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Sample records for clearance die szintigrafische

  1. Desialylation of dying cells with catalytically active antibodies possessing sialidase activity facilitate their clearance by human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tomin, A; Dumych, T; Tolstyak, Y; Kril, I; Mahorivska, I; Bila, E; Stoika, R; Herrmann, M; Kit, Y; Bilyy, R

    2015-01-01

    Recently we reported the first known incidence of antibodies possessing catalytic sialidase activity (sialidase abzymes) in the serum of patients with multiple myeloma and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies desialylate biomolecules, such as glycoproteins, gangliosides and red blood cells. Desialylation of dying cells was demonstrated to facilitate apoptotic cell clearance. In this study we assessed the possibility to facilitate dying cell clearance with the use of F(ab)2 fragments of sialidase abzymes. Two sources of sialidase abzymes were used: (i) those isolated from sera of patients with SLE after preliminary screening of a cohort of patients for sialidase activity; and (ii) by creating an induced sialidase abzyme through immunization of a rabbit with synthetic hapten consisting of a non-hydrolysable analogue of sialidase reaction conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Antibodies were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, protein-G affinity chromatography and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-SEC). Effect of desialylation on efferocytosis was studied using human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), both viable and aged, as prey, and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMa). Treatment of apoptotic and viable prey with both disease-associated (purified from blood serum of SLE patients) and immunization-induced (obtained by immunization of rabbits) sialidase abzymes, its F(ab)2 fragment and bacterial neuraminidase (as positive control) have significantly enhanced the clearance of prey by macrophages. We conclude that sialidase abzyme can serve as a protective agent in autoimmune patients and that artificial abzymes may be of potential therapeutic value. PMID:24580640

  2. Clearance of autophagy-associated dying retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible source for inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Szatmári-Tóth, M; Kristóf, E; Veréb, Z; Akhtar, S; Facskó, A; Fésüs, L; Kauppinen, A; Kaarniranta, K; Petrovski, G

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can undergo different forms of cell death, including autophagy-associated cell death during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Failure of macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) to engulf the different dying cells in the retina may result in the accumulation of debris and progression of AMD. ARPE-19 and primary human RPE cells undergo autophagy-associated cell death upon serum depletion and oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Autophagy was revealed by elevated light-chain-3 II (LC3-II) expression and electron microscopy, while autophagic flux was confirmed by blocking the autophago-lysosomal fusion using chloroquine (CQ) in these cells. The autophagy-associated dying RPE cells were engulfed by human macrophages, DCs and living RPE cells in an increasing and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) decreased the engulfment of the autophagy-associated dying cells by macrophages, whereas sorting out the GFP-LC3-positive/autophagic cell population or treatment by the glucocorticoid triamcinolone (TC) enhanced it. Increased amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were released when autophagy-associated dying RPEs were engulfed by macrophages. Our data suggest that cells undergoing autophagy-associated cell death engage in clearance mechanisms guided by professional and non-professional phagocytes, which is accompanied by inflammation as part of an in vitro modeling of AMD pathogenesis. PMID:27607582

  3. NADPH Oxidase-dependent Generation of Lysophosphatidylserine Enhances Clearance of Activated and Dying Neutrophils via G2A*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, S. Courtney; Berry, Karin Zemski; Fernandez-Boyanapalli, Ruby; Jin, Hyun-Sun; Leslie, Christina; Henson, Peter M.; Murphy, Robert C.; Bratton, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    Exofacial phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important ligand mediating apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes. Oxidation of PS fatty acyl groups (oxPS) during apoptosis reportedly mediates recognition through scavenger receptors. Given the oxidative capacity of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, we sought to identify oxPS signaling species in stimulated neutrophils. Using mass spectrometry analysis, only trace amounts of previously characterized oxPS species were found. Conversely, 18:1 and 18:0 lysophosphatidylserine (lyso-PS), known bioactive signaling phospholipids, were identified as abundant modified PS species following activation of the neutrophil oxidase. NADPH oxidase inhibitors blocked the production of lyso-PS in vitro, and accordingly, its generation in vivo by activated, murine neutrophils during zymosan-induced peritonitis was absent in mice lacking a functional NADPH oxidase (gp91phox-/-). Treatment of macrophages with lyso-PS enhanced the uptake of apoptotic cells in vitro, an effect that was dependent on signaling via the macrophage G2A receptor. Similarly, endogenously produced lyso-PS also enhanced the G2A-mediated uptake of activated PS-exposing (but non-apoptotic) neutrophils, raising the possibility of non-apoptotic mechanisms for removal of inflammatory cells during resolution. Finally, antibody blockade of G2A signaling in vivo prolonged zymosan-induced neutrophilia in wild-type mice, whereas having no effect in gp91phox-/- mice where lyso-PS are not generated. Taken together, we show that lyso-PS are modified PS species generated following activation of the NADPH oxidase and lyso-PS signaling through the macrophage G2A functions to enhance existing receptor/ligand systems for optimal resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:18824544

  4. The Dynamics of Apoptotic Cell Clearance.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Michael R; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2016-07-25

    The phagocytic clearance of dying cells in a tissue is a highly orchestrated series of intercellular events coordinated by a complex signaling network. Recent data from genetic, biochemical, and live-imaging approaches have greatly enhanced our understanding of the dynamics of cell clearance and how the process is orchestrated at the cellular and tissue levels. We discuss how networks regulating apoptotic cell clearance are integrated to enable a rapid, efficient, and high-capacity clearance system within tissues. PMID:27459067

  5. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  6. ELMO1 signaling in apoptotic germ cell clearance and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Michael R; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2010-10-01

    Apoptosis and the subsequent removal of dying cells are crucial processes for tissue development and maintenance. Although we are beginning to understand the signaling pathways that control the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells, the physiological relevance of these pathways is lacking. During spermatogenesis, over half of the developing germ cells eventually die by apoptosis, yet the signaling pathways that regulate the phagocytic clearance of these dying cells or the impact of this clearance on development and maintenance of the germ cell population is not well understood. The ELMO1/Dock180 proteins form an evolutionarily conserved signaling module that functions as a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rac. The subsequent Rac-dependent cytoskeletal changes play an important role in the physical engulfment of apoptotic cells. Recent findings demonstrate an in vivo role for ELMO1-dependent clearance in the testes, with implications for spermatogenesis. Here we will discuss the role of apoptotic cell clearance during spermatogenesis, with a particular emphasis on ELMO1/Dock180 signaling. PMID:20958313

  7. Advanced Thermal HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    WojciechVoytek, Sak

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a fast acting HPT Active Clearance Control System to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions CHALLENGE: Reduction of HPT blade clearance throughout engine operation System complexity, reliability and cost must remain comparable or surpass today s engines Reduced clearance may increase possibility of rubs

  8. The clearance of dying cells: table for two.

    PubMed

    Green, D R; Oguin, T H; Martinez, J

    2016-06-01

    Phagocytic cells of the immune system must constantly survey for, recognize, and efficiently clear the billions of cellular corpses that arise as a result of development, stress, infection, or normal homeostasis. This process, termed efferocytosis, is critical for the prevention of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and persistence of dead cells in tissue is characteristic of many human autoimmune diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus. The most notable characteristic of the efferocytosis of apoptotic cells is its 'immunologically silent' response. Although the mechanisms by which phagocytes facilitate engulfment of dead cells has been a well-studied area, the pathways that coordinate to process the ingested corpse and direct the subsequent immune response is an area of growing interest. The recently described pathway of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3)-associated phagocytosis (LAP) has shed some light on this issue. LAP is triggered when an extracellular particle, such as a dead cell, engages an extracellular receptor during phagocytosis, induces the translocation of autophagy machinery, and ultimately LC3 to the cargo-containing phagosome, termed the LAPosome. In this review, we will examine efferocytosis and the impact of LAP on efferocytosis, allowing us to reimagine the impact of the autophagy machinery on innate host defense mechanisms. PMID:26990661

  9. The clearance of dying cells: table for two

    PubMed Central

    Green, D R; Oguin, T H; Martinez, J

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytic cells of the immune system must constantly survey for, recognize, and efficiently clear the billions of cellular corpses that arise as a result of development, stress, infection, or normal homeostasis. This process, termed efferocytosis, is critical for the prevention of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and persistence of dead cells in tissue is characteristic of many human autoimmune diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus. The most notable characteristic of the efferocytosis of apoptotic cells is its ‘immunologically silent' response. Although the mechanisms by which phagocytes facilitate engulfment of dead cells has been a well-studied area, the pathways that coordinate to process the ingested corpse and direct the subsequent immune response is an area of growing interest. The recently described pathway of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3)-associated phagocytosis (LAP) has shed some light on this issue. LAP is triggered when an extracellular particle, such as a dead cell, engages an extracellular receptor during phagocytosis, induces the translocation of autophagy machinery, and ultimately LC3 to the cargo-containing phagosome, termed the LAPosome. In this review, we will examine efferocytosis and the impact of LAP on efferocytosis, allowing us to reimagine the impact of the autophagy machinery on innate host defense mechanisms. PMID:26990661

  10. Renal Clearance of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak Soo; Liu, Wenhao; Misra, Preeti; Tanaka, Eiichi; Zimmer, John P.; Ipe, Binil Itty; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using quantum dots (QDs) as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinary excretion of inorganic, metal-containing nanoparticles. Zwitterionic or neutral organic coatings prevented adsorption of serum proteins, which otherwise increased hydrodynamic diameter (HD) by over 15 nm and prevented renal excretion. A final HD smaller than 5.5 nm resulted in rapid and efficient urinary excretion, and elimination of QDs from the body. This study provides a foundation for the design and development of biologically targeted nanoparticles for biomedical applications. PMID:17891134

