Science.gov

Sample records for cleaning packaged semiconductor

  1. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  2. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  3. Atomic hydrogen cleaning of semiconductor photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, C.K.; Poelker, B.M.; Price, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) semiconductor photocathodes are widely used for the production of polarized electron beams, and are also useful for the production of high brightness electron beams which can be modulated at very high frequencies. Preparation of an atomically clean semiconductor surface is an essential step in the fabrication of a NEA photocathode. This cleaning step is difficult for certain semiconductors, such as the very thin materials which produce the highest beam polarization, and those which have tightly bound oxides and carbides. Using a small RF dissociation atomic hydrogen source, the authors have reproducibly cleaned GaAs wafers which have been only degreased prior to installation in vacuum. They have consistently prepared very high quantum efficiency photocathodes following atomic hydrogen cleaning. Details of their apparatus and most recent results are presented.

  4. High-Performance Power-Semiconductor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, David; Hansen, Irving; Berman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    A 600-V, 50-A transistor and 1,200-V, 50-A diode in rugged, compact, lightweight packages intended for use in inverter-type power supplies having switching frequencies up to 20 kHz. Packages provide low-inductance connections, low loss, electrical isolation, and long-life hermetic seal. Low inductance achieved by making all electrical connections to each package on same plane. Also reduces high-frequency losses by reducing coupling into inherent shorted turns in packaging material around conductor axes. Stranded internal power conductors aid conduction at high frequencies, where skin effect predominates. Design of packages solves historical problem of separation of electrical interface from thermal interface of high-power semiconductor device.

  5. Reliability of Semiconductor Laser Packaging in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gontijo, Ivair; Qiu, Yueming; Shapiro, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    A typical set up used to perform lifetime tests of packaged, fiber pigtailed semiconductor lasers is described, as well as tests performed on a set of four pump lasers. It was found that two lasers failed after 3200, and 6100 hours under device specified bias conditions at elevated temperatures. Failure analysis of the lasers indicates imperfections and carbon contamination of the laser metallization, possibly from improperly cleaned photo resist. SEM imaging of the front facet of one of the lasers, although of poor quality due to the optical fiber charging effects, shows evidence of catastrophic damage at the facet. More stringent manufacturing controls with 100% visual inspection of laser chips are needed to prevent imperfect lasers from proceeding to packaging and ending up in space applications, where failure can result in the loss of a space flight mission.

  6. Thermal Management of Power Semiconductor Packages - Matching Cooling Technologies with Packaging Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.; Moreno, G.

    2010-04-27

    Heat removal for power semiconductor devices is critical for robust operation. Because there are different packaging options, different thermal management technologies, and a range of applications, there is a need for a methodology to match cooling technologies and package configurations to target applications. To meet this need, a methodology was developed to compare the sensitivity of cooling technologies on the overall package thermal performance over a range of power semiconductor packaging configurations. The results provide insight into the trade-offs associated with cooling technologies and package configurations. The approach provides a method for comparing new developments in power semiconductor packages and identifying potential thermal control technologies for the package. The results can help users select the appropriate combination of packaging configuration and cooling technology for the desired application.

  7. NICE3 SO3 Cleaning Process in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This fact sheet explains how Anon, Inc., has developed a novel method of removing photoresist--a light-sensitive material used to produce semiconductor wafers for computers--from the computer manufacturing process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. The new technology is technically superior to existing semiconductor cleaning methods and results in reduced use of hazardous chemicals.

  8. 78 FR 53479 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging AGENCY: U.S. International... States after importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof...

  9. Glass, Plastic and Semiconductors: Packaging Techniques for Miniature Optoelectric Components

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Garrett, H.E.; Patel, R.R.; Jones II, L.M.; Larson, M.C.; Emanuel, M.A.; Bond, S.W.; Deri, R.J.; Drayton, R.F.; Peterson, H.E.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-12-20

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, they have extensive experience with the design and development of miniature photonic systems which require novel packaging schemes. Over the years they have developed silicon micro-optical benches to serve as a stable platform for precision mounting of optical and electronic components. They have developed glass ball lenses that can be fabricated in-situ on the microbench substrate. They have modified commercially available molded plastic fiber ribbon connectors (MT) and added thin film multilayer semiconductor coatings to create potentially low-cost wavelength combiners and wavelength selective filters. They have fabricated both vertical-cavity and in-plane semiconductor lasers and amplifiers, and have packaged these and other components into several miniature photonics systems. For example, they have combined the silicon optical bench with standard electronic packaging techniques and the custom-made wavelength-selective filters to develop a four-wavelength wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitter module mounted in a standard 120-pin ceramic PGA package that couples light from several vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser arrays into one multimode fiber-ribbon array. The coupling loss can be as low as 2dB, and the transmitters can be operated at over 1.25 GHz. While these systems were not designed for biomedical or environmental applications, the concepts and techniques are general and widely applicable.

  10. Impact of Reaction Shrinkage on Stress in Semiconductor Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, Manfred; Mahler, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    The reliability of a semiconductor package is strongly influenced by the adhesion and temperature behavior of the package encapsulant. This study considers the effect of mold shrinkage during the encapsulation molding process. Four commercially available molds were investigated using warpage and thermomechanical analysis. It could be demonstrated that, for all four types, when molded on a silicon substrate, the temperature at which no stress occurred was in a range of 28-60°C above the molding temperature. This is caused by the shrinkage due to a crosslinking reaction of the mold polymer during the molding process. For a more precise understanding and simulation of the stress behavior inside a molded package, the effect of reaction shrinkage has to be considered.

  11. 78 FR 46367 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Notice of Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Notice of Receipt of... Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging, DN 2969; the Commission is soliciting... importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and related packaging. The complaint names...

  12. 78 FR 54274 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Institution of... United States after importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof... household cleaning products and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of one or more of the '292;...

  13. 78 FR 77714 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging Commission Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... The Clorox Company of Oakland, California (``Clorox''). 78 FR 53479 (Aug. 29, 2013). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging Commission Determination Not... importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof by reason of...

  14. Magnetostrictive wire-bonding clamp for semiconductor packaging: initial prototype design, modeling, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozor, David M.

    1998-06-01

    A magnetostrictive wire-bonding clamp for use in semiconductor packaging applications has been developed by Mechatronic Technology Co. Semiconductor industry trends, requiring high process throughput on increasing lead count packaging, make the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D a candidate for this application. To construct this small, lightweight device, small samples of Terfenol-D were prepared by ETREMA Products, Inc. This paper reports the initial design, mathematical modeling, and experiments related to this initial prototype.

  15. Automated visual inspection stations for next-generation semiconductor package quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYong, Mark R.; Eskridge, Thomas C.; Grace, John W.; Newberry, Jeff E.; Jones, J. H.; Hart, B. E.

    1996-09-01

    In the last several years, the semiconductor industry has come to the realization that the package into which a die is placed is at least as critical to the performance of the complete electronic system as the die itself. This realization has led to an explosive effort across the entire industry to advance the state-of-the-art in semiconductor packaging. To date, this effort has already produced semiconductor packaging options on the scale of the die (i.e., chip scale packaging -- CSP). While CSPs and other advanced packaging techniques provide improved electronic system performance, they also increase the quality control burden (despite the highly automated processes used to manufacture the packages, quality control remains, for the most part, a manual operation). This paper addresses the necessary requirements of automated visual inspection (AVI) for quality control of current and future semiconductor packaging. The necessary requirements of the station are subdivided into two categories: those pertaining to the hardware platform, and those pertaining to the software reasoning engine. Hardware requirements are discussed in terms of finding the best match between commercial, off-the- shelf, hardware components and a given inspection application. Components reviewed include: imagers, optics, illumination systems, auto-focus/alignment systems, material handlers, parallel image preprocessors, and host computers. Applications reviewed include: pin grid array (PGA), ball grid array (BGA), and flip-chip package inspection. Also discussed in the hardware section are options that may be used when commercial components are not adequate. Software requirements are discussed in terms of the functionality required to provide accurate, real-time characterization of package quality, to gain operator acceptance, and to produce meaningful statistics for use in process control.

  16. REVIEW OF CLEANING SOLUTIONS FOR USE ON COMPONENTS OF THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30

    Several candidate cleaning products have been reviewed for use as a disinfectant on 9975 shipping package components which contain or have contacted mold. Following review of the compatibility of these products with each component, ammonia (ammonium hydroxide diluted to 1.5 wt% concentration) appears compatible with all package components that it might contact. Each of the other candidate products is incompatible with one or more package components. Accordingly, ammonia is recommended for this purpose. It is further recommended that all components which are disinfected be subsequently rinsed with di-ionized or distilled water.

  17. Metallization and packaging of compound semiconductor devices at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Seigal, P.K.; Armendariz, M.G.; Rieger, D.J.; Lear, K.L.; Sullivan, C.T.

    1996-11-01

    Recent advances in compound semiconductor technology utilize a variety of metal thin films fabricated by thermal and electron-beam evaporation, and electroplating. An overview of metal processes used by Sandia`s Compound Semiconductor Research Laboratory is presented. Descriptions of electrical n-type and p-type ohmic contact alloys, interconnect metal, and metal layers specifically included for packaging requirements are addressed. Several illustrations of devices incorporating gold plated air bridges are included. ``Back-end`` processes such as flip-chip under bump metallurgy with fluxless solder reflow and plated solder processes are mentioned as current research areas.

  18. Aluminum-Scandium: A Material for Semiconductor Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Ute; Thomas, Sven; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-06-01

    A well-known aluminum-scandium (Al-Sc) alloy, already used in lightweight sports equipment, is about to be established for use in electronic packaging. One application for Al-Sc alloy is manufacture of bonding wires. The special feature of the alloy is its ability to harden by precipitation. The new bonding wires with electrical conductivity similar to pure Al wires can be processed on common wire bonders for aluminum wedge/wedge (w/w) bonding. The wires exhibit very fine-grained microstructure. Small Al3Sc particles are the main reason for its high strength and prevent recrystallization and grain growth at higher temperatures (>150°C). After the wire-bonding process, the interface is well closed. Reliability investigations by active power cycling demonstrated considerably improved lifetime compared with pure Al heavy wires. Furthermore, the Al-Sc alloy was sputter-deposited onto silicon wafer to test it as chip metallization in copper (Cu) ball/wedge bonding technology. After deposition, the layers exhibited fine-grained columnar structure and small coherent Al3Sc particles with dimensions of a few nanometers. These particles inhibit softening processes such as Al splashing in fine wire bonding processes and increase the thickness of remnant Al under the copper balls to 85% of the initial thickness.

  19. More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

  20. Bonding and reactivity of clean and chemically-modified semiconductor surfaces probed with STM

    SciTech Connect

    Hamers, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to directly study the interrelationships between chemical composition, chemical reactivity, electronic structure, and surface morphology at the atomic level on clean and chemically-modified semiconductor surfaces. Our work has focused recently on understanding the atomic-level interactions of dopants such as phosphorus and boron on the Si(001) surface, and the influence of these atoms on other chemical reactions such as the thermal decomposition of disilane to grow epitaxial silicon. Using STM to study how these atoms modify the surface in combination with tunneling spectroscopy to reveal the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals of these structures provides direct insight into the nature of chemical bonding on these surfaces. This talk will discuss the application of STM to understand chemical bonding at silicon surfaces.

  1. Modeling and analysis of equipment managers in manufacturing execution systems for semiconductor packaging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, F T; Yang, H C; Luo, T L; Feng, C; Jeng, M

    2000-01-01

    Equipment Managers (EMs) play a major role in a Manufacturing Execution System (MES). They serve as the communication bridge between the components of an MES and the equipment. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel methodology for developing analytical and simulation models for the EM such that the validity and performance of the EM can be evaluated. Domain knowledge and requirements are collected from a real semiconductor packaging factory. By using IDEFO and state diagrams, a static functional model and a dynamic state model of the EM are built. Next, these two models are translated into a Petri net model. This allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. The EM net model is then expanded into the MES net model. Therefore, the performance of an EM in the MES environment can be evaluated. These evaluation results are good references for design and decision making. PMID:18252408

  2. 75 FR 447 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips With Minimized Chip Package Size and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ..., 2007. 73 FR 2276 (Jan. 14, 2008). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of... it determined to review, and on remedy, the public interest and bonding. 74 FR 57192 (Nov. 4, 2009... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips With Minimized Chip Package Size and...

  3. Packaging Glass with a Hierarchically Nanostructured Surface: A Universal Method to Achieve Self-Cleaning Omnidirectional Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-An; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Lai, Kun-Yu; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-26

    Fused-silica packaging glass fabricated with a hierarchical structure by integrating small (ultrathin nanorods) and large (honeycomb nanowalls) structures was demonstrated with exceptional light-harvesting solar performance, which is attributed to the subwavelength feature of the nanorods and an efficient scattering ability of the honeycomb nanowalls. Si solar cells covered with the hierarchically structured packaging glass exhibit enhanced conversion efficiency by 5.2% at normal incidence, and the enhancement went up to 46% at the incident angle of 60°. The hierarchical structured packaging glass shows excellent self-cleaning characteristics: 98.8% of the efficiency is maintained after 6 weeks of outdoor exposure, indicating that the nanostructured surface effectively repels polluting dust/particles. The presented self-cleaning omnidirectional light-harvesting design using the hierarchical structured packaging glass is a potential universal scheme for practical solar applications. PMID:26623934

  4. PRECISION CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES USING CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    J. RUBIN; L. SIVILS; A. BUSNAINA

    1999-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, on behalf of the Hewlett-Packard Company, is conducting tests of a closed-loop CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid process, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover (SCORR). We have shown that this treatment process is effective in removing hard-baked, ion-implanted photoresists, and appears to be fully compatible with metallization systems. We are now performing experiments on production wafers to assess not only photoresist removal, but also residual surface contamination due to particulate and trace metals. Dense-phase (liquid or supercritical) CO{sub 2}, since it is non-polar, acts like an organic solvent and therefore has an inherently high volubility for organic compounds such as oils and greases. Also, dense CO{sub 2} has a low-viscosity and a low dielectric constant. Finally, CO{sub 2} in the liquid and supercritical fluid states can solubilize metal completing agents and surfactants. This combination of properties has interesting implications for the removal not only of organic films, but also trace metals and inorganic particulate. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using CO{sub 2} as a precision-cleaning solvent, with particular emphasis on semiconductor surfaces.

  5. Compact, High Power, Multi-Spectral Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin; Hwang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Chich-Hsiang

    2001-10-01

    Through a vertically integrated effort involving atomic level material engineering, advanced device processing development, state-of-the-art optomechanical packaging, and thermal management, Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. (AOI), University of Houston (U H), and Physical Science, Inc. (PSI) have made progress in both Sb-based type-II semiconductor material and in P-based type-I laser device development. We have achieved record performance on inP based quantum cascade continuous wave (CW) laser (with more than 5 mW CW power at 210 K). Grating-coupled external-cavity quantum cascade lasers were studied for temperatures from 20 to 230 K. A tuning range of 88 nm has been obtained at 80 K. The technology can be made commercially available and represents a significant milestone with regard to the Dual Use Science and Technology (DUST) intention of fostering dual use commercial technology for defense need. AOI is the first commercial company to ship products of this licensed technology.

  6. Synthesis of a nano-silver metal ink for use in thick conductive film fabrication applied on a semiconductor package.

    PubMed

    Yung, Lai Chin; Fei, Cheong Choke; Mandeep, Js; Binti Abdullah, Huda; Wee, Lai Khin

    2014-01-01

    The success of printing technology in the electronics industry primarily depends on the availability of metal printing ink. Various types of commercially available metal ink are widely used in different industries such as the solar cell, radio frequency identification (RFID) and light emitting diode (LED) industries, with limited usage in semiconductor packaging. The use of printed ink in semiconductor IC packaging is limited by several factors such as poor electrical performance and mechanical strength. Poor adhesion of the printed metal track to the epoxy molding compound is another critical factor that has caused a decline in interest in the application of printing technology to the semiconductor industry. In this study, two different groups of adhesion promoters, based on metal and polymer groups, were used to promote adhesion between the printed ink and the epoxy molding substrate. The experimental data show that silver ink with a metal oxide adhesion promoter adheres better than silver ink with a polymer adhesion promoter. This result can be explained by the hydroxyl bonding between the metal oxide promoter and the silane grouping agent on the epoxy substrate, which contributes a greater adhesion strength compared to the polymer adhesion promoter. Hypotheses of the physical and chemical functions of both adhesion promoters are described in detail. PMID:24830317

  7. Synthesis of a Nano-Silver Metal Ink for Use in Thick Conductive Film Fabrication Applied on a Semiconductor Package

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Lai Chin; Fei, Cheong Choke; Mandeep, JS; Binti Abdullah, Huda; Wee, Lai Khin

    2014-01-01

    The success of printing technology in the electronics industry primarily depends on the availability of metal printing ink. Various types of commercially available metal ink are widely used in different industries such as the solar cell, radio frequency identification (RFID) and light emitting diode (LED) industries, with limited usage in semiconductor packaging. The use of printed ink in semiconductor IC packaging is limited by several factors such as poor electrical performance and mechanical strength. Poor adhesion of the printed metal track to the epoxy molding compound is another critical factor that has caused a decline in interest in the application of printing technology to the semiconductor industry. In this study, two different groups of adhesion promoters, based on metal and polymer groups, were used to promote adhesion between the printed ink and the epoxy molding substrate. The experimental data show that silver ink with a metal oxide adhesion promoter adheres better than silver ink with a polymer adhesion promoter. This result can be explained by the hydroxyl bonding between the metal oxide promoter and the silane grouping agent on the epoxy substrate, which contributes a greater adhesion strength compared to the polymer adhesion promoter. Hypotheses of the physical and chemical functions of both adhesion promoters are described in detail. PMID:24830317

  8. MEMS as low-cost high-volume semiconductor solutions: it's all in the packaging and assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joe; Lutz, Markus; Partridge, Aaron; Gupta, Pavan; Radza, Eric

    2008-02-01

    Micro-electromechanical (MEMS) oscillators are now in production and shipping in quantity. Early development of micro mechanical devices provided the understanding that metal beams could be fabricated and they would resonate as a time reference. The issues of performance and price have prevented silicon entry into the quartz dominated market until recent developments in semiconductor processing and assembly. Today MEMS oscillators are the world's smallest programmable precision oscillators and are displacing quartz technology in the +/- 50 ppm accuracy spec. New oscillators extend the technology with spread spectrum, voltage control, and improved jitter performance. New ultra-thin packaging, made possible by the small encapsulated MEMS resonators, provides the word's thinnest precision oscillators.

  9. [Study on packaging-induced stress in 4 mm cavity length high-power single emitter semiconductor laser].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yang, Rui-xia; An, Zhen-feng; Xu, Hui-wu

    2014-06-01

    To reduce packaging-induced stress of long cavity length high-power single emitter semiconductor laser, the relationship between the stress and the wavelength shift was deduced on the basis of the theory that the stress can change the band gap. A method was developed for quantitatively calculating the stress by measuring the emission spectrum of the laser under pulse conditions. The results show that the soldering quality is a critical factor affecting thermal stress. The difference in stress can exceed 300 MPa due to the difference in soldering quality. By optimizing the reflowing soldering curve of the laser, the stress of the laser drops from 129.7 to 53.4 MPa. This method can also effectively solve the problem that the stress varies with storage time. This work demonstrates that the measurement and analysis of the emission spectrum of the laser can provide a useful method to study packaging stress of the high-power single emitter semiconductor laser. It is also an available means to evaluate and analyze soldering quality. PMID:25358141

  10. Packaging-induced failure of semiconductor lasers and optical telecommunications components

    SciTech Connect

    Sharps, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Telecommunications equipment for field deployment generally have specified lifetimes of > 100,000 hr. To achieve this high reliability, it is common practice to package sensitive components in hermetic, inert gas environments. The intent is to protect components from particulate and organic contamination, oxidation, and moisture. However, for high power density 980 nm diode lasers used in optical amplifiers, the authors found that hermetic, inert gas packaging induced a failure mode not observed in similar, unpackaged lasers. They refer to this failure mode as packaging-induced failure, or PIF. PIF is caused by nanomole amounts of organic contamination which interact with high intensity 980 nm light to form solid deposits over the emitting regions of the lasers. These deposits absorb 980 nm light, causing heating of the laser, narrowing of the band gap, and eventual thermal runaway. The authors have found PIF is averted by packaging with free O{sub 2} and/or a getter material that sequesters organics.

  11. Effects of Low-k Stack Structure on Performance of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices and Chip Package Interaction Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagami, Masayoshi; Inoue, Naoya; Ueki, Makoto; Narihiro, Mitsuru; Tada, Munehiro; Yamamoto, Hironori; Ito, Fuminori; Furutake, Naoya; Saito, Shinobu; Onodera, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Tsuneo; Hayashi, Yoshihiro

    2012-09-01

    Low capacitance and highly reliable Cu dual-damascene (DD) interconnects have been developed with self-organized “seamless low-k SiOCH stacks” (SEALS) structure. A carbon-rich sub-nano porous SiOCH (k=2.5) was directly stacked on an oxygen-rich porous SiOCH (k=2.7) in the SEALS structure, without a hard-mask (HM) and etch-stop (ES) layer of SiO2. The effective k-value (keff) of the Cu DD interconnect including the SiCN capping layer (k=4.9) was reduced to 2.9 compared to 3.4 on a conventional hybrid structure with SiO2-HM and ES, which had been used in 65-nm-node mass production. The interconnect delay of a 45-nm-node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) ring oscillator (RO) was reduced by 15% referring to that of the conventional hybrid structure. Interconnect reliabilities, such as the interline time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and thermal cycles, were unchanged from those of the conventional hybrid interconnects. No failure was detected for chip package interaction (CPI) during reliability tests in a plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package. SEALS is a promising structure for scaled down ultra large scale integrations (ULSIs) for highly reliable and high speed operation, and low power consumption.

