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Sample records for clementine reactor

  1. Clementine Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustan, Pedro L.

    1994-06-01

    The Clementine spacecraft was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on January 25, 1994 in the first lunar mission in over twenty years. After spending nine days in low-Earth-orbit, the Clementine spacecraft solid rocket motor was ignited to boost the spacecraft to a transfer orbit of 250 km by 125,000 km. The solid rocket motor was designed as a radiation experiment by mounting radiation electronic components in its interstage adapter. While this interstage adapter remained in this orbit after being released from the Clementine spacecraft, the orbit of the main craft was adjusted by raising the apogee to the lunar orbit of 385,000 km. After two and one-half Earth transfer orbits, the Clementine spacecraft was successfully inserted in lunar orbit on February 19. On February 21, a burn was performed to adjust the spacecraft to the final mapping orbit of 400 km X 2940 km. The spacecraft is scheduled to stay in this mapping orbit for over 70 days, transferring to the Earth about 16,000 images a day in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared parts of the spectrum.

  2. Clementine mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustan, Pedro L.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) started a cooperative program in 1992 to flight qualify recently developed lightweight technologies in a radiation stressed environment. The spacecraft, referred to as Clementine, was designed, built, and launched in less than a two year period. The spacecraft was launched into a high inclination orbit from Vandenburg Air Force Base in California on a Titan IIG launch vehicle in January 1994. The spacecraft was injected into a 420 by 3000 km orbit around the Moon and remained there for over two months. Unfortunately, after successfully completing the Lunar phase of the mission, a software malfunction prevented the accomplishment of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) phase. Some of the technologies incorporated in the Clementine spacecraft include: a 370 gram, 7 watt star tracker camera; a 500 gram, 6 watt, UV/Vis camera; a 1600 gram, 30 watt Indium Antimonide focal plane array NIR camera; a 1650 gram, 30 watt, Mercury Cadmium Telluride LWIR camera; a LIDAR camera which consists of a Nd:YAG diode pumped laser for ranging and an intensified photocathode charge-coupled detector for imaging. The scientific results of the mission will be first analyzed by a NASA selected team, and then will be available to the entire community.

  3. The Clementine satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The first US satellite to the Moon in more than two decades was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base (Santa Barbara County), California, on January 25, 1994. The satellite was named Clementine because it carried only enough fuel to complete its mission before it was [open quotes]lost and gone forever.[close quotes] The Clementine satellite tested 23 advanced technologies during its mission for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. In fulfilling its scientific goals, Clementine provided a wealth of information relevant to the mineralogy of the lunar surface. Using six on-board cameras designed and built at the Laboratory, Clementine mapped the entire surface of the Moon at resolutions never before attained. Clementine also provided range data that will be used to construct a relief map of the lunar surface.

  4. Clementine goes exploring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, Stewart; Shoemaker, Eugene M.

    1994-01-01

    In early 1994, the US will once again place a spacecraft in lunar orbit. Popularly called Clementine, this spacecraft will spend about two months mapping the Moon and then will travel on to encounter the near-Earth asteroid, 1620 Geographos. A brief description of the historical development of the mission; the lunar survey; Clementine's payload, equipment, and capabilties; and the encounter with Geographos is presented.

  5. The Clementine mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, William; Hurley, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Clementine spacecraft was developed under the 'faster, better, cheaper' theme. The constraints of a low budget coupled with an unusually tight schedule forced many departures from the normal spacecraft development methods. This paper discusses technical lessons learned about several of the mechanisms on the Clementine spacecraft as well as managerial lessons learned for the entire mechanisms subsystem. A quick overview of the Clementine mission is included; the mission schedule and environment during the mechanisms releases and deployment are highlighted. This paper then describes the entire mechanisms subsystem. The design and test approach and key philosophies for a fast-track program are discussed during the description of the mechanisms subsystem. The mechanism subsystem included a marman clamp separation system, a separation nut separation system, a solar panel deployment and pointing system, a high gain antenna feed deployment system, and two separate sensor cover systems. Each mechanism is briefly discussed. Additional technical discussion is given on the marman clamp design, the sensor cover designs, and the design and testing practices for systems driven by heated actuators (specifically paraffin actuators and frangibolts). All of the other mechanisms were of conventional designs and will receive less emphasis. Lessons learned are discussed throughout the paper as they applied to the systems being discussed. Since there is information on many different systems, this paper is organized so that information on a particular topic can be quickly referenced.

  6. Clementine longwave infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Robert E.; Lewis, Isabella T.; Sewall, Noel R.; Park, Hye-Sook; Shannon, Michael J.; Ledebuhr, Arno G.; Pleasance, Lyn D.; Massie, Mark A.; Metschuleit, Karen

    1995-06-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth, and space were returned from this mission. The long-wave-infrared (LWIR) camera supplemented the UV/visible and near-infrared mapping cameras providing limited strip coverage of the moon, giving insight to the thermal properties of the soils. This camera provided approximately 100 m spatial resolution at 400 km periselene, and a 7 km across- track swath. This 2.1 kg camera using a 128 X 128 mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) FPA viewed thermal emission of the lunar surface and lunar horizon in the 8.0 to 9.5 micrometers wavelength region. A description of this lightweight, low power LWIR camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission's primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  7. Clementine RRELAX SRAM particle spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, M.G.; Soli, G.A.; Blaes, B.R.; Ratliff, J.M.; Garrett, H.B. . Jet Propulsion Lab.)

    1994-12-01

    The Clementine RRELAX radiation monitor chip consists of a p-FET total dose monitor and a 4-kbit SRAM particle spectrometer. Eight of these chips were included in the RRELAX and used to detect the passage of the Clementine (S/C) and the innerstage adapter (ISA) through the earth's radiation belts and the 21-Feb 1994 solar flare. This is the first space flight for this 1.2-[mu]m rad-soft custom CMOS radiation monitor. This paper emphasizes results from the SRAM particle detector which showed that it (a) has a detection range of five orders of magnitude relative to the 21-Feb solar flare, (b) is not affected by electrons, and (c) detected microflares occurring with a 26.5-day period.

  8. Clementine RRELAX SRAM Particle Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Soli, G.; Blaes, B.; Ratliff, J.; Garrett, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine RRELAX radiation monitor chip consists of a p-FET total dose monitor and a 4-kbit SRAM particle spectrometer. Eight of these chips were included in the RRELAX and used to detect the passage of the Clementine (S/C) and the innerstage adapter (ISA) through the earth's radiation belts and the 21-Feb 1994 solar flare. This is the first space flight for this 1.2 micron rad-soft custom CMOS radiation monitor. This paper emphasizes results from the SRAM particle detector which showed that it a) has a detection range of five orders of magnitude relative to the 21-Feb solar flare, b) is not affected by electrons, and c) detected microflares occurring with a 26.5 day period.

