired Power Plants. It is generally believed that most people in Florida do not know that over 55 percent of the electricity now comes from coal-fired generators. However, publicly, people will say they do not want coal-fired facilities built in Florida. People in Florida are concerned with the EMF Issue just as much as the source of power. It was stated that the coal industry has a very poor image and DOE should assume responsibility for improving the image of coal. it was agreed that it would take a considerable financial commitment to do this and that in addition to government the industry would have to be willing to contribute financially. The Partial results of a survey to utilities concerning the future use of clean coal technologies was reported. Utilities are not ignoring coal technologies but acknowledged that the amendments to the Clean Air Act would be the driving force in future decisions. It was learned through the survey that the DOE negotiation process in the Clean Coal Technology Program was in need of improvement. DOE had recently changed the procedure internally and it was anticipated that the procedure would be smoother in the future.

Not Available

1991-09-16

299

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01

300

Recovery of minerals from US coals  

SciTech Connect

Projections show that domestic coal will serve for the majority of energy supplies during the next decades. Thorough chemical cleaning of this coal can be accomplished in long residence time, slurry transport systems to produce high-quality fuel product. Concurrently, mineral recovery from coals will supplement existing ores. This paper describes this concept and given preliminary engineering considerations for mineral recovery during transport operations.

Vanderborgh, N.E.

1982-01-01

301

Cost benefits associated with the use of physically cleaned coal. Final report May 78-Nov 79  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report identifies and quantifies several benefits associated with the use of physically cleaned coal in the operation of utility electric power plants. The benefits occur in: coal and ash handling, boiler operation, and gas handling and cleaning. Cleaning removes sulfur from the coal, thus reducing the emission of SO2 into the atmosphere. In most cases, however, the power plant

G. A. Isa cs; R. A. Ressl; P. W. Spaite

1980-01-01

302

"An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was carried out by comparing the design and costs of the current commercial plant of the Shenhua Corporation in Erdos, Inner Mongolia. The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from coal in the current commercial process was estimated to be $50.5 per barrel compared to the estimated cost of $41.7 per barrel in the new process. As mentioned earlier, the light distillate product in the new process is of higher quality and value than the C{sub 4}-975{degrees}F product in the current commercial process adopted by the Shenhua Corporation. In sum, the new coal liquefaction process is superior and less capital intensive to current commercial process, and has a high potential for commercialization.

Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

2009-02-19

303

DOE's clean coal technology program: commercial successes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy's (DOEs) clean coal technology (CCT) program is comprised of 43 demonstration scale projects in a variety of coal utilization areas. The program is now well under way, and several demonstrations have been completed. Further, several commercial sales have already accrued to these technologies, with additional sales pending

J. U. Watts; T. A. Sarkus; S. K. Marchant

1996-01-01

304

Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

The Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) Demonstration Project provides for repowering an existing boiler with a single PCFB combustor integrated with an oil/gas-fired topping combustor and a gas turbine module operating in a combined cycle mode. Project activities include engineering and design, permitting, procurement and fabrication, erection, start-up, pre-operation, and demonstration. The project represents the world's first commercial application of the PYROFLOW PCFB Technology. In this process coal is combusted at about 1600{degrees}F in a circulating fluidized bed contained within a pressure vessel. Limestone is used within the bed to absorb sulfur compounds. Particulates from the hot, pressurized combustion gases are removed by a ceramic filter. The clean gases are then expanded through a gas turbine. During peak load demand periods, the topping combustor will be fired with either natural gas or fuel oil to raise the inlet temperature of the gases entering the gas turbine. Higher turbine operating temperature increases the turbine efficiency and power output. Inclusion of the topping combustor will demonstrate an important step in the development of second generation pressurized fluidized-bed (PFB) combustion systems. Steam generated within the PCFB combustor and the heat recovery steam generator down-stream from the gas turbine will be used to generate power in the existing steam turbine. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-06-01

305

Coal: world energy security. The Clearwater clean coal conference  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered include: oxy-fuel (overview, demonstrations, experimental studies, burner developments, emissions, fundamental and advanced concepts); post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture; coal conversion to chemicals and fuels; advanced materials; hydrogen production from opportunity fuels; mercury abatement options for power plants; and carbon capture and storage in volume 1. Subjects covered in volume 2 include: advanced modelling; advanced concepts for emission control; gasification technology; biomass; low NOx technology; computer simulations; multi emissions control; chemical looping; and options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions.

Sakkestad, B. (ed.)

2009-07-01

306

DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL FINE COAL CLEANING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the proposed project was to develop a novel fine coal separator having the ability to clean 1 mm x 0 size coal in a single processing unit. The novel fine coal separator, named as EG(Enhanced Gravity) Float Cell, utilizes a centrifugal field to clean 1 mm x 250 micron size coal, whereas a flotation environment to clean minus 250 micron coal size fraction. Unlike a conventional enhanced gravity concentrator, which rotates to produce a centrifugal field requiring more energy, the EG Float Cell is fed with a tangential feed slurry to generate an enhanced gravity field without any rotating part. A prototype EG Float Cell unit having a maximum diameter of 60 cm (24 inch) was fabricated during the first-half of the project period followed by a series of exploratory tests to make suitable design modification. Test data indicated that there was a significant concentration of coarse heavy materials in the coarse tailings discharge of the EG Float Cell. The increase in weight (%) of 1 mm x 250 micron (16 x 60 mesh) size fraction from 48.9% in the feed to 72.2% in the coarse tailings discharge and the corresponding increase in the ash content from 56.9% to 87.0% is indicative of the effectiveness of the enhanced gravity section of the EG Float Cell. However, the performance of the flotation section needs to be improved. Some of the possible design modifications may include more effective air sparging system for the flotation section to produce finer bubbles and a better wash water distributor.

Manoj K. Mohanty

2005-06-01

307

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01

308

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Annual technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

Parekh, B.K.

1991-12-31

309

Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995August 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is

J. W. Wilson; R. Q. Honaker; Y. Ding

1997-01-01

310

Proceedings: Fourteenth annual EPRI conference on fuel science  

SciTech Connect

EPRI's Fourteenth Annual Contractors' Conference on Fuel Science was held on May 18--19, 1989 in Palo Alto, CA. The conference featured results of work on coal science, coal liquefaction, methanol production, and coal oil coprocessing and coal upgrading. The following topics were discussed: recent development in coal liquefaction at the Wilsonville Clean Coal Research Center; British coal's liquid solvent extraction (LSE) process; feedstock reactivity in coal/oil co-processing; utility applications for coal-oil coprocessed fuels; effect of coal rank and quality on two-stage liquefaction; organic sulfur compounds in coals; the perchloroethylene refining process of high-sulfur coals; extraction of sulfur coals; extraction of sulfur from coal; agglomeration of bituminous and subbituminous coals; solubilization of coals by cell-free extracts derived from polyporus versicolor; remediation technologies and services; preliminary results from proof-of-concept testing of heavy liquid cyclone cleaning technology; clean-up of soil contaminated with tarry/oily organics; midwest ore processing company's coal benefication technology: recent prep plant, scale and laboratory activities; combustion characterization of coal-oil agglomerate fuels; status report on the liquid phase methanol project; biomimetic catalysis; hydroxylation of C{sub 2} {minus} C{sub 3} and cycloc{sub 6} hydrocarbons with Fe cluster catalysts as models for methane monooxygenase enzyme; methanol production scenarios; and modeling studies of the BNL low temperature methanol catalyst. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-05-01

311

Motor fuels and chemicals from coal via the Sasol Synthol route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of synthetic motor fuels and chemicals from coal by the Sasol procedures is discussed. This process is based on the Fischer-Tropsch reaction by passing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a specific ratio over iron catalysts at elevated temperatures and pressures. Two parallel reactor systems are discussed. The smaller system employs fixed-bed reactors, using a precipitated iron catalyst and produces predominantly heavy hydrocarbons of an aliphatic nature with carbon chains up to 100. These straight-chain hydrocarbons yield excellent waxes and high quality diesel oil. The larger system uses a powdered iron catalyst in a circulating fluid-bed reactor, a concept developed from American catalytic cracker technology. This system has the advantage of high production capacity and scale-up potential, and produces light olefins which can be used either as petrochemical feedstock or refined and added to the motor fuel pool, and ethylene which is augmented by ethane cracking. Analysis of product selectivities and values shows that co-production of chemicals and motor fuels from coal is profitable and efficient.