  11. Site clearance working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  12. Bromosulphophthalein clearance rates in sheep with pyrrolizidine liver damage.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, G W; Peterson, J E

    1979-05-01

    Sheep fed a ration containing 50% of dried Heliotropium europaeum showed a marked decline in bromosulphophthalein (BSP) fractional clearance rate during the first 3 months feeding. Thereafter, the response of individual animals varied widely on a time basis, although 3 groups could be identified. In the terminal stages, mean clearance rates were below 20% of initial values, with some sheep showing a decline in excess of 90%. Loss of liver functional capacity was generally much greater than indicated by the degree of damage revealed by histopathology. Thus, a suitably modified test could have considerable prognostic value in the field. In this investigation, all sheep with clearance rates below 0.15 died when exposed to a further period of H. europaeum feeding. PMID:475677

  13. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  14. Turbomachinery Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Study on Blanking Process with Negative Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Kenji; Yanaga, Hiroki; Fukushima, Katsunori

    This study summarizes the characteristics of blanking behavior with a negative clearance. Several experiments were performed for two aluminum sheets over a wide range of clearances including negative values. Blanking with negatively large clearances was found to produce fine cut edges with less roll-over and no fracture zone even for a brittle material. Corresponding simulations were performed using the Ayada's criterion for predicting ductile fracture initiation. Each zone of blanked part edges such as roll-over and fractured zone agreed well with that obtained in the experiments except a few cases accompanied by secondary shear. The reason for prevention of fracture by using negative clearances was explained with the change of the damage value during the process; the damage value was kept low throughout the blanking operation since the mean stress dominating the damage value became compressive around the die edge. Influences of blanking parameters on load-stroke curves were also investigated. The curves for negative clearances showed gradual increase in load toward the end of stroke. The earlier fracture initiated, the earlier the load reached a peak. Simulated curves showed the same tendency and in good agreement with the experimental ones quantitatively.

  16. Wege in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  17. Airway clearance in neuromuscular weakness.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Leanne Maree

    2009-05-01

    Impaired airway clearance leads to recurrent chest infections and respiratory deterioration in neuromuscular weakness. It is frequently the cause of death. Cough is the major mechanism of airway clearance. Cough has several components, and assessment tools are available to measure the different components of cough. These include measuring peak cough flow, respiratory muscle strength, and inspiratory capacity. Each is useful in assessing the ability to generate an effective cough, and can be used to guide when techniques of assisting airway clearance may be effective for the individual and which are most effective. Techniques to assist airway clearance include augmenting inspiration by air stacking, augmenting expiration by assisting the cough, and augmenting both inspiration and expiration with the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator or by direct suctioning via a tracheostomy. Physiotherapists are invaluable in assisting airway clearance, and in teaching patients and their families how to use these techniques. Use of the mechanical insufflator-exsufflator has gained popularity in recent times, but several simpler, more economical methods are available to assist airway clearance that can be used effectively alone or in combination. This review examines the literature available on the assessment and management of impaired airway clearance in neuromuscular weakness. PMID:19379290

  18. Method of mucociliary clearance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilova, Tatiana V.; Manturov, Alexey O.; Ermakov, Igor Y.; Mareev, Gleb O.; Mareev, Oleg V.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the research capabilities of mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses using modern techniques of digital video recording and processing. We describe the setup and software for this method and the results of our research. Using microscope and digital camera we can provide a good method to study mucociliary clearance and by usage of special software we able to measure some characteristic of nasal mucosae and its main function.

  19. Dual clearance squeeze film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A dual clearance hydrodynamic liquid squeeze film damper for a gas turbine engine is described. Under normal operating conditions, the device functions as a conventional squeeze film damper, using only one of its oil films. When an unbalance reaches abusive levels, as may occur with a blade loss or foreign object damage, a second, larger clearance film becomes active, controlling vibration amplitudes in a near optimum manner until the engine can be safely shut down and repaired.

  20. Die drool and die drool theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzer, A. M.; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    When molten plastic is extruded from a die, it sometimes collects on the open face of the die. Known as die drool, this phenomenon costs plastics manufacturers by requiring die cleaning. This has been attributed to many causes, but none of these has led to an equation for the drool rate. In this work we provide an exact analytical solution for the drool rate, and we base this solution on a postulate of a cohesive slip layer near the die walls. We thus attribute die drool to cohesive failure within the fluid at an internal surface where the fluid slips on itself. We adimensionalize the drool rate with the production rate, and call this the build up ratio, BR. We provide an exact analytical solution for BR when the cohesive slip layer either sticks at the wall. We examine the slit geometry corresponding to sheet or film extrusion.

  1. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... takeoffs and landings. (c) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of at least 18 inches between each propeller and the water, unless compliance with § 23.239 can be shown with a lesser clearance. (d... airplane structure, plus any additional radial clearance necessary to prevent harmful vibration; (2)...

  2. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... takeoffs and landings. (c) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of at least 18 inches between each propeller and the water, unless compliance with § 23.239 can be shown with a lesser clearance. (d... airplane structure, plus any additional radial clearance necessary to prevent harmful vibration; (2)...

  3. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... takeoffs and landings. (c) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of at least 18 inches between each propeller and the water, unless compliance with § 23.239 can be shown with a lesser clearance. (d... airplane structure, plus any additional radial clearance necessary to prevent harmful vibration; (2)...

  4. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M.; Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E.

    2013-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  5. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  6. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  7. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  8. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-02-26

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake.

  9. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  10. Cell death, clearance and immunity in the skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sciorati, C; Rigamonti, E; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2016-06-01

    The skeletal muscle is an immunologically unique tissue. Leukocytes, virtually absent in physiological conditions, are quickly recruited into the tissue upon injury and persist during regeneration. Apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy coexist in the injured/regenerating muscles, including those of patients with neuromuscular disorders, such as inflammatory myopathies, dystrophies, metabolic and mitochondrial myopathies and drug-induced myopathies. Macrophages are able to alter their function in response to microenvironment conditions and as a consequence coordinate changes within the tissue from the early injury throughout regeneration and eventual healing, and regulate the activation and the function of stem cells. Early after injury, classically activated macrophages ('M1') dominate the picture. Alternatively activated M2 macrophages predominate during resolution phases and regulate the termination of the inflammatory responses. The dynamic M1/M2 transition is increasingly felt to be the key to the homeostasis of the muscle. Recognition and clearance of debris originating from damaged myofibers and from dying stem/progenitor cells, stromal cells and leukocytes are fundamental actions of macrophages. Clearance of apoptotic cells and M1/M2 transition are causally connected and represent limiting steps for muscle healing. The accumulation of apoptotic cells, which reflects their defective clearance, has been demonstrated in various tissues to prompt autoimmunity against intracellular autoantigens. In the muscle, in the presence of type I interferon, apoptotic myoblasts indeed cause the production of autoantibodies, lymphocyte infiltration and continuous cycles of muscle injury and regeneration, mimicking human inflammatory myopathies. The clearance of apoptotic cells thus modulates the homeostatic response of the skeletal muscle to injury. Conversely, defects in the process may have deleterious local effects, guiding maladaptive tissue remodeling with collagen and fat

  11. IgM Promotes the Clearance of Small Particles and Apoptotic Microparticles by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Litvack, Michael L.; Post, Martin; Palaniyar, Nades

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibodies are often involved in enhancing particle clearance by macrophages. Although the mechanisms of antibody-dependent phagocytosis have been studied for IgG in greater detail, very little is known about IgM-mediated clearance. It has been generally considered that IgM does not support phagocytosis. Recent studies indicate that natural IgM is important to clear microbes and other bioparticles, and that shape is critical to particle uptake by macrophages; however, the relevance of IgM and particle size in their clearance remains unclear. Here we show that IgM has a size-dependent effect on clearance. Methodology/Principal Findings We used antibody-opsonized sheep red blood cells, different size beads and apoptotic cells to determine the effect of human and mouse IgM on phagocytosis by mouse alveolar macrophages. Our microscopy (light, epifluorescence, confocal) and flow cytometry data show that IgM greatly enhances the clearance of small particles (about 1–2 micron) by these macrophages. There is an inverse relationship between IgM-mediated clearance by macrophages and the particle size; however, macrophages bind and internalize many different size particles coated with IgG. We also show that IgM avidly binds to small size late apoptotic cells or bodies (2–5 micron) and apoptotic microparticles (<2 µm) released from dying cells. IgM also promotes the binding and uptake of microparticle-coated beads. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, while the shape of the particles is important for non-opsonized particle uptake, the particle size matters for antibody-mediated clearance by macrophages. IgM particularly promotes the clearance of small size particles. This finding may have wider implications in IgM-mediated clearing of antigens, microbial pathogens and dying cells by the host. PMID:21448268

  12. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  13. Noninvasive clearance of airway secretions.