  9. The Clementine mission —A 10-year perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Trevor C.; Spudis, Paul D.

    2005-12-01

    Clementine was a technology demonstration mission jointly sponsored by the Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA that was launched on January 25th, 1994. Its principal objective was to use the Moon, a near-Earth asteroid, and the spacecraft’s Interstage Adapter as targets to demonstrate lightweight sensor performance and several innovative spacecraft systems and technologies. The design, development, and operation of the Clementine spacecraft and ground system was performed by the Naval Research Laboratory. For over two months Clementine mapped the Moon, producing the first multispectral global digital map of the Moon, the first global topographic map, and contributing several other important scientific discoveries, including the possibility of ice at the lunar South Pole. New experiments or schedule modifications were made with minimal constraints, maximizing science return, thus creating a new paradigm for mission operations. Clementine was the first mission known to conduct an in-flight autonomous operations experiment. After leaving the Moon, Clementine suffered an onboard failure that caused cancellation of the asteroid rendezvous. Despite this setback, NASA and the DOD applied the lessons learned from the Clementine mission to later missions. Clementine set the standard against which new small spacecraft missions are commonly measured. More than any other mission, Clementine has the most influence (scientifically, technically, and operationally) on the lunar missions being planned for the next decade.

  10. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment.

    PubMed

    Nozette, S; Lichtenberg, C L; Spudis, P; Bonner, R; Ort, W; Malaret, E; Robinson, M; Shoemaker, E M

    1996-11-29

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole. PMID:8929403

  11. The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C. L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  12. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C.L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, ??, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same- sense polarization enhancement around ?? = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  13. Clementine auto exposure control software

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, E.

    1994-11-15

    The primary mission of the Clementine program was to test technology developed under the auspices of BMDO (the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization). A secondary goal of the program was to provide astronomical data to the scientific and educational community. The mission plan developed to accomplish these goals included complete mapping of the lunar surface and a close fly-by of a near-Earth asteroid, 1620 Geographos. Exposure control for the Clementine mission was driven by mission phase requirements and sensor characteristics. Thus, there were a total of twelve algorithms developed for three primary mission phases and the four imaging sensors (two additional sensors operated as star trackers). The three mission phases in question were lunar mapping, distant observation of the asteroid for the purpose of tracking, and close-up viewing (as close as 100 Km) of Geographos. The four non-star tracker sensors consisted of an Ultra Violet/Visible (UV/Vis) camera, a High Resolution (HiRes) camera with a built-in LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) unit, a Near Infrared (NIR) camera, and a Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) camera. Due to lack of test time and uncertainties about the imaging environment, numerous input parameters were provided in the algorithms to allow extensive tuning of the exposure control during the mission.

  14. The Clementine longwave infrared camera

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Lewis, I.T.; Sewall, N.R.; Park, H.S.; Shannon, M.J.; Ledebuhr, A.G.; Pleasance, L.D.; Massie, M.A.; Metschuleit, K.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. The longwave-infrared (LWIR) camera supplemented the UV/Visible and near-infrared mapping cameras providing limited strip coverage of the moon, giving insight to the thermal properties of the soils. This camera provided {approximately}100 m spatial resolution at 400 km periselene, and a 7 km across-track swath. This 2.1 kg camera using a 128 x 128 Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) FPA viewed thermal emission of the lunar surface and lunar horizon in the 8.0 to 9.5 {micro}m wavelength region. A description of this light-weight, low power LWIR camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... States, prior to cold treatment, inspectors will cut and inspect a sample of clementines determined by... the export program for the remainder of that shipping season. (g) Cold treatment. Clementines must be cold treated in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. Upon arrival of clementines at a port...

  16. Comparative genetic mapping between clementine, pummelo and sweet orange and the interspecicic structure of the Clementine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative genetic mapping between clementine, pummelo and sweet orange and the interspecicic structure of the Clementine genome The availability of a saturated genetic map of Clementine was identified by the International Citrus Genome Consortium as an essential prerequisite to assist the assembly...

  17. Lessons Learned from the Clementine Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    According to BMDO, the Clementine mission achieved many of its technology objectives during its flight to the Moon in early 1994 but, because of a software error, was unable to test the autonomous tracking of a cold target. The preliminary analyses of the returned lunar data suggest that valuable scientific measurements were made on several important topics but that COMPLEX's highest-priority objectives for lunar science were not achieved. This is not surprising given that the rationale for Clementine was technological rather than scientific. COMPLEX lists below a few of the lessons that may be learned from Clementine. Although the Clementine mission was not conceived as a NASA science mission exactly like those planned for the Discovery program, many operational aspects of the two are similar. It is therefore worthwhile to understand the strengths and faults of the Clementine approach. Some elements of the Clementine operation that led to the mission's success include the following: (1) The mission's achievements were the responsibility of a single organization and its manager, which made that organization and that individual accountable for the final outcome; (2) The sponsor adopted a hands-off approach and set a minimum number of reviews (three); (3) The sponsor accepted a reasonable amount of risk and allowed the project team to make the trade-offs necessary to minimize the mission's risks while still accomplishing all its primary objectives; and (4) The development schedule was brief and the agreed-on funding (and funding profile) was adhered to. Among the operational shortcomings of Clementine were the following: (1) An overly ambitious schedule and a slightly lean budget (meaning insufficient time for software development and testing, and leading ultimately to human exhaustion); and (2) No support for data calibration, reduction, and analysis. The principal lesson to be learned in this category is that any benefits from the constructive application of higher risk for lower cost and faster schedule will be lost if the schedule does not allow adequate time for the development of all essential systems or makes no allowance for human frailties. Another lesson to be drawn is that despite its limitations, if judged strictly as a science mission, Clementine attested that significant scientific information can be gathered during a technology-demonstration mission. In the current era of limited funds, when science missions will be infrequent, the opportunity to fly scientific instruments aboard missions whose objectives might be other than science must be seized and, indeed, encouraged. During such opportunities it would be inexcusable to do second-class science. Thus the scientific community must be actively involved in such projects from their initiation.

  18. Inverter Matrix for the Clementine Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Tardio, G.; Soli, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    An inverter matrix test circuit was designed for the Clementine space mission and is built into the RRELAX (Radiation and Reliability Assurance Experiment). The objective is to develop a circuit that will allow the evaluation of the CMOS FETs using a lean data set in the noisy spacecraft environment.