Hoogendoorn, J. C.

1981-03-01

312

ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: ANNUAL REPORT (1ST)  

EPA Science Inventory

With a large projected increase in U.S. use of coal under the National Energy Plan, improved sulfur dioxide controls are quickly needed. Physical coal cleaning may prove to be the most cost-effective method for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from small boilers, since many smal...

313

Process for selective grinding of coal  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

Venkatachari, Mukund K. (San Francisco, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA)

1991-01-01

314

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

315

Coal liquefaction to increase jet fuel production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing concept that increases supply of jet fuel has been developed as part of study on methods for converting coal to hydrogen, methane, and jet fuel. Concept takes advantage of high aromatic content of coal-derived liquids to make high-octane gasoline, instead of destroying aromatics to make jet fuel.

1979-01-01

316

Algae fuel clean electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

O'Sullivan, D.

1993-02-08

317

Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaing for Premium Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect

The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel? column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications -- Less than 2 pounds of ash per million Btu (860 grams per gigajoule) and

Frank J. Smit; Gene L. Schields; Mehesh C. Jha; Nick Moro

1997-09-26

318

After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak [University of Colorado at Boulder, CO (United States)

2009-04-15

319

Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 2.2: Definition of preferred catalyst system; Task 2.3: Process variable scans on the preferred catalyst system; Task 2.4: Life-test on the preferred catalyst system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of c...

B. L. Bhatt

1992-01-01

320

The foul side of 'clean coal'  

SciTech Connect

As power plants face new air pollution control, ash piles and their environmental threats are poised to grow. Recent studies have shown that carcinogens and other contaminants in piles of waste ash from coal-fired power plants can leach into water supplies at concentrations exceeding drinking water standards. Last year an ash dam broke at the 55-year old power plant in Kingston, TN, destroying homes and rising doubts about clean coal. Despite the huge amounts of ash generated in the USA (131 mtons per year) no federal regulations control the fate of ash from coal-fired plants. 56% of this is not used in products such as concrete. The EPA has found proof of water contamination from many operating ash sites which are wet impoundments, ponds or reservoirs of some sort. Several member of Congress have show support for new ash-handling requirements and an inventory of waste sites. Meanwhile, the Kingston disaster may well drive utilities to consider dry handling. 3 photos.

Johnson, J.

2009-02-15

321

A fossil-fuel based recipe for clean energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zero-emission process of hydrogen production from fossil fuel through a system of reactions involving hydroxide, carbon, CO, CO2 and water is described here. It provides for a complete sequestration of carbon (CO2 and CO) from coal\\/natural-gas burning plants. The CO and or CO2 produced in coal or natural gas burning power plants and the heat may be used for

Surendra K Saxena; Vadym Drozd; Andriy Durygin

2008-01-01

322

Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction. [partial liquefaction of coal in slurry, filtration and gasification of residue  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300 to 550/sup 0/C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400 to 500/sup 0/C for a limited time of only about 1 to 5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300/sup 0/C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

Longanbach, J.R.

1981-11-13

323

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol. Quarterly Technical Process Report for January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted...

2006-01-01

324

POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal gasification test runs have been conducted in a semibatch, fixed-bed laboratory gasifier in order to evaluate various coals and operating conditions for pollutant generation. Thirty-eight tests have been completed using char, coal, lignite, and peat. Extensive analyses were ...

325

Elementary processes in combustion and sooting of coal-derived fuels. University coal research. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this final report, a review of the major results and accomplishments are presented. This research program examined the role of several key radical-radical, radical-molecule and ionic decomposition reactions important in the formation of soot. In light of the then predicted increased use of fossile-based synfuels, a better understanding of the combustion of aromatic-rich fuels seemed imperative as these materials

McVey

1986-01-01

326

Bench scale development of the TRW process for cleaning coal (Gravimelt process). Quarterly technical progress report, May 1985-July 1985  

SciTech Connect

The major sections of the 20 lb/h modular test plant were designed and the necessary equipment specifications were prepared. A competitive procurement was initiated for the reaction section, a rotary kiln with coal and caustic feed capability. Two kiln tests were performed at a vendor test facility to provide design data, demonstrate continuous around the clock operation and to provide coal and spent caustic feed for regeneration and filtration equipment tests. The first two objectives were successful and accomplishment of the second objective will be assessed next month. Experimentation for scale-up and verification testing of the regeneration section was performed. A description of the modular test plant and the detailed engineering and test results are presented in five sections entitled: Modular Test Plant; Rotary Kiln Tests; Rotary Kiln Specifications; Regeneration Verification Tests and Regeneration Section Design. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1985-08-01

327

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

Not Available

1992-12-31

328

The coal-fueled diesel technology assessment study: Combustion of coal-based fuels in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Objective of this report is to collect and summarize available information that is pertinent to the combustion of coal-based fuels in diesel engines. The report, which focuses on test programs whose results became available in 1984-1985, briefly reviews the characteristics of various types of coals, discusses results of some basic laboratory-scale combustion studies on coal particles and coal slurries, and summarizes combustion-related results from several recent engine tests. It also discusses mathematical models that have been developed to help understand the combustion process in coal-fueled diesel engines. 78 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

Krazinski, J.L.; Holtz, R.E.

1988-03-01

329

Research on coal-water fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed / Badanie spalania zawiesinowych paliw w?glowo-wodnych w cyrkulacyjnej warstwie fluidalnej  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper the problem of heavily-watered fuel combustion has been undertaken as the requirements of qualitative coals combusted in power stations have been growing. Coal mines that want to fulfill expectations of power engineers have been forced to extend and modernize the coal enrichment plants. This causes growing quantity of waste materials that arise during the process of wet coal enrichment containing smaller and smaller under-grains. In this situation the idea of combustion of transported waste materials, for example in a hydraulic way to the nearby power stations appears attractive because of a possible elimination of the necessary deep dehydration and drying as well as because of elimination of the finest coal fraction loss arising during discharging of silted water from coal wet cleaning plants. The paper presents experimental research results, analyzing the process of combustion of coal-water suspension depending on the process conditions. Combustion of coal-water suspensions in fluidized beds meets very well the difficult conditions, which should be obtained to use the examined fuel efficiently and ecologically. The suitable construction of the research stand enables recognition of the mechanism of coal-water suspension contact with the inert material, that affects the fluidized bed. The form of this contact determines conditions of heat and mass exchange, which influence the course of a combustion process. The specificity of coal-water fuel combustion in a fluidized bed changes mechanism and kinetics of the process.

Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka

2012-10-01

330

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 14, Oxygenates content of coal-derived jet fuels: Interim report, November 26, 1986-July 31, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were com...