    PubMed

    Hardy, K A; Anderson, B D

    1996-06-01

    Airway clearance techniques are indicated for specific diseases that have known clearance abnormalities (Table 2). Murray and others have commented that such techniques are required only for patients with a daily sputum production of greater than 30 mL. The authors have observed that patients with diseases known to cause clearance abnormalities can have sputum clearance with some techniques, such as positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage, and active cycle of breathing techniques, when PDPV has not been effective. Hasani et al has shown that use of the forced exhalatory technique in patients with nonproductive cough still resulted in movement of secretions proximally from all regions of the lung in patients with airway obstruction. It is therefore reasonable to consider airway clearance techniques for any patient who has a disease known to alter mucous clearance, including CF, dyskinetic cilia syndromes, and bronchiectasis from any cause. Patients with atelectasis from mucous plugs and hypersecretory states, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, patients with pain secondary to surgical procedures, and patients with neuromuscular disease, weak cough, and abnormal patency of the airway may also benefit from the application of airway clearance techniques. Infants and children up to 3 years of age with airway clearance problems need to be treated with PDPV. Manual percussion with hands alone or a flexible face mask or cup and small mechanical vibrator/percussors, such as the ultrasonic devices, can be used. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator shows growing promise in this area. The high-frequency oscillator is not supplied with vests of appropriate sizes for tiny babies and has not been studied in this group. Young patients with neuromuscular disease may require assisted ventilation and airway oscillations can be applied. CPAP alone has been shown to improve achievable flow rates that will increase air-liquid interactions for patients with these diseases

  14. Microwave Blade Tip Clearance System: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisheimer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Newer engines use compressor bleed air and a model to close clearances open loop. Measuring clearances and closing the control loop can add additional efficiencies. Tip clearance control has been identified as a key technology for future engines Additional benefits in prognostics, NSMS, and condition-based maintenance. In the HPT for every 1 mil improvement in clearance: a) SFC decreases 0.1%; and b) EGT margin increases 1 C.

  15. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall...

  16. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11010 Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance...

  17. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the corresponding landing gear strut bottomed. (b) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of at least 18 inches between each propeller and the water, unless compliance with § 25.239(a) can be shown... to prevent harmful vibration; (2) At least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the corresponding landing gear strut bottomed. (b) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of at least 18 inches between each propeller and the water, unless compliance with § 25.239(a) can be shown... to prevent harmful vibration; (2) At least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the corresponding landing gear strut bottomed. (b) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of at least 18 inches between each propeller and the water, unless compliance with § 25.239(a) can be shown... to prevent harmful vibration; (2) At least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the...

  20. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  1. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  2. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  3. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  4. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  5. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  6. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment....

  8. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment....

  9. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment....

  10. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance gauges. 117.47 Section 117.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.47 Clearance gauges. (a) Clearance gauges are required for drawbridges across navigable waters...

  11. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance gauges. 117.47 Section 117.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.47 Clearance gauges. (a) Clearance gauges are required for drawbridges across navigable waters...

  12. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance gauges. 117.47 Section 117.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.47 Clearance gauges. (a) Clearance gauges are required for drawbridges across navigable waters...

  13. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance gauges. 117.47 Section 117.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.47 Clearance gauges. (a) Clearance gauges are required for drawbridges across navigable waters...

  14. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  15. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  16. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall...

  18. Removal - An alternative to clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Feinhals, J.; Kelch, A.; Kunze, V.

    2007-07-01

    This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs not to be applied to objects in Germany which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal procedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent authority. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or activated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially in the case of decommissioning. A remarkable example is NPP Stade where in the last three years more than 8600 Mg were disposed of by removal and

  19. Die singulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Thomas P; Garcia, Ernest J; Francis, Kathryn M

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  20. Die singulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  1. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  2. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the opportunity to close important…

  3. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  4. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  5. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  6. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  7. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  8. Prediction of drug clearance in children.

    PubMed

    Foissac, Frantz; Bouazza, Naïm; Valade, Elodie; De Sousa Mendes, Mailys; Fauchet, Floris; Benaboud, Sihem; Hirt, Déborah; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Urien, Saïk

    2015-07-01

    The pediatric population is often exposed to drugs without sufficient knowledge about pharmacokinetics. The prediction of accurate clearance values in children, especially in neonates and infants, will improve the rational in dosing decisions. Drug clearances from birth to adulthood were compiled after a systematic review of pharmacokinetic reports. The analysis was performed using NONMEM. Clearance predictions were then evaluated by external validation. Prediction errors were also compared with those obtained from weight-based allometric scaling and physiologically based clearance (PBCL) models. For the analysis, 17 and 15 drugs were used for model building and external validation, respectively. A model based on the adult drug clearance value and taking into account both weight and age was retained. Age-related maturation of clearance reached 90% of the adult value within 1.5 years of life. For children less than 2 years old, allometric scaling alone systematically overestimated clearances. Accounting for age improved the clearance prediction in the 6 months-2 years age group (prediction error < 25%). Predictions obtained from the PBCL approach were close to our results. This analysis established a single equation using the adult clearance value as well as individual age and weight to predict drug clearance in children older than 6 months. PMID:25721251

  9. Die zwei Kulturen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankolekar, Anupriya; Krötzsch, Markus; Tran, Than; Vrandecic, Denny

    Oft werden zwei mögliche Entwicklungen des Webs diskutiert - das Web 2.0 und das Semantic Web. Wenn wir diese zwei Visionen für das zukünftige Web unter die Lupe nehmen, dann lässt sich feststellen, dass sich die Ideen in ihrem Kern und ihren Technologien gegenseitig ergänzen. Dementsprechend können und sollen beide Visionen von den Erfahrungen und Stärken der anderen profitieren. Wir glauben daran, dass zukünftige Webanwendungen den Web 2.0-Fokus auf Community und Benutzerfreundlichkeit beibehalten und, darüber hinaus, auch von Technologien des Semantic Web zur Vereinfachung der mashupähnlichen Datenintegration profitieren werden. Auf Basis eines Semantic Blog-Szenarios werden wir hier die Vorteile einer möglichen Kombination von Semantic Web und Web 2.0 illustrieren, die zeitnah realisiert werden kann. Wir werden auch auf technische Probleme eingehen, die bei der Erweiterung dieses Szenarios entstehen. Wir stellen dar, wie aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Semantic Web Forschung diese Probleme angehen können, und setzen zugleich auch Schwerpunkte für die zukünftige Forschung, die in diesem Zusammenhang relevant sind.

  10. Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jennifer; Cunha, Larissa D; Park, Sunmin; Yang, Mao; Lu, Qun; Orchard, Robert; Li, Quan-Zhen; Yan, Mei; Janke, Laura; Guy, Cliff; Linkermann, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W; Green, Douglas R

    2016-05-01

    Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:27096368

  11. Die Zeitung der Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Christoph; Schaffert, Sebastian

    Schon lange wird spekuliert, wie wir in Zukunft Zeitung lesen werden. Werden wir am Frühstückstisch wie gewohnt in einer Zeitung aus Papier schmökern oder werden wir die Zeitung als biegsame Folie beschrieben mit elektronischer Tinte in Händen halten? Wird die Zeitung mit anderen Medien wie Radio und Fernsehen verschmelzen? Viele Varianten sind denkbar. Heute lässt sich schon ein Trend ablesen: Immer mehr Leser entdecken die Online-Zeitung als Informationsmedium, eine Voraussetzung für die Nutzung neuer Technologien in der Zeitung der Zukunft. In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Online-Zeitung dar, wie sie im Social Semantic Web möglich werden.

  12. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... alguien muere All living things — including bugs and fish and people — die. It's difficult, even for grownups, ... kind of death for families and friends to deal with because it happens so fast. There is ...

  13. 30 CFR 56.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 56.11008 Section 56.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11008 Restricted clearance. Where...

  14. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at... the transmission line. If this clearance cannot be attained, the transmission line must be protected... the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, each plastic transmission line or main...

  15. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at... the transmission line. If this clearance cannot be attained, the transmission line must be protected... the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, each plastic transmission line or main...

  16. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at... the transmission line. If this clearance cannot be attained, the transmission line must be protected... the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, each plastic transmission line or main...

  17. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based paint... certified to perform risk assessments or lead-based paint inspections. (b) Clearance following...

  18. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based paint... certified to perform risk assessments or lead-based paint inspections. (b) Clearance following...

  19. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based paint... certified to perform risk assessments or lead-based paint inspections. (b) Clearance following...

  20. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based paint... certified to perform risk assessments or lead-based paint inspections. (b) Clearance following...

  1. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  2. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. ach abatement took place in a school buildin...

  3. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air-sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school buildi...

  4. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nose wheel landing gear) or nine inches (for each airplane with tail wheel landing gear) between each propeller and the ground with the landing gear statically deflected and in the level takeoff, or taxiing... the corresponding landing gear strut bottomed. (b) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of...

  5. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nose wheel landing gear) or nine inches (for each airplane with tail wheel landing gear) between each propeller and the ground with the landing gear statically deflected and in the level takeoff, or taxiing... the corresponding landing gear strut bottomed. (b) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of...

  6. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.77 Clearance certificate. (a) Aircraft departing from the U.S. One... director to show that clearance is granted. (b) Scheduled aircraft. If a scheduled aircraft clears at...

  7. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.77 Clearance certificate. (a) Aircraft departing from the U.S. One... director to show that clearance is granted. (b) Scheduled aircraft. If a scheduled aircraft clears at...

  8. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.77 Clearance certificate. (a) Aircraft departing from the U.S. One... director to show that clearance is granted. (b) Scheduled aircraft. If a scheduled aircraft clears at...

  9. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.77 Clearance certificate. (a) Aircraft departing from the U.S. One... director to show that clearance is granted. (b) Scheduled aircraft. If a scheduled aircraft clears at...