  19. The Clementine Mission: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozette, Stewart

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade the Department of Defense, and the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, BMDO (formally the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, SDIO) of the US Department of Defense (DoD) have invested heavily in space technology, focused on the development of lighter more cost effective components and systems. With the end of the Cold War many of these technologies can be made available to the civilian community. To further these efforts in dual-use application, BMDO and NASA have collaborated on the Clementine mission. The Clementine spacecraft was launched on 25 January 1994 as a test of many of the most advanced lightweight technologies ever developed by the DoD. Clementine is currently in lunar orbit performing the lunar mapping phase of its mission. The mission has been integrated by a Naval Research Laboratory government/industry team in less than two years. The spacecraft itself has a dry weight of about 227 kg made possible by using very lightweight components. The sensor suite, provided by a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/industry team consists of two star tracker cameras, an ultraviolet-visible camera, a short wave infrared camera, a long wave infrared camera, and LIDAR, weighs less than 8 kg and covers the wavelength range from 0.3 to 9.5 microns. Additional lightweight technologies (inertial measurement units, reaction wheels, batteries, computing systems, and solid state recorders) have also been incorporated in the basic system design. On 3 May, 1994 the spacecraft will leave lunar orbit. Following an additional 2 Earth flybys, and a lunar flyby, the spacecraft will then execute a flyby of the the near-Earth-asteroid 1620 Geographos, around 31 August 1994. An extended mission to flyby near-Earth asteroid 1983 RD in October of 1995 is currently under study. A great deal of significant information will be returned by Clementine during its two months in lunar orbit. The data (which would fill a small library of compact discs) will be distributed through NASA's Planetary Data System, a nationwide system of repositories for lunar and planetary flight data that is widely available to scientists. Images are also available to the public on Internet using "anonymous ftp" at clementine.s1.gov.

  20. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a side, which spans approximately 2.2 deg. Two mosaics are provided for each pole: one corresponding to data acquired while periapsis was in the south, the other while periapsis was in the north. The CD-ROMs also contain ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files.

  1. Multispectral Mapping of the Moon by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Robinson, M.; Lucey, Paul G.; Duxbury, T.; Malaret, E.; Pieters, Carle; Becker, T.; Isbell, C.; Lee, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the chief scientific objectives of the Clementine mission at the Moon was to acquire global multispectral mapping. A global digital map of the Moon in 11 spectral bandpasses and at a scale of 100 m/pixel is being produced at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff Arizona Near-global coverage was acquired with the UVVIS camera (central wavelengths of 415, 750, 900, 950, and 1000 nm) and the NIR camera (1102, 1248, 1499, 1996, 2620, and 2792 nary). We expect to complete processing of the UVVIS mosaics before the fall of 1998, and to complete the NIR mosaics a year later. The purpose of this poster is to provide an update on the processing and to show examples of the products or perhaps even a wall-sized display of color products from the UVVIS mosaics.

  2. The Clementine mission: Initial results from lunar mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Shoemaker, E.; Acton, C.; Burratti, B.; Duxbury, T.; Baker, D.; Smith, D.; Blamont, J.; Davies, M.; Eliason, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clementine was a mission designed to test the space worthiness of a variety of advanced sensors for use on military surveillance satellites while, at the same time, gathering useful scientific information on the composition and structure of the Moon and a near Earth asteroid. Clementine was dispatched for an extended stay in the vicinity of Earth's Moon on 25 Jan. 1994 and arrived at the Moon on 20 Feb. 1994. The spacecraft started systematic mapping on 26 Feb., completed mapping on 22 Apr., and left lunar orbit on 3 May. The entire Clementine project, from conception through end of mission, lasted approximately three years. Topographic profiles derived from lidar laser altimetry permitted construction of a global topographic map of the Moon. Clementine also aimed at mapping the color of the Moon in eleven different wavelengths in the visible and near infrared parts of the system. With rock and soil samples of known geological context available from the Apollo and Lunar programs, the Clementine mission offers the data needed to construct a global digital image model of the Moon.

  3. Charged-particle telescope experiment on Clementine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D N; Kanekal, S; Blake, J B; Adams, J H

    1995-01-01

    The charged-particle telescope (CPT) onboard the Clementine spacecraft measured the fluxes of energetic protons emitted in solar energetic particle events. Protons in the energy range from 10 to 80 MeV were of greatest interest for radiation effects such as total dose and single event upsets. Energetic electrons were also of interest for spacecraft charging and their contribution to total dose. The lower-energy CPT electron channels (25-500 keV) were mainly of geophysical interest. While orbiting the moon, the CPT observed the wake created by the moon when it blocked the flow of energetic particles in the magnetotail region. The CPT provided opportunities to observe energetic electron bursts during magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms. CPT data are particularly useful in multispacecraft studies of interplanetary disturbances and their interaction with the magnetosphere. The proton channels on the CPT provided data on solar energetic protons and storm-time protons associated with the passage of an interplanetary shock at 0903 UT on Feb. 21, 1994. Results are compared with those from GOES-7, SAMPEX, and GEOTAIL. PMID:11539374

  4. Mapping of the Moon by Clementine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Robinson, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The "faster, cheaper, better" Clementine spacecraft mission mapped the Moon from February 19 to May 3, 1994. Global coverage was acquired in 11 spectral bandpasses from 415 to 2792 nm and at resolutions of 80-330 m/pixel; a thermal-infrared camera sampled ???20% of the surface; a high-resolution camera sampled selected areas (especially the polar regions); and a lidar altimeter mapped the large-scale topography up to latitudes of ??75??. The spacecraft was in a polar, elliptical orbit, 400-450 km periselene altitude. Periselene latitude was -28.5?? for the first month of mapping, then moved to +28.5??. NASA is supporting the archiving, systematic processing, and analysis of the ???1.8 million lunar images and other datasets. A new global positional network has been constructed from 43,000 images and ???0.5 million match points; new digital maps will facilitate future lunar exploration. In-flight calibrations now enable photometry to a high level of precision for the uv-visible CCD camera. Early science results include: (1) global models of topography, gravity, and crustal thicknesses; (2) new information on the topography and structure of multiring impact basins; (3) evidence suggestive of water ice in large permanent shadows near the south pole; (4) global mapping of iron abundances; and (5) new constraints on the Phanerozoic cratering rate of the Earth. Many additional results are expected following completion of calibration and systematic processing efforts. ?? 1997 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. The Clementine Mission: Initial Results from lunar mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Shoemaker, E.; Acton, C.; Burratti, B.; Duxbury, T.; Baker, D.; Smith, D.; Blamont, J.; Davies, M.; Eliason, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clementine was a mission designed to test the space-worthiness of a variety of advanced sensors for use on military surveillance satellites while, at the same time, gathering useful scientific information on the composition and structure of the Moon and a near-Earth asteroid. Conducted jointly by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, formerly the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization) of the US Department of Defense and NASA, Clementine was dispatched for an extended stay in the vicinity of Earth's moon on 25 January 1994 and arrived at the Moon on 20 February 1994. The spacecraft started systematic mapping on 26 February, completed mapping on 22 April, and left lunar orbit on 3 May. The entire Clementine project, from conception through end-of-mission, lasted approximately 3 years.