C. L. Knudson

1990-01-01

331

Clean Coal Technologies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal provided 16ˇ1% (116ˇ3 million tons) of the energy for Japan in FY 1992. According to the long-term energy supply and demand outlook in Japan, prepared and revised in June 1994 by the Advisory Committee for Energy, it is estimated that coal will provide 16ˇ4% (130 million tons) of the energy in 2000 and 15ˇ4% (134 million tons) in 2010,

RYOICHI YOSHIDA; Ryoichi

1997-01-01

332

Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.  

PubMed

Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems. PMID:23301852

Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

2013-02-01

333

EPA-INTERAGENCY COAL CLEANING PROGRAM: FY 1978 PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research and development activities under the interagency coal cleaning program are responsive to changing regulatory requirements and energy goals. A review of current regulatory activities and the status of coal cleaning technology provides the context for discussion of progres...

334

Physical cleaning of waste coal by dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The coal wastes generated from coal mining operations and coal cleaning processes contain fine and ultrafine coals. Recovery of the fine/ultrafine coal from the coal wastes reduces the loss of useable fuels and the environmental impact. The objective of this project was to use dissolved-CO{sub 2} technology to generate ultrafine bubbles to separate fine/ultrafine coal from pyrite and other mineral matter in the coal wastes. The Illinois No. 6 coal waste used in the project was the underflow from a refuse thickener. The concentrations of the major trace metals are much higher than those found in Illinois Basin Coal database for Illinois No. 6 coals. Bench-scale conventional flotation tests of the waste coal were performed under various conditions using a 4-liter Wemco flotation cell. The tests were performed to determine the chemical dosages and flotation conditions used in dissolved-CO{sub 2} column flotation. The waste coal samples were subjected to dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation in a 2-inch diameter microbubble column under various test conditions. The flotation performance as affected by each test variable was compared. For most of the tests, the Btu recovery was above 80%, the pyrite rejection was about 60%, and the ash rejection varied from about 45% to 76%. Dissolved air was used in one test for comparison. The waste coal samples were also subjected to typical microbubble flotation. As compared to microbubble flotation, the dissolved-CO{sub 2} had higher yield, higher Btu recovery, less pyrite rejection, and less ash rejection. Almost all of the major trace metals had a substantial reduction in concentration by dissolved-CO{sub 2} flotation, particularly for cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead.

Shiao, S.Y. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

335

Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities were focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies were conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing and a spiral model was developed by West Virginia University. For the University of Kentucky the advisory board approved a project entitled: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Project management and administration will be provided by Virginia Tech., for the first year. Progress reports for coal dewatering and destabilization of flotation froth studies are presented in this report.

Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jiang, X.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Meloy, T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-10-01

336

Mobilisation of trace elements from as-supplied and additionally cleaned coal: Predictions for Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Mo, Nb, Sb, V and W  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of the elements antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, molybdenum and vanadium between the products of combustion of coals containing them burnt as pulverised fuel in excess air has been modelled using the MTDATA thermodynamic equilibrium package with data from the MTOX silicate melt model added to the standard database and trace element data added where necessary. The coals

B. M. Gibbs; D. Thompson; B. B. Argent

2008-01-01

337

The Impact of Leachate From Clean Coal Technology Waste on the Stability of Clay and Synthetic Liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was developed to provide design criteria for landfill disposal sites used for sludges such as those generated using the Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) tested at the Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe Power Plant. The CCT wastes used were produced at the Arapahoe Plant Unit No. 4 that was equipped with the integrated dry NOâ\\/Sâ emissions control system

T. H. Brown; M. Ghate

1996-01-01

338

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01

339

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product; however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of the advanced flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach utilized synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant addition to lower the moisture of clean coal using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combinations of metal ions and surfactants in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. Surface chemical study indicated a direct correlation between the point-of-zero charge (PZC) of metal ion/fine coal system and lowering of moisture in the filter cake. Adsorption of either metal ions or surfactants alone did not provide a significant reduction of moisture in the filter cake. However, a combination of the two provided a filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture. Filtration tests conducted using a laboratory vacuum drum filter indicated that the results obtained in batch filtration could be reproduced on a continuous filtration unit. FT-IR studies indicated that anionic surfactant and metal ions form complex species which adsorbs on the fine coal and results in improved moisture reduction during filtration. Recommendations are offered for testing this novel dewatering process on a pilot scale at a coal preparation plant in Illinois.

Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1992-12-31

340

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 16, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the first quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Reported results of drop tube furnace data analyses to determine devolatilization kinetics; reported the results from the re-analyzed pilot-scale ash deposits from the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-05-01

341

Clean coal. U.S.-China cooperation in energy security  

SciTech Connect

This work discusses how coal fits into the strategies of the USA and China to attain energy security while avoiding adverse environmental impacts. It begins by describing China's policy choices for clean coal, before discussing the implications of a clean coal strategy for China. The U.S. choices in a coal-based strategy of energy security is then covered. Finally, a joint US-China clean coal strategy, including the technology sharing option, is discussed.

Wendt, D.

2008-05-15

342

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

NONE

1995-07-01

343

Microbial Deterioration of Hydrocarbon Fuels from Oil Shale, Coal, and Petroleum. II. Growth and Inhibition of Bacteria and Fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recurring problems caused by microbial contamination of conventional fuels has led to an evaluation of the susceptibility of aircraft fuels from alternate sources (synthetic fuels). JP-5 fuel from coal and two different lots of oil shale (Shale I and ...

M. E. May R. A. Neihof

1980-01-01

344

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical--can continue in its role as a key component in the U.S. and world energy markets. The CCT Program also has global importance in providing clean, efficient coal-based technology to a burgeoning energy market in developing countries largely dependent on coal. Based on 1997 data, world energy consumption is expected to increase 60 percent by 2020, with almost half of the energy increment occurring in developing Asia (including China and India). By 2020, energy consumption in developing Asia is projected to surpass consumption in North America. The energy form contributing most to the growth is electricity, as developing Asia establishes its energy infrastructure. Coal, the predominant indigenous fuel, in that region will be the fuel of choice in electricity production. The CCTs offer a means to mitigate potential environmental problems associated with unprecedented energy growth, and to enhance the U.S. economy through foreign equipment sales and engineering services.

NONE

2000-09-01

345

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA BASE FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME I. SYSTEMS FOR 14 LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume report, prepared as part of an overall environmental assessment (EA) program for the technology involved in the conversion of coal to clean liquid fuels, and the Standards of Practice Manual for the Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction Process (EPA-600/7-78-091) repre...

346

Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: Measurements, health impacts, and interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all China's rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and\\/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in

Junfeng Zhang; Kirk R. Smith

2007-01-01

347

Production of Ultra Clean Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral matter in an Australian black coal has been isolated using a low-temperature ashing (LTA) procedure. This LTA procedure is a modification of the Australian Standard for LTA at 370°C, and alleviates adverse effects to the minerals caused by the heat of combustion. The leaching behaviour of the mineral matter towards aqueous HCl and hydrofluoric acid (HF) is presented.

Karen M. Steel; John Besida; Thomas A. O'Donnell; David G. Wood

2001-01-01

348

Production of Ultra Clean Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for determination of the concentration of fluoride complexed aluminium and silicon species, free fluoride (F?), H+ ions and molecular HF in solution when aluminosilicate compounds are treated with aqueous HF is presented. The model elucidates chemical mechanisms governing both the dissolution behaviour of the mineral matter in coal towards aqueous HF, and the unwanted precipitation of various fluoride

Karen M. Steel; John Besida; Thomas A. O'Donnell; David G. Wood

2001-01-01

349

Analytical Methods for Hazardous Organics in Liquid Wastes from Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered....