  12. Stress-induced Effects Caused by 3D IC TSV Packaging in Advanced Semiconductor Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sukharev, V.; Kteyan, A.; Choy, J.-H.; Hovsepyan, H.; Markosian, A.; Zschech, E.; Huebner, R.

    2011-11-10

    Potential challenges with managing mechanical stress and the consequent effects on device performance for advanced 3D through-silicon-via (TSV) based technologies are outlined. The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze a design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-die out-of-spec variations in device electrical characteristics caused by the layout and through-silicon-via (TSV)/package-induced mechanical stress. The limited characterization/measurement capabilities for 3D IC stacks and a strict ''good die'' requirement make this type of analysis critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation to assess the mechanical stress across the device layers in silicon chips stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology is proposed. A calibration technique based on fitting to measured stress components and electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices is presented. A strategy for generation of a simulation feeding data and respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to generate a database for multi-scale material parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. For model validation, high-resolution strain measurements in Si channels of the test-chip devices are needed. At the nanoscale, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the only technique available for sub-10 nm strain measurements so far.

  13. Assuring ultra-clean environments in microsystem packages : irreversible and reversible getters.

    SciTech Connect

    Zifer, Thomas; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr.; Hollenshead, Jeromy Todd; Buffleben, George M.; McElhanon, James Ross; Nilson, Robert H.

    2003-11-01

    A new generation of irreversible, chemically reacting getters specifically targeted toward assuring the integrity of the local environment within microsystem packages were developed and evaluated. These reactive getters incorporate volatile species into a polymer through covalent bonds, thus producing a non-volatile product. These reactive getters will be combined with getters that rely on absorption media (e.g. zeolites and high surface area carbon fibers) to scavenge non-reactive species, like solvents. Our getter systems will rely on device packaging to limit exchange between the microsystem and the global environment. Thus, the internal getters need only provide local environmental control within the microsystem package. A series of experiments were conducted to determine uptake rates and capacities absorption and reactive-based getters. Diffusion rates through the binder used to hold the getter particles together were also investigated. Getters were evaluated in environments with a saturated headspace and with a limited amount of the volatile species of interest. One- and two-dimensional numerical models and analysis techniques have been developed and used to predict the transport of contaminant species within a representative microsystem package consisting of an open gas-filled volume adjacent to a polymer layer containing embedded particles of getter. The two-dimensional model features explicit representation of the individual getter particles while the one-dimensional treatment assumes a homogeneous distribution of getter material within the getterlpolymer layer. Example calculations illustrate the dependence of getter performance on reaction rates, polymer diffusivity, and getter particle volume fraction. In addition, the model is used to deduce surface reaction rates, solid phase diffusivities, and maximum-loading densities by least-squares fitting of model predictions to measured histories of gas-phase contaminant concentration and getter weight gain.

  14. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance. PMID:23293134

  15. Surface cleaning for enhanced adhesion to packaging surfaces: Effect of oxygen and ammonia plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddam, Sneha; Dong, Bin; Driver, Marcus; Kelber, Jeffry; Kazi, Haseeb

    2015-03-15

    The effects of direct plasma chemistries on carbon removal from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces have been studied by in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ contact angle measurements. The data indicate that O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} capacitively coupled plasmas are effective at removing adventitious carbon from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and Si oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment results in the formation of a silica overlayer. In contrast, the exposure to NH{sub 3} plasma results in negligible additional oxidation of the SiN{sub x} or SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surface. Ex-situ contact angle measurements show that SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surfaces exposed to oxygen plasma are initially more hydrophilic than surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3} plasma, indicating that the O{sub 2} plasma-induced SiO{sub 2} overlayer is highly reactive toward ambient. At longer ambient exposures (≳10 h), however, surfaces treated by either O{sub 2} or NH{sub 3} plasma exhibit similar steady state contact angles, correlated with rapid uptake of adventitious carbon, as determined by XPS. Surface passivation by exposure to molecular hydrogen prior to ambient exposure significantly retards the increase in contact angle upon exposure to ambient. The results suggest a practical route to enhancing the time available for effective bonding to surfaces in microelectronics packaging applications.

  16. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baohong, Gao; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Yadong, Zhu; Shengli, Wang; Qiang, Zhou; Baimei, Tan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection.

  17. Workshop report and presentations from the Semiconductor Research Corporation-DOE Semiconductor Task Force Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Semiconductor Research Corporation-DOE Semiconductor Task Force Workshop was held in Oak ridge, Tennessee, on November 2-3, 1987. It was to provide a forum for representatives of the national laboratories, DOE, and the semiconductor industry in which to discuss capabilities of the national laboratories which could contribute to the future competitiveness of the US semiconductor industry, to identify specific large and small projects at the national laboratories which would be of direct benefit to the semiconductor industry, and to find ways of implementing these projects. Numerous small projects were identified which would utilize unique capabilities of the national laboratories in advanced ion implantation, plasma processing (including electron cyclotron resonance plasmas), ion and cluster beam deposition, materials characterization, electronic packaging, and laser processing and deposition. Five large-scale candidate projects were identified in synchrotron x-ray lithography, silicon process integration, advanced materials processing science, process analysis and diagnostics, and ultra clean room engineering. The major obstacle to implementing these projects if the lack of appropriate funds to initiate and stimulate interactions between the national laboratories and the semiconductor industry. SEMATECH and the federal government are potential sources of seed funds for these projects. The Semiconductor Research Corporation is ideally suited to interface the semiconductor industry and the national laboratories for many of these interactions.

  18. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

  19. A comparison of dose results from the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988, personal computer (CAP88-PC), version 3 to previous versions.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra; Staven, Lissa

    2013-08-01

    Computer software packages approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), including CAP88-PC, are used by U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by the U.S. EPA in February 2006 for use by U.S. DOE facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. For parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains, total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at U.S. DOE facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides were lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides increased relative to the previous versions. PMID:23803666

  20. A COMPARISON OF DOSE RESULTS FROM THE CLEAN AIR ACT ASSESSMENT PACKAGE-1988, PERSONAL COMPUTER (CAP88-PC), VERSION 3 TO PREVIOUS VERSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra F.; Staven, Lissa H.

    2013-08-01

    EPA-approved computer software packages, including CAP88-PC, are used by Department of Energy sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. The most recent update, CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by EPA in February 2006 for use by Department of Energy facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. Total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions for parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at Department of Energy facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides are lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides would be higher.

  1. Semiconductor Cubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Through Goddard Space Flight Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory Small Business Innovation Research contracts, Irvine Sensors developed a three-dimensional memory system for a spaceborne data recorder and other applications for NASA. From these contracts, the company created the Memory Short Stack product, a patented technology for stacking integrated circuits that offers higher processing speeds and levels of integration, and lower power requirements. The product is a three-dimensional semiconductor package in which dozens of integrated circuits are stacked upon each other to form a cube. The technology is being used in various computer and telecommunications applications.

  2. High-performance semiconductor optical amplifier array for self-aligned packaging using Si V-groove flip-chip technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, D.; Brosson, P.; Pommereau, F.; Ngo, R.; Doussiere, P.; Mallecot, F.; Gavignet, P.; Wamsler, I.; Laube, G.; Hunziker, W.

    1995-05-01

    A high performance four-tilted stripe semiconductor optical amplifier array, with low polarization sensitivity and very low-gain ripple, compatible with self-aligned flip-chip mounting on a Si motherboard is reported. Up to 32 dB of internal gain with 2-dB polarization sensitivity is obtained. A multifiber module has been realized, following an almost static optical alignment procedure, showing no degradation of the SOA array performances. Fiber-to-fiber gain, measured on the four stripes, is 14.4 +/- 1.3 dB with a gain ripple below +/- 0.1 dB.

  3. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs. PMID:22916438

  4. Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H. S.; Yum, J. H.; Johnson, D. W.; Harris, H. R.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Oh, J.; Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E.; Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, H. D.

    2013-11-25

    In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

  5. Laser applications in integrated circuits and photonics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong Feng; Li, L. P.; Mendu, K.; Shi, J.

    2004-07-01

    Laser processing has large potential in the packaging of integrated circuits (IC). It can be used in many applications such as laser cleaning of IC mold tools, laser deflash to remove mold flash from heat sinks and lead wires of IC packages, laser singulation of BGA (ball grid array) and CSP (chip scale packages), laser reflow of solder ball on GBA, laser peeling for CSP, laser marking on packages and on Si wafers. Laser nanoimprinting of self-assembled nanoparticles has been recently developed to fabricate hemispherical cavity arrays on semiconductor surfaces. This process has the potential applications in fabrication and packaging of photonic devices such as waveguides and optical interconnections. During the implementation of all these applications, laser parameters, material issues, throughput, yield, reliability and monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Monitoring of laser-induced plasma and laser induced acoustic wave has been used to understand and to control the processes involved in these applications. Numerical simulations can provide useful information on process analysis and optimization.

  6. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  7. Semiconductor research capabilities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This document discusses semiconductor research capabilities (advanced materials, processing, packaging) and national user facilities (electron microscopy, heavy-ion accelerators, advanced light source). (DLC)

  8. Plasma Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  9. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... accessible for cleaning. The design and operation of the machine shall in no way contaminate the container...

  10. Hermetic-coaxial package design for microwave transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Semiconductor package has been developed for high power semiconductor devices that operate in the GHz-frequency range at several watts. Package includes stud, insulating ring, electrically conductive washer, insulating washer, braze ring, and cap. It is mechanically strong and can be used with variety of circuits.

  11. Semiconductor photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Semiconductor photoelectrochemical reactions are investigated. A model of the charge transport processes in the semiconductor, based on semiconductor device theory, is presented. It incorporates the nonlinear processes characterizing the diffusion and reaction of charge carriers in the semiconductor. The model is used to study conditions limiting useful energy conversion, specifically the saturation of current flow due to high light intensity. Numerical results describing charge distributions in the semiconductor and its effects on the electrolyte are obtained. Experimental results include: an estimate rate at which a semiconductor photoelectrode is capable of converting electromagnetic energy into chemical energy; the effect of cell temperature on the efficiency; a method for determining the point of zero zeta potential for macroscopic semiconductor samples; a technique using platinized titanium dioxide powders and ultraviolet radiation to produce chlorine, bromine, and iodine from solutions containing their respective ions; the photoelectrochemical properties of a class of layered compounds called transition metal thiophosphates; and a technique used to produce high conversion efficiency from laser radiation to chemical energy.

  12. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  13. Semiconductor processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The primary thrust of the semiconductor processing is outlined. The purpose is to (1) advance the theoretical basis for bulk growth of elemental and compound semiconductors in single crystal form, and (2) to develop a new experimental approaches by which semiconductor matrices with significantly improved crystalline and chemical perfection can be obtained. The most advanced approaches to silicon crystal growth is studied. The projected research expansion, directed toward the capability of growth of 4 inch diameter silicon crystals was implemented. Both intra and interdepartmental programs are established in the areas of process metallurgy, heat transfer, mass transfer, and systems control. Solutal convection in melt growth systems is also studied.

  14. Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

    1995-09-01

    Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

  15. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  16. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  17. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  18. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  19. Clean then Assemble Versus Assemble then Clean: Several Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    Cleanliness of manufactured parts and assemblies is a significant issue in many industries including disk drives, semiconductors, aerospace, and medical devices. Clean manufacturing requires cleanroom floor space and cleaning technology that are both expensive to own and expensive to operate. Strategies to reduce these costs are an important consideration. One strategy shown to be effective at reducing costs is to assemble parts into subassemblies and then clean the subassembly, rather than clean the individual parts first and then assemble them. One advantage is that assembly outside of the cleanroom reduces the amount of cleanroom floor space and its associated operating cost premium. A second advantage is that this strategy reduces the number of individual parts that must be cleaned prior to assembly, reducing the number of cleaning baskets, handling and, possibly, reducing the number of cleaners. The assemble then clean strategy also results in a part that is significantly cleaner because contamination generated during the assembly steps are more effectively removed that normally can be achieved by hand wiping after assembly in the cleanroom.

  20. Clean Room Apparel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    American Hospital Supply Corporation (AHSC), Baxter Healthcare Corporation's predecessor, used the NASA informational base on contamination control technology to improve industrial contamination control technology. When a study determined that microscopic body particles escaping through tiny "windows" in woven garments worn by workers were the greatest source of contamination, AHSC developed TYVEK. This non-woven material filters 99% of all particulate matter larger than half a micron. Baxter Healthcare added a polyimide coating which seals and ties down any loose fibers, providing greater durability. Stress points along seams have been minimized to make the garment almost tearproof. Micro-Clean 212 garments are individually packaged and disposable.

  1. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  2. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  3. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  4. Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, Darrel

    This chapter is a high-level overview of the materials used in an electronic package including: metals used as conductors in the package, ceramics and glasses used as dielectrics or insulators and polymers used as insulators and, in a composite form, as conductors. There is a need for new materials to meet the ever-changing requirements for high-speed digital and radio-frequency (RF) applications. There are different requirements for digital and RF packages that translate into the need for unique materials for each application. The interconnect and dielectric (insulating) requirements are presented for each application and the relevant materials properties and characteristics are discussed. The fundamental materials characteristics are: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, thermal and electric conductivity, resistivity, moisture absorption, glass-transition temperature, strength, time-dependent deformation (creep), and fracture toughness. The materials characteristics and properties are dependant on how they are processed to form the electronic package so the fundamentals of electronic packaging processes are discussed including wirebonding, solder interconnects, flip-chip interconnects, underfill for flip chip and overmolding. The relevant materials properties are given along with requirements (including environmentally friendly Pb-free packages) that require new materials to be developed to meet future electronics needs for both digital and RF applications.

  5. Cleaning devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner nozzle with a sharp rim for directing incoming air down against the floor; a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes; a vacuum cleaner head having slots that form a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and that includes an outlet that blows a stream of air at the floor region which lies between the vortices; a cleaning device that sweeps a group of brushes against the ground along a first direction, and then sweeps them along the same ground area but in a second direction angled from the first by an amount such as 90.degree., to sweep up particles lying in crevices extending along any direction; a device that gently cleans a surface to remove bacteria for analysis, including an inclined wall along which cleaning fluid flows onto the surface, a vacuum chamber for drawing in the cleaning fluid, and a dividing wall spaced slightly from the surface to separate the fluid source from the vacuum cleaner chamber; and a device for providing pulses of pressured air including a chamber to which pressured air is supplied, a ball that circulates around the chamber to repeatedly close an outlet, and an air source that directs air circumferentially to move the ball around the chamber.

  6. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    DOEpatents

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  7. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  8. Cleaning Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  9. Fluidized-Bed Cleaning of Silicon Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Hsu, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Fluidized-bed chemical cleaning process developed to remove metallic impurities from small silicon particles. Particles (250 micrometer in size) utilized as seed material in silane pyrolysis process for production of 1-mm-size silicon. Product silicon (1 mm in size) used as raw material for fabrication of solar cells and other semiconductor devices. Principal cleaning step is wash in mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, leaching out metals and carrying them away as soluble chlorides. Particles fluidized by cleaning solution to assure good mixing and uniform wetting.

  10. MULTI-SCALE CLEAN: A COMPARISON OF ITS PERFORMANCE AGAINST CLASSICAL CLEAN ON GALAXIES USING THINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, J. W.; De Blok, W. J. G.; Cornwell, T. J.; Brinks, E.; Bagetakos, I.; Walter, F.; Kennicutt, R. C. Jr E-mail: edeblok@ast.uct.ac.za E-mail: E.Brinks@herts.ac.uk E-mail: walter@mpia.de

    2008-12-15

    A practical evaluation of the multi-scale CLEAN algorithm is presented. The data used in the comparisons are taken from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey. The implementation of multi-scale CLEAN in the CASA software package is used, although comparisons are made against the very similar multi-resolution CLEAN algorithm implemented in AIPS. Both are compared against the classical CLEAN algorithm (as implemented in AIPS). The results of this comparison show that several of the well-known characteristics and issues of using classical CLEAN are significantly lessened (or eliminated completely) when using the multi-scale CLEAN algorithm. Importantly, multi-scale CLEAN significantly reduces the effects of the clean 'bowl' that is caused by missing short-spacings, and the 'pedestal' of low-level un-cleaned flux (which affects flux scales and resolution). Multi-scale CLEAN can clean down to the noise level without the divergence suffered by classical CLEAN. We discuss practical applications of the added contrast provided by multi-scale CLEAN using two selected astronomical examples: H I holes in the interstellar medium and anomalous gas structures outside the main galactic disk.

  11. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  12. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  13. Research coordination for power semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hingorani, N.G.; Mehta, H. ); Levy, S. ); Temple, V.A.K.; Glascock, H. )

    1989-09-01

    A National Power Semiconductor Interagency/Utility Consortium has been formed to coordinate U.S. research activities for development of materials and technologies related to high-power semiconductors - a field sometimes called the second electronics revolution. The history, activities, and investment strategy of this Consortium are described briefly. A variety of the most promising power electronics devices considered by the Consortium are discussed, leading to the conclusion that field-effect transistors and Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) controlled thyristors (MCTs) will eventually dominate power-switching applications. New packaging techniques are also presented, in which silicon is used to replace bulky ceramic insulators and copper contacts - an arrangement that promises to lower costs and weight while improving devices performance and life. Finally, the article reviews policy issues related to power semiconductor research and recommends that R and D in this field be treated as a leading national priority.

  14. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  15. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  16. Bi-level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-01-06

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The package has at least two levels of circuits for making electrical interconnections to a pair of microelectronic devices. The result is a compact, low-profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device(s).

  17. Laser applications in integrated circuit packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yongfeng; Song, Wen D.; Ren, ZhongMin; An, Chengwu; Ye, Kaidong D.; Liu, DaMing; Wang, Weijie; Hong, Ming Hui; Chong, Tow Chong

    2002-06-01

    Laser processing has large potential in the packaging of integrated circuits (IC). It can be used in many applications such as laser cleaning of IC mold tools, laser deflash to remove mold flash form heat sinks and lead wires of IC packages, laser singulation of BGA and CSP, laser reflow of solder ball on GBA, laser marking on packages and on SI wafers. During the implementation of all these applications, laser parameters, material issues, throughput, yield, reliability and monitoring techniques have to b taken into account. Monitoring of laser-induced plasma and laser induced acoustic wave has been used to understand and to control the processes involved in these applications.

  18. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  19. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  20. Cleaning of ITO glass with carbon dioxide snow jet spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-jian; Qi, Tong; Li, Shu-lin; Zhao, Guang

    2007-12-01

    ITO glass cleaning is LCD, OLED and other flat panel display industry's key technologies. At present, the usual wet cleaning technology consumes large amount of water and chemicals, and produces a large amount of contaminant venting. CO II snow jet spray cleaning has been successfully applied to cleaning the surface of semiconductor chip, vacuum devices and space telescopes. Surface cleaning of indium tin oxide (ITO) film was carried out with carbon dioxide snow jet treatment .Based on the measurements of the contact angles, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) ,the influence of carbon dioxide snow jet treatment on surface cleaning of indium tin Oxide film was investigated and compared with the samples of low frequency immersion ultrasonic cleaning. Experimental data show that the carbon dioxide snow jet treatment effectively removes particulate and hydrocarbon on ITO surface.

  1. Cost-effective telecom/datacom semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nong; Chen, Dick T. R.; Hsin, Wei; Chen, Steven Bo; Xiong, Frank; Erlig, Hernan; Chen, Paul; Yeh, Xian-li; Scott, David C.; Sherer, Axel

    2007-11-01

    The recent development of semiconductor laser technologies for cost-effective telecom/datacom applications is reviewed in details in this paper. This includes the laser design, laser chip technology, laser packaging technology and other low cost lasers (chip + packaging). Some design and simulation examples in Archcom laser production are described first. A latest trend in the wafer scale testing/characterization/screening technology for low cost semiconductor laser mass production is discussed then. An advanced long wavelength high power single mode surface emitting laser with wafer scale characterization using our unique mask free focused ion beam (FIB) etching technology is also demonstrated. Detailed descriptions on our wide temperature range (-50 °C to +105 °C) G-PON distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor lasers with high performance and low cost wafer design are included. Cost reduction innovations in laser package with our beam profile improved laser and optical feedback insensitive (OFBI) laser are also addressed.

  2. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  3. Single level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-09

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a multilayered LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during cofiring. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip interconnected so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A glob-top encapsulant or protective cover can be used to protect the microelectronic device and electrical interconnections. The result is a compact, low profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device.