  6. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole.

  7. The Clementine Mission science return at the Moon and Geographos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Davies, M. E.; Horan, D. M.; Lucey, P. G.; Pieters, C. M.; Mcewen, A. S.; Nozette, S.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Thomas, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine Mission is being built and flown by the Naval Research Laboratory under the sponsorship of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization of the United States Department of Defense in joint-cooperation with NASA, and will explore the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 1620 Geographos with lightweight sensors developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A NASA Science Team for this mission will be selected by way of a NRA in April 1993. The instrument suite includes imaging cameras that cover a spectral range from the near-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, a laser ranger, and, potentially, a charged particle telescope. To be launched in early 1994, Clementine will be in lunar orbit from February through May 1994, at which time it will depart the Moon for a flyby of 1620 Geographos in August 1994. This mission represents an outstanding opportunity for scientists interested in the Moon and asteroids. It is anticipated that the data returned from this mission will permit: an assessment of global lunar crustal heterogeneity and a resolution of less than 1 km; an assessment of the lithologic heterogeneity of Geographos at a scale of 100 m or better; and an assessment of surface processes on Geographos on the order of 10 m. The basic mission of Clementine and some of the key scientific questions that will be addressed are described. Additional material on the Clementine mission, its data handling and processing, and its instrument suite is presented elsewhere.

  8. Systematic Processing of Clementine Data for Scientific Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    If fully successful, the Clementine mission will return about 3,000,000 lunar images and more than 5000 images of Geographos. Effective scientific analyses of such large datasets require systematic processing efforts. Concepts for two such efforts are described: glogal multispectral imaging of the moon; and videos of Geographos.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... export to the United States, prior to cold treatment, inspectors will cut and inspect 200 fruit that are... program for the remainder of that shipping season. (g) Cold treatment. Clementines must be cold treated in... States, inspectors will examine the cold treatment data for each consignment to ensure that the...

  10. Clementine Observes the Moon, Solar Corona, and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, during its flight, the Clementine spacecraft returned images of the Moon. In addition to the geologic mapping cameras, the Clementine spacecraft also carried two Star Tracker cameras for navigation. These lightweight (0.3 kg) cameras kept the spacecraft on track by constantly observing the positions of stars, reminiscent of the age-old seafaring tradition of sextant/star navigation. These navigation cameras were also to take some spectacular wide angle images of the Moon.

    In this picture the Moon is seen illuminated solely by light reflected from the Earth--Earthshine! The bright glow on the lunar horizon is caused by light from the solar corona; the sun is just behind the lunar limb. Caught in this image is the planet Venus at the top of the frame.

  11. UV/visible camera for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Priest, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes the Clementine UV/Visible (UV/Vis) multispectral camera, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. While the primary objective of the Clementine Program was to qualify a suite of 6 light-weight, low power imagers for future Department of Defense flights, the mission also has provided the first systematic mapping of the complete lunar surface in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The 410 g, 4.65 W UV/Vis camera uses a 384 x 288 frame-transfer silicon CCD FPA and operates at 6 user-selectable wavelength bands between 0.4 and 1.1 {micro}m. It has yielded lunar imagery and mineralogy data with up to 120 in spatial resolution (band dependent) at 400 km periselene along a 39 km cross-track swath.

  12. Clementine: Anticipated scientific datasets from the Moon and Geographos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine spacecraft mission is designed to test the performance of new lightweight and low-power detectors developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A secondary objective of the mission is to acquire useful scientific data, principally of the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid Geographos. The spacecraft will be in an elliptical polar orbit about the Moon for about 2 months beginning in February of 1994 and it will fly by Geographos on August 31. Clementine will carry seven detectors each weighing less than about 1 kg: two Star Trackers wide-angle uv/vis wide-angle Short Wavelength IR (SWIR) Long-Wavelength IR (LWIR) and LIDAR (Laser Image Detection And Ranging) narrow-angle imaging and ranging. Additional presentations about the mission detectors and related science issues are in this volume. If fully successful Clementine will return about 3 million lunar images, a dataset with nearly as many bits of data (uncompressed) as the first cycle of Magellan and more than 5000 images of Geographos. The complete and efficient analysis of such large data sets requires systematic processing efforts. Described below are concepts for two such efforts for the Clementine mission: global multispectral imaging of the Moon and videos of the Geographos flyby. Other anticipated datasets for which systematic processing might be desirable include multispectral observations of Earth; LIDAR altimetry of the Moon with high-resolution imaging along each ground track; high-resolution LIDAR color along each lunar ground track which could be used to identify potential titanium-rich deposits at scales of a few meters; and thermal IR imaging along each lunar ground track (including nighttime observations near the poles).

  13. Lunar Transient Phenomena: What Do the Clementine Images Reveal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, B.; Herkenhoff, K.; McConnochie, T.

    1996-09-01

    Lunar Transient Phenomena (LTP) have been reported for at least 450 years. The events range from bright flashes, to reddish or bluish glows, to fuzzy or foggy patches. Gaseous spectra and photometric measurements of the events have been obtained (e.g., Kozyrev, Sky and Tel. 18, 184 (1959); Sanduleak and Stock, P.A.S.P. 77, 237 (1965)). Several theories have been offered as explanations for LTP, including residual volcanic activity or outgassing, bombardment by energetic particles, and piezoelectric effects. As the first set of digital, data-based multispectral images of the entire Moon, the Clementime data (particularly the UV/VIS and LWIR images) offer a unique opportunity to couple knowledge of compositional relationships within the context of lunar geology in the regions of LTP. We have selected about one dozen regions from Cameron's catalog of LTP (Cameron, Icarus 16, 339 (1972)) for close scrutiny with Clementine measurements. These regions, which include Aristarchus and Schroter's Valley, Alphonsus, Ross D, Plato, and Gassendi, are all areas where numerous reliable historical reports of LTP exist. A secondary source of information is a catalogue compiled by David Darling and Winifred Cameron of observations of LTP obtained by a team of amateur astronomers during the Clementine mission (19 February to 3 May 1994). Our analysis of the Clementine images shows that LTP tend to occur near the edges of maria, in agreement with a suggestion originally made by Cameron (op. cit.). Our analysis of the Clementine multispectral data shows that the reported events also tend to be in craters with rims of distinctly different (bluer) composition. This compositional difference may result from recent slumping of the rim, accompanied by the appearance of fresher underlying material. Such events may be associated with outgassing of volatiles collected in mare basalts. Funded by NASA.