T. F. Yen J. I. S. Tang M. Wasburne S. Cohanim

1982-01-01

350

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, due to high surface area of particles the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water to 20 percent or lower moisture level from the clean coal froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combination of metal ions and surfactant found to be effective in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. During the third quarter, efforts were made to understand reagent adsorption mechanism. Adsorption studies indicated that the presence of metal ions enhanced adsorption of surfactant. It appears that metal ions induced floc formation at pH {approximately}7.0, which are hydrophilic in nature, however addition of surfactant restores the hydrophobicity. Organic polymers along with metal ions were found to be effective in dewatering of fine coal. Continuous filtration tests conducted using a drum filter provided a filter cake containing 24 percent moisture. Additional studies on mechanism of adsorption and continuous filtration using AC Electro-Coagulation will be conducted in the next quarter.

Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1992-10-01

351

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 13, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; completed analyses of the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of unweathered Upper Freeport feed coal; published two technical papers at conferences; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1992-09-01

352

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 15, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; re-analyzed the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; updated the topical summary report; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-03-01

353

Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction - Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program.  

SciTech Connect

the project proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex, Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. The micronized coal fired boiler would (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emission, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil.

NONE

1996-09-30

354

USE OF COAL CLEANING FOR COMPLIANCE WITH SO2 EMISSION REGULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of coal cleaning as a means of controlling SO2 emissions from coal-fired stationary sources. Coal cleaning was examined in the light of various existing and proposed SO2 emissions regulations to determine applications in which the technol...

355

Innovative Clean Coal Technologies (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

Not Available

1992-05-15

356

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.

Not Available

1992-02-15

357

Innovative Clean Coal Technology: Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT-121 relative to competing technology.

Not Available

1990-11-15

358

The production of gas from coal through a commercially proven process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of gas from coal using the Koppers-Totzek process is discussed. The process is based on the partial oxidation of pulverized coal in suspension with oxygen and steam. There are no tars, condensable hydrocarbons or phenols formed; carbon conversion is dependent on the reactivity of the coal, approaching 100% for lignites. Depending on the treatment of the raw gas,

J. F. Farnsworth; H. F. Leonard; D. M. Mitsak; R. Wintrell

1975-01-01

359

Terrestrial carbon disturbance from mountaintop mining increases lifecycle emissions for clean coal.  

PubMed

The Southern Appalachian forest region of the U.S.--a region responsible for 23% of U.S. coal production--has 24 billion metric tons of high quality coal remaining of which mountaintop coal mining (MCM) will be the primary extraction method. Here we consider greenhouse gas emissions associated with MCM terrestrial disturbance in the life-cycle of coal energy production. We estimate disturbed forest carbon, including terrestrial soil and nonsoil carbon using published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data of the forest floor removed and U.S. Department of Agriculture--Forest Service inventory data. We estimate the amount of previously buried geogenic organic carbon brought to the soil surface during MCM using published measurements of total organic carbon and carbon isotope data for reclaimed soils, soil organic matter and coal fragments. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the life-cycle emissions of coal production for MCM methods were found to be quite significant when considering the potential terrestrial source. Including terrestrial disturbance in coal life-cycle assessment indicates that indirect emissions are at least 7 and 70% of power plant emissions for conventional and CO(2) capture and sequestration power plants, respectively. To further constrain these estimates, we suggest that the fate of soil carbon and geogenic carbon at MCM sites be explored more widely. PMID:20141186

Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott

2010-03-15

360

Physical Coal Cleaning for Utility Boiler SO2 Emission Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)....

E. H. Hall L. Hoffman J. Hoffman R. A. Schilling

1978-01-01

361

Stabilization of coal cleaning wastes. Fossil Energy Program. Technical progress report, 1 April 1985-30 June 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research work in progress on the stabilization of waste from the mining and cleaning of coal. A survey of the literature in the area of coal refuse processing has been conducted using computerized searches of the Energy Data Base and Chemical Abstracts as well as manual scanning of the Chemical Abstracts, NTIS and Energy Research Abstracts. Relevant

G. Burnet; A. Gokhale

1985-01-01

362

Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Task 7, Extended wear testing  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, interest has arisen in the development of coal-fired diesel engines for the purpose of efficiently utilizing the extensive coal reserves in the United States, and therefore reducing dependence on foreign oil. One process, which is being considered for use in producing clean coal fuel products involves mild gasification. This process produces by-products which can be further refined and, when blended with neat diesel fuel, used as an engine fuel. The purpose of this task was to test a blend of this coal liquid and diesel fuel (referred to as coal-lite) in an engine, and determine if any detrimental results were observed. This was done by performing a back-to-back performance and emission test of neat diesel fuel and the coal-lite fuel, followed by a 500-hour test of the coal-lite fuel, and completed by a back-to-back performance and emission test of the coal-lite fuel and neat diesel fuel.

Wakenell, J.F.; Fritz, S.G.; Schwalb, J.A.

1991-07-01

363

Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, interest has arisen in the development of coal-fired diesel engines for the purpose of efficiently utilizing the extensive coal reserves in the United States, and therefore reducing dependence on foreign oil. One process, which is being considered for use in producing clean coal fuel products involves mild gasification. This process produces by-products which can be further refined and, when blended with neat diesel fuel, used as an engine fuel. The purpose of this task was to test a blend of this coal liquid and diesel fuel (referred to as coal-lite) in an engine, and determine if any detrimental results were observed. This was done by performing a back-to-back performance and emission test of neat diesel fuel and the coal-lite fuel, followed by a 500-hour test of the coal-lite fuel, and completed by a back-to-back performance and emission test of the coal-lite fuel and neat diesel fuel.

Wakenell, J.F.; Fritz, S.G.; Schwalb, J.A.

1991-07-01

364

Development of catalyst free carbon nanotubes from coal and waste plastics  

SciTech Connect

DC-Arc technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal, chemically cleaned coal, original coal and waste plastics instead of using high purity graphite in the presence of metal catalysts. The results obtained are compared in terms of yield, purity and type of carbon nanotubes produced from different types of raw material used. In the present study different types of raw materials have been prepared i.e. chemically cleaned coal and super clean coal, and the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by DC Arc discharge method. Taking in account the present need of utilizing coal as a cheaper raw material for bulk production of carbon nanotubes and utilization of waste plastics (which itself is a potential environmental threat) for production of such an advance material the present work was undertaken. Since the process does not involve presence of any kind of metal catalyst, it avoids the cost intensive process of removal of these metal particles. The residual coal obtained after refining has major fuel potential and can be utilized for various purposes.

Dosodia, A.; Lal, C.; Singh, B.P.; Mathur, R.B.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies

2009-07-01

365

Feasibility Study of Using a Coal/Water/Oil Emulsion as a Clean Liquid Fuel: Phase 2. Interim Report, October--December 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major conclusion from our study of coal particle size is that particle size distribution for coals of different hardness will be different when pulverized at the same plate separation. The major conclusion from our study of emulsions of coal, No. 2 oi...