  10. Intelligent Engine Systems: HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Thermally Actuated Clearance Control System underwent several studies. Improved flow path isolation quantified what can be gained by making the HPT case nearly adiabatic. The best method of heat transfer was established, and finally two different borrowed air cooling circuits were evaluated to be used for the HPT Active Clearance Control System.

  11. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section...

  12. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section...

  13. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  15. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  16. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  17. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  18. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  9. Issues with dying patients.

    PubMed

    Valent, P

    1978-04-22

    Doctors have the privilege of looking after patients from the moment of birth to the moment of death. Yet, the holistic approach to patients is interfered with by the doctor's role as a warrior against death, where death's everpresent claim on our lives, and its final victory, are ignored. This paper attempts to explore why doctors are in their current position, the mechanisms for ignoring death which are shared by doctors and patients, the nature of the fear of death, and practical implications for the treatment of dying patients. More and more patients die now in medical settings. It is incumbent on doctors to understand the dying process, if much unnecessary suffering is to be prevented. PMID:661717

  10. Experiences of the dying.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    It is often a mystery to us how we have come to know and believe in certain things. Beliefs are like guests who come up to a door. They come in only if the host opens it and invites them in. Otherwise they are turned away, unable to enter. LPNs/LVNs are invited to reflect on their experiences and expand their knowledge and beliefs. There is growing recognition that bedside talks of the dying, spirit travel and near-death events are real events for the people who experience them. LPNs/ LVNs are encouraged to expand their knowledge and beliefs about dying. PMID:23252027

  11. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate. PMID:26871530

  12. Xenon spill distribution and room clearance.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, C A; Telepak, R J

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of these studies was to investigate actual xenon gas clearance times under different exhaust conditions, to compare them with the calculated clearance times, to observe the distribution of the xenon gas while it was being exhausted from the room, and to determine the cause of a stationary xenon cloud that appeared on some clinical images. Clearance times with and without a flexible exhaust hose placed next to a simulated 133Xe gas spill were compared with clearance times measured in a room with all exhaust closed off. Two gamma cameras were used to observe the transport and exhaust of xenon following a simulated spill. Clearance times with the flexible exhaust hose were less than one minute because the xenon gas was removed before it had a chance to disperse into the room. Conventional room clearance calculations based on uniform mixing and measured exhaust rates yielded a clearance time of 22 min. The source of an artifactual stationary cloud image was discovered to be a small amount of xenon trapped between the collimator and camera face. A negative pressure and dedicated exhaust can be even more effective in exhausting spilled xenon from a room than air transfer calculations predict. The authors believe the flexible hose should always be used. PMID:10524516

  13. When a Baby Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Martha Jo; And Others

    Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…

  14. Poetry and the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates roles poetry can play as people confront the death of loved ones and their own dying. Gives examples of Heinrich Heine transforming his agony into art and, from the poetry of two college students, both in advanced stages of neurological disease, which was read aloud in class, teaching all present something about how to approach their…

  15. Tool & Die Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 23 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of tool and die technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and…

  16. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  17. Nucleotide-mediated airway clearance.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Andreas; Clunes, Lucy A; Salathe, Mathias; Verdugo, Pedro; Dietl, Paul; Davis, C William; Tarran, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) lines the entire surface of the lung and is the first point of contact between the lung and the environment. Surfactants contained within this layer are secreted in the alveolar region and are required to maintain a low surface tension and to prevent alveolar collapse. Mucins are secreted into the ASL throughout the respiratory tract and serve to intercept inhaled pathogens, allergens and toxins. Their removal by mucociliary clearance (MCC) is facilitated by cilia beating and hydration of the ASL by active ion transport. Throughout the lung, secretion, ion transport and cilia beating are under purinergic control. Pulmonary epithelia release ATP into the ASL which acts in an autocrine fashion on P2Y(2) (ATP) receptors. The enzymatic network describes in Chap. 2 then mounts a secondary wave of signaling by surface conversion of ATP into adenosine (ADO), which induces A(2B) (ADO) receptor-mediated responses. This chapter offers a comprehensive description of MCC and the extensive ramifications of the purinergic signaling network on pulmonary surfaces. PMID:21560046

  18. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Ladha, Suruchi; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Kiran, Usha; Chowdhury, Ujjwal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0), postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1), and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively). The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial – lactate delayed]/lactate initial) ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1–T6, T1–T12, T1–T18, and T1–T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P < 0.05) and low-blood lactate clearance rate during 24 h (P < 0.05) in comparison to the survivors. Lactate clearance was significantly higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors for the T1–T6 period (19.55 ± 14.28 vs. 5.24 ± 27.79%, P = 0.009) and remained significantly higher for each studied interval in first 24 h. Multivariate

  19. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    PubMed

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

  20. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  1. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  2. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  3. Shear joint capability versus bolt clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a conservative analysis approach into the determination of shear joint strength capability for typical space-flight hardware as a function of the bolt-hole clearance specified in the design are presented. These joints are comprised of high-strength steel fasteners and abutments constructed of aluminum alloys familiar to the aerospace industry. A general analytical expression was first arrived at which relates bolt-hole clearance to the bolt shear load required to place all joint fasteners into a shear transferring position. Extension of this work allowed the analytical development of joint load capability as a function of the number of fasteners, shear strength of the bolt, bolt-hole clearance, and the desired factor of safety. Analysis results clearly indicate that a typical space-flight hardware joint can withstand significant loading when less than ideal bolt hole clearances are used in the design.

  4. Shear-Joint Capability Versus Bolt Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Technical Memorandum presents theoretical study of relationships between load-bearing capabilities of shear joints that comprise plates clamped together by multiple bolts and clearances between bolts and boltholes in those joints.

  5. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  6. Voltage-clearance recommendations for printed boards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C W; Cave, G; Evans, A; Harrington, D J; Kirchenbaum, J; Martz, R E; Mierendorf, R C; Smith, G A

    1980-01-01

    Present and future trends in printed board designs point to higher circuit densities with narrower lines and closer spacings. Some designers are now laying out boards with 0.13 mm lines and spacings. The reduction of nominal spacing between conductive elements has raised questions concerning the adequacy of present voltage-clearance recommendations. The present recommendations are considered too conservative in that they are weighted with large safety factors, especially for small clearances, and are frequently disregarded by many designers. Published voltage breakdown measurements made on printed boards with comb patterns with their enhanced conductor test lengths show breakdowns occurring at much higher voltages than those specified for the clearances in existing documents. A Task Group was set up to review published breakdown measurements and to make any additional measurements necessary to provide voltage-clearance recommendations. These recommendations are reported.

  7. Year in review 2014: airway clearance.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Shawna L

    2015-04-01

    The respiratory therapist has had integrated adjuncts to improve mucus clearance for decades. However, there is a lack of literature describing the impact of these interventions on specific patient populations, resulting in an inability to make recommendations about the use of devices and techniques. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature regarding airway clearance therapies in a manner that is most likely to have interest to the readers of Respiratory Care. PMID:25784773

  8. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  9. ADAPTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR TURBINE ENGINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Keith M.

    2004-01-01

    The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center primarily deals in developing controls, dynamic models, and health management technologies for air and space propulsion systems. During the summer of 2004 I was granted the privilege of working alongside professionals who were developing an active clearance control system for commercial jet engines. Clearance, the gap between the turbine blade tip and the encompassing shroud, increases as a result of wear mechanisms and rubbing of the turbine blades on shroud. Increases in clearance cause larger specific fuel consumption (SFC) and loss of efficient air flow. This occurs because, as clearances increase, the engine must run hotter and bum more fuel to achieve the same thrust. In order to maintain efficiency, reduce fuel bum, and reduce exhaust gas temperature (EGT), the clearance must be accurately controlled to gap sizes no greater than a few hundredths of an inch. To address this problem, NASA Glenn researchers have developed a basic control system with actuators and sensors on each section of the shroud. Instead of having a large uniform metal casing, there would be sections of the shroud with individual sensors attached internally that would move slightly to reform and maintain clearance. The proposed method would ultimately save the airline industry millions of dollars.

  10. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  11. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Sérgio M.; Almendinger, Johann; Cabello, Juan; Hengartner, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the “eat-me” signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency. PMID:26872385

  12. Mechanisms of failed apoptotic cell clearance by phagocyte subsets in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence in humans indicate that defective phagocytic clearance of dying cells is linked to progression of advanced atherosclerotic lesions, the precursor to atherothrombosis, ischemic heart disease, and leading cause of death in the industrialized world. During atherogenesis, apoptotic cell turnover in the vascular wall is counterbalanced by neighboring phagocytes with high clearance efficiency, thereby limiting cellularity and maintaining lesion integrity. However, as lesions mature, phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) becomes defective, leading to secondary necrosis, expansion of plaque necrotic cores, and susceptibility to rupture. Recent genetic causation studies in experimental rodents have implicated key molecular regulators of efferocytosis in atherosclerotic progression. These include MER tyrosine kinase (MERTK), milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFGE8), and complement C1q. At the cellular level, atheromata are infiltrated by a heterogenous population of professional phagocytes, comprised of monocytes, differentiated macrophages, and CD11c+ dendritic-like cells. Each cell type is characterized by disparate clearance efficiencies and varying activities of key phagocytic signaling molecules. It is in this context that we outline a working model whereby plaque necrosis and destabilization is jointly promoted by (1) direct inhibition of core phagocytic signaling pathways and (2) expansion of phagocyte subsets with poor clearance capacity. Towards identifying targets for promoting efficient apoptotic cell clearance and resolving inflammation in atherosclerosis and during ischemic heart disease and post myocardial infarction, this review will discuss potential in vivo suppressors of efferocytosis at each stage of clearance and how these putative interventional targets may differentially affect uptake at the level of vascular phagocyte subsets. PMID:20552278

  13. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  14. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  15. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  16. 19 CFR 4.61 - Requirements for clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for clearance. 4.61 Section 4.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.61 Requirements for clearance. (a) Application for clearance. A...