  14. Automated Search for Lunar Lava Tubes in the Clementine Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Allen G.; Gibbs, A.

    1998-01-01

    A significant problem in computer science, which has become increasingly acute recently, is the automatic extraction and cataloging of desired features from large sets of complex images. Solution of this problem could potentially have broad applicability. As a prototype of this kind of problem, our group has chosen to attempt the automatic retrieval of lava tubes from the Clementine dataset. Lunar lava tubes have long been recognized as desirable locations for the placement of manned lunar bases. Advantages include that (1) little construction is needed; (2) building materials need not be lifted out of Earth's gravity well; (3) the tubes provide natural environmental control; and (4) the tubes provide natural protection from cosmic rays, meteorites, micrometeorites, and impact crater ejecta. Coombs and Hawke identified about 100 probable lava tubes associated with sinuous rilles in the Lunar Orbiter and Apollo photos, primarily in the nearside maria. The lava tubes that are visible to Earth-based telescopes might be too large to provide good candidates for lunar bases. Such lava tubes of large diameter need a great depth of overlying rock to keep from collapsing. Any intact large tubes would lie inconveniently far underground. Most useful would be lava tubes that are too small to be discerned from Earth. The Clementine spacecraft, which mapped the entire surface of the Moon to an unprecedented level of detail in 1994, gives us a view of these smaller lava tubes. Over 1.9 million images in the visible, near infrared, and mid-infrared portions of the spectrum were captured. Our task is to find and catalog the small lava tubes in the Clementine dataset. Of particular interest are small sinuous rifles that contain interruptions, which represent uncollapsed portions of a tube that has partially collapsed. Once cataloged, the candidate base locations can be examined more closely for suitability. Considerations would be proximity to resources, sites of scientific interest, or favorable locations for siting of a railgun satellite launcher.

  15. System level mechanical testing of the Clementine spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haughton, James; Hauser, Joseph; Raynor, William; Lynn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the system level structural testing that was performed to qualify the Clementine Spacecraft for flight. These tests included spin balance, combined acoustic and axial random vibration, lateral random vibration, quasi-static loads, pyrotechnic shock, modal survey and on-orbit jitter simulation. Some innovative aspects of this effort were: the simultaneously combined acoustic and random vibration test; the mass loaded interface modal survey test; and the techniques used to assess how operating on board mechanisms and thrusters affect sensor vision.

  16. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  17. The clementine mission to the moon: scientific overview.

    PubMed

    Nozette, S; Rustan, P; Pleasance, L P; Kordas, J F; Lewis, I T; Park, H S; Priest, R E; Horan, D M; Regeon, P; Lichtenberg, C L; Shoemaker, E M; Eliason, E M; McEwen, A S; Robinson, M S; Spudis, P D; Acton, C H; Buratti, B J; Duxbury, T C; Baker, D N; Jakosky, B M; Blamont, J E; Corson, M P; Resnick, J H; Rollins, C J; Davies, M E; Lucey, P G; Malaret, E; Massie, M A; Pieters, C M; Reisse, R A; Simpson, R A; Smith, D E; Sorenson, T C; Breugge, R W; Zuber, M T

    1994-12-16

    In the course of 71 days in lunar orbit, from 19 February to 3 May 1994, the Clementine spacecraft acquired just under two million digital images of the moon at visible and infrared wavelengths. These data are enabling the global mapping of the rock types of the lunar crust and the first detailed investigation of the geology of the lunar polar regions and the lunar far side. In addition, laser-ranging measurements provided the first view of the global topographic figure of the moon. The topography of many ancient impact basins has been measured, and a global map of the thickness of the lunar crust has been derived from the topography and gravity. PMID:17737076

  18. Clementine observations of the Aristarchus region of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Robinson, M.S.; Eliason, E.M.; Lucey, P.G.; Duxbury, T.C.; Spudis, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral and topographic data acquired by the Clementine spacecraft provide information on the composition and geologic history of the Aristarchus region of the moon. Altimetry profiles show the Aristarchus plateau dipping about 1?? to the north-northwest and rising about 2 kilometers above the surrounding lavas of Oceanus Procellarum to the south. Dark, reddish pyroclastic glass covers the plateau to average depths of 10 to 30 meters, as determined from the estimated excavation depths of 100- to 1000-meter-diameter craters that have exposed materials below the pyroclastics. These craters and the wall of sinuous rilles also show that mare basalts underlie the pyroclastics across much of the plateau. Near-infrared images of Aristarchus crater reveal oilvine-rich materials and two kilometer-sized outcrops of anorthosite in the central peaks. The anorthosite could be either a derivative of local magnesium-suite magmatism or a remnant of the ferroan anorthosite crust that formed over the primordial magma ocean.

  19. Mineralogy of the last lunar basalts: Results from Clementine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staid, M.I.; Pieters, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The last major phase of lunar volcanism produced extensive high-titanium mare deposits on the western nearside which remain unsampled by landing missions. The visible and near-infrared reflectance properties of these basalts are examined using Clementine multispectral images to better constrain their mineralogy. A much stronger 1 ??m ferrous absorption was observed for the western high-titanium basalts than within earlier maria, suggesting that these last major mare eruptions also may have been the most iron-rich. These western basalts also have a distinctly long-wavelength, 1 ??m ferrous absorption which was found to be similar for both surface soils and materials excavated from depth, supporting the interpretation of abundant olivine within these deposits. Spectral variation along flows within the Imbrium basin also suggests variations in ilmenite content along previously mapped lava flows as well as increasing olivine content within subsequent eruptions. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. A Sharper View of Impact Craters from Clementine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Staid, M. I.; Fischer, E. M.; Tompkins, S.; He, G.