J. P. Dooher

1977-01-01

366

Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 3, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Energy International Corporation (El) was awarded a contract to evaluate a new concept for utilization of the fine coal wetcake produced by many of the physical beneficiation processes now under development. EI proposed development of a stabilized wetcake with properties that would facilitate storage, handling, transport, and subsequent conversion of the material into Coal-Water Fuel (CWF) at the point of use. The effort was performed in three phases. Phase I established the technical feasibility of stabilizing the fine coal ``wetcake`` in a form that can be readily handled and converted into a desired fuel form at the combustion site. The preferred form of stabilized ``wetcake`` was a granular free flowing material with the moisture encapsulated with the fine coal particles. The product was termed Mulled Coal. Phase I results indicated that the Mulled Coal was not only suitable as a CWF intermediate, but also had potential as a solid fuel. Phase II demonstrated the utilization of the Mulled Coal process to store and move fine coal products as a stable ``wetcake.`` Tasks in this phase tested components of the various systems required for storage, handling and combustion of the fine coals. Phase III expanded the technology by: 1. Evaluating Mulled Coal from representative coals from all producing regions in the US. 2. Development of bench-scale tests. 3. Design, construction, and operation of a 1 ton/hr continuous processing unit. 4. Evaluation of the effects of beneficiation. and 5. Developing an estimate of capital and operating costs for commercial units.

Not Available

1993-08-01

367

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary design for the production of JP-8 jet fuel and other salable products from the Great Plains by-products is given. The design incorporates experimental results from Tasks 2 and 3 with the scoping design from Task 1. The experimental results demonstrated the need for more severe hydrotreating conditions to convert the tar oil to jet fuel than was estimated in Task 1. As a result, capital costs for the revised design are significantly higher and the plant is less profitable than estimated in the Task 1 work. The increase in capital costs is offset somewhat by a higher phenol value in the current market. Refined estimates for the cost of an aromatics recovery unit preclude its economical construction in the new estimate, consequently the revised product slate includes no BTX. Recommendations are given for a 10,000 barrel production run. No commercial domestic facility exists which can provide suitable expanded-bed hydrotreating facilities for a production run of this size. However, an alternative approach using hot filtration and dilute fixed-bed hydrocracking followed by product fractionation and extinctive hydrotreating of the heavy products is recommended. Commercial domestic facilities which might reasonably accommodate this scheme are listed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

Furlong, M.; Fox, J.; Masin, J. (Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.); Stahlnecker, E.; Schreiber, G.; Klein, R. (Lummus Crest, Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (USA))

1989-12-01

368

Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

Not Available

1994-05-01

369

Coal water slurry fuels: an overview  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions which we draw from our work to date, and to a certain extent from the industry's experience to date, are the following: (1) Occidental Research Corporation's (ORC) coal-water mixture (CWM) fuel exhibits good handling properties and is readily combustible; (2) a promising process for integrated beneficiation/CWM manufacture has been developed; (3) ORC's process concept can be implemented in a straightforward manner using existing technology; and (4) CWM economics appear quite attractive. 10 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

Pommier, L.; Frankiewicz, T.; Weissberger, W.

1983-03-01

370

Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

Not Available

1993-09-09

371

Analysis of fly ash produced from combustion of refuse-derived fuel and coal mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Ca, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br, Hf, Ni, Sc, V, and the rare earths. Smaller particles in the RDF fly ash had higher concentrations of As, Cd, Ga, K, Na, Sb, and the rare earths. RDF fly ash contains four distinct morphologies, exhibits a high specific surface area, and does not resemble fly ash derived from a conventional coal-fired power plant. The morphology of the ash helps explain the high solubility of many species in the RDF-rich fractions.

Taylor, D.R. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins); Tompkins, M.A.; Kirton, S.E.; Mauney, T.; Natusch, D.F.S.

1982-03-01

372

Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the use of a hybrid process, Micro-agglomerate flotation, which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 [mu]m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 [mu]m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated.Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

1993-04-01

373

Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

Brodzik, P.

2007-04-15

374

Coal to methanol to gasoline by the hydrocarb process  

SciTech Connect

The HYDROCARB Process converts coal or any other carbonaceous material to a clean carbon fuel and co-product gas or liquid fuel. By directing the co-product to liquid methanol, it becomes possible to produce methanol at costs as low as $0.13 to $0.14/gal as shown in Table 1 for a Western Lignite and Table 2 for an Eastern Bituminous coal. In the case of Western lignite, it is assumed that the carbon black fuel product can be sold at $3.00/MMBtu ($18/Bbl FOE) and for the Eastern coal at $2.50/MMBtu ($15/Bbl FOE). A methanol market is expected to develop due to the need for an automotive fuel with reduced pollutant emissions. However, should the methanol market not materialize as expected, then methanol can be readily converted to conventional gasoline by the addition of an MTG, methanol to gasoline process step. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-08-01

375

Dewatering Ultrafine Clean Coal in a T. H. Filter Press  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficiency filter press technology for dewatering minus 150 ľm column flotation clean coal products from two coal mines. Pilot-scale in-plant demonstration of this technology at these two locations provided stable, trouble-free operation while achieving an excellent dewatering performance at a high throughput. At one location, filter cakes with residual total moisture contents in the 20–22% range

A. Patwardhan; Y. P. Chugh; B. J. Arnold; A. N. Terblanche

2006-01-01

376

Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1989-01-01

377

Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Annual technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream....

B. K. Parekh

1991-01-01

378

Screening evaluation: synthetic liquid fuels manufacture. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various available and proposed gasification processes in combination with one methanol process in conceptual commercial size plant designs for production of clean liquid fuel from coal are compared. Additionally, a Fischer-Tropsch liquids plant design was included for direct comparison with a methanol case using one gasification process. The gasification processes screened in this study were entrained coal gasifiers representing commercial

T. K. Chow; D. W. Stanbridge

1977-01-01

379

Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

380

Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation?s urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

Huffman, Gerald

2012-12-31

381

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 6, July 1990--September 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-11-01

382

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, April-June 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives results of our current studies on refining of integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) process product to distillate fuels. The experimental program on ITSL Syncrude derived from Illinois No. 6 Coal is now complete. We studied the effect of ITSL syncrude end point on the severity necessary for hydrotreating to distillate products. Lummus provided Chevron with an additional barrel

1984-01-01

383

Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurements, Health Impacts, and Interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective Nearly all China’s rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. Data sources We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English-language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. Conclusions Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of “poisonous” coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China’s indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector.

Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Smith, Kirk R.

2007-01-01

384

Emission Control of SO2 by Dry Coal-Cleaning and Bio-Briquette Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, the large amount of sulfur dioxide and dust discharged from the combustion of low-grade raw coal causes severe air pollution and acid rain. Therefore, the need to control the emission of such pollutants is urgent. It is well known that wet coal-cleaning technology is used to prepare clean coal from low-grade raw coal containing large amounts of sulfur

K. Sakamoto; Y. Terauchi; O. Ishitani; M. Kamide; Q. Wang

2001-01-01

385

Comparison of particle size distributions and elemental partitioning from the combustion of pulverized coal and residual fuel oil.  