  17. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  18. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  19. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  20. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  1. The role of the effector caspases drICE and dcp-1 for cell death and corpse clearance in the developing optic lobe in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Hiromi; Hara, Yusuke; Togane, Yu; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Hiraoka, Tsuyoshi; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2015-08-15

    In the developing Drosophila optic lobe, cell death occurs via apoptosis and in a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern of dying cell clusters. We analyzed the role of effector caspases drICE and dcp-1 in optic lobe cell death and subsequent corpse clearance using mutants. Neurons in many clusters required either drICE or dcp-1 and each one is sufficient. This suggests that drICE and dcp-1 function in cell death redundantly. However, dying neurons in a few clusters strictly required drICE but not dcp-1, but required drICE and dcp-1 when drICE activity was reduced via hypomorphic mutation. In addition, analysis of the mutants suggests an important role of effecter caspases in corpse clearance. In both null and hypomorphic drICE mutants, greater number of TUNEL-positive cells were observed than in wild type, and many TUNEL-positive cells remained until later stages. Lysotracker staining showed that there was a defect in corpse clearance in these mutants. All the results suggested that drICE plays an important role in activating corpse clearance in dying cells, and that an additional function of effector caspases is required for the activation of corpse clearance as well as that for carrying out cell death. PMID:26022392

  2. Nitriding of Aluminum Extrusion Die: Effect of Die Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, S. S.; Arif, A. F. M.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2010-04-01

    Nitriding of complex-shaped extrusion dies may result in non-uniform nitride layers and hence a required hardness may not be achieved in some regions of the bearing area. The present study is carried out to assess the effect of extrusion die profile on the characteristics and growth behavior of nitride layers so that the critical die design feature can be identified to enhance the uniformity of the nitride layer. For this purpose, AISI H13 steel samples have been manufactured with profiles similar to those of hot extrusion dies. The samples were then gas nitrided under controlled nitriding potential. The uniformity and depth of nitride layers have been investigated in terms of compound layer and total nitride case depth for selected die features. The results of this study indicated the need to include the effect of profile on the nitride layer for the optimal die design with improved service life.

  3. Glycerol clearance in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, D G; Alberti, K G; Wright, R; Blain, P G

    1982-01-01

    Glycerol clearance was studied by a primed dose-constant infusion technique in 14 patients with alcoholic liver disease and six normal control subjects. Fasting blood glycerol concentrations were raised in the alcoholic subjects (0.09 +/- 0.01 vs 0.06 +/- 0.01 mumol/l, p less than 0.05) and glycerol clearance was impaired (24.5 +/- 1.9 vs 37.5 +/- 3.2 ml/kg/min, p less than 0.005). Endogenous production rate of glycerol and distribution space at steady state were similar in alcoholic and control subjects. The metabolic clearance rate of glycerol correlated negatively with basal glycerol concentrations. Thus tissue uptake of glycerol is impaired in liver disease. As glycerol is metabolised primarily in the liver by conversion to glucose, these data suggest a defect of gluconeogenesis in alcoholic liver disease. PMID:7076002

  4. Necessary Clearance to Prevent Side Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Takatoshi; Asakawa, Akira; Honda, Hideki; Sakae, Maki; Tanaka, Shuusaku

    Side flashes often occur when lightning strikes a tree and cause injury or death of human beings staying nearby the tree. Necessary clearance to prevent the side flash has been said to be 2 m, but the physical meaning of the value is unclear. In this paper, we have proposed a model of side flashes based on the physics of discharges and necessary clearance has been calculated. Furthermore, we have carried out model experiments of the side flash using real trees of a heights of 3.5 m and a naturally growing tree of a height of more than 10 m. The results of the model experiments have verified the proposed theory and it is concluded that clearance of more than 3 m from a tree is necessary to prevent side flashes from the tree.

  5. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  6. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  7. Prediction of hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance and human clearance values for drugs.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Katarina; Agababa, Danica

    2009-10-01

    Twenty-nine drugs of different structures were used in theoretical QSAR analysis of human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2) and in vitro CL'(int)) and whole body clearance (CL(blood)). The examined compounds demonstrated a wide range of scaled intrinsic clearance values. Constitutional, geometrical, physico-chemical and electronic descriptors were computed for the examined structures by use of the Marvin Sketch 5.1.3_2, the Chem3D Ultra 7.0.0 and the Dragon 5.4 program. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), has been applied for selection of the most relevant molecular descriptors and development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2)). Optimal QSAR models with nine and ten variables, R(2)>0.808 and cross-validation parameter q(pre)(2)>0.623, were selected and compared. Since the microsomal in vitro T(1/2) data can be used for calculation of in vitro CL'(int) and in vivo CL(blood), the developed QSAR model will enable one to analyze the kinetics of cytochrome P450-mediated reactions in term of intrinsic clearance and whole body clearance. A comparison is made between predictions produced from the QSAR analysis and experimental data, and there appears to be generally satisfactory correlations with the literature values for intrinsic clearance data. PMID:19713138

  8. A biomathematical model of particle clearance and retention in the lungs of coal miners.

    PubMed

    Kuempel, E D; O'Flaherty, E J; Stayner, L T; Smith, R J; Green, F H; Vallyathan, V

    2001-08-01

    To understand better the factors influencing the relationships among airborne particle exposure, lung burden, and fibrotic lung disease, we developed a biologically based kinetic model to predict the long-term retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. This model includes alveolar, interstitial, and hilar lymph node compartments. The 131 miners in this study had worked in the Beckley, West Virginia, area and died during the 1960s. The data used to develop this model include exposure to respirable coal mine dust by intensity and duration within each job, lung and lymph node dust burdens at autopsy, pathological classification of fibrotic lung disease, and smoking history. Initial parameter estimates for this model were based on both human and animal data of particle deposition and clearance and on the biological and physical factors influencing these processes. Parameter estimation and model fit to the data were determined using least squares. Results show that the end-of-life lung dust burdens in these coal miners were substantially higher than expected from first-order clearance kinetics, yet lower than expected from the overloading of alveolar clearance predicted from rodent studies. The best-fitting and most parsimonious model includes processes for first-order alveolar-macrophage-mediated clearance and transfer of particles to the lung interstitium. These results are consistent with the particle retention patterns observed previously in the lungs of primates. The findings indicate that rodent models extrapolated to humans, without adjustment for the kinetic differences in particle clearance and retention, would be inadequate for predicting lung dust burdens in humans. Also, this human lung kinetic model predicts greater retained lung dust burdens from occupational exposure than predicted from current human models based on lower exposure data. This model is useful for risk assessment of particle-induced lung diseases, by estimating equivalent internal

  9. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  10. Foreigners dying in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Ibrahim; Celbis, Osman; Baydar, Cetin Lutfi; Alkan, Nevzat; Arslan, Murat Nihat

    2009-09-01

    The study included 411 deaths selected from 14,647 medicolegal deaths autopsied in the Morgue Department of Forensic Medicine Institute Directorate, affiliated with the Ministry of Justice, between 1998 and 2002. Data were collected from court documents, coroner's investigation reports, and autopsy reports. The parameters of age, gender, nationality and origin, cause and place of death in foreigners dying in Istanbul were evaluated in the study. Out of 14,647 medicolegal deaths, 3.5% were foreigners from 34 different nationalities. The nationality with the highest rate of foreigner deaths (34%) was Romanian. Out of 411 deaths, 74.3% were male and 25.7% were female. Of all cases, 64.4% were tourists visiting Istanbul and 35.6% had a job in Istanbul. Of 146 foreigners employed in Istanbul, 94.5% did not have a work permit, while only 5.5% had a work permit. PMID:19674242

  11. 30 CFR 57.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 57.11008 Section 57.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground §...

  12. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground...

  13. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with requirements of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR part 30) and § 758.1 of the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  14. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... security personnel who have no access to classified information. (11) To drivers, chauffeurs and...

  15. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... security personnel who have no access to classified information. (11) To drivers, chauffeurs and...

  16. Mediators and mucociliary clearance in asthma.

    PubMed

    Pavia, D; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Clarke, S W

    1987-01-01

    Lung mucociliary clearance is significantly reduced in asthmatic patients compared to healthy controls even during clinical remission. Further retardation in mucous clearance occurs during sleep per se and this may be a contributing factor to nocturnal asthma. Chemical mediators of anaphylaxis appear to have various and, sometimes opposing effects on the two essential components for mucociliary clearance, namely cilia and mucus. Some mediators such as leukotrienes C4 and D4 are potent secretagogues and histamine increases the water flux into the lumen of the airways from the mucosa. Slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) reduces mucus transport whereas histamine enhances it. Ciliostimulation has been reported following allergen challenge and this contrasts with the cilioinhibitory effect of asthmatics' sputa. It appears however, that the net effect of the various chemicals of anaphylaxis is one of impairment of mucus clearance. Some pharmacological agents, used for the relief of bronchospasm and control of asthma, also stimulate mucociliary transport, a desirable additional effect. PMID:3311245

  17. 28 CFR 524.74 - Activities clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities clearance. 524.74 Section 524.74 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.74...