    1994-12-01

    The ultraviolet-visible camera on the Clementine spacecraft obtained high-spatial resolution images of the moon in five spectral channels. Impact craters mapped with these multispectral images show a scale of lithologic diversity that varies with crater size and target stratigraphy. Prominent lithologic variations (feldspathic versus basaltic) occur within the south wall of Copernicus (93 kilometers in diameter) on the scale of 1 to 2 kilometers. Lithologic diversity at Tycho (85 kilometers in diameter) is less apparent at this scale, although the impact melt of these two large craters is remarkably similar in this spectral range. The lunar surface within and around the smaller crater Giordano Bruno (22 kilometers in diameter) is largely dominated by the mixing of freshly excavated material with surrounding older soils derived from a generally similar feldspathic lithology.

  1. Radiation effects in space: The Clementine I mission

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, T. G.; Clayton, E.; Wefel, J. P.

    1994-12-20

    The space radiation environment for the CLEMENTINE I mission was investigated using a new calculational model, CHIME, which includes the effects of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), anomalous component (AC) species and solar energetic particle (SEP) events and their variations as a function of time. Unlike most previous radiation environment models, CHIME is based upon physical theory and is {open_quotes}calibrated{close_quotes} with energetic particle measurements made over the last two decades. Thus, CHIME provides an advance in the accuracy of estimating the interplanetary radiation environment. Using this model we have calculated particle energy spectra, fluences and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra for all three major components of the CLEMENTINE I mission during 1994: (1) the spacecraft in lunar orbit, (2) the spacecraft during asteroid flyby, and (3) the interstate adapter USA in Earth orbit. Our investigations indicate that during 1994 the level of solar modulation, which dominates the variation in the GCR and AC flux as a function of time, will be decreasing toward solar minimum levels. Consequently the GCR and AC flux will be increasing during Y, the year and, potentially, will rise to levels seen during previous solar minimums. The estimated radiation environment also indicates that the AC will dominate the energetic particle spectra for energies below 30-50 MeV/nucleon, while the GCR have a peak flux at {approximately}300 MeV/nucleon and maintain a relatively high flux level up to >1000 MeV/nucleon. The AC significantly enhances the integrated flux for LET in the range 1 to 10 MeV/(mg/cm{sup 2}), but due to the steep energy spectra of the AC a relatively small amount of material ({approximately}50 mils of Al) can effectively shield against this component. The GCR are seen to be highly penetrating and require massive amounts of shielding before there is any appreciable decrease in the LET flux.

  2. Newer views of the Moon: Comparing spectra from Clementine and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Nettles, J.; Combe, J.-P.; Clark, R.N.; Pieters, C.M.; Staid, M.; Malaret, E.; Boardman, J.; Green, R.O.; Head, J.W.; McCord, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) provided the first global hyperspectral data of the lunar surface in 85 bands from 460 to 2980 nm. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and near-infrared (NIR). In an effort to understand how M3 improves our ability to analyze and interpret lunar data, we compare M3 spectra with those from Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the UV-VIS and NIR. We have found that M3 reflectance values are lower across all wavelengths compared with albedos from both of Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. M3 spectra show the Moon to be redder, that is, have a steeper continuum slope, than indicated by Clementine. The 1 m absorption band depths may be comparable between the instruments, but Clementine data consistently exhibit shallower 2 m band depths than M 3. Absorption band minimums are difficult to compare due to the significantly different spectral resolutions. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Topography of the Moon from the Clementine Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    1997-01-01

    Range measurements from the lidar instrument carried aboard the Clementine spacecraft have been used to produce an accurate global topographic model of the Moon. This paper discusses the function of the lidar; the acquisition, processing, and filtering of observations to produce a global topographic model; and the determination of parameters that define the fundamental shape of the Moon. Our topographic model: a 72nd degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of lunar radii, is designated Goddard Lunar Topography Model 2 (GLTM 2). This topographic field has an absolute vertical accuracy of approximately 100 m and a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg. The field shows that the Moon can be described as a sphere with maximum positive and negative deviations of approx. 8 km, both occurring on the farside, in the areas of the Korolev and South Pole-Aitken (S.P.-Aitken) basins. The amplitude spectrum of the topography shows more power at longer wavelengths as compared to previous models, owing to more complete sampling of the surface, particularly the farside. A comparison of elevations derived from the Clementine lidar to control point elevations from the Apollo laser altimeters indicates that measured relative topographic heights generally agree to within approx. 200 in over the maria. While the major axis of the lunar gravity field is aligned in the Earth-Moon direction, the major axis of topography is displaced from this line by approximately 10 deg to the cast and intersects the farside 24 deg north of the equator. The magnitude of impact basin topography is greater than the lunar flattening (approx. 2 km) and equatorial ellipticity (approx. 800 m), which imposes a significant challenge to interpreting the lunar figure. The floors of mare basins are shown to lie close to an equipotential surface, while the floors of unflooded large basins, except for S.P.-Aitken, lie above this equipotential. The radii of basin floors are thus consistent with a hydrostatic mechanism for the absence of significant farside maria except for S.P.-Aitken, whose depth and lack of mare require significant internal compositional and/or thermal heterogeneity. A macroscale surface roughness map shows that roughness at length scales of 10(exp 1) - 10(exp 2) km correlates with elevation and surface age.

  4. Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Wilson, B.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 FPA and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {micro}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {micro}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  5. Asteroid approach covariance analysis for the Clementine mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionasescu, Rodica; Sonnabend, David

    The Clementine mission is designed to test Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) technology, the Brilliant Pebbles and Brilliant Eyes sensors, by mapping the moon surface and flying by the asteroid Geographos. The capability of two of the instruments available on board the spacecraft, the lidar (laser radar) and the UV/Visible camera is used in the covariance analysis to obtain the spacecraft delivery uncertainties at the asteroid. These uncertainties are due primarily to asteroid ephemeris uncertainties. On board optical navigation reduces the uncertainty in the knowledge of the spacecraft position in the direction perpendicular to the incoming asymptote to a one-sigma value of under 1 km, at the closest approach distance of 100 km. The uncertainty in the knowledge of the encounter time is about 0.1 seconds for a flyby velocity of 10.85 km/s. The magnitude of these uncertainties is due largely to Center Finding Errors (CFE). These systematic errors represent the accuracy expected in locating the center of the asteroid in the optical navigation images, in the absence of a topographic model for the asteroid. The direction of the incoming asymptote cannot be estimated accurately until minutes before the asteroid flyby, and correcting for it would require autonomous navigation. Orbit determination errors dominate over maneuver execution errors, and the final delivery accuracy attained is basically the orbit determination uncertainty before the final maneuver.