  4. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  5. Protecting integrated circuits from excessive charge accumulation during plasma cleaning of multichip modules

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Girardi, Michael

    2015-04-21

    Internal nodes of a constituent integrated circuit (IC) package of a multichip module (MCM) are protected from excessive charge during plasma cleaning of the MCM. The protected nodes are coupled to an internal common node of the IC package by respectively associated discharge paths. The common node is connected to a bond pad of the IC package. During MCM assembly, and before plasma cleaning, this bond pad receives a wire bond to a ground bond pad on the MCM substrate.

  6. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  7. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  8. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, Timothy J.; Ginley, David S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  9. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. PMID:25091409

  10. High density packaging technology ultra thin package & new tab package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Osamu; Shimamoto, Haruo; Ueda, Tetsuya; Shimomura, Kou; Hata, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Toru; Fukushima, Jiro; Banjo, Toshinobu; Yamamoto, Isamu

    1989-09-01

    As electronic devices become more highly integrated, the demand for small, high pin count packages has been increasing. We have developed two new types of IC packages in response to this demand. One is an ultra thin small outline package (TSOP) which has been reduced in size from the standard SOP and the other, which uses Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) technology, is a super thin, high pin count TAB in cap (T.I.C.) package. In this paper, we present these packages and their features along with the technologies used to improve package reliability and TAB. Thin packages are vulnerable to high humidity exposure, especially after heat shock.1 The following items were therefore investigated in order to improve humidity resistance: (1) The molding compound thermal stress, (2) Water absorption into the molding compound and its effect on package cracking during solder dipping, (3) Chip attach pad area and its affect on package cracking, (4) Adhesion between molding resin and chip attach pad and its affect on humidity resistance. With the improvements made as a result of these investigations, the reliability of the new thin packages is similar to that of the standard thicker plastic packages.

  11. 78 FR 44947 - Request for Nominations for 2014 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...: Additional information on this awards program, including the entry form, can be found on EPA's Clean Air Act...) and (2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), notice is hereby given that the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation... Package. Dated July 18, 2013. Jeneva Craig, Designated Federal Officer, Clean Air Act Advisory...

  12. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  13. Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    1980-12-01

    The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

  14. Photorefractive Semiconductors and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Li-Jen; Luke, Keung L.

    1993-01-01

    Photorefractive semiconductors are attractive for information processing, becuase of fast material response, compatibility with semiconductor lasers, and availability of cross polarization diffraction for enhancing signal-to-noise ration. This paper presents recent experimental results on information processing using photorefractive GaAs, InP and CdTe, including image processing with semiconductor lasers.

  15. The How To Clean Kit. Making Easier Work of Laundering, Cleaning and Dishwashing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This package contains a handbook explaining how to make laundering, cleaning, and dishwashing easier; a guide for using the handbook with secondary students, youth groups, adult groups, and students enrolled in teacher preparatory classes; a set of worksheets designed to reinforce concepts introduced in the guide; and four charts. The following…

  16. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  17. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  18. Quality Control On Strained Semiconductor Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dommann, Alex; Neels, Antonia

    2010-11-24

    New semiconductor devices are based very often on strained silicon which promises to squeeze more device performance out of current devices. With strained silicon it is possible to get the same device performance using less power. The technique is using strain as a 'design element' for silicon to improve the device performance and has become a hot topic in semiconductor research in the past years. However in the same time topics like 'System in Package'(SiP) on thin wafers are getting more and more important. The chips of thin wafers in advanced packaging are extremely sensitive to induced stresses due to packaging issues. If we are using now strain as a design element for improving device performance we increase the sensitivity again and therefore also the risk of aging of such SiP's. High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) techniques such as Rocking Curves (RC's) and Reciprocal Space Mapping (RSM) are therefore very powerful tools to study the stresses in packaged devices.

  19. Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-09-01

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

  20. Packaging films for electronic and space-related hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, E. M.; Hamberg, O.

    1985-08-01

    Flexible packaging films are used to bag and/or wrap precision cleaned electronic or space hardware to protect them from environmental degradation during shipping and storage. Selection of packaging films depends on a knowledge of product requirements and packaging film characteristics. The literature presently available on protective packaging films has been updated to include new materials and to amplify space-related applications. Presently available packaging film materials are compared for their various characteristics: electrostatic discharge (ESD) control, flame retardancy, water vapor transmission rate, particulate shedding, molecular contamination, and transparency. The tradeoff between product requirements and the characteristics of the packaging films available are discussed. Selection considerations are given for the application of specific materials of space hardware-related applications. Applications for intimate, environmental, and electrostatic protective packaging are discussed.

  1. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.

    1992-05-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physicochemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. A novel approach to the study of pyrite aqueous electrochemistry is proposed, based on the use of both synthetic and natural (i.e. coal-derived) pyrite specimens, the utilization of pyrite both in the form of micro (i.e. colloidal and subcolloidal) and macro (i.e. rotating ring disk)-electrodes, and the application of in-situ direct electroanalytical and spectroelectrochemical characterization techniques. Central to this research is the recognition that pyrite is a semiconductor material. (Photo)electrochemical experiments will be conducted to unravel the mechanisms of anodic and cathodic processes such as those associated with pyrite decomposition and the reduction of oxidants such as molecular oxygen and the ferric ion.

  2. The MSFC complementary metal oxide semiconductor (including multilevel interconnect metallization) process handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouldin, D. L.; Eastes, R. W.; Feltner, W. R.; Hollis, B. R.; Routh, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The fabrication techniques for creation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuits at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center are described. Examples of C-MOS integrated circuits manufactured at MSFC are presented with functional descriptions of each. Typical electrical characteristics of both p-channel metal oxide semiconductor and n-channel metal oxide semiconductor discrete devices under given conditions are provided. Procedures design, mask making, packaging, and testing are included.

  3. Copper post-CMP cleaning process on a dry-in/dry-out tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Sanjay; Grief, Malcolm; Gupta, Anand; Murella, Krishna; VanDevender, Barrie

    1998-09-01

    Metal Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) and post CMP cleaning have continued to increase in importance in semiconductor manufacturing. The introduction of copper metallization into semiconductor manufacturing processes has created a need for integrating CMP and cleaning tools, as well as a demand for the development of novel cleaning solutions. One system designed for integrated CMP processing and cleaning, commonly referred to as dry-in/dry-out CMP, is the SpeedFam Auriga C. The Auriga C integrates a widely used polishing tool together with a proven cleaning technique. The key to the operation of the Auriga C cleaning process is the effective operation of the PVA brush cleaners, water track transport, final jet rinse and high-speed spinner dryer. The effective operation of the cleaning mechanism for copper post- CMP cleaning requires the use of new chemical solutions. Typical solutions used for post process cleaning of more mature CMP processes are either ineffective for cleaning or chemically incompatible with the copper process. This paper discusses the cleaning mechanism used in an integrated dry- in/dry-out tool and demonstrates an effective and novel cleaning solution for use with this type of post-CMP cleaning process.

  4. Packaging for logistical support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold

    Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.

  5. The Physics of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Marius

    The historic development of semiconductor physics and technology began in the second half of the 19th century. Interesting discussions of the early history of the physics and chemistry of semiconductors can be found in treatises of G. Busch [2] and Handel [3]. The history of semiconductor industry can be followedin the text of Morris [4] and Holbrook et al. [5]. In 1947, the realization of the transistor was the impetus to a fast-paced development that created the electronics and photonics industries. Products founded on the basis of semiconductor devices such as computers (CPUs, memories), optical-storage media (lasers for CD, DVD), communication infrastructure (lasers and photodetectors for optical-fiber technology, high frequency electronics for mobile communication), displays (thin film transistors, LEDs), projection (laser diodes) and general lighting (LEDs) are commonplace. Thus, fundamental research on semiconductors and semiconductor physics and its offspring in the form of devices has contributed largely to the development of modern civilization and culture.

  6. Semiconductor microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Warren, M.E.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1994-02-01

    New kinds of semiconductor microcavity lasers are being created by modern semiconductor technologies like molecular beam epitaxy and electron beam lithography. These new microcavities exploit 3-dimensional architectures possible with epitaxial layering and surface patterning. The physical properties of these microcavities are intimately related to the geometry imposed on the semiconductor materials. Among these microcavities are surface-emitting structures which have many useful properties for commercial purposes. This paper reviews the basic physics of these microstructured lasers.

  7. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  8. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  9. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  10. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  11. Twelve Home Cleaning Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Safe and Effective Disinfection Twelve Home Cleaning Recipes Safer alternatives to hazardous cleaning products exist for ... 24 hours at room temperature. All Purpose Cleaner recipes for use on counters, floors and other hard ...

  12. Laser-based sample preparation for electronic package failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Brandon M.; Mathews, Scott A.; Duignan, Michael T.; Skoglund, Lars D.; Wang, Zhiyong; Dias, Rajen C.

    2002-06-01

    Failure analysis has come to play a key role in ensuring quality and reliability in semiconductor devices, associated packaging and printed wiring boards. Tools are increasingly available to those investigating high-density integrated circuits at the die level, particularly for edit and repair operations. Until recently however, this capability has been limited by the inherent low-resolution mechanical/manual processes used for destructive analysis on electronics packaging. A laser-based tool has been developed to selectively and locally enable access to traces and layers within packages and provide a way to perform edits to an area of interest.

  13. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  14. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  15. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  16. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  17. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    . Although recycling could be energetically more favorable than composting for these materials, it may not be practical because of excessive sorting and cleaning requirements. Therefore, the main focus is to dispose them by composting. So far, there is no formal agreement between companies, governments and consumers as to how this packaging composting will take place; therefore, the main drivers for their use have been green marketing and pseudo-environmental consciousness related to high fuel prices. Packaging compostability could be an alternative for the disposal of biobased materials as long as society as a whole is willing to formally address the challenge to clearly understand the cradle-to-grave life of a compostable package, and to include these new compostable polymers in food, manure, or yard waste composting facilities. PMID:17370278

  18. Spin injection into semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, M.; Hübner, J.; Hägele, D.; Klar, P. J.; Heimbrodt, W.; Rühle, W. W.; Ashenford, D. E.; Lunn, B.

    1999-03-01

    The injection of spin-polarized electrons is presently one of the major challenges in semiconductor spin electronics. We propose and demonstrate a most efficient spin injection using diluted magnetic semiconductors as spin aligners. Time-resolved photoluminescence with a Cd0.98Mn0.02Te/CdTe structure proves the feasibility of the spin-alignment mechanism.

  19. Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linyou; Fan, Pengyu; Vasudev, Alok P; White, Justin S; Yu, Zongfu; Cai, Wenshan; Schuller, Jon A; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark L

    2010-02-10

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells can serve as a virtually unlimited clean source of energy by converting sunlight into electrical power. Their importance is reflected in the tireless efforts that have been devoted to improving the electrical and structural properties of PV materials. More recently, photon management (PM) has emerged as a powerful additional means to boost energy conversion efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new PM strategy that capitalizes on strong broad band optical antenna effects in one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures to dramatically enhance absorption of sunlight. We show that the absorption of sunlight in Si nanowires (Si NWs) can be significantly enhanced over the bulk. The NW's optical properties also naturally give rise to an improved angular response. We propose that by patterning the silicon layer in a thin film PV cell into an array of NWs, one can boost the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250% increase in the light absorption per unit volume of material). These results significantly advance our understanding of the way sunlight is absorbed by one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures and provide a clear, intuitive guidance for the design of efficient NW solar cells. The presented approach is universal to any semiconductor and a wide range of nanostructures; as such, it provides a new PV platform technology. PMID:20078065

  20. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  1. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  2. Needleless Electrospinning Experimental Study and Nanofiber Application in Semiconductor Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianwei

    Electronics especially mobile electronics such as smart phones, tablet PCs, notebooks and digital cameras are undergoing rapid development nowadays and have thoroughly changed our lives. With the requirement of more transistors, higher power, smaller size, lighter weight and even bendability, thermal management of these devices became one of the key challenges. Compared to active heat management system, heat pipe, which is a passive fluidic system, is considered promising to solve this problem. However, traditional heat pipes have size, weight and capillary limitation. Thus new type of heat pipe with smaller size, lighter weight and higher capillary pressure is needed. Nanofiber has been proved with superior properties and has been applied in multiple areas. This study discussed the possibility of applying nanofiber in heat pipe as new wick structure. In this study, a needleless electrospinning device with high productivity rate was built onsite to systematically investigate the effect of processing parameters on fiber properties as well as to generate nanofiber mat to evaluate its capability in electronics cooling. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were generated. Tensiometer was used for wettability measurement. The results show that independent parameters including spinneret type, working distance, solution concentration and polymer type are strongly correlated with fiber morphology compared to other parameters. The results also show that the fabricated nanofiber mat has high capillary pressure.

  3. ATLAS software packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  4. Modular avionics packaging standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M.; McNichols, J. K.

    The Modular Avionics Packaging (MAP) Program for packaging future military avionics systems with the objective of improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, and reducing equipment life cycle costs is addressed. The basic MAP packaging concepts called the Standard Avionics Module, the Standard Enclosure, and the Integrated Rack are summarized, and the benefits of modular avionics packaging, including low risk design, technology independence with common functions, improved maintainability and life cycle costs are discussed. Progress made in MAP is briefly reviewed.

  5. How to clean surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jean M.

    2004-06-01

    Various cleaning methods are available depending on the sizes of the parts, mounted or unmounted, and purpose of the cleaning. Dust and other particle contamination affect scattering and act as nuclei for defects in optical coatings. In some cases, these defects can initiate laser damage. Noncontact cleaning methods to eliminate particle contamination include blowing large particles from surfaces with an air bulb, "canned air," or a nitrogen gas jet, for a gentle cleaning and CO2 snow for more aggressive particle removal. Laser assisted particle removal is a new high tech method. A strip coating material applied to the surface and subsequently removed will remove large fresh particles and often fingerprints. Contamination films affect the quality and adherence of optical coatings. These are usually removed (from unmounted optics) by cleaning the surface in a detergent and water bath followed by extensive rinsing and non-contact drying. Alternate methods when immersion in water is not possible are drag wiping, or spraying or squirting organic solvents over the surface. Before cleaning, surfaces must be visually inspected to determine the type and location of the contamination, to decide if cleaning is necessary, and what type of cleaning technique to use. Finally, bad cleaning is much worse than no cleaning! Illustrations of the cleaning methods described above will be given.

  6. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  7. Knack for reticle cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masumi; Handa, Hitoshi; Shirai, Hisatsugu

    2000-07-01

    Cleaning is one of the most important processes in mask making, because it decides final quality. In cleaning process, it is necessary for reticle cleanliness to not only remove particles from reticle but also prevent adsorption and re-deposition onto reticle. There is the knack for reticle cleaning, and we introduce three keys in this paper. The first key is the rinse after chemical treatment. By the rinse sequence modification, the cleaner was refined and the particle removal ability was improved. The second key is quality control to grasp the situation of cleaner. By the daily check, cleaner's abnormal condition is found at an early stage, quick action is taken, and then stable cleaning quality is kept every day. And the third key is proper choice of cleaners. We have adopted pre-cleaning process and selected the adequate cleaner for each cleaning level and improved cleaning yield and quality.

  8. Evaluation and testing of semiconductor laser reliability in optic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenyan; Fan, Xianguang; Sun, Heyi

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of an optic system, a new evaluation and testing methodology for the light source which uses semiconductor laser is presented. A new system, combining high accuracy source and measure capabilities for pulsed testing, is developed to achieve the aim of automatic measurement of Light-Current-Power (LIV) for semiconductor laser. The test can provide customer with L-I, V-I curves and other correlative parameters, such as the threshold current and slope efficiency, and so on. Meanwhile, the change of environment temperature versus lasing wavelength under pulse injection is discussed, and the relationship between the lasing wavelength and the width and cycle of injection pulse is obtained. The temperature character of packaged laser unit is measured conveniently. Making use of the above examined curves and parameters, the reliability of semiconductor laser and quality of device can be compared directly and evaluated accurately. The technique is successfully applied for the evaluation of semiconductor laser reliability.

  9. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    SciTech Connect

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  10. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  11. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  12. Semiconductor materials: From gemstone to semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Christoph E.

    2003-07-01

    For diamond to be a viable semiconductor it must be possible to change its conductivity by adding impurities - known as dopants. With the discovery of a new dopant that generates electron conductivity at room temperature, diamond emerges as an electronic-grade material.

  13. Compact narrow linewidth semiconductor laser module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, M.; Ayotte, S.; Latrasse, C.; Painchaud, Y.; Cliche, J. F.; Babin, A.; Aubé, M.; Picard, M.; Costin, F.; Têtu, M.; Lafrance, G.

    2009-05-01

    Frequency noise reduction of semiconductor lasers using electrical feedback from an optical frequency discriminator is an efficient and simple approach to realize narrow linewidth lasers. These lasers are of great interest for applications such as LIDAR, RF photonics and interferometric sensing. In this paper, we review the technological choices made by TeraXion for the realization of its Narrow Linewidth Laser modules. The method enables to decrease the linewidth of DFB lasers from several hundreds of kHz to a few kHz. We present the work in progress to integrate such system into a miniature package and to incorporate advanced functionalities such as multi-laser phase locking.

  14. Multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices is disclosed, wherein the package includes an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can comprise, for example, a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package has an internal stepped structure made of a plurality of plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package, according to some embodiments. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination. The integral window can further include a lens for optically transforming light passing through the window. The package can include an array of binary optic lenslets made integral with the window. The package can include an electrically-switched optical modulator, such as a lithium niobate window attached to the package, for providing a very fast electrically-operated shutter.

  15. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-11-15

    A review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors is presented. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, can be considered the most important one for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples. Manuel Cardona, the longtime editor-in-chief of Solid State Communications has been and continues to be one of the major contributors to this field of solid state physics and it is a great pleasure to dedicate this review to him.

  16. Semiconductor Industry Plasma Processing Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Richard; Panda, Siddhartha; Yan, Wendy

    2003-10-01

    The plasma requirements of dry etch equipment used for advanced semiconductor process development and low cost semiconductor manufacturing are reviewed. Introduction of ArF (193nm) photolithography has resulted in increased demands on resist selectivity, increased sensitivity to plasma induced or exacerbated line edge roughness, and the introduction of novel hard and soft mask schemes. State of the art plasma processing chambers must be able to deliver low DC bias due to line edge roughness requirements with adequate ion/radical density to prevent loss of critical dimension control in deep features. These same systems may be required to operate in a high DC bias, low plasma density regime to achieve adequate etch rate on different films, and in many cases the system must be able to switch between low and high DC bias modes. The acceptable plasma density is limited by that necessary to provide adequate production of passivation agents necessary to achieve selectivity to ArF photoresists. Further limits on plasma density may be needed due to device and etch profile sensitivity to differential charging. The allowable DC bias may be limited to avoid damage to shallow implanted regions and thin gate. Decreases in gate length have increased sensitivity to non-anisotropic profiles, which in turn requires a minimum of DC bias to provide anisotropy. Particle sensitivity has resulted in a migration toward integrated plasma processing, putting additional demands on the stability and flexibility of the plasma equipment. State of the art plasma tooling must be capable of operating over a wide range of plasma densities, delivering both high and low DC bias, and provide RF stability over a wide range of wafer/chamber impedances. The increased uniformity requirements of 300 mm tools requires the anode and cathode potential be uniformly distributed over the entire surface, and that the plasma generation be as uniform as possible. Extended wet clean cycles have driven the need for

  17. Plasma-assisted cleaning by electrostatics (PACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, W. M.; Neumann, M. J.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2006-03-01

    As feature sizes shrink, particle contamination on EUV masks used in the fabrication process of semiconductor chips is an increasingly difficult problem that leads to lower wafer throughput and higher costs of chip production. Current practices to remove particulates off of masks include using a sulfuric acid bath, ultrasonic cleansing, and rinsing in de-ionized water. However, nanometer-scale etching occurs through this cleaning process in addition to the presence of residual contamination due to the chemicals used, which leads to feature devolution. Currently, pellicles are used to protect the reticle with the pellicle being transparent to 193 nm light; however with current EUV technology being developed for 13.5 nm light, the pellicle is no longer transparent at this wavelength and thus cannot be used. Other mask-cleaning processes such as laser-induce plasma cleaning (LIP) run the risk of substrate damage due to potentially destructive methods. Plasma-assisted electrostatic cleaning involves using a potential drop in a plasma sheath electric field and charge imbalance between the particle and the substrate to propel the nanoparticles off the surface. Through applying a positive bias to the substrate and using a weak local plasma to charge the particles, the contamination is removed from the surface. As the particle size decreases the amount of time to charge the particle is longer thus leading to a longer removal period. However, as long as the particle is in the plasma sheath region, there is no theoretical limit on the size of the particle removed.

  18. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  19. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  20. Atomic hydrogen cleaning of GaAS Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    M. Poelker; J. Price; C. Sinclair

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that surface contaminants on semiconductors can be removed when samples are exposed to atomic hydrogen. Atomic H reacts with oxides and carbides on the surface, forming compounds that are liberated and subsequently pumped away. Experiments at Jefferson lab with bulk GaAs in a low-voltage ultra-high vacuum H cleaning chamber have resulted in the production of photocathodes with high photoelectron yield (i.e., quantum efficiency) and long lifetime. A small, portable H cleaning apparatus also has been constructed to successfully clean GaAs samples that are later removed from the vacuum apparatus, transported through air and installed in a high-voltage laser-driven spin-polarized electron source. These results indicate that this method is a versatile and robust alternative to conventional wet chemical etching procedures usually employed to clean bulk GaAs.