  18. Acute psychological stress reduces plasma triglyceride clearance.

    PubMed

    Stoney, Catherine M; West, Sheila G; Hughes, Joel W; Lentino, Lisa M; Finney, Montenique L; Falko, James; Bausserman, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Acute stress elevates blood lipids, with the largest increases among men and postmenopausal women. The mechanisms for the effect are unknown, but may be due to altered lipid metabolism. This study investigated if acute stress induces transient reductions in triglyceride clearance in middle-aged men and women, and determined if gender and menopause affect triglyceride metabolism. Of the 35 women, half were premenopausal, and half were naturally postmenopausal; men (n = 35) were age matched. Clearance of an intravenously administered fat emulsion was assessed twice: once during a nonstress session, and again during a stress-testing session. During the stress session, a battery of behavioral stressors (serial subtraction, speech, mirror tracing, and Stroop) were performed for 40 min. The clearance rate of exogenous fat was significantly diminished during the stress, relative to the nonstress session. Women had more efficient clearance, relative to men, but there were no effects of menopausal status. The diminished ability to clear an intravenous fat emulsion during stress suggests one mechanism for stress-induced elevations in lipids. PMID:12206298

  19. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM...

  20. Mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence.

    PubMed

    Borrow, P

    1997-01-01

    Using examples predominantly drawn from study of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) model system, this review describes the mechanisms involved in control of virus infections by the cell-mediated immune response, and some of the different strategies viruses have evolved to evade such immune clearance so that they can persist in their hosts. The important role played by the CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) response in clearance of many systemic virus infections is discussed; and it is emphasized that although CD8+ CTL are classically thought of as lymphocytes which mediate lysis of virus-infected target cells, the principal mechanism by which CD8+ T cells effect clearance of persistent and many acute virus infections via production of antiviral cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, not via destruction of virus-producing cells. To avoid immune-mediated clearance, viruses frequently use a combination of several different strategies. These can be grouped into mechanisms for avoiding recognition by the immune response (such as establishing latent infections, replicating in immune-privileged sites, down-regulating the expression of immune recognition signals on the surface of infected cells, or undergoing antigenic variation); and mechanisms for suppressing the immune response. The latter include generalized immune suppression mechanisms, and strategies for more precisely disabling the specific immune response such as inducing tolerance or exhaustion of virus-specific CTL. The value of understanding both immune clearance mechanisms and viral evasion strategies in the rational design of immune-based therapies to combat persistent virus infections is discussed. PMID:9429206

  1. 75 FR 70341 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security..._Submission@omb.eop.gov . (SSA), Social Security Administration, DCBFM, Attn: Reports Clearance Officer,...

  2. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  3. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  4. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  5. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  6. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  7. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance. (a... pertinent laws, and the nature of international security and information exchange agreements. The...

  8. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP). DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal...

  9. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance...

  10. WWW-based data entry for document clearance requests

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiak, D.M.

    1997-10-08

    All documents created at Argonne must be cleared before being published. The clearance process is coordinated by the Publications and Record Services. The Electronic Document Review and Clearance System (EDRC) consists of a Web-based system for submission of clearance requests, an electronic staging area for document awaiting review, and Web-based review and clearance of documents. This report covers the document clearing process, the EDRC system, expected benefits/costs, and a demonstration.

  11. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  12. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... clearances (PCLs); and (4) Appointing a U.S. citizen employee as the facility security officer. (b) An... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance....

  13. Wear analysis of revolute joints with clearance in multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, ZhengFeng; Zhao, Yang; Wang, XingGui

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the prediction of wear for revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems is investigated using a computational methodology. The contact model in clearance joint is established using a new hybrid nonlinear contact force model and the friction effect is considered by using a modified Coulomb friction model. The dynamics model of multibody system with clearance is established using dynamic segmentation modeling method and the computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint in multibody systems is presented. The main computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint includes two steps, which are dynamics analysis and wear analysis. The dynamics simulation of multibody system with revolute clearance joint is carried out and the contact forces are drawn and used to calculate the wear amount of revolute clearance joint based on the Archard's wear model. Finally, a four-bar multibody mechanical system with revolute clearance joint is used as numerical example application to perform the simulation and show the dynamics responses and wear characteristics of multibody systems with revolute clearance joint. The main results of this work indicate that the contact between the joint elements is wider and more frequent in some specific regions and the wear phenomenon is not regular around the joint surface, which causes the clearance size increase non-regularly after clearance joint wear. This work presents an effective method to predict wear of revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems.

  14. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing facility clearance. 95.17 Section 95.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance. (a) Following the receipt of an acceptable...

  15. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  16. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance officer identified in 48 CFR 45... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance function... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function....

  17. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance officer identified in 48 CFR 45... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance function... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function....

  18. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  19. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  20. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  1. 33 CFR 157.455 - Minimum under-keel clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum under-keel clearance. 157... § 157.455 Minimum under-keel clearance. (a) The owner or operator of a tankship, that is not fitted with... written under-keel clearance guidance that includes— (1) Factors to consider when calculating the...

  2. 33 CFR 157.455 - Minimum under-keel clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum under-keel clearance. 157... § 157.455 Minimum under-keel clearance. (a) The owner or operator of a tankship, that is not fitted with... written under-keel clearance guidance that includes— (1) Factors to consider when calculating the...

  3. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  4. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  5. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  6. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  7. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1327 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OMB Clearance B Appendix B to Part 1327 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR PARTICIPATING..., App. B Appendix B to Part 1327—OMB Clearance The OMB clearance number of this regulation is OMB...

  8. 61 FR 11709 - Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-03-22

    ... 0575-AB52 Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing AGENCIES: Rural Housing Service, Rural Business... ``agency,'' amend the Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing regulation. This action makes loan.... The proposed rule discussed the need to make real estate title clearance and loan closing...

  9. 59 FR- Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-05-11

    .... SUMMARY: The Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) proposes to amend its Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan... changes affect FmHA processing, real estate title clearance, and loan closing. Paperwork Reduction Act The... EO. Discussion FmHA recognizes the need to make Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  13. 14 CFR § 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. § 1260.63 Section § 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  15. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; Taylor, Shawn; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance ( 0.001 in. error).

  16. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance (0.001 in. error).

  17. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  20. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  1. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  2. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  3. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  4. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  8. 10 CFR 95.23 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.23 Termination of facility clearance. (a... determination that continued facility clearance is not in the interest of national security. (b) When...

  9. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  10. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  11. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  12. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  13. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  14. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  15. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  16. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  17. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  18. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  19. Adapt or die?

    PubMed

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management. PMID:9283343

  20. Dying and multiplying life.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David

    2014-09-01

    It was only after James P. Lovette's death, in 2006, that I discovered that the twenty-four-year-old colleague and friend with whom I had spent so many afternoons debating issues in organ transplantation had been the first successful child heart transplantee in the world and one of the longest-living survivors of a second transplant. During the years we met, he never even hinted at the fact that three different hearts had beaten in his chest. The revelation that his life had been an almost uninterrupted chain of medical challenges suddenly made me appreciate his quirkiness in a whole new light. Organ transplantation crudely exemplifies a traditional moral dilemma between means and ends: in order to save a life, someone else has to die. Bioethicists involved in this field have the role of identifying the ethical issues surrounding organ donation and helping others to argue in an intelligible and convincing way. In my view, bioethicists have the obligation to foster a discussion as open and transparent as possible on these matters. Still, I sometimes fear that I may be helping to cause unnecessary harms to potential recipients who are desperately waiting for a vital organ. Scholars would be chillingly cold if their quest for truth systematically came at the cost of lives lost. Every life can be meaningful and provide meaning to many others. This is true even with organ recipients, who often have short lives full of considerable suffering. PMID:25231665

  1. Vessel-associated myogenic precursors control macrophage activation and clearance of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Bosurgi, L; Brunelli, S; Rigamonti, E; Monno, A; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2015-01-01

    Swift and regulated clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the accumulation of cell remnants in injured tissues and contributes to the shift of macrophages towards alternatively activated reparatory cells that sustain wound healing. Environmental signals, most of which are unknown, in turn control the efficiency of the clearance of apoptotic cells and as such determine whether tissues eventually heal. In this study we show that vessel-associated stem cells (mesoangioblasts) specifically modulate the expression of genes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and in macrophage alternative activation, including those of scavenger receptors and of molecules that bridge dying cells and phagocytes. Mesoangioblasts, but not immortalized myoblasts or neural precursor cells, enhance CD163 membrane expression in vitro as assessed by flow cytometry, indicating that the effect is specific. Mesoangioblasts transplanted in acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscles determine the expansion of the population of CD163(+) infiltrating macrophages and increase the extent of CD163 expression. Conversely, macrophages challenged with mesoangioblasts engulf significantly better apoptotic cells in vitro. Collectively, the data reveal a feed-forward loop between macrophages and vessel-associated stem cells, which has implications for the skeletal muscle homeostatic response to sterile injury and for diseases in which homeostasis is jeopardized, including muscle dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24749786

  2. Unexpected requirement for ELMO1 in clearance of apoptotic germ cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Michael R; Zheng, Shuqiu; Park, Daeho; Woodson, Robin I; Reardon, Michael A; Juncadella, Ignacio J; Kinchen, Jason M; Zhang, Jun; Lysiak, Jeffrey J; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2010-09-16

    Apoptosis and the subsequent clearance of dying cells occurs throughout development and adult life in many tissues. Failure to promptly clear apoptotic cells has been linked to many diseases. ELMO1 is an evolutionarily conserved cytoplasmic engulfment protein that functions downstream of the phosphatidylserine receptor BAI1, and, along with DOCK1 and the GTPase RAC1, promotes internalization of the dying cells. Here we report the generation of ELMO1-deficient mice, which we found to be unexpectedly viable and grossly normal. However, they had a striking testicular pathology, with disrupted seminiferous epithelium, multinucleated giant cells, uncleared apoptotic germ cells and decreased sperm output. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo analyses revealed a crucial role for ELMO1 in the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic germ cells by Sertoli cells lining the seminiferous epithelium. The engulfment receptor BAI1 and RAC1 (upstream and downstream of ELMO1, respectively) were also important for Sertoli-cell-mediated engulfment. Collectively, these findings uncover a selective requirement for ELMO1 in Sertoli-cell-mediated removal of apoptotic germ cells and make a compelling case for a relationship between engulfment and tissue homeostasis in vivo. PMID:20844538

  3. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  4. Autophagy promotes DNA-protein crosslink clearance.