  6. Asteroid approach covariance analysis for the Clementine mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionasescu, Rodica; Sonnabend, David

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine mission is designed to test Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) technology, the Brilliant Pebbles and Brilliant Eyes sensors, by mapping the moon surface and flying by the asteroid Geographos. The capability of two of the instruments available on board the spacecraft, the lidar (laser radar) and the UV/Visible camera is used in the covariance analysis to obtain the spacecraft delivery uncertainties at the asteroid. These uncertainties are due primarily to asteroid ephemeris uncertainties. On board optical navigation reduces the uncertainty in the knowledge of the spacecraft position in the direction perpendicular to the incoming asymptote to a one-sigma value of under 1 km, at the closest approach distance of 100 km. The uncertainty in the knowledge of the encounter time is about 0.1 seconds for a flyby velocity of 10.85 km/s. The magnitude of these uncertainties is due largely to Center Finding Errors (CFE). These systematic errors represent the accuracy expected in locating the center of the asteroid in the optical navigation images, in the absence of a topographic model for the asteroid. The direction of the incoming asymptote cannot be estimated accurately until minutes before the asteroid flyby, and correcting for it would require autonomous navigation. Orbit determination errors dominate over maneuver execution errors, and the final delivery accuracy attained is basically the orbit determination uncertainty before the final maneuver.

  7. Clementine observations of the aristarchus region of the moon.

    PubMed

    McEwen, A S; Robinson, M S; Eliason, E M; Lucey, P G; Duxbury, T C; Spudis, P D

    1994-12-16

    Multispectral and topographic data acquired by the Clementine spacecraft provide information on the composition and geologic history of the Aristarchus region of the moon. Altimetry profiles show the Aristarchus plateau dipping about 1 degrees to the north-northwest and rising about 2 kilometers above the surrounding lavas of Oceanus Procellarum to the south. Dark, reddish pyroclastic glass covers the plateau to average depths of 10 to 30 meters, as determined from the estimated excavation depths of 100- to 1000-meter-diameter craters that have exposed materials below the pyroclastics. These craters and the walls of sinuous rilles also show that mare basalts underlie the pyroclastics across much of the plateau. Near-infrared images of Aristarchus crater reveal olivine-rich materials and two kilometer-sized outcrops of anorthosite in the central peaks. The anorthosite could be either a derivative of local magnesium-suite magmatism or a remnant of the ferroan anorthosite crust that formed over the primordial magma ocean. PMID:17737082

  8. The Astrometric Recognition of the Solar Clementine Gnomon (1702)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    The Clementine gnomon has been built in 1702 to measure the Earth's obliquity variation. For this reason the pinhole was located in the walls of Diocletian's times (305 a. D.) in order to remain stable along the centuries, but its original form and position have been modified. We used an astrometric method to recover the original position of the pinhole: reshaping the pinhole to a circle of 1.5 cm of diameter, the positions of the Northern and Southern limbs have been compared with the ephemerides. A sistematic shift of 4.5 mm Southward of the whole solar image shows that the original pinhole was 4.5 mm North of the actual position, as the images in the Bianchini's book (1703) suggest. The oval shape of the actual pinhole is also wrong. Using a circle the larger solar spots are clearly visible. Some reference stars of the catalogue of Philippe de la Hire (1702), used originally for measuring the ecliptic latitude of the Sun, are written next to the meridian line, but after the last restauration (2000), four of them are wrongly located. Finally the deviation from the true North, of the meridian line's azimuth confirms the value recovered in 1750. This, with the local deviations of a true line, will remain as systematic error, like for all these historical instruments.

  9. Near-infrared camera for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Lewis, I.T.; Sewall, N.R.; Park, H.S.; Shannon, M.J.; Ledebuhr, A.G.; Pleasance, L.D.; Massie, M.A.; Metschuleit, K.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. The near-infrared (NIR) multi-spectral camera, one of two workhorse lunar mapping cameras (the other being the UV/visible camera), provided {approximately}200 in spatial resolution at 400 km periselene, and a 39 km across-track swath. This 1.9 kg infrared camera using a 256 x 256 InSb FPA viewed reflected solar illumination from the lunar surface and lunar horizon in the 1 to 3 {micro}m wavelength region, extending lunar imagery and mineralogy studies into the near infrared. A description of this light-weight, low power NIR camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  10. Citrus juice extraction systems: effect on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of clementine juice.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Carvalho, Catarina P; Sierra, Jelver; Lara, Oscar; Cardona, David; Londoño-Londoño, Julian

    2012-01-25

    Clementines are especially appreciated for their delicious flavor, and recent years have seen a great increase in the consumption of clementine juice. In previous decades, antioxidant compounds have received particular attention because of widely demonstrated beneficial health effects. In this work, the organoleptic, volatile flavor, and antioxidant quality of clementine juice were studied with regard to the influence on them by different juice extraction systems: plug inside fruit and rotating cylinders. The results showed that juice extracted by the former method presented higher yields and hesperidin content, which was related to higher antioxidant activity, demonstrated by ORAC and LDL assays. The organoleptic quality was not affected by the processing technique, whereas there were significant differences in the chemical flavor profile. There are important differences in chemical and functional quality between juice extraction techniques, which must be taken into account when employing processing systems to produce high-quality products. PMID:22225414

  11. Clementine Star Tracker Stellar Compass: Final report part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.

    1995-07-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star stracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 focal plane array and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {mu}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {mu}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights. Documentation generated during the design, analysis, build, test and characterization of the star tracker cameras are presented. Collectively, this documentation represents a small library of information for this camera, and may be used as a framework for producing copy units by commercial enterprises, and therefore satisfies a Department of Defense and Department of Energy goal to transfer technology to industry. However, the considerable knowledge gained from the experience of the individuals involved in the system trades, design, analysis, production, testing and characterization of the star tracker stellar compass is not contained in this documentation.

  12. 75 FR 81942 - Importation of Clementines From Spain; Amendment to Inspection Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, or Medfly) management program administered by the Government of... meets the conditions of the Medfly management program and the regulations. Clementines from Spain must..., therefore, has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. In accordance with the...

  13. Apollo 14 Impact Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for Regional Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    2002-01-01

    Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar impact glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro region consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP impact glasses may possess a memory of impacts prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Lunar Topography and Basins Mapped Using a Clementine Stereo Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. C.; Spudis, P. D.; Robinson, M. S.; Watters, T. R.