PubMed

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) research examining the characteristics of primary PM generated by the combustion of fossil fuels is being conducted in efforts to help determine mechanisms controlling associated adverse health effects. Transition metals are of particular interest, due to the results of studies that have shown cardiopulmonary damage associated with exposure to these elements and their presence in coal and residual fuel oils. Further, elemental speciation may influence this toxicity, as some species are significantly more water-soluble, and potentially more bio-available, than others. This paper presents results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particle size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction as well as electrical mobility, time-of-flight, and light-scattering techniques. Size-classified PM samples from this study are also being utilized by colleagues for animal instillation experiments. Experimental results on the mass and compositions of particles between 0.03 and > 20 microns in aerodynamic diameter show that PM from the combustion of these fuels produces distinctive bimodal and trimodal PSDs, with a fine mode dominated by vaporization, nucleation, and growth processes. Depending on the fuel and combustion equipment, the coarse mode is composed primarily of unburned carbon char and associated inherent trace elements (fuel oil) and fragments of inorganic (largely calcium-alumino-silicate) fly ash including trace elements (coal). The three coals also produced a central mode between 0.8- and 2.0-micron aerodynamic diameter. However, the origins of these particles are less clear because vapor-to-particle growth processes are unlikely to produce particles this large. Possible mechanisms include the liberation of micron-scale mineral inclusions during char fragmentation and burnout and indicates that refractory transition metals can contribute to PM < 2.5 microns without passing through a vapor phase. When burned most efficiently, the residual fuel oil produces a PSD composed almost exclusively of an ultrafine mode (approximately 0.1 micron). The transition metals associated with these emissions are composed of water-soluble metal sulfates. In contrast, the transition metals associated with coal combustion are not significantly enriched in PM < 2.5 microns and are significantly less soluble, likely because of their association with the mineral constituents. These results may have implications regarding health effects associated with exposure to these particles. PMID:11002612

Linak, W P; Miller, C A; Wendt, J O

2000-08-01

386

Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas-Derived Ultra-Clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells. Budget Period 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program has two primary focuses: (1) development of an advanced, low cost syngas technology based on ceramic oxygen transport membranes and (2) the evaluation of syngas derived ultra-clean fuels in Nuvera fuel cells; and the development of advanced c...

E. T. Robinson J. P. Meagher R. Prasad

2001-01-01

387

COMPUTER ECONOMICS OF PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING AND FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION. FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a computer model developed by TVA to simulate the performance and determine the economics of coal cleaning, or coal cleaning combined with flue gas desulfurization (FGD), for power plant emission control processes over a wide range of user-specified condition...

388

PULVERIZATION INDUCED CHARGE: IN-LINE DRY COAL CLEANING  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

JOHN M. STENCEL

1998-07-01

389

Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to boilers in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

1997-05-13

390

Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

John M. Stencel

1998-05-26

391

Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

John M. Stencel

1998-01-21

392

Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 3.2: Screen novel catalyst systems; Task 3.3:, Evaluation of the preferred catalyst system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the DOE-sponsored contract ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal-Derived Syngas`` experimental evaluations of the one-step synthesis of alternative fuels were carried out. The objective of this work was to develop novel processes for converting coal-derived syngas to fuels or fuel additives. Building on a technology base acquired during the development

1993-01-01

393

Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

2009-04-01

394

A global clean cooking fuel initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article calls for engaging the public and private sectors of developing and industrialized coun- tries in a global clean cooking fuel initiative (GCCFI) to bring about a worldwide shift to clea n fluid fuels for cooking and heating in 10-15 years' time -- with an emphasis on providing clean fuel to the poorest households. This initiative is crucial to

José Goldemberg; Thomas B. Johansson; Amulya K. N. Reddy; Robert H. Williams

2004-01-01

395

Synthetic fuels from peat by the IGT PEATGAS Process  

SciTech Connect

Peat gasification research at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) began in 1974 under the sponsorship of the Minnesota Gas company (Minnegasco). The preliminary evaluation conducted under that program showed encouraging results and led to an expanded program under the joint sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Minnegasco. The current program is also funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the Northern Natural Gas Company (NNGC). Since 1976 IGT has completed tests with peats from Minnesota, North Carolina, and Maine in laboratory-scale equipment and process development units (PDU's). Tests in the hydrogasification PDU (which represents a scale-up of 250 times the laboratory-scale equipment) confirm the laboratory results. Preparations are being made for pilot-plant scale gasification tests in a modified coal gasification pilot plant (HYGAS) in Chicago. Based on the experimental results obtained in the laboratory-scale tests, IGT conceived a two-stage gasifier (named PEATGAS) for converting peat to synthetic fuels. The PEATGAS Process can be used for making medium- or high-Btu gas as well as liquid fuels. A complete process design and cost estimates have been prepared for a plant producing 250 million cubic feet of SNG per day from Minnesota peat containing 50% moisture. These estimates show that the conversion of peat (containing 50% moisture) is competitive with other alternative methods of SNG production. This paper discusses the important and significant gasification characteristics of the peats evaluated. The paper also describes the use of the PEATGAS Process for production of medium-Btu gas, methanol, and gasoline.

Punwani, D.V.; Rader, A.M.; Kopstein, M.J.

1980-01-01

396

A study of the interfacial chemistry of pyrite and coal in fine coal cleaning using flotation  

SciTech Connect

Surface oxidation, surface charge, and flotation properties have been systematically studied for coal, coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. Electrochemical studies show that coal-pyrite exhibits much higher and more complex surface oxidation than ore-pyrite and its oxidation rate depends strongly on the carbon/coal content. Flotation studies indicate that pyrites have no self-induced floatability. Fuel oil significantly improves the floatability of coal and induces considerable flotation for coal-pyrite due to the hydrophobic interaction of fuel oil with the carbon/coal inclusions on the pyrite surface. Xanthate is a good collector for ore-pyrite but a poor collector for coal and coal-pyrite. The results from thermodynamic calculations, flotation and zeta potential measurements show that iron ions greatly affect the flotation of pyrite with xanthate and fuel oil. Various organic and inorganic chemicals have been examined for depressing coal-pyrite. It was found, for the first time, that sodium pyrophosphate is an effective depressant for coal-pyrite. Solution chemistry shows that pyrophosphate reacts with iron ions to form stable iron pyrophosphate complexes. Using pyrophosphate, the complete separation of pyrite from coal can be realized over a wide pH range at relatively low dosage.

Jiang, C.

1993-12-31

397

Analysis of fly ash produced from combustion of refuse-derived fuel and coal mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF\\/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Ca, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br, Hf, Ni, Sc, V, and the rare earths. Smaller particles in the

David R. Taylor; Michael A. Tompkins; Sarah E. Kirton; Thad Mauney; David F. S. Natusch; Philip K. Hopke

1982-01-01

398

Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

Hammond, John M.

2010-01-01

399

Inhalation health effects of fine particles from the co-combustion of coal and refuse derived fuel.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with health effects from the inhalation of particulate matter (PM) emitted from the combustion of coal, and from the co-combustion of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and pulverized coal mixtures, under both normal and low NO(x) conditions. Specific issues focus on whether the addition of RDF to coal has an effect on PM toxicity, and whether the application of staged combustion (for low NO(x)) may also be a factor in this regard. Ash particles were sampled and collected from a pilot scale combustion unit and then re-suspended and diluted to concentrations of approximately 1000 microg/m(3). These particles were inhaled by mice, which were held in a nose-only exposure configuration. Exposure tests were for 1 h per day, and involved three sets (eight mice per set) of mice. These three sets were exposed over 8, 16, and 24 consecutive days, respectively. Pathological lung damage was measured in terms of increases in lung permeability. Results show that the re-suspended coal/RDF ash appeared to cause very different effects on lung permeability than did coal ash alone. In addition, it was also shown that a "snapshot" of lung properties after a fixed number of daily 1-h exposures, can be misleading, since apparent repair mechanisms cause lung properties to change over a period of time. For the coal/RDF, the greatest lung damage (in terms of lung permeability increase) occurred at the short exposure period of 8 days, and thereafter appeared to be gradually repaired. Ash from staged (low NO(x)) combustion of coal/RDF appeared to cause greater lung injury than that from unstaged (high NO(x)) coal/RDF combustion, although the temporal behavior and (apparent) repair processes in each case were similar. In contrast to this, coal ash alone showed a slight decrease of lung permeability after 1 and 3 days, and this disappeared after 12 days. These observations are interpreted in the light of mechanisms proposed in the literature. The results all suggest that the composition of particles actually inhaled is important in determining lung injury. Particle size segregated leachability measurements showed that water soluble sulfur, zinc, and vanadium, but not iron, were present in the coal/RDF ash particles, which caused lung permeabilities to increase. However, the differences in health effects between unstaged and staged coal/RDF combustion could not be attributed to variations in pH values of the leachate. PMID:12718979