    PubMed

    Mu, Haibo; Liu, Qianjin; Niu, Hong; Wang, Dongdong; Tang, Jiangjiang; Duan, Jinyou

    2016-02-01

    Toxic DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) can result from exposure to radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. DPCs can also accumulate during aging or stress. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying clearance of DPCs remain largely unknown. Here, we have identified an important role of autophagy in the processing of DPCs induced by three representative agents: formaldehyde, a chemical used widely in industry; UV light; and camptothecin, a cytotoxic anticancer drug. Autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ), promoted the accumulation of DPCs in damaged cells and injured organs. siRNA-mediated silencing of Atg5 or Atg7, two essential components for the formation of the autophagosome, gave similar results. In contrast, the autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP) attenuated DPCs in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal the importance of autophagy in controlling the level of DPCs, and may open up a new avenue for understanding the formation and clearance of this detrimental DNA adduct. PMID:26921017

  5. High-Clearance Six-Wheel Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    Multilevered suspension system gives body of vehicle high clearance and allows wheels to be steered independently. Suspension linkages above wheels enable body to skim over obstacles as high as wheel. Levers and independently steered wheels enable vehicle to climb steps 1 1/2 wheel diameters high and cross gaps 1 3/4 wide. Adaptable to off-the-road recreational vehicles, military scout vehicles, and robotic emergency vehicles.

  6. Instrument for Measuring Engine Clearance Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W

    1920-01-01

    With the advent of the V type engine, a new method to measure the clearance volume in cylinders was needed. It was suggested that this measurement could be made by a process which consisted essentially of simultaneously changing both a known and unknown volume of gas by a known amount and then calculating the magnitude of the unknown from the resulting difference in pressure between the two. An instrument based on this design is described.

  7. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as determined principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of convenient approximations of the respiratory tract to predict tractional deposition according to fundamental physical processes of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These theoretical models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with experimental studies of inhaled dusts in humans or experimental animals that have been performed in many laboratories over several decades. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior of very fine (less than 0.01 mum) particles requires further refinement.Properties of particle shape, charge, and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns and further experimental work is urgently needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of such techniques with selected inhaled particle size holds promise in possible diagnostic aid in diagnosis of normal versus disease conditions. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic clearance are discussed. The roles of the pulmonary macrophage in airway and alveolar clearance are described, and the applicability of recent solubility models for translocation or deposited materials to liver, skeleton, or other systemic organs is discussed. PMID:797567

  8. Do not let death do us part: 'find-me' signals in communication between dying cells and the phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Medina, C B; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-06-01

    The turnover and clearance of cells is an essential process that is part of many physiological and pathological processes. Improper or deficient clearance of apoptotic cells can lead to excessive inflammation and autoimmune disease. The steps involved in cell clearance include: migration of the phagocyte toward the proximity of the dying cells, specific recognition and internalization of the dying cell, and degradation of the corpse. The ability of phagocytes to recognize and react to dying cells to perform efficient and immunologically silent engulfment has been well-characterized in vitro and in vivo. However, how apoptotic cells themselves initiate the corpse removal and also influence the cells within the neighboring environment during clearance was less understood. Recent exciting observations suggest that apoptotic cells can attract phagocytes through the regulated release of 'find-me' signals. More recent studies also suggest that these find-me signals can have additional roles outside of phagocyte attraction to help orchestrate engulfment. This review will discuss our current understanding of the different find-me signals released by apoptotic cells, how they may be relevant in vivo, and their additional roles in facilitating engulfment. PMID:26891690

  9. Impact of glycation on antibody clearance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jane; Primack, Ronya; Frohn, Mike; Wang, Wei; Luan, Peng; Retter, Marc W; Flynn, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    Glycation of therapeutic proteins occurs during mammalian cell culture expression and upon administration to patients. Since the chemical attachment of mannose or other sugars via a chemical linker has been shown to increase a protein's clearance rate in mice through the mannose receptor, we explored the effect of mannose glycation on the clearance of an IgG in mice. An IgG decorated with high levels of mannose (~18 mol/mol protein) through glycation did not clear faster in mice than the underivatized protein, whereas the same IgG decorated with mannose attached in a way to maintain the normal glycosidic bond (2-imino-2-methoxyethyl-1-thiomannoside, or IMT-mannose) at similar derivatization levels cleared significantly faster. Surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that the IgG derivatized with IMT-mannose bound tightly to the mannose receptor (KD = 20 nM) but the IgG glycated with mannose did not bind. These results indicate that glycation, even at unnaturally elevated levels, does not appear to be a clearance concern for therapeutic proteins. PMID:25413724

  10. Analysis and experimental study of the spherical joint clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Hu, Penghao; Bao, Xinxin; Li, Shuaipeng

    2013-10-01

    The spherical joint clearance is a key error factor, which influenced and restricted the application of parallel mechanism in high precision field. This paper discusses the regularity of the spherical joint clearance in the parallel mechanism and its influence on the accuracy of the parallel mechanism in both theoretical and experimental aspects. A spherical joint clearance measuring instrument is introduced and used to measure the joint clearance. And the relationship between the clearance and its work pose is revealed. Based on the theoretical and experimental analysis, it is concluded that the clearance of the spherical joint is near-linear proportional to the applied load as well as the clearances in different poses obey the Rayleigh distribution approximately under the same load.

  11. Similarity analysis of compressor tip clearance flow structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G. T.; Greitzer, E. M.; Tan, C. S.; Marble, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach is presented for analyzing compressor tip clearance flow. The basic idea is that the clearance velocity field can be (approximately) decomposed into independent throughflow and crossflow, since chordwise pressure gradients are much smaller than normal pressure gradients in the clearance region. As in the slender body approximation in external aerodynamics, this description implies that the three-dimensional steady clearance flow can be viewed as a two-dimensional, unsteady flow. Using this approach, a similarity scaling for the crossflow in the clearance region is developed and a generalized description of the clearance vortex is derived. Calculations based on the similarity scaling agree well with a wide range of experimental data in regard to flow features such as crossflow velocity field, static pressure field, and tip clearance vortex trajectory.

  12. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  13. What Happens When Someone Dies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and sleepiness Mental confusion Constipation or incontinence Nausea Refusal to eat or drink Each of these symptoms, ... having a "non-hospital DNR" (see Understanding Health Care Decisions ) if the person is dying at home. ...

  14. Improving care of dying children.

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, I M

    1995-01-01

    Every year about 5,000 children aged 0 to 14 years need hospice care in the United States. Children seem to know that they are dying, although this is difficult for parents to accept. Clear, empathic understanding is needed. Communication with clarity and understanding is imperative with the changes in goals from cure to palliation to comfort. The ideal place for most dying children is at home, where symptoms can be managed as effectively as in a hospital. PMID:7571589

  15. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  16. Effects of passive smoking on theophylline clearance.

    PubMed

    Matsunga, S K; Plezia, P M; Karol, M D; Katz, M D; Camilli, A E; Benowitz, N L

    1989-10-01

    Theophylline disposition was examined in seven passive smokers, defined as nonsmokers with long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, and seven age-matched nonsmokers with minimal smoke exposure. Subjects were given an intravenous infusion of aminophylline (6 mg/kg) and blood samples were drawn before and during the 48-hour postinfusion period. Clearance for passive smokers was 6.01 x 10(-2) L/hr.kg and for nonsmokers, clearance was 4.09 x 10(-2) L/hr.kg (p less than 0.025). Terminal elimination half-life for passive smokers was 6.93 hours versus 8.69 hours for nonsmokers (p less than 0.05). The mean residence time for passive smokers was 9.89 hours. For nonsmokers, the mean residence time was 13.11 hours (p less than 0.05). These measurements were statistically different, whereas there was no difference in volume of distribution between the groups, suggesting that passive smokers metabolize theophylline more rapidly than nonsmokers. Plasma and urine cotinine and nicotine concentrations were measured in all subjects. There was a significant difference between the subject groups in plasma (p less than 0.004) and urine (p less than 0.002) cotinine concentrations. Theophylline clearance correlated with both plasma (r = 0.73, p less than 0.01) and urine (r = 0.79, p less than 0.01) cotinine concentrations. Additional studies should be conducted to further define the pharmacokinetic characteristics of passive smokers and to assess the effects of passive smoking on drugs metabolized by the mixed function oxidase system. PMID:2791443

  17. Statistical Tolerance and Clearance Analysis for Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Tolerance is inevitable because manufacturing exactly equal parts is known to be impossible. Furthermore, the specification of tolerances is an integral part of product design since tolerances directly affect the assemblability, functionality, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness of a product. In this paper, we present statistical tolerance and clearance analysis for the assembly. Our proposed work is expected to make the following contributions: (i) to help the designers to evaluate products for assemblability, (ii) to provide a new perspective to tolerance problems, and (iii) to provide a tolerance analysis tool which can be incorporated into a CAD or solid modeling system.