  1. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... seams and of materials that can be kept clean and which will have no deleterious effect on the...

  2. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... seams and of materials that can be kept clean and which will have no deleterious effect on the...

  3. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... seams and of materials that can be kept clean and which will have no deleterious effect on the...

  4. Stratimikos Wrapper Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-08-22

    Stratimikos is a small package of C++ wrappers for linear solver and preconditioning functionality exposed through Thyra interfaces. This package makes is possible to aggregate all of the general linear solver capability from the packages Amesos, AztecOO, Belos, lfpack, ML and others into a simple to use, parameter-list driven, interface to linear solvers. This initial version of Stratimikos contains just one utility class for building linear solvrs and preconditioners out of Epetra-based linear operators.

  5. Cleaning agents and asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Barranco, P

    2010-01-01

    Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity. PMID:21313993

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  7. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  8. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  9. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  10. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  11. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. osch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so far...

  12. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  13. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-10-26

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  14. Sealed symmetric multilayered microelectronic device package with integral windows

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A sealed symmetric multilayered package with integral windows for housing one or more microelectronic devices. The devices can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the windows being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic devices can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that the light-sensitive sides are optically accessible through the windows. The result is a compact, low-profile, sealed symmetric package, having integral windows that can be hermetically-sealed.

  15. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  16. Thermally robust semiconductor optical amplifiers and laser diodes

    DOEpatents

    Dijaili, Sol P.; Patterson, Frank G.; Walker, Jeffrey D.; Deri, Robert J.; Petersen, Holly; Goward, William

    2002-01-01

    A highly heat conductive layer is combined with or placed in the vicinity of the optical waveguide region of active semiconductor components. The thermally conductive layer enhances the conduction of heat away from the active region, which is where the heat is generated in active semiconductor components. This layer is placed so close to the optical region that it must also function as a waveguide and causes the active region to be nearly the same temperature as the ambient or heat sink. However, the semiconductor material itself should be as temperature insensitive as possible and therefore the invention combines a highly thermally conductive dielectric layer with improved semiconductor materials to achieve an overall package that offers improved thermal performance. The highly thermally conductive layer serves two basic functions. First, it provides a lower index material than the semiconductor device so that certain kinds of optical waveguides may be formed, e.g., a ridge waveguide. The second and most important function, as it relates to this invention, is that it provides a significantly higher thermal conductivity than the semiconductor material, which is the principal material in the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices.

  17. Method of doping a semiconductor

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Chiang Y.; Rapp, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

  18. Mechanical Agitation For Aqueous Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hosking, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleaning basket placed in aqueous cleaning solution mechanically agitated by air spring. Compressed air at oscillating pressure supplied to air spring to produce repeated vertical motion of cleaning basket.

  19. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  20. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  1. NRF TRIGA packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA{reg_sign}) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask`s small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads.

  2. The West: Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.

    This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…

  3. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  4. Enhanced thermaly managed packaging for III-nitride light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudsieh, Nicolas

    In this Dissertation our work on `enhanced thermally managed packaging of high power semiconductor light sources for solid state lighting (SSL)' is presented. The motivation of this research and development is to design thermally high stable cost-efficient packaging of single and multi-chip arrays of III-nitrides wide bandgap semiconductor light sources through mathematical modeling and simulations. Major issues linked with this technology are device overheating which causes serious degradation in their illumination intensity and decrease in the lifetime. In the introduction the basics of III-nitrides WBG semiconductor light emitters are presented along with necessary thermal management of high power cingulated and multi-chip LEDs and laser diodes. This work starts at chip level followed by its extension to fully packaged lighting modules and devices. Different III-nitride structures of multi-quantum well InGaN/GaN and AlGaN/GaN based LEDs and LDs were analyzed using advanced modeling and simulation for different packaging designs and high thermal conductivity materials. Study started with basic surface mounted devices using conventional packaging strategies and was concluded with the latest thermal management of chip-on-plate (COP) method. Newly discovered high thermal conductivity materials have also been incorporated for this work. Our study also presents the new approach of 2D heat spreaders using such materials for SSL and micro LED array packaging. Most of the work has been presented in international conferences proceedings and peer review journals. Some of the latest work has also been submitted to well reputed international journals which are currently been reviewed for publication. .

  5. Modular electronics packaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

  6. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  7. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  8. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  9. Exposure of GaAs to atomic hydrogen for cleaning prior to NEA photocathode activation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, C.K.; Poelker, B.M.; Price, J.S.

    1998-12-31

    Creating an atomically clean semiconductor surface is an essential step in preparing negative electron affinity (NEA) photoemission cathodes. While bulk GaAs can be satisfactorily cleaned by chemical etching and in situ heat cleaning, many high polarization electron source materials are either much too thin, or have oxides and carbides which are too tightly bound, to be cleaned by these methods. Some polarized source candidate materials may be degraded during the heat cleaning step. It is well established that the exposure of many III-V, II-VI, and elemental semiconductors to atomic hydrogen, typically at elevated temperatures, produces semiconductor surfaces free of contamination. Furthermore, this cleaning, possibly followed by thermal annealing, leaves surfaces which show sharp LEED patterns, indicating good stoichiometry and surface order. Atomic hydrogen cleaning should eliminate the chemical etching step, and might reduce the temperature and/or temperature-time product presently used in forming NEA cathodes. The process is readily adaptable to in situ use in ultrahigh vaccum.

  10. GUARD RING SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Hansen, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    A semiconductor diode having a very low noise characteristic when used under reverse bias is described. Surface leakage currents, which in conventional diodes greatly contribute to noise, are prevented from mixing with the desired signal currents. A p-n junction is formed with a thin layer of heavily doped semiconductor material disposed on a lightly doped, physically thick base material. An annular groove cuts through the thin layer and into the base for a short distance, dividing the thin layer into a peripheral guard ring that encircles the central region. Noise signal currents are shunted through the guard ring, leaving the central region free from such currents. (AEC)

  11. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustarret, E.

    2015-07-01

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  12. Ultrasonic cleaning of conveyor belt materials using Listeria monocytogenes as a model organism.

    PubMed

    Tolvanén, Riina; Lunden, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu; Wirtanen, Gun

    2007-03-01

    Persistent Listeria monocytogenes contamination of food industry equipment is a difficult problem to solve. Ultrasonic cleaning offers new possibilities for cleaning conveyors and other equipment that are not easy to clean. Ultrasonic cleaning was tested on three conveyor belt materials: polypropylene, acetal, and stainless steel (cold-rolled, AISI 304). Cleaning efficiency was tested at two temperatures (30 and 45 degrees C) and two cleaning times (30 and 60 s) with two cleaning detergents (KOH, and NaOH combined with KOH). Conveyor belt materials were soiled with milk-based soil and L. monocytogenes strains V1, V3, and B9, and then incubated for 72 h to attach bacteria to surfaces. Ultrasonic cleaning treatments reduced L. monocytogenes counts on stainless steel 4.61 to 5.90 log units; on acetal, 3.37 to 5.55 log units; and on polypropylene, 2.31 to 4.40 log units. The logarithmic reduction differences were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The logarithmic reduction was significantly greater in stainless steel than in plastic materials (P < 0.001 for polypropylene, P = 0.023 for acetal). Higher temperatures enhanced the cleaning efficiency in tested materials. No significant difference occurred between cleaning times. The logarithmic reduction was significantly higher (P = 0.013) in cleaning treatments with potassium hydroxide detergent. In this study, ultrasonic cleaning was efficient for cleaning conveyor belt materials. PMID:17388072

  13. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  14. Cleaning Up High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cleaning techniques and equipment for areas in a school that are hard to reach, such as the high spacious ceilings, the tall windows of a school atrium, and high points in gymnasiums and auditoriums. (GR)

  15. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  16. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  17. Clean Fleet Final Report

    DOE Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... &23; Crankshafts &23; Timing gears &23; Push rods &23; Stem and tip portions of the valves &23; Piston ... Accordingly, the CleanFleet program plan contained provisions for acquiring and analyzing ...

  18. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickette, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    The printer is identified as the major maintenance problem in computer system and tips for reducing downtime are offered, including keeping the printer clean by using high quality paper and scheduling routine servicing. (MJL)

  19. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, Renee H.

    2010-11-01

    Renee Spires, Project Manager at Savannah River Remediation, opens Session 3 (Accelerated Waste Retrieval and Closure: Key Technologies) at the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange with a talk on enhanced chemical cleaning.

  20. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  1. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  2. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  3. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  4. #CleanTechNow

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest

    2013-09-17

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  5. #CleanTechNow

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest

    2014-01-10

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  6. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  7. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Simandl, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92 percent. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting, and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes, and swelling of epoxies.

  8. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  9. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  10. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrighton, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Deliberate modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve durability and enhance rate of desirable interfacial redox processes is discussed for a variety of systems. Modification with molecular-based systems or with metals/metal oxides yields results indicating an important role for surface modification in devices for fundamental study…

  11. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    Organic semiconductors are of steadily growing interest as active components in electronics and optoelectronics. Due to their flexibility, low cost and ease-of-production they represent a valid alternative to conventional inorganic semiconductor technology in a number of applications, such as flat panel displays and illumination, plastic integrated circuits or solar energy conversion. Although first commercial applications of this technology are being realized nowadays, there is still the need for a deeper scientific understanding in order to achieve optimum device performance.This special issue of physica status solidi (a) tries to give an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 17 international research groups cover various aspects of this field ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in different devices like organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes.Putting together such a special issue one soon realizes that it is simply impossible to fully cover the whole area of organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, we hope that the reader will find the collection of topics in this issue useful for getting an up-to-date review of a field which is still developing very dynamically.

  12. TSF Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soerator objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.

  13. Seawater Chemistry Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  14. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  15. Optical Design of Plant Canopy Measurement System and Fabrication of Two-Dimensional High-Speed Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarto, Anthony; VanZeghbroeck, Bart; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical designs for the prototype plant canopy architecture measurement system, including specified component and parts lists, are presented. Six single Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) detectors are mounted in high-speed packages.

  16. Acceptance Data Package: SXI Stepper Motor/Encoder. Aeroflex P/N 16187. A; Engineering Drawings and Associated Lists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Acceptance data package - engineering drawings and associated lists for fabrication, assembly and maintenance (cleaning, fluidized bed coating, bounding and staking) motor/encoded solar x-ray imager (SXI) (Aeroflex p/n 16187) were given.

  17. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  18. Waste Package Program

    SciTech Connect

    Culbreth, W.; Ladkany, S.

    1991-07-21

    This was a progress report on the research program of waste packages at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The report has the overviews of what the program has done from January 1991 to June 1991, such as task assignments for personnel, equipment acquisitions, and staff meetings and travels on behalf of the project. Also, included was an abstract on the structural analysis of the waste package container design. (MB)

  19. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  20. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  1. Battery packaging - Technology review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows "lessons learned" in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  2. The ENSDF Java Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-05-24

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  3. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-04-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  5. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  6. UV/Ozone Cleaning For Organics Removal On Silicon Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafonte, Leo; Chiu, Rafael

    1984-06-01

    The feasibility for using a combination of ultraviolet light and ozone - UV/Ozone Cleaning - for organics removal and photoresist residue cleaning from silicon semiconductor wafers was investigated. The process generates a highly oxidative atmosphere that is specific for removing trace organic residues. Product of the reactions are carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, stable inorganic materials such as oxide coatings remain unaffected. UV/Ozone exposure of silicon causes formation of a thin layer of silicon oxide that tends to retard further oxidation of the silicon. Based on the expected photochemistry o," this process, specific enhancements to accelerate the cleaning rates were tested. The enhancements involved the use of both gas phase and liquio phase additives, and comparative rates of removal were determined. The technique was tested on several photoresists, potential organic residues, and common solvent systems. The photoresists studies were primarily positive resists and were tested at several levels of ion implantation. The results of the testing suggests that the highest potential applications of UV/Ozone Cleaning in the processing of semiconductor wafers include: a) Removal of solvent residues and process contaminants. b) A pre-process step to insure cleanliness by removal of residual organic or airborne organic contaminants. c) As a post-process step to insure cleanliness or to remove trace organics.

  7. Aqueous cleaning design presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltby, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    The phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting chemicals has prompted industries to re-evaluate their present methods of cleaning. It has become necessary to find effective substitutes for their processes as well as to meet the new cleaning challenges of improved levels of cleanliness and to satisfy concerns about environmental impact of any alternative selected. One of the most popular alternatives being selected is aqueous cleaning. This method offers an alternative for removal of flux, grease/oil, buffing compound, particulates and other soils while minimizing environmental impact. What I will show are methods that can be employed in an aqueous cleaning system that will make it environmentally friendly, relatively simple to maintain and capable of yielding an even higher quality of cleanliness than previously obtained. I will also explore several drying techniques available for these systems and other alternatives along with recent improvements made in this technology. When considering any type of cleaning system, a number of variables should be determined before selecting the basic configuration. Some of these variables are: (1) Soil or contaminants being removed from your parts; (2) The level of cleanliness required; (3) The environmental considerations of your area; (4) Maintenance requirements; and (5) Operating costs.

  8. Analyzes Data from Semiconductor Wafers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-07-23

    This program analyzes reflectance data from semiconductor wafers taken during the deposition or evolution of a thin film, typically via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is used to determine the growth rate and optical constants of the deposited thin films using a virtual interface concept. Growth rates and optical constants of multiple-layer structures is possible by selecting appropriate sections in the reflectance vs time waveform. No prior information or estimatesmore » of growth rates and materials properties is required if an absolute reflectance waveform is used. If the optical constants of a thin film are known, then the growth rate may be extracted from a relative reflectance data set. The analysis is valid for either s or p polarized light at any incidence angle and wavelength. The analysis package is contained within an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The program is based on the algorighm described in the following two publications: W.G. Breiland and K.P. Killen, J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) 6726, and W. G. Breiland, H.Q. Hou, B.E. Hammons, and J.F. Klem, Proc. XXVIII SOTAPOCS Symp. Electrochem. Soc. San Diego, May 3-8, 1998. It relies on the fact that any multiple-layer system has a reflectance spectrum that is mathematically equivalent to a single-layer thin film on a virtual substrate. The program fits the thin film reflectance with five adjustable parameters: 1) growth rate, 2) real part of complex refractive index, 3) imaginary part of refractive index, 4) amplitude of virtual interface reflectance, 5) phase of virtual interface reflectance.« less

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  10. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  13. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  14. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowik, Ł.; Nguyen-Tran, T.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Mélin, T.

    2013-11-01

    Semiconductor junctions are the basis of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate junctions formed from highly doped (ND≈1020-1021cm-3) silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in the 2-50 nm size range, using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments with single charge sensitivity. We show that the charge transfer from doped NCs towards a two-dimensional layer experimentally follows a simple phenomenological law, corresponding to formation of an interface dipole linearly increasing with the NC diameter. This feature leads to analytically predictable junction properties down to quantum size regimes: NC depletion width independent of the NC size and varying as ND-1/3, and depleted charge linearly increasing with the NC diameter and varying as ND1/3. We thus establish a "nanocrystal counterpart" of conventional semiconductor planar junctions, here however valid in regimes of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements.

  15. Light amplification using semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    During the summer of 1953, John von Neumann discussed his ideas concerning light amplification using semiconductors with Edward Teller. In September of that year, von Neumann sent a manuscript containing his ideas and calculations on this subject to Teller for his comments. To the best of our knowledge, von Neumann did not take time to work further on these ideas, and the manuscript remained unpublished. These previously unpublished writings of John von Neumann on the subject of light amplification in semiconductors are printed as a service to the laser community. While von Neumann's original manuscript and his letter to Teller are available to anyone who visits the Library of Congress, it is much more convenient to have this paper appear in an archival journal.

  16. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  17. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  19. Packaging signals in alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Frolova, E; Frolov, I; Schlesinger, S

    1997-01-01

    Alphaviruses synthesize large amounts of both genomic and subgenomic RNA in infected cells, but usually only the genomic RNA is packaged. This implies the existence of an encapsidation or packaging signal which would be responsible for selectivity. Previously, we had identified a region of the Sindbis virus genome that interacts specifically with the viral capsid protein. This 132-nucleotide (nt) fragment lies within the coding region of the nsP1 gene (nt 945 to 1076). We proposed that the 132-mer is important for capsid recognition and initiates the formation of the viral nucleocapsid. To study the encapsidation of Sindbis virus RNAs in infected cells, we designed a new assay that uses the self-replicating Sindbis virus genomes (replicons) which lack the viral structural protein genes and contain heterologous sequences under the control of the subgenomic RNA promoter. These replicons can be packaged into viral particles by using defective helper RNAs that contain the structural protein genes (P. Bredenbeek, I. Frolov, C. M. Rice, and S. Schlesinger, J. Virol. 67:6439-6446, 1993). Insertion of the 132-mer into the subgenomic RNA significantly increased the packaging of this RNA into viral particles. We have used this assay and defective helpers that contain the structural protein genes of Ross River virus (RRV) to investigate the location of the encapsidation signal in the RRV genome. Our results show that there are several fragments that could act as packaging signals. They are all located in a different region of the genome than the signal for the Sindbis virus genome. For RRV, the strongest packaging signal lies between nt 2761 and 3062 in the nsP2 gene. This is the same region that was proposed to contain the packaging signal for Semliki Forest virus genomic RNA. PMID:8985344

  20. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  1. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  2. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  3. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  4. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  5. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. PMID:25555560

  6. Colorado's clean energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  7. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  8. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  9. medpie: an information extraction package for medical message board posts

    PubMed Central

    Benton, A.; Holmes, J. H.; Hill, S.; Chung, A.; Ungar, L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: We have developed medpie, a software package for preparing medical message board corpora and extracting patient mentions and statistics for drugs, herbs and adverse effects experienced from them. The package is divided into web-crawling, HTML-cleaning, de-identification and information extraction modules. It also includes a sample controlled vocabulary of drugs, herbs and adverse effect terms. Availability: http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~ungar/medpie.zip Dependencies: Python 2.6 or 2.7 Contact: ungar@cis.upenn.edu; adrianb@mail.med.upenn.edu PMID:22262673

  10. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  11. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  13. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  14. Using an Instructional Package Including Video Technology To Teach Self-Help Skills to Elementary Students with Mental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Jacqueline M.; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a treatment package that included video technology (e.g., video modeling and video prompting) to teach 3 self-help skills (cleaning sunglasses, putting on a wrist watch, and zipping a jacket) to 3 elementary students with mental disabilities. Results indicate the treatment package was effective. (Contains…

  15. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  16. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  17. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

  18. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. The emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better then the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

  19. Super Clean, Super Safe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas/Liquid Cleaning System (SS-GLCS) has applications ranging from cleaning circuit boards to scouring building exteriors. The system does not abrade the surface of the hardware being cleaned, and it requires much lower levels of pressure while using very little water. An alternative to CFC-based solvents, the system mixes air and water from separate pressurized tanks, ejecting the gas- liquid mixture at supersonic speeds from a series of nozzles at the end of a hand-held wand. The water droplets have the kinetic energy to forcibly remove the contaminant material. The system leaves very little fluid that must be handled as contaminated waste. It can be applied in the aerospace, automotive, and medical industries, as well as to circuit boards, electronics, machinery, metals, plastics, and optics. With a nozzle that can be oriented in any direction, the system is adjustable to allow all sides of a part to be cleaned without reorientation. It requires minimal training and is easily moved on built-in casters

  20. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Offers ideas for cleaning and maintenance management of school food service areas to avoid possible waste, injuries, unsanitary conditions, and unnecessary risk to those using the facilities. Includes a self-inspection checklist and a list of the 12 essentials for managing toward cleaner facilities. (GR)

  1. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  2. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  3. TSF Interface Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less

  4. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project is concerned with the physiochemical processes occuring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. The use of synthetic particles of pyrite as model electrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite is employed.

  5. Laser cleaning -- A new surface cleaning method without pollutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.F.; Aoyagi, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Surface contaminations are removed by laser irradiation with pulse output and short wavelength from various substrate such as magnetic head slide, glass and metals. Laser cleaning is a new dry process to remove surface organic contaminations without using ultrasonic cleaning in organic solvents. This provides a new dry process to clean different substrate surfaces and can take the place of conventional wet cleaning processes such as ultrasonic cleaning with CFC and other organic solvents. The mechanisms of laser cleaning may include laser photodecomposition, laser ablation and surface vibration due to the impact of laser pulse. It is found that short wavelength and short pulse duration are necessary for effective cleaning. It is also found that an appropriate energy density is critical to achieve effective cleaning without causing surface oxidation and secondary contamination.

  6. Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.

  7. System packager strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-03-01

    Advances in combined equipment technologies, the ability to supply fuel flexibility and new financial support structures are helping power systems packagers meet a diverse series of client and project needs. Systems packagers continue to capture orders for various size power plants around the globe. A competitive buyer`s market remains the order of the day. In cogeneration markets, clients continue to search for efficiency rather than specific output for inside-the-fence projects. Letter-perfect service remains a requisite as successful suppliers strive to meet customers` ever-changing needs for thermal and power applications.