Fernandez, Art; Wendt, Jost O L; Wolski, Natacha; Hein, Klaus R G; Wang, Shengjun; Witten, Mark L

2003-06-01

400

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 17, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Completed modeling calculations of coal mineral matter transformations, deposition behavior, and heat transfer impacts of six test fuels; and ran pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, microagglomerate product, and mulled product.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1993-08-01

401

PAH emissions from combustion of coal liquids in industrial furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible environmental impact of substituting fuel oils derived from coal instead of petroleum was investigated using an industrial furnace. Emphasis was placed on the emissions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The nonpetroleum fuel oil (ECLP-SS) was produced from Texas lignite coal by the Exxon Donor Solvent Process at the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant. The effects of furnace loading

R. M. Schirmer; M. D. Gill; D. A. Nickeson

1983-01-01

402

Coal-to-Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This book chapter describes a chemical process that is the key for turning coal into liquid fuels. This process, known as the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, has the potential for producing hundreds of thousands of barrels per day of hydrocarbon liquids and other byproducts, including electricity. The FT process, which was invented in Germany in the 1920s, is used today in full-scale production plants in South Africa and is planned for use in plants in many other parts of the world, including the United States.

Parker, Graham B.

2006-01-18

403

Reducing the moisture content of clean coals  

SciTech Connect

Volume four contains the results of an Empire State Electric Energy Research corporation and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded investigation to evaluate the effects and economics of applying ultrasonic waves to commercial-scale dewatering and classifying of fine coal. Pre-treating minus 28 mesh Upper Freeport Seam coal using an ultrasonic tray device improved subsequent dewatering by a vacuum disc filter after thickening in a cyclone, but it did not improve dewatering by a screen-bowl centrifuge after cycloning. Dewatering of Pittsburgh Seam coal also improved when the coal was ultrasonically treated, but it only manifested during thickening in the cyclone. Cycloning also increased the removal of fine, high-ash content clay particles from Pittsburgh Seam coal. In contrast, ultrasonically-treating Upper Freeport Seam coal did not improve subsequent classifying by a rapped sieve bend. Based on a specific example of results in this test work for Upper Freeport Seam coal, using an ultrasonic tray to aid dewatering of finely-sized coal can be economically beneficial. For other coals and dewatering devices, however, the economics for using ultrasonic trays to enhance fine coal dewatering will differ.

Raleigh, C.E. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

1992-11-01

404

A new route to liquid fuels from coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mobil Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) process is discussed that efficiently converts crude methanol to high-quality gasoline by means of a new zeolite catalyst, ZSM-5. This conversion requires a gradual rearrangement of the carbon and hydrogen atoms and the addition of hydrogen to put together the desired molecules. The MTG process has been successfully demonstrated in a fixed-bed and a fluid-bed 4 barrels/day pilot unit operating under commercial conditions. A fixed-bed version that will produce 13,000 barrels of gasoline a day will be a key unit in a New Zealand complex, and a fluid-bed version will be tested in a 100 barrels per day German pilot plant. Modifications of the catalyst may enable it to construct basic chemical components such as light olefins, including ethylene, or BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylenes) as the major product. Process and catalyst modifications can yield as much as 70% light olefin products from methanol.

Meisel, S. L.

1981-03-01

405

Motor Fuels and Chemicals from Coal Via the Sasol Synthol Route  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of motor fuels and chemicals from coal is based on the Fischer-Tropsch reaction by passing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a specific ratio over iron catalysts at elevated temperatures and pressures. The fixed-bed system employs a precipitated iron catalyst. Predominantly heavy hydrocarbons of an aliphatic nature are produced with carbon chains up to 100. These straight-chain hydrocarbons yield

J. C. Hoogendoorn

1981-01-01

406

Flash hydropyrolysis of coal for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the short residence time flash hydropyrolysis/hydrogasification program is to obtain process chemistry and design information for production of both liquid and gaseous fuels from coal. In particular, the aim is to identify the products and to correlate the product yields as a function of pressure, temperature, and coal residence time in the flash hydropyrolyzer, and then to combine this information with the kinetic data to develop a reaction model. A parametric study of the flash hydropyrolysis has been made with different coal types. Appropriate reactor conditions for maximizing either liquid or gaseous products have been determined. The components in the heavier liquids have been identified, and nitrogen and sulfur balances were made on the coal, the char products, and both the liquid and the gaseous effluents. From a detailed analysis of data, a reaction scheme for the flash hydropyrolysis of coal was proposed, for which reaction rate constants were determined and a kinetic model was developed. All this information was applied to a conceptual full scale process design, and comparative economic estimates were made. The results indicate that the coals tested can be successfully converted to produce clean gaseous and liquid fuels via flash hydropyrolysis. Two features of this process - its being noncatalytic and its using direct hydrogenation in one step to liquid distillates - tend to improve the efficiency and reduce capital and operating costs. An important aspect of the process is its flexibility: it can be made to produce either gaseous or liquid fuels, or both, by adjusting the reactor and process design conditions.

Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1982-05-01

407

Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

1995-12-31

408

Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other mineral particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

1995-12-05

409

Methodology for comparing the health effects of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels  

SciTech Connect

A methodology was developed for comparing the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels. The health effects attributable to the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each facility in the two fuel cycle were considered. The methodology is based on defining (1) requirement variables for the materials, energy, etc., (2) effluent variables associated with the requirement variables as well as with the fuel cycle facility operation, and (3) health impact variables for effluents and accidents. The materials, energy, etc., required for construction, operation, and decommissioning of each fuel cycle facility are defined as primary variables. The materials, energy, etc., needed to produce the primary variable are defined as secondary requirement variables. Each requirement variable (primary, secondary, etc.) has associated effluent variables and health impact variables. A diverging chain or tree is formed for each primary variable. Fortunately, most elements reoccur frequently to reduce the level of analysis complexity. 6 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

Rhyne, W.R.; El-Bassioni, A.A.

1981-12-08

410

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31

411

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31

412

Formulation and evaluation of highway transportation fuels from shale and coal oils: project identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Second annual report, March 20, 1980-March 19, 1981. [Broadcut fuel mixtures of petroleum, shale, and coal products  

SciTech Connect

Project work is reported for the formulation and testing of diesel and broadcut fuels containing components from petroleum, shale oil, and coal liquids. Formulation of most of the fuels was based on refinery modeling studies in the first year of the project. Product blends were prepared with a variety of compositions for use in this project and to distribute to other, similar research programs. Engine testing was conducted in a single-cylinder CLR engine over a range of loads and speeds. Relative performance and emissions were determined in comparison with typical petroleum diesel fuel. With the eight diesel fuels tested, it was found that well refined shale oil products show only minor differences in engine performance and emissions which are related to differences in boiling range. A less refined coal distillate can be used at low concentrations with normal engine performance and increased emissions of particulates and hydrocarbons. Higher concentrations of coal distillate degrade both performance and emissions. Broadcut fuels were tested in the same engine with variable results. All fuels showed increased fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions. The increase was greater with higher naphtha content or lower cetane number of the blends. Particulates and nitrogen oxides were high for blends with high 90% distillation temperatures. Operation may have been improved by modifying fuel injection. Cetane and distillation specifications may be advisable for future blends. Additional multi-cylinder and durability testing is planned using diesel fuels and broadcut fuels. Nine gasolines are scheduled for testing in the next phase of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1981-12-01

413

Survey and Evaluation of Current and Potential Coal Beneficiation Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is pre...