  18. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  19. Study of blade clearance effects on centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshide, R. K.; Nielson, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication, and testing has been conducted to develop and experimentally verify analytical models to predict the effects of impeller blade clearance on centrifugal pumps. The effect of tip clearance on pump efficiency, and the relationship between the head coefficient and torque loss with tip clearance was established. Analysis were performed to determine the cost variation in design, manufacture, and test that would occur between unshrouded and shrouded impellers. An impeller, representative of typical rocket engine impellers, was modified by removing its front shroud to permit variation of its blade clearances. It was tested in water with special instrumentation to provide measurements of blade surface pressures during operation. Pump performance data were obtained from tests at various impeller tip clearances. Blade pressure data were obtained at the nominal tip clearance. Comparisons of predicted and measured data are given.

  20. Dynamics analysis of space robot manipulator with joint clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Bai, Zheng Feng

    2011-04-01

    A computational methodology for analysis of space robot manipulator systems, considering the effects of the clearances in the joint, is presented. The contact dynamics model in joint clearance is established using the nonlinear equivalent spring-damp model and the friction effect is considered using the Coulomb friction model. The space robot system dynamic equation of manipulator with clearance is established. Then the dynamics simulation is presented and the dynamics characteristics of robot manipulator with clearance are analyzed. This work provides a practical method to analyze the dynamics characteristics of space robot manipulator with joint clearance and improves the engineering application. The computational methodology can predict the effects of clearance on space robot manipulator preferably, which is the basis of space robot manipulator design, precision analysis and ground test.

  1. Single-dose gentamicin clearance is a predictor of creatinine clearance in spinal man.

    PubMed

    Segal, Jack L; Gilman, Thomas A; Thompson, John F

    2010-01-01

    To identify a radionuclide-free, SCI (spinal cord injury) population-specific method for estimating renal function utilizing the total body clearance of gentamicin as a measure of creatinine clearance (CL(cr)) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To incorporate SCI population-specific patient variables into a predictive model for estimating CLcr and GFR. A retrolective study of gentamicin clearance as a measure of GFR in patients with SCI. Each patient had received a single, intravenous dose of gentamicin. Simultaneously, a 24-hour creatinine clearance (CL(cr-24)) was obtained. Experimentally measured total body clearance of a single intravenous administration of gentamicin (CL(gent-iv)) was estimated from PK analyses of gentamicin disposition in patients with SCI. Comparisons were made between CL(gent-iv) and predictors of GFR derived from a SCI population-specific nomogram (SCI-psn), the method of Cockcroft and Gault (C-G), CL(cr-24), and a multiplicative statistical model. A multiplicative model, calculated gentamicin clearance (CL(gent-calc)), that incorporates SCI population-specific characteristics to predict CL(cr-24) and GFR was derived from a multivariate nonlinear regression analysis, and the strengths of association between CL(gent-iv) and CL(gent-calc), and estimates of GFR derived from the method of C-G, SCI-psn, and CL(cr-24) were tested. The best predictive performance was demonstrated for CL(gent-iv) and the multiplicative model, CL(gent-calc), when tested against CL(cr-24) or the SCI-psn, supporting our premise that CL(gent-iv) can be used to estimate GFR in SCI. CL(gent-iv) and CL(gent-calc) outperformed CL(cr-24), the method of C-G, and the SCI-psn as predictors of GFR. The multiplicative model produced estimates of CL(gent-iv) which were more precise and less biased than CL(cr-24), the standard radiation-free predictor of GFR in patients with SCI, the SCI-psn, and the C-G equation. In this preliminary study, the clearance of gentamicin

  2. Renal Clearance of Mineral Metabolism Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Rhee, Eugene P; Elmariah, Sammy; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    CKD leads to disturbances in multiple interrelated hormones that regulate bone and mineral metabolism. The renal handling of mineral metabolism hormones in humans is incompletely understood. We determined the single-pass renal clearance of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, vitamin D metabolites, and phosphate from paired blood samples collected from the abdominal aorta and renal vein in 17 participants undergoing simultaneous right and left heart catheterization and estimated associations of eGFR with the renal elimination of metabolites. The mean age ±SD of the study population was 71.4±10.0 years and 11 participants (65%) were male. We found a relatively large mean±SD single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone (44.2%±10.3%) that exceeded the extraction of creatinine (22.1%±7.9%). The proportionate renal extraction of parathyroid hormone correlated with eGFR. The renal extraction of fibroblast growth factor 23 was, on average, lower than that of parathyroid hormone with greater variability across individuals (17.1%±19.5%). There were no differences in the mean concentrations of vitamin D metabolites across the renal vein and artery. In summary, we demonstrate substantial single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone at a rate that exceeds glomerular filtration. Impaired renal clearance of parathyroid hormone may contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD. PMID:26047790

  3. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as governed principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of approximations of the respiratory tract to predict fractional deposition caused by fundamental physical processes of particle impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with early and recent experimental studies. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior in the respiratory tract of very fine (less than 0.1 micron) particles requires further investigation. Properties of particle shape, charge and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns; definitive experimental work is needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of differing ventilation techniques with selected inhaled particle sizes holds promise in diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving the pulmonary macrophage, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic vessels are discussed. PMID:6376108

  4. ESR measurement of radical clearance in lung of whole mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Utsumi, H.; Hamada, A. )

    1991-06-14

    Clearance of the nitroxide radicals, hydroxy-TEMPO and carboxy-PROxYL, in whole-mouse lung was directly measured by in vivo ESR. After injecting a nitroxide radical, distribution of the nitroxide radical all over the lung was confirmed by ESR imaging. The ESR signal of hydroxy-TEMPO was reduced in the lung and the clearance obeyed first-order kinetics, whereas the signal of carboxy-PROxYL remained constant. Comparison of the clearance rates of live and dead mice indicated the presence of 2 different clearance systems in the lung: loss of its paramagnetism in the lung, and transfer from alveolar to the blood circulation system.

  5. Fuel conservation through active control of rotor clearances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beitler, R. S.; Saunders, A. A.; Wanger, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project, technology is being developed which will significantly reduce the fuel consumption of turbofan engines for subsonic transport aircraft. One technology concept being pursued is active control of rotor tip clearances. Attention is given to rotor tip clearance considerations and an overview of preliminary study results as well as the General Electric EEE clearance control approach is presented. Finally, potential fuel savings with active control of rotor clearances for a typical EEE mission are predicted.

  6. Acting to let someone die.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it. PMID:24320715

  7. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  8. 'Die Zeit' im Konversationsunterricht ('Die Zeit' in a Conversation Class)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker-Cantarino, Barbel

    1975-01-01

    The German weekly newspaper "Die Zeit" contains a very rich variety of topics and is therefore an inexhaustable source for an exciting conversation class. This article outlines and lists the advantages of a German conversation course organized around this newspaper. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  9. Dying radio galaxies in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, M.; Parma, P.; Mack, K.-H.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Fanti, R.; Govoni, F.; Tarchi, A.; Giacintucci, S.; Markevitch, M.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We present a study of five "dying" nearby (z ≤ 0.2) radio galaxies belonging to both the WENSS minisurvey and the B2 bright catalogs WNB1734+6407, WNB1829+6911, WNB1851+5707, B2 0120+33, and B2 1610+29. Methods: These sources have been selected on the basis of their extremely steep broad-band radio spectra, which strongly indicates that either these objects belong to the rare class of dying radio galaxies or we are observing "fossil" radio plasma remaining from a previous instance of nuclear activity. We derive the relative duration of the dying phase from the fit of a synchrotron radiative model to the radio spectra of the sources. Results: The modeling of the integrated spectra and the deep spectral index images obtained with the VLA confirmed that in these sources the central engine has ceased to be active for a significant fraction of their lifetime, although their extended lobes have not yet completely faded away. We found that WNB1851+5707 is in reality composed of two distinct dying galaxies, which appear blended together as a single source in the WENSS. In the cases of WNB1829+6911 and B2 0120+33, the fossil radio lobes are seen in conjunction with a currently active core. A very faint core is also detected in a MERLIN image of WNB1851+5707a, one of the two dying sources composing WNB1851+5707. We found that all sources in our sample are located (at least in projection) at the center of an X-ray emitting cluster. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the duration of the dying phase for a radio source in a cluster can be significantly higher than that of a radio galaxy in the field, although no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the small number statistics involved. The simplest interpretation of the tendency for dying galaxies to be found in clusters is that the low-frequency radio emission from the fading radio lobes lasts longer if their expansion is somewhat reduced or even stopped. Another possibility is that the occurrence of dying

  10. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].