  8. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  9. Theory of hydrogen in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Walle, C.G. van de

    1998-12-31

    This paper treats the subject of hydrogen in semiconductors from various perspectives. First, a brief historical overview is given. Then, some basic principles governing the interaction between hydrogen and semiconductors are outlined. Finally, specific examples will emphasize the impact of hydrogen on technological applications. While the general treatment applies to interactions of hydrogen with any semiconductor, the applications will focus mainly on hydrogen interacting with silicon.

  10. New developments in power semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper represents an overview of some recent power semiconductor developments and spotlights new technologies that may have significant impact for aircraft electric secondary power. Primary emphasis will be on NASA-Lewis-supported developments in transistors, diodes, a new family of semiconductors, and solid-state remote power controllers. Several semiconductor companies that are moving into the power arena with devices rated at 400 V and 50 A and above are listed, with a brief look at a few devices.

  11. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  12. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  13. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  14. Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2002-01-28

    Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.

  15. Semiconductor cooling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Gas derived graphite fibers generated by the decomposition of an organic gas are joined with a suitable binder. This produces a high thermal conductivity composite material which passively conducts heat from a source, such as a semiconductor, to a heat sink. The fibers may be intercalated. The intercalate can be halogen or halide salt, alkaline metal, or any other species which contributes to the electrical conductivity improvement of the graphite fiber. The fibers are bundled and joined with a suitable binder to form a high thermal conductivity composite material device. The heat transfer device may also be made of intercalated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and machined, rather than made of fibers.

  16. Semiconductor superlattice photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, S. L.; Hess, K.; Coleman, J. J.; Leburton, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    A superlattice photomultiplier and a photodetector based on the real space transfer mechanism were studied. The wavelength for the first device is of the order of a micron or flexible corresponding to the bandgap absorption in a semiconductor. The wavelength for the second device is in the micron range (about 2 to 12 microns) corresponding to the energy of the conduction band edge discontinuity between an Al/(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)As and GaAs interface. Both devices are described.

  17. Semiconductor structure and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinkel, Nancy A. (Inventor); Goldstein, Bernard (Inventor); Ettenberg, Michael (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor devices such as lasers which include a substrate with a channel therein with a clad layer overlying the substrate and filling the channel exhibit irregularities such as terraces in the surface of the clad layer which are detrimental to device performance. These irregularities are substantially eliminated by forming the channel in a surface of a buffer layer greater than about 4 micrometers thick on the substrate and forming the clad layer over the buffer layer and the channel. CW lasers incorporating the principles of the invention exhibit the highest output power in a single spatial mode and maximum output power which have been observed to date.

  18. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2001-12-21

    Semiconductor bulk crystals and multilayer structures with controlled isotopic composition have attracted much scientific and technical interest in the past few years. Isotopic composition affects a large number of physical properties, including phonon energies and lifetimes, bandgaps, the thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient and spin-related effects. Isotope superlattices are ideal media for self-diffusion studies. In combination with neutron transmutation doping, isotope control offers a novel approach to metal-insulator transition studies. Spintronics, quantum computing and nanoparticle science are emerging fields using isotope control.

  19. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  20. Composite Semiconductor Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nouhi, Akbar; Radhakrishnan, Gouri; Katz, Joseph; Koliwad, Kris

    1989-01-01

    Epitaxial structure of three semiconductor materials - silicon, gallium arsenide, and cadmium telluride - makes possible integrated monolithic focal-plane arrays of photodectors. Silicon layer contains charge-coupled devices, gallium arsenide layer contains other fast electronic circuitry, and cadmium telluride layer serves as base for array of mercury cadmium telluride infrared sensors. Technique effectively combines two well-established techniques; metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Multilayer structure includes HgCdTe light sensors with Si readout devices and GaAs signal-processing circuits. CdTe layer provides base for building up HgCdTe layer.

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF ALTERNATIVE CLEANING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report focuses on substitute for solvent degreasing processes that eliminate the use of 33/50 chlorinated organic chemicals. The Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies performed the technical, environmental, and economic evaluation of the solvent degreasing substit...

  2. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  3. Space-age vacuum cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Varied concepts for brushes and air handling remove dirt more effectively. Vacuum-cleaning techniques may be used in combination. Many of these concepts, while not appropriate for household cleaning, may find use in industry, research, and medicine.

  4. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  5. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  6. Comparison of cleaning processes with respect to cleaning efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Osborne, Steve; Rode, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Photomask technology has attained feature sizes of about 50nm and below. Whereas the main feature size is still above 70-80nm at 20nm technology node recently reported e.g. by Toppan Printing Company as developed, assist features for this node are in the range of 50-60nm. One of the critical aspects of this technology development is the cleaning process. Processes are supposed to clean off contamination and particles down to a defect size of about 40nm and at the same time prevent damage to assist features in the same size range. Due to obvious trade offs between cleaning power and Feature Damage Probability (FPD), this task becomes tricky. Improvement of cleaning processes by raising the power of megasonic (MS) cleaning, or adjusting the speed and size of droplets for spray cleaning occurs at the expense of increased feature damage. Prolongation of physical cleaning steps does not necessarily leads to improvement of the cleaning as shown previously. Susceptibility to feature damage occurs predicatively according to dimension and orientation. This allows us to extrapolate a Feature Damage Limit (FDL) which approximates the smallest feature size for which a process has an acceptable probability of success. In a practical sense, the most advantageous approach seems to be to adjust the cleaning power to the maximum allowed by the FDP and then optimize to the lowest process time necessary to reach expected cleaning efficiency. Since there are several alternative physical cleaning principles, we have to pick the best one for a given application. At this point we have to raise the question of how to compare the cleaning efficiency of processes. The goal of this work is to provide a method for evaluation and comparison of cleaning efficiency between physical cleaning processes and demonstrate the method on an example. We will focus on comparing two physical cleaning processes 1MHz megasonic and binary spray process.

  7. Printer Graphics Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  8. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  9. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  11. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-02

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests.

  12. Project Information Packages Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,…

  13. Jpetra Kernel Package

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael A.

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, written in Java. Jpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vector operations for Java developers. Jpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface. The most common implementation of this interface will be Java sockets.

  14. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  15. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  16. Package for fragile objects

    DOEpatents

    Burgeson, Duane A.

    1977-01-01

    A package for fragile objects such as radioactive fusion pellets of micron size shipped in mounted condition or unmounted condition with a frangible inner container which is supported in a second inner container which in turn is supported in a final outer container, the second inner container having recesses for supporting alternate design inner containers.

  17. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  18. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  19. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  20. Device Technology Investigation: Subsystems Packaging Study: Feasibility of PCSS - Based Pulser for Highly Portable Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    MAR, ALAN; BACON, LARRY D.; LOUBRIEL, GUILLERMO M.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the use of high-gain Photo-Conductive Semiconductor Switch (PCSS) technology for a deployable impulse source. This includes a discussion of viability, packaging, and antennas. High gain GaAs PCSS-based designs offer potential advantages in terms of compactness, repetition rate, and cost.

  1. Mechanisms for enhanced packaging and/or burn-in total dose sensitivity in microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.; Winokur, P.

    1997-03-01

    The ionizing radiation response of several semiconductor process technologies has been shown to be enhanced by plastic packaging and/or pre-conditioning (burn-in). Potential mechanisms for this effect are discussed and data on bipolar linear circuits are presented.

  2. Water splitting on semiconductor catalysts under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Navarro Yerga, Rufino M; Alvarez Galván, M Consuelo; del Valle, F; Villoria de la Mano, José A; Fierro, José L G

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable hydrogen production is a key target for the development of alternative, future energy systems that will provide a clean and affordable energy supply. The Sun is a source of silent and precious energy that is distributed fairly all over the Earth daily. However, its tremendous potential as a clean, safe, and economical energy source cannot be exploited unless the energy is accumulated or converted into more useful forms. The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen via the water-splitting process, assisted by photo-semiconductor catalysts, is one of the most promising technologies for the future because large quantities of hydrogen can potentially be generated in a clean and sustainable manner. This Minireview provides an overview of the principles, approaches, and research progress on solar hydrogen production via the water-splitting reaction on photo-semiconductor catalysts. It presents a survey of the advances made over the last decades in the development of catalysts for photochemical water splitting under visible-light irradiation. The Minireview also analyzes the energy requirements and main factors that determine the activity of photocatalysts in the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen using sunlight. Remarkable progress has been made since the pioneering work by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, but he development of photocatalysts with improved efficiencies for hydrogen production from water using solar energy still faces major challenges. Research strategies and approaches adopted in the search for active and efficient photocatalysts, for example through new materials and synthesis methods, are presented and analyzed. PMID:19536754

  3. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  4. Ultrasonic cleaning: An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mason, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    The development of ultrasonic cleaning dates from the middle of the 20th century and has become a method of choice for a range of surface cleaning operations. The reasons why this has happened and the methods of assessing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning baths are reviewed. PMID:26054698

  5. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.

  6. Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, John M.

    2010-01-01

    All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

  7. The Kingdom of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    In this chapter, we move on to the case of fermions, and we shall find out that fermions are no less interesting than bosons! In practice, electrons are the most important example of fermions, because they are responsible for electrical conductivity in metals and semiconductors. It is impossible to understand a phenomenon as familiar as electrical conductivity without appealing to quantum physics. Two properties play a fundamental role: first the propagation of electron waves in crystal lattices, and second the Pauli exclusion principle, which is a consequence of the fermionic character of the electrons. In Section 6.1, we introduce electron wave propagation in crystals which gives rise to the phenomenon of energy bands, and we describe the filling of these bands according to the Pauli principle. These results will be used in Section 6.2 to describe the electronic properties of semiconductors, on which almost all our modern technology (laser diodes, optical fiber communication, computers, smartphones and so forth) is grounded. Finally, in Sections 6.3 and 6.4, we shall describe the principles of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes.

  8. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Borowik, Ł.; Mélin, T.; Nguyen-Tran, T.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2013-11-28

    Semiconductor junctions are the basis of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate junctions formed from highly doped (N{sub D}≈10{sup 20}−10{sup 21}cm{sup −3}) silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in the 2–50 nm size range, using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments with single charge sensitivity. We show that the charge transfer from doped NCs towards a two-dimensional layer experimentally follows a simple phenomenological law, corresponding to formation of an interface dipole linearly increasing with the NC diameter. This feature leads to analytically predictable junction properties down to quantum size regimes: NC depletion width independent of the NC size and varying as N{sub D}{sup −1/3}, and depleted charge linearly increasing with the NC diameter and varying as N{sub D}{sup 1/3}. We thus establish a “nanocrystal counterpart” of conventional semiconductor planar junctions, here however valid in regimes of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements.

  9. Doping semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Steven C; Zu, Lijun; Haftel, Michael I; Efros, Alexander L; Kennedy, Thomas A; Norris, David J

    2005-07-01

    Doping--the intentional introduction of impurities into a material--is fundamental to controlling the properties of bulk semiconductors. This has stimulated similar efforts to dope semiconductor nanocrystals. Despite some successes, many of these efforts have failed, for reasons that remain unclear. For example, Mn can be incorporated into nanocrystals of CdS and ZnSe (refs 7-9), but not into CdSe (ref. 12)--despite comparable bulk solubilities of near 50 per cent. These difficulties, which have hindered development of new nanocrystalline materials, are often attributed to 'self-purification', an allegedly intrinsic mechanism whereby impurities are expelled. Here we show instead that the underlying mechanism that controls doping is the initial adsorption of impurities on the nanocrystal surface during growth. We find that adsorption--and therefore doping efficiency--is determined by three main factors: surface morphology, nanocrystal shape, and surfactants in the growth solution. Calculated Mn adsorption energies and equilibrium shapes for several nanocrystals lead to specific doping predictions. These are confirmed by measuring how the Mn concentration in ZnSe varies with nanocrystal size and shape. Finally, we use our predictions to incorporate Mn into previously undopable CdSe nanocrystals. This success establishes that earlier difficulties with doping are not intrinsic, and suggests that a variety of doped nanocrystals--for applications from solar cells to spintronics--can be anticipated. PMID:16001066

  10. Semiconductor cylinder fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandupatla, Abhinay; Flattery, James; Kornreich, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    We fabricated a fiber laser that uses a thin semiconductor layer surrounding the glass core as the gain medium. This is a completely new type of laser. The In2Te3 semiconductor layer is about 15-nm thick. The fiber laser has a core diameter of 14.2 μm, an outside diameter of 126 μm, and it is 25-mm long. The laser mirrors consist of a thick vacuum-deposited aluminum layer at one end and a thin semitransparent aluminum layer deposited at the other end of the fiber. The laser is pumped from the side with either light from a halogen tungsten incandescent lamp or a blue light emitting diode flash light. Both the In2Te3 gain medium and the aluminum mirrors have a wide bandwidth. Therefore, the output spectrum consists of a pedestal from a wavelength of about 454 to 623 nm with several peaks. There is a main peak at 545 nm. The main peak has an amplitude of 16.5 dB above the noise level of -73 dB.

  11. Green cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Knipe, R.

    1997-08-01

    Selecting environmentally safe metal cleaning alternatives requires a personal, careful, and comprehensive study. Before the days of depleting-the-ozone studies and volatile organic compound (VOC) regulations, the selection of a cleaning method for a particular metal process was simply tied to cost and result. Little, if any, consideration was given to the personal health of the operator or potential environmental impact. Nothing will ever be as simple as using methyl chloroform or other chlorinated solvents in a vapor degreaser. However, similar results can be achieved with greener technologies, provided that suitable procedures are followed. This article lists the questions to ask to properly evaluate current practices, explains the benefits and limitations of spray and immersion systems, describes environmentally benign aqueous and non-chlorinated solvent applications, and shows how to dispose of wastewater.

  12. Electrostatically clean solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore Garry (Inventor); Krumweide, Duane Eric (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Provided are methods of manufacturing an electrostatically clean solar array panel and the products resulting from the practice of these methods. The preferred method uses an array of solar cells, each with a coverglass where the method includes machining apertures into a flat, electrically conductive sheet so that each aperture is aligned with and undersized with respect to its matched coverglass sheet and thereby fashion a front side shield with apertures (FSA). The undersized portion about each aperture of the bottom side of the FSA shield is bonded to the topside portions nearest the edges of each aperture's matched coverglass. Edge clips are attached to the front side aperture shield edges with the edge clips electrically and mechanically connecting the tops of the coverglasses to the solar panel substrate. The FSA shield, edge clips and substrate edges are bonded so as to produce a conductively grounded electrostatically clean solar array panel.

  13. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua

    2014-12-01

    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  14. Isotopically engineered semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, E. E.

    1995-04-01

    Scientific interest, technological promise, and increased availability of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This review of mostly recent activities begins with an introduction to some past classical experiments which have been performed on isotopically controlled semiconductors. A review of the natural isotopic composition of the relevant elements follows. Some materials aspects resulting in part from the high costs of enriched isotopes are discussed next. Raman spectroscopy studies with a number of isotopically pure and deliberately mixed Ge bulk crystals show that the Brillouin-zone-center optical phonons are not localized. Their lifetime is almost independent of isotopic disorder, leading to homogeneous Raman line broadening. Studies with short period isotope superlattices consisting of alternating layers of n atomic planes of 70Ge and 74Ge reveal a host of zone-center phonons due to Brillouin-zone folding. At n≳40 one observes two phonon lines at frequencies corresponding to the bulk values of the two isotopes. In natural diamond, isotope scattering of the low-energy phonons, which are responsible for the thermal conductivity, is very strongly affected by small isotope disorder. Isotopically pure 12C diamond crystals exhibit thermal conductivities as high as 410 W cm-1 K-1 at 104 K, leading to projected values of over 2000 W cm-1 K-1 near 80 K. The changes in phonon properties with isotopic composition also weakly affect the electronic band structures and the lattice constants. The latter isotope dependence is most relevant for future standards of length based on crystal lattice constants. Capture of thermal neutrons by isotope nuclei followed by nuclear decay produces new elements, resulting in a very large number of possibilities for isotope selective doping of semiconductors. This neutron transmutation of isotope nuclei, already used

  15. Laser surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Crivella, E.C.; Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination of contaminated metal and material recycle, two of 31 priority needs identified by the D&D focus group, are the most promising applications for laser ablation within the DOE complex. F2 Associates has developed a robotic laser ablation system that is capable of high contamination rates, waste volume reduction, surface pore cleaning, and real-time characterization of materials. It is being demonstrated that this system will be the most cost-effective technology for metal decontamination and material recycle.

  16. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-04-15

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning.

  17. Clean room wiping cloths

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of various fabrics for use as clean room wiping cloths was investigated. These fabrics included knit polyester, knit nylon, urethane foam, woven cotton, nonwoven polyester, nonwoven rayon, nonwoven polyethylene and polypropylene, and woven nylon. These materials were tested for detachable lint and fibers, deterioration, and oil content which could leave contaminating films on wiped surfaces. Well-laundered nylon and polyester cloths knitted from filamentary yarn, with hems, were found to be suitable. (LCL)

  18. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  19. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, R.M.; Drummond, T.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-08-31

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration. 8 figs.

  20. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Gourley, Paul L.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration.

  1. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  2. Power module packaging with double sided planar interconnection and heat exchangers

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Zhenxian; Marlino, Laura D.; Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei

    2015-05-26

    A double sided cooled power module package having a single phase leg topology includes two IGBT and two diode semiconductor dies. Each IGBT die is spaced apart from a diode semiconductor die, forming a switch unit. Two switch units are placed in a planar face-up and face-down configuration. A pair of DBC or other insulated metallic substrates is affixed to each side of the planar phase leg semiconductor dies to form a sandwich structure. Attachment layers are disposed on outer surfaces of the substrates and two heat exchangers are affixed to the substrates by rigid bond layers. The heat exchangers, made of copper or aluminum, have passages for carrying coolant. The power package is manufactured in a two-step assembly and heating process where direct bonds are formed for all bond layers by soldering, sintering, solid diffusion bonding or transient liquid diffusion bonding, with a specially designed jig and fixture.

  3. Fibre ring cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Medvedev, S V

    2013-10-31

    This paper presents a study of semiconductor lasers having a polarisation maintaining fibre ring cavity. We examine the operating principle and report main characteristics of a semiconductor ring laser, in particular in single- and multiple-frequency regimes, and discuss its application areas. (lasers)

  4. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  5. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, Rommel; Chen, Yih-Wen

    1987-01-01

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  6. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  7. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  8. Bubble size distribution analysis and control in high frequency ultrasonic cleaning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, M.; Struyf, H.; Mertens, P.; Heyns, M.; De Gendt, S.; Glorieux, C.; Brems, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the semiconductor industry, the ongoing down-scaling of nanoelectronic elements has lead to an increasing complexity of their fabrication. Hence, the individual fabrication processes become increasingly difficult to handle. To minimize cross-contamination, intermediate surface cleaning and preparation steps are inevitable parts of the semiconductor process chain. Here, one major challenge is the removal of residual nano-particulate contamination resulting from abrasive processes such as polishing and etching. In the past, physical cleaning techniques such as megasonic cleaning have been proposed as suitable solutions. However, the soaring fragility of the smallest structures is constraining the forces of the involved physical removal mechanisms. In the case of "megasonic" cleaning -cleaning with ultrasound in the MHz-domain - the main cleaning action arises from strongly oscillating microbubbles which emerge from the periodically changing tensile strain in the cleaning liquid during sonication. These bubbles grow, oscillate and collapse due to a complex interplay of rectified diffusion, bubble coalescence, non-linear pulsation and the onset of shape instabilities. Hence, the resulting bubble size distribution does not remain static but alternates continuously. Only microbubbles in this distribution that show a high oscillatory response are responsible for the cleaning action. Therefore, the cleaning process efficiency can be improved by keeping the majority of bubbles around their resonance size. In this paper, we propose a method to control and characterize the bubble size distribution by means of "pulsed" sonication and measurements of acoustic cavitation spectra, respectively. We show that the so-obtained bubble size distributions can be related to theoretical predictions of the oscillatory responses of and the onset of shape instabilities for the respective bubbles. We also propose a mechanism to explain the enhancement of both acoustic and cleaning activity

  9. Gas cleaning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Richard Allen

    2006-06-06

    A gas cleaning system for removing at least a portion of contaminants, such as halides, sulfur, particulates, mercury, and others, from a synthesis gas (syngas). The gas cleaning system may include one or more filter vessels coupled in series for removing halides, particulates, and sulfur from the syngas. The gas cleaning system may be operated by receiving gas at a first temperature and pressure and dropping the temperature of the syngas as the gas flows through the system. The gas cleaning system may be used for an application requiring clean syngas, such as, but not limited to, fuel cell power generation, IGCC power generation, and chemical synthesis.

  10. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E. E.

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  11. Bi-level multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A bi-level, multilayered package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A second chip can be bonded to the backside of the first chip, with the second chip being wirebonded to the second level of the bi-level package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed.