S. P. N. Singh G. R. Peterson

1979-01-01

414

RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the extraction products indicated that they had the requisite properties of viable carbon-product precursors.

Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

2002-03-31

415

EPA PROGRAM CONFERENCE REPORT: COAL CLEANING - AN OPTION FOR INCREASED COAL UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Contents: The importance of coal in meeting national energy needs; Economics and technology of coal utilization; Regional and institutional perspectives; Environmental perspectives; Opening remarks, second day; Coal cleaning applications for SO2 emission control; Engineering/econ...

416

Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

SciTech Connect

This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc.,(ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the period of October through December 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks 1-5.

Gallier, P.W.

1993-01-20

417

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

Wenglarz, R.A.

1994-08-01

418

Cleaning of Indian coals by agglomeration with xylene and hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory scale agglomeration process has been undertaken for cleaning Indian coals using oils namely, xylene and hexane. Maximum organic matter recovery for xylene has been found to be 91.9% whereas with hexane, the value is 54.7% on a dry basis. The highest ash rejection values with xylene (90.7%) and with hexane (89.7%) are almost same. Promising results for rejection

Mrinal K Baruah; Probhat Kotoky; Jyotish Baruah; Gobin C Bora

2000-01-01

419

Investigation of diesel engine fuel injector response to coal slurry fuels. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the research evaluation of various fuel injection systems and equipment operating with coal slurry fuels for use in open chamber direct injection medium-speed diesel engines. Research centered on the pumpability aspect of coal slurry fuels and the compatibility of coal slurry fuels with commercially available fuel injection systems. Initial testing documented many problems in close-clearance areas from

Phatak

1983-01-01

420

ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests at seven coal preparation plants to evaluate the performance of froth flotation cells and dense-medium cyclones in removing ash and sulfur (S) from fine coal (Minus 28 mesh). Flotation circuits tested at four plants showed substantial reductions ...

421

Feasibility of producing a low-Btu gas from coal/briquetted coal fines  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide an essentially non-interruptible, plant-controlled, alternate fuel supply for the Noranda Aluminum, Inc. New Madrid, Missouri aluminum reduction plant, a study was commissioned by the DOE to develop a conceptual plant design to utilize coal/coal briquettes to produce Low Btu fuel gas (herein referred to as LBG). LBG equal to 1330 MM Btu per day (equivalent to 1330 M SCF per day Natural Gas) was projected to be produced from 84 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal (or 45% coal blended with 55% coal briquettes bonded with coal tar pitch binder) in one Wellman-Galusha gasifier unit. The LBG produced by this integrated processing plant is cooled, cleaned, and desulfurized to meet EPA requirements, dehydrated after compression, and odorized before transmission through a 6000 foot long pipeline to the aluminum reduction plant. Gas costs developed for a one gasifier installation show that without briquetting the net production cost for LBG is $5.07 per million Btu, while the cost with briquetting (including the coal tar pitch binder) increases the net production cost to $6.00 per million Btu. However, to obtain a 15% discounted cash flow the selling price would have to be set at $6.51/MM Btu and $7.78/MM Btu, respectively, with all values based on coal at $29.50/ton and full by-product credits. These unit costs include charges for the 6000 foot long pipeline, and compression costs to deliver the product gas to the aluminum plant's users. The financial attractiveness of this venture must be predicated on the anticipated increases in the cost of natural gas, propane and fuel oil.

Not Available

1981-09-01

422

Proof of concept for integrating oxy-fuel combustion and the removal of all pollutants from a coal fired flame  

SciTech Connect

The USDOE/Albany Research Center and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, working together under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, have demonstrated proof-of-concept for the integration of Jupiter’s oxy-fuel combustion and an integrated system for the removal of all stack pollutants, including CO2, from a coal-fired flame. The components were developed using existing process technology with the addition of a new oxy-coal combustion nozzle. The results of the test showed that the system can capture SOx, NOx, particulates, and even mercury as a part of the process of producing liquefied CO2 for sequestration. This is part of an ongoing research project to explore alternative methods for CO2 capture that will be applicable to both retrofit and new plant construction.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Alex (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William (CoalTeck LLC); Schoenfield, Mark (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Turner, Paul C.

2005-01-01

423

Synthesis and analysis of jet fuels from shale oil and coal syncrudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical problems involved in converting a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or coal syncrude into a suitable aviation turbine fuel were studied. TOSCO shale oil, H-Coal and COED coal syncrudes were the starting materials. They were processed by distillation and hydrocracking to produce two levels of yield (20 and 40 weight percent) of material having a distillation range of approximately 422 to 561 K (300 F to 550 F). The full distillation range 311 to 616 K (100 F to 650 F) materials were hydrotreated to meet two sets of specifications (20 and 40 volume percent aromatics, 13.5 and 12.75 weight percent H, 0.2 and 0.5 weight percent S, and 0.1 and 0.2 weight percent N). The hydrotreated materials were distilled to meet given end point and volatility requirements. The syntheses were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant equipment scaled to produce thirty-two 0.0757 cu m (2-gal)samples of jet fuel of varying defined specifications. Detailed analyses for physical and chemical properties were made on the crude starting materials and on the products.

Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

1976-01-01

424

Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaing for Premium Fuel Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and ...

Frank J. Smit Gene L. Schields Mehesh C. Jha Nick Moro

1997-01-01

425

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this program in its third year, as briefly summarized below. (1) Nanoscale iron-based catalysts containing molybdenum, palladium, or nickel and supported on alumina have been developed that are very effective for the dehydrogenation of methane and ethane to produce pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. Some of the nanotube structures are being investigated as a safe storage medium for hydrogen. Dehydrogenation of higher hydrocarbons, including several liquids that are compatible with vehicular transportation under fuel cell power, is currently under investigation. (2) Operation of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis under supercritical fluid (SCF) solvent conditions increases liquid fuel yields and improves the selectivity of the process to produce desired products. (3) Small additions ({approx}1%) of organic probe molecules with carbon-carbon triple bonds to the FT reaction markedly shift the molecular weight distribution and increase the oxygenate content of the products. The goal is to develop better technology for producing cleaner burning diesel fuel and other fuels. (4) Several different types of catalyst are under investigation to develop better control of FT fuel product distributions. (5) C1 processes have been developed for producing ethylene and propylene, two high-value products, from methanol. Novel silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) catalysts containing nickel and other metals are used. (6) Binary tungsten-cobalt carbide catalysts have been found to have excellent activities and lifetimes for reforming of methane into synthesis gas using carbon dioxide. This type of catalyst is being further investigated for synthesis gas reactions relevant to the goal of producing hydrogen from coal.

Gerald P. Huffman

2002-09-30

426

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams. Results of Inspection Tests on Nine Coal-Derived Distillation Cuts in the Jet Fuel Boiling Range  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the assessment of the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuel (180-300 C) distillation fraction of nine direct coal liquefaction products and compares those properties to the corresponding specifications for aviation turbine fuels. These crude coal liquids were compared with finished fuel specifications specifically to learn what the refining requirements for these crudes will be to make them into finished fuels. The properties of the jet fuel fractions were shown in this work to require extensive hydrotreating to meet Jet A-1 specifications. However, these materials have a number of desirable qualities as feedstocks for the production of high energy-density jet fuels.

S. D. Brandes; R. A. Winschel

1999-12-30

427

A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mix