  12. Particle-wafer interactions in semiaqueous silicon cleaning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupka, Lukasz

    During the semiconductor chip manufacturing process, a silicon wafer goes through a number of cycles in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments. As silicon chips become more sophisticated, the manufacturing process becomes more involved and new challenges are imposed by size reduction, increase in the aspect ratio and the formation of multilayer structures. Wafer cleaning processes emerge several times in one manufacturing cycle. By rule of thumb, it is necessary to remove wafer contamination by particles which are half of a feature size. This is an enormous challenge, keeping in mind that currently wafer structures are of nanometer size. The cleaning procedures which worked for the last 40 years are becoming ineffective and obsolete. The industry calls for more efficient cleaning procedures in terms of particle contamination removal, and at the same time less aggressive procedures to prevent damage/dissolution of the fragile and narrow wafer structures. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), besides being an imaging tool with nano resolution, proves to be an indispensable instrument to characterize interaction forces, lateral forces, and adhesion between micron and submicron contaminant particles and the wafer surfaces both in air and liquid. Using the AFM colloidal probe technique interaction forces were measured between a contaminant particle and a wafer surface. These measurements were done for the silica---silica hydrophilic system and for the silanated silica---silanated silica hydrophobic system. The influence of the nonaqueous component in semiconductor wafer cleaning solution on interaction forces was also investigated under both hydrophilic and hydrophobic conditions. In addition the effect of particle size on the interaction forces as well as particle removal rate under both conditions is addressed. While force/radius normalization of measured interaction forces works great for hydrophilic systems, it was found to significantly underestimate the influence

  13. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described. PMID:26932065

  14. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  15. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  16. SAT Packages--An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Betsy

    1985-01-01

    Describes software packages used to help prepare for the Scholastic Aptitude Test, considering features that the packages have in common as well as unique features that each package has. Also lists and ranks the products and their features in a chart (indicating system requirements and current cost). (JN)

  17. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchir Y; Prajapati, Prajesh N; Agrawal, Y K

    2010-10-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  18. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  19. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  20. KAPPA -- Kernel Application Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David. S.

    KAPPA is an applications package comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualisation, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format---the NDF. It is intended to work in conjunction with Starlink's various specialised packages. In addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the `on-the-fly' conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. This document describes how to use KAPPA and its features. There is some description of techniques too, including a section on writing scripts. This document includes several tutorials and is illustrated with numerous examples. The bulk of this document comprises detailed descriptions of each command as well as classified and alphabetical summaries.

  1. Functionalization of Semiconductor Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraton, M.-I.

    Functionalization of nanoparticles surface by attachment of organic entities is used to achieve and tailor many new properties, such as lubrication, optical response, chemical sensing, or biocompatibility. But because at the nanometer scale the surface properties significantly contribute to the overall properties, the consequences of the surface modifications have to be thoroughly evaluated. This paper demonstrates the relevance of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the study of the surface reactions leading to the functionalization, and of the stability of the functionalized surface under the expected working conditions. In the case of semiconductor nanoparticles, this technique additionally allows the analysis of the impact of the functionalization on the electrical properties. This will be illustrated by the case study of tin oxide nanoparticles for chemical gas sensors. The correlation between surface chemistry and electrical properties is critical to optimize the nanoparticles functionalization for the targeted properties.

  2. Hydrogen on semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, J.A.; Balster, T.; Polyakov, V.; Rossow, U.; Sloboshanin, S.; Starke, U.; Tautz, F.S.

    1998-12-31

    The authors review structural and electronic aspects of the reaction of hydrogen with semiconductor surfaces. Among others, they address the Si(100), Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1{minus}x}(100), GaAs(100), InP(100), SiC(100), SiC(0001) and SiC(000{bar 1}) surfaces. It is demonstrated that high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) in conjunction with a number of other surface sensitive techniques like low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) can yield important information about the surface atomic structure, the effects of hydrogen passivation and etching and on electronic properties of the surfaces. 67 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Photocatalysis Using Semiconductor Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, T.R.; Wilcoxon,J.P.

    1999-01-21

    We report on experiments using nanosize MoS{sub 2} to photo-oxidize organic pollutants in water using visible light as the energy source. We have demonstrated that we can vary the redox potentials and absorbance characteristics of these small semiconductors by adjusting their size, and our studies of the photooxidation of organic molecules have revealed that the rate of oxidation increases with increasing bandgap (i.e. more positive valence band and more negative conduction band potentials). Because these photocatalysis reactions can be performed with the nanoclusters fully dispersed and stable in solution, liquid chromatography can be used to determine both the intermediate reaction products and the state of the nanoclusters during the reaction. We have demonstrated that the MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters remain unchanged during the photooxidation process by this technique. We also report on studies of MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters deposited on TiO{sub 2} powder.

  4. Semiconductor nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Wong, Andrew B.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Yang, Peidong

    2016-06-01

    The discovery and continued development of the laser has revolutionized both science and industry. The advent of miniaturized, semiconductor lasers has made this technology an integral part of everyday life. Exciting research continues with a new focus on nanowire lasers because of their great potential in the field of optoelectronics. In this Review, we explore the latest advancements in the development of nanowire lasers and offer our perspective on future improvements and trends. We discuss fundamental material considerations and the latest, most effective materials for nanowire lasers. A discussion of novel cavity designs and amplification methods is followed by some of the latest work on surface plasmon polariton nanowire lasers. Finally, exciting new reports of electrically pumped nanowire lasers with the potential for integrated optoelectronic applications are described.

  5. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  6. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  7. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  8. Navy packaging standardization thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

  9. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof.... 1337, on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC of Longview, Texas. An amended complaint was filed... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof...

  10. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and... filed on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC on February 20, 2013. The complaint...

  11. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  12. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  13. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  14. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  15. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  16. Markets for Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerman, A. Denny; Joskow, Paul L.; Schmalensee, Richard; Montero, Juan-Pablo; Bailey, Elizabeth M.

    2000-06-01

    Markets for Clean Air provides a comprehensive, in-depth description and evaluation of the first three years' experience with the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This environmental control program is the world's first large-scale use of a tradable emission permit system for achieving environmental goals. The book analyzes the behavior and performance of the market for emissions permits, called allowances in the Acid Rain Program, and quantifies emission reductions, compliance costs, and cost savings associated with the trading program. The book also includes chapters on the historical context in which this pioneering program developed and the political economy of allowance allocations.

  17. Clean fuels from biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  18. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    PubMed

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems. PMID:24682025

  19. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Regrowth of Antimonide-Based Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reason, Matthew; Bennett, Brian R.; Magno, Richard; Boos, J. Brad

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated regrowth of p + InGaSb on AlGaSb and on thin InAs etch-stop layers after atomic hydrogen cleaning (AHC) surface treatments. Following certain cleaning conditions, the surface morphologies for In0.27Ga0.73Sb regrown on InAs exhibit smooth surfaces with similar root-mean-square (rms) roughness to the as-grown InAs, which in turn is similar to the roughness of the AlGaSb buffer layer below it. In addition, hole mobilities for InGaSb regrown on AHC InAs approach the highest mobilities reported to date for any p + III-V semiconductors. A wide range of AHC conditions including substrate temperatures from 280°C to 370°C and exposure durations between 5 min and 30 min result in smooth InGaSb films with low resistivity.

  20. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  1. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  2. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  3. Clean fractionation of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US DOE Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R&D) that uses green feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. A consortium of five DOE national laboratories has been formed with the objectives of providing industry with a broad range of expertise and helping to lower the risk of new process development through federal cost sharing. The AF program is conducting ongoing research on a clean fractionation process, designed to convert biomass into materials that can be used for chemical processes and products. The focus of the clean fractionation research is to demonstrate to industry that one technology can successfully separate all types of feedstocks into predictable types of chemical intermediates.

  4. Space Research Results Purify Semiconductor Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    While President Obama's news that NASA would encourage private companies to develop vehicles to take NASA into space may have come as a surprise to some, NASA has always encouraged private companies to invest in space. More than two decades ago, NASA established Commercial Space Centers across the United States to encourage industry to use space as a place to conduct research and to apply NASA technology to Earth applications. Although the centers are no longer funded by NASA, the advances enabled by that previous funding are still impacting us all today. For example, the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center (SVEC) at the University of Houston, one of the 17 Commercial Space Centers, had a mission to create advanced thin film semiconductor materials and devices through the use of vacuum growth technologies both on Earth and in space. Making thin film materials in a vacuum (low-pressure environment) is advantageous over making them in normal atmospheric pressures, because contamination floating in the air is lessened in a vacuum. To grow semiconductor crystals, researchers at SVEC utilized epitaxy the process of depositing a thin layer of material on top of another thin layer of material. On Earth, this process took place in a vacuum chamber in a clean room lab. For space, the researchers developed something called the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), a 12-foot-diameter disk-shaped platform designed to grow thin film materials using the low-pressure environment in the wake of the space shuttle. Behind an orbiting space shuttle, the vacuum levels are thousands of times better than in the best vacuum chambers on Earth. Throughout the 1990s, the WSF flew on three space shuttle missions as a series of proof-of-concept missions. These experiments are a lasting testament to the success of the shuttle program and resulted in the development of the first thin film materials made in the vacuum of space, helping to pave the way for better thin film development on Earth.

  5. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  6. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  7. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  8. The Kull IMC package

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A; Keen,N; Rathkopf, J

    1998-10-01

    We describe the Kull IMC package, and Implicit Monte Carlo Program written for use in A and X division radiation hydro codes. The Kull IMC has been extensively tested. Written in C++ and using genericity via the template feature to allow easy integration into different codes, the Kull IMC currently runs coupled radiation hydrodynamic problems in 2 different 3D codes. A stand-alone version also exists, which has been parallelized with mesh replication. This version has been run on up to 384 processors on ASCI Blue Pacific.

  9. Aristos Optimization Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the areamore » of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.« less

  10. Semiconductor technology program. Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reviewed. Activities include: optical linewidth and thermal resistance measurements; device modeling; dopant density profiles; resonance ionization spectroscopy; and deep level measurements. Standardized oxide charge terminology is also described.

  11. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III–V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows. PMID:22163382

  12. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  13. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  14. Packaging Technology Developed for High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature electronics and sensors are necessary for harsh-environment space and aeronautical applications, such as sensors and electronics for space missions to the inner solar system, sensors for in situ combustion and emission monitoring, and electronics for combustion control for aeronautical and automotive engines. However, these devices cannot be used until they can be packaged in appropriate forms for specific applications. Suitable packaging technology for operation temperatures up to 500 C and beyond is not commercially available. Thus, the development of a systematic high-temperature packaging technology for SiC-based microsystems is essential for both in situ testing and commercializing high-temperature SiC sensors and electronics. In response to these needs, researchers at Glenn innovatively designed, fabricated, and assembled a new prototype electronic package for high-temperature electronic microsystems using ceramic substrates (aluminum nitride and aluminum oxide) and gold (Au) thick-film metallization. Packaging components include a ceramic packaging frame, thick-film metallization-based interconnection system, and a low electrical resistance SiC die-attachment scheme. Both the materials and fabrication process of the basic packaging components have been tested with an in-house-fabricated SiC semiconductor test chip in an oxidizing environment at temperatures from room temperature to 500 C for more than 1000 hr. These test results set lifetime records for both high-temperature electronic packaging and high-temperature electronic device testing. As required, the thick-film-based interconnection system demonstrated low (2.5 times of the room-temperature resistance of the Au conductor) and stable (decreased 3 percent in 1500 hr of continuous testing) electrical resistance at 500 C in an oxidizing environment. Also as required, the electrical isolation impedance between printed wires that were not electrically joined by a wire bond remained high

  15. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  16. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  17. Semiconductor crystal high resolution imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Craig S. (Inventor); Matteson, James (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A radiation imaging device (10). The radiation image device (10) comprises a subject radiation station (12) producing photon emissions (14), and at least one semiconductor crystal detector (16) arranged in an edge-on orientation with respect to the emitted photons (14) to directly receive the emitted photons (14) and produce a signal. The semiconductor crystal detector (16) comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode that produces the signal in response to the emitted photons (14).

  18. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device is disclosed. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500 C to about 700 C for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal. 1 fig.

  19. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  20. Semiconductor film Cherenkov lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, John E.

    1994-12-01

    The technical achievements for the project 'Semiconductor Film Cherenkov Lasers' are summarized. Described in the fourteen appendices are the operation of a sapphire Cherenkov laser and various grating-coupled oscillators. These coherent radiation sources were operated over the spectral range extending from 3 mm down to 400 micrometers. The utility of various types of open, multi-grating resonators and mode-locked operation were also demonstrated. In addition to these experiments, which were carried out with a 10-100 kV pulse generator, a low-energy (3-3.6 MeV) Van de Graaff generator and a low-energy RF linac (2.8 MeV) were used to investigate the properties of continuum incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. It was shown that levels of intensity comparable to the infrared beam lines on a synchrotron could be obtained and thus that grating-coupled sources are potentially an important new source for Fourier transform spectroscopy. Finally, a scanning electron microscope was adapted for investigating mu-electron-beam-driven far-infrared sources. At the close of the project, spontaneous emission over the 288-800 micrometers band had been observed. Intensity levels were in accord with expectations based on theory. One or more of the Appendices address these topics in detail.

  1. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  2. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  3. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  4. Industrial Technologies Program - Manufacturing Workforce for a Clean Energy Economy (Green Jobs)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    Making the transition to a clean energy economy will strengthen our energy security, improve the environment, and create jobs. In 2009, Congress passed a stimulus package to help jump-start all sectors of the U.S. economy and accelerate this transition.

  5. Keeping an Uphill Edge: Managing Cleaning Behaviors at a Ski Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Jessica; Livesey, Josh; McHaffie, Elizabeth; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Several behaviors in a ski shop were identified as being deficient using Austin's Performance Diagnostic Checklist (2000) and Daniels and Daniels' PIC/NIC Analysis (2004). During a 4-week baseline, 7 cleaning behaviors were monitored and 5 were subsequently targeted in an intervention package using an ABC design. The intervention included: a task…

  6. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  7. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  8. EDITORIAL: Oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, M.; Makino, T.

    2005-04-01

    Blue or ultraviolet semiconducting light-emitting diodes have the potential to revolutionize illumination systems in the near-future. Such industrial need has propelled the investigation of several wide-gap semiconducting materials in recent years. Commercial applications include blue lasers for DVD memory and laser printers, while military applications are also expected. Most of the material development has so far been focused on GaN (band gap 3.5 eV at 2 K), and ZnSe (2.9 eV) because these two representative direct transition semiconductors are known to be bright emitting sources. GaN and GaN-based alloys are emerging as the winners in this field because ZnSe is subject to defect formation under high current drive. On the other hand, another II-VI compound, ZnO, has also excited substantial interest in the optoelectronics-oriented research communities because it is the brightest emitter of all, owing to the fact that its excitons have a 60 meV binding energy. This is compared with 26 meV for GaN and 20 meV for ZnSe. The stable excitons could lead to laser action based on their recombination even at temperatures well above room temperature. ZnO has additional major properties that are more advantageous than other wide-gap materials: availability of large area substrates, higher energy radiation stability, environmentally-friendly ingredients, and amenability to wet chemical etching. However, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field as exemplified by several studies made during the 1960s on structural, vibrational, optical and electrical properties (Mollwo E 1982 Landolt-Boernstein New Series vol 17 (Berlin: Springer) p 35). In terms of devices, the luminescence from light-emitting diode structures was demonstrated in which Cu2O was used as the p-type material (Drapak I T 1968 Semiconductors 2 624). The main obstacle to the development of ZnO has been the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO. The possibility of achieving epitaxial p-type layers with the aid of thermal

  9. Single-Crystal Semiconductors with Narrow Band Gaps for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Gong, Jinlong

    2015-09-01

    Solar water splitting provides a clean and renewable approach to produce hydrogen energy. In recent years, single-crystal semiconductors such as Si and InP with narrow band gaps have demonstrated excellent performance to drive the half reactions of water splitting through visible light due to their suitable band gaps and low bulk recombination. This Minireview describes recent research advances that successfully overcome the primary obstacles in using these semiconductors as photoelectrodes, including photocorrosion, sluggish reaction kinetics, low photovoltage, and unfavorable planar substrate surface. Surface modification strategies, such as surface protection, cocatalyst loading, surface energetics tuning, and surface texturization are highlighted as the solutions. PMID:26227831

  10. Industrial packaging and assembly infrastructure for MOEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne

    2004-01-01

    , packaging and assembly is from nature application specific and solutions found are not always transferable from one product to another. But designers can often benefit from experience from other and general available technologies. A number of companies offer packaging and assembly services for MEMS/MST and this report give typical examples of those commercial services. The companies range from small start-ups, offering very specialized services, to large semiconductor packaging companies, having production lines for microsystem based products. Selecting the proper packaging method may tip the scales towards a product success or towards a product failure, while it nearly always present s a substantial part of the cost of the product. This is therefore is not a marginal concern, but a crucial part of the product design. The presentation will also address mayor trends and technologies. Finally, the article provides sufficient levels of classification and categorisation for various aspects for the technologies, in specific, and the industry, in general, to provide particularly useful insights into the activities and the developments in this market. With over 50 companies studied and assessed, it provides an up to date account of the state of this business and its future potential.

  11. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New source Performance standards. During this past quarter, engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustion flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems. Balance of plant equipment procurement specifications continue to be prepared. Construction activities commenced as the access road construction got under way. Temporary ash pond construction and drilling of the supply well will be completed during the next quarter.

  12. Air cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air cleaning system comprising: a motor housing; a motor mounted within the housing; a fan attached to and rotatably driven by the motor; a fan chamber surrounding the fan and having an air inlet and outlet; a separator housing means mounted adjacent to and in spaced relation with the motor housing, the separator housing means having an inlet disposed in communication with a chamber within separator housing means; an outlet disposed in communication with the fan chamber; an air driven separator means mounted in chamber of the separator housing means to receive airflow from inlet for rotation of the separator means and removal of foreign matter from airflow by centrifugal force responsive to rotation of the separator means; the airflow is further directed through the outlet of separator housing means to the fan chamber to be ejected by the fan.

  13. Cygnus: Electrochemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.G.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.; Vujic, J.; Solly, F.; Johnson, D.; Philipp, D.

    2000-07-01

    Electrochemical cleaning, commonly referred to as electropolishing, can be used to remove surface contamination by dissolving the underlying metal matrix. This is accomplished in the Cygnus process by passing an electric current through a dilute, acidic electrolyte. In the operation, the surface is polished, thereby removing contamination and irregularities to prevent recontamination. Mechanical decontamination processes, by comparison, leave the surface layer distorted, highly stressed, and contaminated with process media. Techniques employing grinding and particle impingement rework the surface of malleable metals such as stainless steel, folding the contamination into pockets where material is released for uncontrolled use. Solway, Ltd., developed the method to be more effective with respect to waste reduction and cost-effectiveness. Together with NUKEM Nuklear, the method was improved for a decontamination procedure in nuclear technology. One of the applications was the decontamination work at KRN Grundremmingen in Germany. The intensive work has shown that the method is suitable for decontamination services in both defense and commercial areas.

  14. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  15. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  16. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  17. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  18. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  19. Packaging investigation of optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhike, Zhang; Yu, Liu; Jianguo, Liu; Ninghua, Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Compared with microelectronic packaging, optoelectronic packaging as a new packaging type has been developed rapidly and it will play an essential role in optical communication. In this paper, we try to summarize the development history, research status, technology issues and future prospects, and hope to provide a meaningful reference. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2013AA014201, 2013AA014203) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61177080, 61335004, 61275031).

  20. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  1. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  2. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  3. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  4. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  5. Optical pumping in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, C.; Lampel, G.; Safarov, V. I.

    Optical Pumping in Semiconductors (OPS) arises from the transfer of angular momentum from light to the localized states of a semiconductor. Spin polarized electrons are thus excited in the conduction band; their polarization is convenient measured through the circular polarization of photoluminescence. This review gives an insight of the various studies based on OPS. After describing the first OPS experiment, we show that this technique allows the determination of band structure properties, and the optical detection of conduction electron spin resonance. The nuclei are polarized by hyperfine interaction, which permits the optical detection of nuclear resonance. A magnetic field transverse to the direction of light propagation produces an electronic depolarization analogous to the Hanle effect. The electron lifetime and spin relaxation time are measured under steady-state conditions by comparison to their Larmor frequency in this transverse field. By activation to Negative Electron Affinity of a GaAs surface, electrons oriented by OPS can be photoemitted into vacuum, leading to a highly spin-polarized beam : we describe a collision experiment in which such a beam transfers angular momentum to atoms. Le Pompage Optique dans les semiconducteurs (POS) provient du transfert de moment angulaire de la lumière vers les états délocalisés d'un semiconducteur. On excite ainsi dans la bande de conduction des électrons polarisés de spin, dont on mesure commodément la polarisation à partir de la polarisation circulaire de la photoluminescence. Cet article de revue présente un aperçu des différentes études fondées sur le POS. Après avoir décrit la première expérience de POS, nous montrons que par cette technique on peut déterminer des propriétés liées à la structure de bande, et détecter optiquement la résonance de spin des électrons de conduction. Les noyaux sont polarisés grâce au couplage hyperfin qui permet également la détection optique de la r

  6. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  7. Collodion technique of mirror cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyndall, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Cleaning method is modified by addition of a layer of cheesecloth between thin coatings of U.S.P. collodion. After drying, the collodion is peeled off by an even pull on the cheesecloth, leaving the mirror clean and ready for use.

  8. Laser Cleaning of Avian Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, L.; Ball, A.; Russell, D.

    A low vacuum SEM was used to evaluate the effect of using an Nd:YAG laser as a non-contact technique for cleaning avian eggshells. The technique shows potential, since there are no obvious deleterious effects from cleaning, but further study is required to understand how the laser is interacting with the sample surface.

  9. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  10. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are at home, at work, traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… Featured Video Keeping our hands clean is one of the best things we can ...

  11. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv;

    2013-05-29

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  13. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  14. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  15. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  16. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  17. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  18. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  19. A survey of packages for large linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Milne, Brent

    2000-02-11

    This paper evaluates portable software packages for the iterative solution of very large sparse linear systems on parallel architectures. While we cannot hope to tell individual users which package will best suit their needs, we do hope that our systematic evaluation provides essential unbiased information about the packages and the evaluation process may serve as an example on how to evaluate these packages. The information contained here include feature comparisons, usability evaluations and performance characterizations. This review is primarily focused on self-contained packages that can be easily integrated into an existing program and are capable of computing solutions to very large sparse linear systems of equations. More specifically, it concentrates on portable parallel linear system solution packages that provide iterative solution schemes and related preconditioning schemes because iterative methods are more frequently used than competing schemes such as direct methods. The eight packages evaluated are: Aztec, BlockSolve,ISIS++, LINSOL, P-SPARSLIB, PARASOL, PETSc, and PINEAPL. Among the eight portable parallel iterative linear system solvers reviewed, we recommend PETSc and Aztec for most application programmers because they have well designed user interface, extensive documentation and very responsive user support. Both PETSc and Aztec are written in the C language and are callable from Fortran. For those users interested in using Fortran 90, PARASOL is a good alternative. ISIS++is a good alternative for those who prefer the C++ language. Both PARASOL and ISIS++ are relatively new and are continuously evolving. Thus their user interface may change. In general, those packages written in Fortran 77 are more cumbersome to use because the user may need to directly deal with a number of arrays of varying sizes. Languages like C++ and Fortran 90 offer more convenient data encapsulation mechanisms which make it easier to implement a clean and intuitive user

  20. Wafer-level packaging with compression-controlled seal ring bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Farino, Anthony J

    2013-11-05

    A device may be provided in a sealed package by aligning a seal ring provided on a first surface of a first semiconductor wafer in opposing relationship with a seal ring that is provided on a second surface of a second semiconductor wafer and surrounds a portion of the second wafer that contains the device. Forcible movement of the first and second wafer surfaces toward one another compresses the first and second seal rings against one another. A physical barrier against the movement, other than the first and second seal rings, is provided between the first and second wafer surfaces.

  1. Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-04-23

    PCHIP (Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package) is a set of subroutines for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and "visually pleasing" interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contain both 'steep' and 'flat' sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application. In PCHIP, all piecewise cubic functions are represented in cubic Hermite form; that is, f(x)more » is determined by its values f(i) and derivatives d(i) at the breakpoints x(i), i=1(1)N. PCHIP contains three routines - PCHIM, PCHIC, and PCHSP to determine derivative values, six routines - CHFEV, PCHFE, CHFDV, PCHFD, PCHID, and PCHIA to evaluate, differentiate, or integrate the resulting cubic Hermite function, and one routine to check for monotonicity. A FORTRAN 77 version and SLATEC version of PCHIP are included.« less

  2. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  3. Meros Preconditioner Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-01

    Meros uses the compositional, aggregation, and overload operator capabilities of TSF to provide an object-oriented package providing segregated/block preconditioners for linear systems related to fully-coupled Navier-Stokes problems. This class of preconditioners exploits the special properties of these problems to segregate the equations and use multi-level preconditioners (through ML) on the matrix sub-blocks. Several preconditioners are provided, including the Fp and BFB preconditioners of Kay & Loghin and Silvester, Elman, Kay & Wathen. The overall performancemore » and scalability of these preconditioners approaches that of multigrid for certain types of problems. Meros also provides more traditional pressure projection methods including SIMPLE and SIMPLEC.« less

  4. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  5. Pliris Solver Package

    SciTech Connect

    Kotulski, Joseph D.; Womble, David E.; Greenberg, David; Driessen, Brian

    2004-03-01

    PLIRIS is an object-oriented solver built on top of a previous matrix solver used in a number of application codes. Puns solves a linear system directly via LU factorization with partial pivoting. The user provides the linear system in terms of Epetra Objects including a matrix and right-hand-sides. The user can then factor the matrix and perform the forward and back solve at a later time or solve for multiple right-hand-sides at once. This package is used when dense matrices are obtained in the problem formulation. These dense matrices occur whenever boundary element techniques are chosen for the solution procedure. This has been used in electromagnetics for both static and frequency domain problems.

  6. The LISA Technology Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The UP is in the late stages of development -- all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the UP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the UP delivery.

  7. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  8. Tpetra Kernel Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs. Templated on the scalar and ordinal types so that any valid floating-point type, as well as any valid integer type can be used with these classes. Other non-standard types, such as 3-by-3 matrices for the scalar type and mod-based integers for ordinal types, can also be used. Tpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vectormore » operations for the next generation of Trilinos preconditioners and solvers, It can be considered as the follow-on to Epetra. Tpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface, The most common implementation of this interface will be MPI.« less

  9. The LISA Technology Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; LISA Pathfinder Science Working Team

    2010-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The LTP is in the late stages of development - all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the LTP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the LTP delivery.

  10. The LISA Technology Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The LTP is in the late stages of development -all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the LTP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaigns, and outline the future milestones leading to the LTP delivery.

  11. Anasazi Block Eigensolvers Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    ANASAZI is an extensible and interoperable framework for large-scale eigenvalue algorithms. The motivation for this framework is to provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale eigenvalue problems. ANASAZI is interoperable because both the matrix and vectors (defining the eigenspace) are considered to be opaque objects---only knowledge of the matrix and vectors via elementary operations is necessary. An implementation of Anasazi is accomplished via the use of interfaces. One of themore » goals of ANASAZI is to allow the user the flexibility to specify the data representation for the matrix and vectors and so leverage any existing software investment. The algorithms that will be included in package are Krylov-based and preconditioned eigensolvers.« less

  12. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  13. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  14. Romanian experience on packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, G.

    2007-07-01

    With more than twenty years ago, the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), through its Reliability and Testing Laboratory, was licensed by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body- CNCAN and to carry out qualification tests [1] for packages intended to be used for the transport and storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials, generated by Romanian nuclear facilities [2] are packaged in accordance with national [3] and the IAEA's Regulations [1,6] for a safe transport to the disposal center. Subjecting these packages to the normal and simulating test conditions accomplish the evaluation and certification in order to prove the package technical performances. The paper describes the qualification tests for type A and B packages used for transport and storage of radioactive materials, during a period of 20 years of experience. Testing is used to substantiate assumption in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural response. The Romanian test facilities [1,3,6] are used to simulate the required qualification tests and have been developed at INR Pitesti, the main supplier of type A packages used for transport and storage of low radioactive wastes in Romania. The testing programme will continue to be a strong option to support future package development, to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on radioactive material packages or component sections, such as packages used for transport of radioactive sources to be used for industrial or medical purposes [2,8]. The paper describes and contain illustrations showing some of the various tests packages which have been performed during certain periods and how they relate to normal conditions and minor mishaps during transport. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design there are also presented and commented. (authors)

  15. Praxis I/O package

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, F.W.; Sherman, T.A.

    1988-04-07

    The Praxis language specification, like Algol and Ada, does not specify any I/O statements. The intent was to provide a standard I/O package as a companion to the compiler. This would allow the user to substitute, or supplement, the I/O package, as needed, for specialized applications. Like Algol, however, Praxis provided only limited (text) I/O for several years. Ada, in contrast, provided a comprehensive standard I/O package from its inception. Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC's) implementation of Ada, on their VAX family of computers, further supplemented this package with other packages which exploit the I/O facilities available under the VMS operating system. The Praxis I/O package described in this document has been modeled after DEC's implementation of Ada and provides a similar set of I/O facilities. Currently, the I/O package is supported only under VAX/VMS. The design of the package, however, is essentially independent of any operating system (with the exception of the module COMMAND IO). The VAX/VMS version of the I/O package fully exploits the vast I/O facilities which are provided under VAX/VMS and makes them directly available to the Praxis programmer. The design, prototype implementation, and draft documentation of the Praxis I/O Package was done by Tim Sherman as part of a University project in computer science. Subsequent work by both Tim and Fred Holloway lead to a more complete implementation, testing and development of example programs, and inclusion of the package into the Praxis compilers as their principal interface to RMS and VMS.

  16. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  17. Exposure and control assessment of semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, James H.

    1988-07-01

    From 1980 to 1984, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), along with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), sponsored a study of worker exposures and controls in semiconductor manufacturing. The study was conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and PEDCO Environmental. Walk-through surveys were conducted at 21 plants and in-depth studies were done at four of these plants. Processes studied included photolithography, chemical vapor deposition, wet chemical etching and cleaning, plasma etching, diffusion, ion implantation, and metallization. Air samples were collected for acetone, antimony, arsenic, boron, n-butyl acetate, diborane, 2-ethoxyethyl acetate, hexamethyldisilizane, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, 2-methoxyethanol, methyl ethyl ketone, nitric acid, phosphorus, sulfuric acid, and xylene. In addition, radio-frequency and ionizing radiation were monitored and ventilation measured. In general, results were well below recommended standards for routine operations. One exception was radio-frequency radiation where there was the potential for overexposure in several instances. Worker exposures during maintenance operations and process upset conditions were not able to be evaluated.

  18. Neutral beam processing of semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Hoffbauer, M.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The most important challenge facing the US and global microelectronics industry is to identify and develop the next generation of processing technology to produce device structures with dimensions substantially less than 0.25 microns. This project sought to develop controlled, contamination-free etching techniques that are more selective and less damaging than current methods, which are based on inducing surface chemical reactions by rather crude ion-damage mechanisms. The use of non-charged particle etching and cleaning processes in the production of memory and microprocessor chips has been identified by The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors as a new manufacturing technique that may aid in the quest for feature sizes of 0.1 micron and lower. The Hyperthermal Neutral Beam Facility at Los Alamos has demonstrated significant improvement over ion-assisted etching in experiments using energetic oxygen and chlorine atoms.

  19. Low energy positrons as probes of reconstructed semiconductor surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazleev, Nail G.; Weiss, Alex H.

    2007-03-01

    Positron probes of semiconductor surfaces that play a fundamental role in modern science and technology are capable to non-destructively provide information that is both unique to the probe and complimentary to that extracted using other more standard techniques. We discuss recent progress in studies of the reconstructed Si(100), Si(111), Ge(100), and Ge(111) surfaces, clean and exposed to hydrogen and oxygen, using a surface characterization technique, Positron-Annihilation-Induced Auger-Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). Experimental PAES results are analyzed by performing first-principles calculations of positron surface states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons for the reconstructed surfaces, taking into account discrete lattice effects, the electronic reorganization due to bonding, and charge redistribution effects at the surface. Effects of the hydrogen and oxygen adsorption on semiconductor surfaces on localization of positron surface state wave functions and annihilation characteristics are also analyzed. Theoretical calculations confirm that PAES intensities, which are proportional to annihilation probabilities of the surface trapped positrons that results in a core hole, are sensitive to the crystal face, surface structure and elemental content of the semiconductors.

  20. High-Temperature Electronics: A Role for Wide Bandgap Semiconductors?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Okojie, Robert S.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that semiconductor based electronics that can function at ambient temperatures higher than 150 C without external cooling could greatly benefit a variety of important applications, especially-in the automotive, aerospace, and energy production industries. The fact that wide bandgap semiconductors are capable of electronic functionality at much higher temperatures than silicon has partially fueled their development, particularly in the case of SiC. It appears unlikely that wide bandgap semiconductor devices will find much use in low-power transistor applications until the ambient temperature exceeds approximately 300 C, as commercially available silicon and silicon-on-insulator technologies are already satisfying requirements for digital and analog very large scale integrated circuits in this temperature range. However, practical operation of silicon power devices at ambient temperatures above 200 C appears problematic, as self-heating at higher power levels results in high internal junction temperatures and leakages. Thus, most electronic subsystems that simultaneously require high-temperature and high-power operation will necessarily be realized using wide bandgap devices, once the technology for realizing these devices become sufficiently developed that they become widely available. Technological challenges impeding the realization of beneficial wide bandgap high ambient temperature electronics, including material growth, contacts, and packaging, are briefly discussed.

  1. Hydrogen in semiconductors and metals

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, N.H.; Jackson, W.B.; Bowman, R.C.; Leisure, R.G.

    1998-12-31

    Major highlights of the conference include further understanding of the structure of extended hydrogen clusters in semiconductors, switchable optical properties of metal-hydride films, reversible changes in the magnetic coupling in metallic superlattices, and increased lifetime of integrated circuits due to deuterium device passivation. Continued progress has also been achieved in understanding hydrogenation of defects in compound semiconductors and on surfaces. Total energy calculations in semiconductors have progressed sufficiently to predict energetics and vibration frequencies as measured by experiment. Similarly, electronic structure calculations of hydrogen-metal systems provide a deeper understanding of stability, bonding, and phase changes. Various nuclear techniques have been refined to yield important information regarding the concentration and transport of hydrogen in condensed matter. Finally, the interaction of hydrogen to create thermal donors has been used to create deep p-n junctions without the need for deep diffusion of dopants. The volume has been organized along the order of presentation within the conference. Similar methods and subjects have been grouped together. The authors have attempted to keep similar metal and semiconductor papers together in order to further promote cross-fertilization between the fields. Major categories include hydrogen on surfaces, theory and thermodynamics, hydrogen transport phenomena, nuclear characterization techniques, compound semiconductors, metal bulk, devices and applications, bulk silicon, and carbon and carbon-like materials. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers.

  2. Nonlinear optical interactions in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salour, M. M.

    1985-12-01

    The optical pumping technique in GaAs has led to the development of a novel and highly sensitive optical temperature sensor. Completed is the experiment on two photon optical pumping in ZnO. An external cavity semiconductor laser involving ZnO as a gain medium was demonstrated under two-photon excitation. This laser should have a major impact on the development of tunable blue-green radiation for submarine communication. Completed is a paper on heat buildup in semiconductor platelets. New lasers are used to explore elementary excitation in optical thin film layers of semiconductors. This has led to the first demonstration of the feasibility of room temperature operation of a tunable coherent source involving multiple quantum well material. Completed is the construction of a simple remote (non-contact) temperature sensor to directly measure heat buildup in semiconductor materials as a result of high power optical laser excitation. Finally, an experiment involving optical frequency mixing to probe electrodynamics in the GaAlAs multiple quantumwell and superlattice structures, utilizing two recently constructed tunabel laser systems,has been successful. Attempts were focused on observing a number of new optical effects including nonlinear absorption and transmission phenomena, enhanced spontaneous and stimulated light scattering processes, etc. The construction of an external cavity semiconductor HgCdTe has been successful.

  3. Femtosecond electron injection from optically populated donor states into the conduction band of semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstorfer, Ralph; Toeben, Lars; Gundlach, Lars; Felber, Silke; Galoppini, Elena; Wei, Qian; Eichberger, Rainer; Storck, Winfried; Zimmermann, Carsten; Willig, Frank

    2003-12-01

    Unoccupied donor states can be populated via light absorption at the surface of semiconductor in the range of the conduction band levels. Hot electrons are injected from such donor states into the conduction band of a semiconductor on a femtosecond time scale. Such donor states can have rather different physical properties, e.g. unoccupied surface bands formed via reconstruction of the clean surface of a semiconductor in contact with ultra high vacuum or chromophores in molecules that are anchored at the surface of the semiconductor. The energy levels of the donor states with respect to the bands in the semiconductor can be determined with UPS and fs-2PPE. Experimental data on the energetics and dynamics of electron injection are presented for the two different cases of donor states mentioned above. The influence of vibrational wavepackets on electron injection is discussed for the case of a molecular donor state. Energy loss of the hot electrons injected into the semiconductor is measured with energy and time resolution employing femtosecond two-photon-photoemission.

  4. Testing methodologies and systems for semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, Michael

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's) are gaining increased prominence in both optical communication systems and high-speed optical processing systems, due primarily to their unique nonlinear characteristics. This in turn, has raised questions regarding their lifetime performance reliability and has generated a demand for effective testing techniques. This is especially critical for industries utilizing SOA's as components for system-in-package products. It is important to note that very little research to date has been conducted in this area, even though production volume and market demand has continued to increase. In this thesis, the reliability of dilute-mode InP semiconductor optical amplifiers is studied experimentally and theoretically. The aging characteristics of the production level devices are demonstrated and the necessary techniques to accurately characterize them are presented. In addition, this work proposes a new methodology for characterizing the optical performance of these devices using measurements in the electrical domain. It is shown that optical performance degradation, specifically with respect to gain, can be directly qualified through measurements of electrical subthreshold differential resistance. This metric exhibits a linear proportionality to the defect concentration in the active region, and as such, can be used for prescreening devices before employing traditional optical testing methods. A complete theoretical analysis is developed in this work to explain this relationship based upon the device's current-voltage curve and its associated leakage and recombination currents. These results are then extended to realize new techniques for testing semiconductor optical amplifiers and other similarly structured devices. These techniques can be employed after fabrication and during packaged operation through the use of a proposed stand-alone testing system, or using a proposed integrated CMOS self-testing circuit. Both methods are capable

  5. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  6. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  7. Packaging Software Assets for Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

  8. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  9. Status of PERST-5 package

    SciTech Connect

    Gomin, E. A.; Gurevich, M. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V. Sidorenko, V. D.; Druzhinin, V. E.; Zhirnov, A. P.; Rozhdestvenskiy, I. M.

    2012-12-15

    The methods and algorithms used in the PERST-5 package are described. This package is part of the MCU-5 code and is intended for neutron-physical calculation of the cells and parts of nuclear reactors using a generalized method of first collision probabilities.

  10. Status of PERST-5 package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomin, E. A.; Gurevich, M. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V.; Sidorenko, V. D.; Druzhinin, V. E.; Zhirnov, A. P.; Rozhdestvenskiy, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    The methods and algorithms used in the PERST-5 package are described. This package is part of the MCU-5 code and is intended for neutron-physical calculation of the cells and parts of nuclear reactors using a generalized method of first collision probabilities.

  11. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  12. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  13. Sterility of packaged implant components.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Several implant components in their original glass vial and peel-back packages were subjected to sterility testing to determine whether the contents remained sterile after the expiration date marked on the package had passed. The results from a university microbiology laboratory showed that the contents remained sterile for 6 to 11 years after the expiration dates. PMID:15973959

  14. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  15. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  16. Clean intermittent catheterization revisited.

    PubMed

    Lamin, Eliza; Newman, Diane K

    2016-06-01

    Catheterization is the insertion of a hollow flexible tube (called a catheter) to drain the urine from the bladder and is probably one of the oldest urologic procedures, dating back 3000 years. Since 1972, when urologist Dr Jack Lapides described a procedure for performing clean intermittent catheterization, this method of bladder management has become lifesaving for an individual who cannot empty their bladder independently. If the bladder is not emptied regularly, elevated storage pressures can develop which may put the upper tracts at risk of subsequent deterioration. Intermittent catheterization (IC) has become the first-line and preferred method of drainage in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, as long as dexterity or available caregiver support and body habitus allow access. However, over the past 20 years, an evolution has occurred in the technology of catheters used for IC. But with these advances, so has controversy arisen. This article is a review of the current application of IC, the current technology in catheter material and systems, differences between reusable and one-time, or single-use catheters, the cost benefit of doing IC, and the infectious benefit. PMID:26956983

  17. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  18. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  19. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  20. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  1. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  2. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial packages. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packages. (a) General. Each industrial package must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies package tests,...

  3. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  4. 10 CFR 71.33 - Package description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Package description. 71.33 Section 71.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.33 Package description. The application must include a description of the proposed package in sufficient detail to identify...

  5. 10 CFR 71.33 - Package description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Package description. 71.33 Section 71.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.33 Package description. The application must include a description of the proposed package in sufficient detail to identify...

  6. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  7. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Packaging exceptions. 173.63 Section 173.63... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions...) Cartridges, power devices which are used to project fastening devices. (2) Packaging for Cartridges,...

  8. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  9. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  10. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Packaging exceptions. 173.63 Section 173.63... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions... fastening devices). (2) Packaging for Cartridges, small arms, Cartridges for tools, blank, Cases,...

  11. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  12. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Packaging exceptions. 173.63 Section 173.63... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions...) Cartridges, power devices which are used to project fastening devices. (2) Packaging for Cartridges,...

  13. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  14. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging exceptions. 173.63 Section 173.63... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions... which are used to project fastening devices. (2) Packaging for cartridges, small arms, and...

  15. Nanocomposite Sensors for Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.

  16. Surface and electrochemical studies in coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.; Briceno, A.; Esposito, M.C.; Pang, J.; Raleigh, C.E.

    1989-05-01

    This final technical report, summarizes the accomplishments of our investigation on surface and electrochemical studies in coal cleaning. A considerable effort was made to characterize coal pyrites in detail. The report is divided into three self-contained portions: flotation studies, characterization of pyrite from coal sources, and electrochemical characterization of pyrite. A variety of reagents were found to be effective for the depression of pyrite during coal flotation: lime, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, polysaccharides, xanthated polysaccharides and dye. Seven pyrite samples purified from coal sources and one ore source pyrite (for comparative purposes) have been characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses, inherent floatability, apparent specific gravity, surface area, semiconductor type, optical anisotropy, dissolution and oxidation rate. Cyclic voltammetry, steady-state polarization and AC impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize pyrites from ore and coal sources. These studies show that one reason for difference in the behavior of pyrites is the nature of surface films that form when pyrite oxidizes. 85 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Indium phosphide negative electron affinity photocathodes: Surface cleaning and activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun

    InP(100) is a very important semi-conductor for many applications. When activated by Cs and oxygen, the InP surface achieves the state of Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) making the Cs+O/InP system a very efficient electron source. Despite many years of study, the chemical cleaning and activation of InP are still not well understood. In our work, we have established an understanding of the basic physics and chemistry for the chemical cleaning and activation of the InP(100) surface. Synchrotron Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy is the main technique used in this study because of its high surface sensitivity and ability to identify chemical species present on the surface at each stage of our process. A clean, stoichiometric InP(100) surface is crucial for obtaining high performance of NEA photocathodes. Therefore, the first part of our study focused on the chemical cleaning of InP(100). We found that hydrogen peroxide based solutions alone, originally developed to clean GaAs(100) surfaces and widely used for InP(100), do not result in clean InP(I00) surfaces because oxide is left on the surface. A second cleaning step, which uses acid solutions like HCl or H2SO4, can remove all the oxide and leave a 0.4 ML protective layer of elemental phosphorous on the surface. The elemental phosphorous can be removed by annealing at 330°C and a clean InP(100) surface can be obtained. Cs deposition on InP(100) surface shows clear charge transfer from the Cs ad-atoms to the substrate. When the Cs/InP(100) surface is dosed with oxygen, the charge transfer from the Cs to substrate is reduced and substrate is oxidized. The activation of InP as a NEA photocathode is carried out by an alternating series of steps consisting of Cs deposition and Cs+O co-deposition. Two types of oxygen are found after activation. The first is dissociated oxygen and the other is a di-oxygen species (peroxide or superoxide). The decay of quantum-yield with time and with annealing is studied and changes in

  18. What are our cleaning options

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Glover, A.L.

    1992-02-13

    Cleaning has always been an important step in manufacturing operations. Cleaning proceeds functions such as machining, inspection, plating, bonding, welding, heat treatment, and painting. If a surface is not properly cleaned or prepared, the results can be disastrous. The majority of industry has used cleaning methods such as vapor degreasing or solvent cleaning with chlorinated solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, or perchloroethylene. These solvents were non-flammable, were considered to have low toxicity, and worked fairly well. However, recent finding regarding these solvents have caused them to fall from favor. Chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform have been implicated as ozone depleting substances and are being regulated as such. Current plans call for a ban on production of these substances in the year 2000 and 2005, respectively. Perchloroethylene has been classified as a suspect carcinogen and has also come under recent guidelines and regulations in the United States. Personnel at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have been actively pursuing substitutes for these solvents. Ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent was originally implemented as a substitute for vapor degreasing at Y-12 approximately 7 years ago. This type of cleaning has been proven to be very reliable and effective. Organic solvents to replace chlorinated solvents have also been investigated for squirt bottle'' or wiping applications. The Y-12 Plant has implemented Solvent 140 and a solvent blend in these type applications. Results both experimentally and in the field have been favorable using these solvents. A with any cleaning method, there are some drawbacks with these substitutes. The ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent does require a rinse cycle, a drying cycle, and a capital investment. The Solvent 140 and solvent blend are slow evaporators when compared with the chlorinated solvents. However, these substitutes do work.

  19. What are our cleaning options?

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Glover, A.L.

    1992-02-13

    Cleaning has always been an important step in manufacturing operations. Cleaning proceeds functions such as machining, inspection, plating, bonding, welding, heat treatment, and painting. If a surface is not properly cleaned or prepared, the results can be disastrous. The majority of industry has used cleaning methods such as vapor degreasing or solvent cleaning with chlorinated solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, or perchloroethylene. These solvents were non-flammable, were considered to have low toxicity, and worked fairly well. However, recent finding regarding these solvents have caused them to fall from favor. Chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform have been implicated as ozone depleting substances and are being regulated as such. Current plans call for a ban on production of these substances in the year 2000 and 2005, respectively. Perchloroethylene has been classified as a suspect carcinogen and has also come under recent guidelines and regulations in the United States. Personnel at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have been actively pursuing substitutes for these solvents. Ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent was originally implemented as a substitute for vapor degreasing at Y-12 approximately 7 years ago. This type of cleaning has been proven to be very reliable and effective. Organic solvents to replace chlorinated solvents have also been investigated for ``squirt bottle`` or wiping applications. The Y-12 Plant has implemented Solvent 140 and a solvent blend in these type applications. Results both experimentally and in the field have been favorable using these solvents. A with any cleaning method, there are some drawbacks with these substitutes. The ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent does require a rinse cycle, a drying cycle, and a capital investment. The Solvent 140 and solvent blend are slow evaporators when compared with the chlorinated solvents. However, these substitutes do work.

  20. Optimizing EUV mask blank cleaning processes using the Lasertec M7360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Kadaksham, Arun John; House, Matt; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank

    2012-03-01

    EUV lithography is considered the most promising lithography solution for the 16 nm node and beyond. As EUV light is strongly absorbed by all known materials, reflective optics are used instead of conventional transmittance optics applied to ArF and KrF lithography. The EUV mask must also need be reflective. It typically consists of a Ta-based absorber layer, Ru capping layer, Si/Mo multilayer on a low thermal expansion material (LTEM) substrate with a backside Cr-based metal coating. Because of the strong absorbance of the EUV light, a pellicle is not practical. Therefore, EUV masks must be cleaned more frequently to maintain the necessary cleanliness. This poses numerous unique challenges in cleaning processes. For example, the EUV mask integrity, including critical dimension (CD), EUV reflectivity, and absorber thickness must be kept intact during multiple cleanings throughout the mask's lifetime. Requirements of defect size for the cleaning, furthermore, are becoming tighter as semiconductor circuit design rules get smaller. According to the International Technology Roadmap For Semiconductors (ITRS), the smallest defect size that must be removed is 23 nm for the 18 nm NAND Flash node in 2013. In addition to defects on the frontside, defects on a backside also need to be minimized since they might lead overlay error due to local distortions of EUV masks on an electrostatic chuck. This paper focuses on evaluations of cleaning performances using the Lasertec M1350 and M7360 blank inspection system, which has a 71 nm and 43 nm sensitivity. The 43nm is the current best sensitivity while keeping a >90% defect capture rate. First, the cleaning performance using the standard process has been investigated. We found a mitigation of adders was a key challenge for the EUV mask cleaning. The primary source of the adders was also identified as pits. Secondly, the megasonic cleaning process has been optimized to mitigate the adders. We could successfully reduce the adders by

  1. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m(-2) and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  2. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V−1 s−1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m−2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  3. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-12-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V-1 s-1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m-2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics.

  4. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, G. W.; Qian, Q. Peng, K. L.; Wen, X.; Zhou, G. X.; Sun, M.; Chen, X. D.; Yang, Z. M.

    2015-02-15

    Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se) semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

  5. METHOD OF CLEANING METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Winkler, H.W.; Morfitt, J.W.; Little, T.H.

    1959-05-19

    Cleaning fluids for removing deposits from metal surfaces are described. The cleaning agents of the invention consist of aqueous nitric acid and an amhydrous nitrate salt of a metal which is lower in the electromotive series than the element of the deposit to be removed. In general, the salt content of thc cleaning agents ranged from 10 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 40% by weight; and the balance of the composition comprises nitric acid of any strength from extremely dilute up to concentrated strength.

  6. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  7. Device Concepts in Semiconductor Spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenkamp, Laurens W.

    Semiconductor spintronics has now reached a stage where the basic physical mechanisms controlling spin injection and detection are understood. Moreover, some critical technological issues involved in the growth and lithography of the magnetic semiconductors have been solved. This has allowed us to explore the physics of meanwhile quite complex spintronic devices. The lectures will start with an introduction to spin transport in metals and semiconductors. Building upon this, I will discuss various simple devices that demonstrate this basic physics in action. Subsequently, more advanced devices will be covered. For example, I will discuss resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) fabricated from paramagnetic II-VI semiconductors that can be operated as a voltage controlled spin-switch. A quantum dot version of these RTDs exhibits, unexpectedly, remanent magnetism at zero external field, which we interpret as resulting from tunneling through a single magnetic polaron. In the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As we have observed a very large spin valve effect due to domain wall pinning at sub-10 nm sized constrictions. Furthermore, we have found a novel magnetoresistance effect in this material, dubbed tunnel anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR), which is due to the strongly (magneto-)anisotropic density of states in a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The effect leads to the observation of a spin valve-like behavior in tunnel structures containg a single ferromagnetic layer and also dominates the spin-valve signal obtained from structures containing two (Ga, Mn)As layers, where the effect may cause resistance changes of five orders of magnitude. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  8. Exciton Transport in Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, Stephen Matthew

    Photovoltaic cells based on organic semiconductors are attractive for their use as a renewable energy source owing to their abundant feedstock and compatibility with low-cost coating techniques on flexible substrates. In contrast to photovoltaic cells based traditional inorganic semiconductors, photon absorption in an organic semiconductor results in the formation of a coulombically bound electron-hole pair, or exciton. The transport of excitons, consequently, is of critical importance as excitons mediate the interaction between charge and light in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). In this dissertation, a strong connection between the fundamental photophysical parameters that control nanoscopic exciton energy transfer and the mesoscopic exciton transport is established. With this connection in place, strategies for enhancing the typically short length scale for exciton diffusion (L D) can be developed. Dilution of the organic semiconductor boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) is found to increase the LD for SubPc by 50%. In turn, OPVs based on dilute layers of SubPc exhibit a 30% enhancement in power conversion efficiency. The enhancement in power conversion efficiency is realized via enhancements in LD, optimized optical spacing, and directed exciton transport at an exciton permeable interface. The role of spin, energetic disorder, and thermal activation on L D are also addressed. Organic semiconductors that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence and efficient intersystem and reverse intersystem crossing highlight the balance between singlet and triplet exciton energy transfer and diffusion. Temperature dependent measurements for LD provide insight into the inhomogeneously broadened exciton density of states and the thermal nature of exciton energy transfer. Additional topics include energy-cascade OPV architectures and broadband, spectrally tunable photodetectors based on organic semiconductors.

  9. Stabilizing Semiconductor Devices With Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overhauser, Albert W.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Damage by radiation healed rapidly. Feature provides continuous, rapid recovery of devices from degradation caused by hot electrons, photons, and ionizing radiation. Several candidate sites for palladium film catalysts, inserted during manufacture as integral parts of devices. Paladium films made by evaporation, sputtering, or chemical-vapor deposition. If additional storage required, thick layer of palladium plated on inside of package surrounding device. Hydrogen stored by exposing palladium to hydrogen gas just before package sealed hermetically.

  10. A comparative study of remote plasma sources for environmentally-friendly CVD chambers cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Raoux, S.; Lai, K.C.; Nguyen, H.; Sarfaty, M.; Li, S.T.; Davidow, J.; Huang, T.F.

    1999-07-01

    CVD chamber cleaning is the main source of perfluorocompound (PFC) emission from semiconductor fabrication plants. Over the past years, several attempts have been made to optimize chamber cleaning efficiency and reduce its environmental impact. A new cleaning technology has been introduced that improves the overall tool productivity while virtually eliminating PFC emission concerns. A remote high-density plasma source dissociates NF{sub 3} molecules, and the reactive byproducts are injected in the CVD chamber to etch the deposition residues. Due to near-complete utilization of the source gas, the technology provides reduced clean time, and the MMTCE (Million Metric Ton Carbon Equivalent) of the process can be reduced by two orders of magnitude, compared to classical in-situ RF plasma cleans. In this study, the authors compare the characteristics of a microwave-driven and a magnetically-enhanced indicatively coupled NF{sub 3} discharge. Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Quadrupole Mass Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra Red and etch rate measurements were used to characterize the different sources and assess the environmental impact of the clean processes. A comparative analysis of the two types of plasma sources is made with respect to implementation of this cleaning technology in an industrial environment.

  11. A brief history of ... semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Tudor

    2005-09-01

    The development of studies in semiconductor materials is traced from its beginnings with Michael Faraday in 1833 to the production of the first silicon transistor in 1954, which heralded the age of silicon electronics and microelectronics. Prior to the advent of band theory, work was patchy and driven by needs of technology. However, the arrival of this successful quantum theory of solids, together with a concentration on the growth of pure silicon and germanium and an understanding of their properties, saw an explosion in activity in semiconductor studies that has continued to this day.

  12. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, Paul N.; Stan, Liliana; Jia, Quanxi; DePaula, Raymond F.; Usov, Igor O.

    2010-12-14

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  13. Thermoelectric performance of granular semiconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Materials Science Division; California State Univ.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of doping and confinement on the thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline semiconductors. We calculate the thermopower and figure of merit for temperatures less than the charging energy. For weakly coupled semiconducting grains it is shown that the figure of merit is optimized for grain sizes of order 5 nm for typical materials, and that its value can be larger than one. Using the similarities between granular semiconductors and electron or Coulomb glasses allows for a quantitative description of inhomogeneous semiconducting thermoelectrics.

  14. Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarbo, Liviu

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities

  15. Amesos Solver Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. wheremore » A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.« less

  16. Nuclear waste packaging facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Paladino, J.B.; Razor, J.E.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.

    1987-07-21

    A nuclear waste packaging facility comprising: (a) a first section substantially surrounded by radiation shielding, including means for remotely handling waste delivered to the first section and for placing the waste into a disposal module; (b) a second section substantially surrounded by radiation shielding, including means for handling a deformable container bearing waste delivered to the second section, the handling means including a compactor and means for placing the waste bearing deformable container into the compactor, the compactor capable of applying a compacting force to the waste bearing containers sufficient to inelastically deform the waste and container, and means for delivering the deformed waste bearing containers to a disposal module; (c) a module transportation and loading section disposed between the first and second sections including a means for handling empty modules delivered to the facility and for loading the empty modules on the transport means; the transport means moving empty disposal modules to the first section and empty disposal modules to the second section for locating empty modules in a position for loading with nuclear waste, and (d) a grouting station comprising means for pouring grout into the waste bearing disposal module, and a capping station comprising means for placing a lid onto the waste bearing grout-filled disposal module to completely encapsulate the waste.

  17. The CDF software package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts that are fundamental to the new Common Data Format are outlined. With Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) Version 4.0, the Common Data Format (CDF) will supersede the Climate Data File (also CDF) or earlier versions. This new format incorporates generalizations in both design and terminology that make it applicable to multidisciplinary data sets. Furthermore, the new CDF will be made available to programmers as a software package that shields them from the low-level details of file formats. The CDF interface routines create an abstract conceptual environment for the scientific programmer. The principle concept for visualizing a CDF is known as the basic grid. A basic grid is an n-dimensional block by means of which a CDF is constructed. The size of the block may vary from one CDF to another, but is consistent within any individual CDF. Thus, the basic grid serves as a fundamental uniform building block for a CDF. The number of grid dimensions and the size of each dimension are chosen by the scientist/programmer to represent the patterns by which data are structured. The uniform grid structure appears to the programmer to be propagated into each record for each variable. The CDF stores a variable value for each lattice point of the grid for each record. These data values are inserted and retrieved simply by specifying the variable's identifier, a record number, and the indices that specify the lattice point of interest.

  18. Particle Environment Package (PEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, S.; Wurz, P.; Brandt, P.; Wieser, M.; Holmström, M.; Futaana, Y.; Stenberg, G.; Nilsson, H.; Eriksson, A.; Tulej, M.; Vorburger, A.; Thomas, N.; Paranicas, C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Ho, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Haggerty, D.; Westlake, J. H.; Fränz, M.; Krupp, N.; Roussos, E.; Kallio, E.; Schmidt, W.; Szego, K.; Szalai, S.; Khurana, Krishan; Jia, Xianzhe; Paty, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Heber, B.; Kazushi, Asamura; Grande, M.; Lammer, H.; Zhang, T.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Krimigis, S. M.; Sarris, Th.; Grodent, D.

    2013-09-01

    Particle Environment Package (PEP) is a suite of particle sensors proposed for the ESA JUICE mission. PEP includes sensors for the comprehensive measurements of electrons, ions, energetic neutrals, and neutral gas. PEP covers over nine decades of energy <0.001 eV to >1 MeV with full angular coverage. Combining remote global imaging via energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) with in-situ measurements, PEP addresses all scientific objectives of the JUICE mission relevant to particle measurements. PEP will seek answers for four overarching science questions: How does the corotating magnetosphere of Jupiter interact with complex and diverse environment of Ganymede? How does the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Jupiter interact with seemingly inert Callisto? What are the governing mechanisms and their global impact of release of material into the Jupiter magnetosphere from Europa and Io? How do internal and solar wind drivers cause such energetic, time variable and multi-scale phenomena in the steadily rotating giant magnetosphere of Jupiter? We discuss the suite's sensor basic design, performance, radiation mitigation principles and demonstrate how the suite fully addresses its scientific objectives.

  19. Amesos Solver Package

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Vendall S.; Heroux, Michael A.; Hoekstra, Robert J.; Sala, Marzio

    2004-03-01

    Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.

  20. Packaging Considerations for Biopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Erik J.; Thirumala, Sreedhar

    2011-01-01

    Summary The packaging system chosen for biopreservation is critical for many reasons. An ideal biopreservation container system must provide for closure integrity, sample stability and ready access to the preserved material. This means the system needs to be hermetically sealed to ensure integrity of the specimen is maintained throughout processing, storage and distribution; the system must remain stable over long periods of time as many biobanked samples may be stored indefinitely; and functionally closed access systems must be used to avoid contamination upon sample withdraw. This study reviews the suitability of a new commercially available vial configuration container utilizing blood bag style closure and access systems that can be hermetically sealed and remain stable through cryopreservation and biobanking procedures. This vial based systems allow for current good manufacturing/tissue practice (cGTP) requirements during processing of samples and may provide the benefit of ease of delivery by a care giver. In this study, the CellSeal® closed system cryovial was evaluated and compared to standard screw cap vials. The CellSeal system was evaluated for durability, closure integrity through transportation and maintenance of functional viability of a cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cell model. The results of this initial proof-of-concept study indicated that the CellSeal vials are highly suitable for biopreservation and biobanking, and provide a suitable container system for clinical and commercial cell therapy products frozen in small volumes. PMID:21566715

  1. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  2. Semiconductor Reliability--Another Field for Physicists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman, Samuel; Anderson, Wallace T.

    1994-01-01

    Stresses that an important industrial area is product reliability, especially for semiconductors. Suggests that physics students would benefit from training in semiconductors: the many modes of failure, radiation effects, and electrical contact problems. (MVL)

  3. Ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Keisuke; Fujita, Chitoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1994-12-31

    During fuel transportation, contamination of the transfer cask can lead to radiation dosage. That is radioactive crud becomes detached from the fuel surface and is deposited inside the cask. To avoid this at the Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, crud was removed from fuel assemblies in advance of fuel transportation work. An ultrasonic cleaning process was adopted for this purpose; ultrasonic methods excel over other methods for this type of cleaning. Our process is also able to clean fuel assemblies without removing the channel box. Since this is the first time that the ultrasonic method was applied to fuel assemblies at the light water reactor in Japan on a large scale, the efficiency and the impact on plant instrumentation of the method were examined by performing preliminary test. Based on these tests, an optimum cleaning procedure was established.

  4. EPA CLEAN PRODUCTS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent emphasis on developing information on achieving pollution prevention has resulted in increased research activity by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the area of clean product development. urrently the EPA's Pollution Prevention Research Branch (PPRB) has si...

  5. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  6. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  7. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  8. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  9. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  10. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations.

  11. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation`s hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation`s system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations.

  12. Clean power generation from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.; Basu, P.

    2007-09-15

    The chapter gives an overview of power generation from coal, describing its environmental impacts, methods of cleaning coal before combustion, combustion methods, and post-combustion cleanup. It includes a section on carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilization. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods are covered. Coal conversion techniques covered are: pulverized coal combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, supercritical boilers, cyclone combustion, magnetohydrodynamics and gasification. 66 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  15. Effect of barrier height on friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted for the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals. Polycrystalline titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, and platinum were made to contact a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Indium, nickel, copper, and silver were made to contact a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Sliding was conducted both in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 9th power torr. The friction of semiconductors in contact with metals depended on a Schottky barrier height formed at the metal semiconductor interface. Metals with a higher barrier height on semiconductors gave lower friction. The effect of the barrier height on friction behavior for argon sputtered cleaned surfaces in vacuum was more specific than that for the surfaces containing films in room air. With a silicon surface sliding on titanium, many silicon particles back transferred. In contrast, a large quantity of indium transferred to the gallium arsenide surface.

  16. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  17. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Arthur J.

    1987-01-01

    An electrode is disclosed for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode includes a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  18. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  19. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.J.

    1985-02-19

    An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  20. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.