    2002-01-01

    Planet-wide (1 km/pixel and 5 km/pixel) Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of the Moon have been produced using Clementine UVVIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) stereo. Six new basins have been discovered, two suspected basins have been confirmed, and the dimensions of existing basins better defined. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. A Clementine Derived Control Network and Topographic Model - The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Rosiek, M. R.; Kirk, R. L.; Redding, B. L.

    2006-08-01

    U. S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Team, Flagstaff, AZ, United States Introduction: We have completed a new general unified lunar control network and lunar topographic model based on Clementine images. It includes the determination, in the lunar mean Earth/polar axis system, of the 3-D positions of 272,931 points on the lunar surface and the correction of the camera angles for 43,866 Clementine images, using 546,126 tie point measurements. The solution RMS is 0.9 pixels in the image plane, with the largest residual of 6.4 pixels. We are now documenting our solution and plan to release the solution results soon, initially as a USGS Open File report. ULCN 2005 Features: The new network is a combination of the Unified Lunar Control Network (ULCN), derived from the Apollo, Mariner 10, and Galileo missions, and Earth-based photographs, [1] and the Clementine Lunar Control Network (CLCN) [2], both derived from (mostly 750-nm) Clementine images, by M. Davies and T. Colvin at RAND. The primary difference between our new network and the previous ones is that we solve for the radii of the control points. This avoids (~7 km) distortion of horizontal positions present in the CLCN. The expected precision of such information is on the order of several hundred m, and compatible with Clementine LIDAR [3]. Thus, a by-product of this network is a global lunar topographic model that is denser than that provided by LIDAR and of similar accuracy, and denser than any other lunar topography information except that provided in limited areas ([4-7]). This is the only lunar topographic model positioning where both heights and horizontal positions are estimated in a globally-consistent system. Other features of the ULCN 2005 are that the camera angles to their values as measured during the mission, supposedly with an accuracy of 0.03º [8], and we have identified a majority of the original ULCN points on Clementine images. Future Work: The Lunar Orbiter (LO) digital mosaics now being generated [9] will be registered to the ULCN 2005. We will also further improve this network through the addition of Mariner 10, Galileo, and LO image measurements, and Clementine stereo [10], and by adding ties to the current absolute LLR and ALSEP network [11]. Although unfunded, the Clementine mosaics could also be regenerated in this system. It will be absolutely essential to further update and improve this network with data from future missions. This is necessary so that these new datasets can be compared to the prior data, particularly the LO and Clementine multispectral products. References: [1] Davies, M. E. et al. (1994) JGR, 99, E11, 23,211-23,214. [2] Edwards, et al. (1996), LPS XXVII, 335-336. [3] Smith, D. E. et al. (1997), JGR, 102, E1, 1591-1611. [4] Cook, A. C. et al. (2000), JGR, 105, E5, 12,023-12,033. [5] Rosiek, M. R. et al. (1998), LPS XXX, Abstract #1853. Rosiek, M. R., and Aeschliman, R. A. (2001) LPS XXXII, Abstract #1943. [6] Margot, J-L. C. (1999), PhD Thesis, Cornell University. [7] Wu, S. S. C. and Doyle, F. J. (1990), in Planetary Mapping, R. Greeley and R.M. Batson, eds., CUP, 169-207. [8] Nozette, S., et al. (1994), Science, 266, 1835-1839. [9] Weller, L., et al. (2006), LPS XXXVII, Abstract #2143. [10] Cook, A. C. et al. (2002), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #P22D-09. [11] Davies, M. E. and Colvin, T. R. (2000), JGR, 105, E8, 20,277-20,280.

  16. Global Mapping of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Gillis, J. J.; Steutel, D.

    2004-12-01

    The global mapping of the lunar surface using the petrological parameter Mg-number (Mg*) was undertaken because Mg*, or the ratio of Mg to the sum of Mg and Fe on an atomic basis, is an important disciminator in defining and understanding lunar rocks. The dominant lunar rock types, ferroan anorthosites (FAN), high-magnisium suite (HMS), and high-alkali suite (HAS) rocks all vary in Mg* depending upon the petrologic scenario that formed them. Of particular interest are FAN mineralogy and chemistry, which varies from high-Mg# (~70) troctolites to low-Mg# norites (~50) and for some time has been considered to represent a single magma frac-tionation trend. However, recent studies have also shown that the crystallization of FAN rocks may have been more complicated than originally thought. James et al. [1] found that instead of one simple fractionation trend for ferroan anorthosites, there may have been four. Studies by [2], [3], and [4] using Apollo and lunar meteorites for analysis have also eluded to the possibility that FAN rocks may have evolved from a more complex source or process. Therefore a global assessment of lithologies and corresponding Mg* is of great value for lunar petrology. In a remote sensing context, Mg* is the most important control on the spectral properties of lunar mafic silicates. For stoichiometric orthopyroxene and olivine, Mg* is mathematically linked to the Fe content that controls the overall reflectance and intensity of absorption. The changes in band centers and shape that accompany the structural changes as Fe substitutes for Mg along the solid solution series have long been recognized; these changes are highly correlated with Mg*. In clinopyroxene, the strong effect of Ca on structure makes this element important, but Mg* has the dominant effect on reflectance and a comparable effect on spectral shape. In this study, the lunar surface is quantitatively mapped using a theoretical treatment of mineralogic spectra and the effect of environmental space exposure on the optical properties of these minerals. This was accomplished using Clementine ultraviolet and visible (UVVIS) data and a Hapke radiative transfer mixing model. The major features evident in these maps are the strong distinction between mare and highland regions, the former showing low Mg* and the latter generally higher; a large northern highlands unit with low Mg*, and an Mg* high north of South Pole-Aitken basin. Mare units are not universally low, mare Frigoris in particular has elevated Mg* relative to other mare. The strongest variations in the highlands occur in plagioclase rich, low FeO units, that exhibit values ranging near 50 to near 100 in coherent units. The craters Tycho and Aristarchus also exhibit high Mg*; these gabbroic anomalies may indicate more extensive Mg-rich material at depth. Deposits within SPA are unremarkable relative to surroundings, and share the intermediate Mg* of most of the highlands. 1. James, O.B. et al. PLPSC. 1989.; 2.Bersch, M.G., et al., GRL, 1991.; 3. Floss, C., et al., GCA, 1998.; 4. Korotev, R.L., et al., GCA, 2003.

  17. The Lunar Crustal Thickness from Analysis of the Lunar Prospector Gravity and Clementine Topography Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, S.; Schubert, G.; Konopliv, A.; Moore, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector spacecraft has mapped the gravity field of the Moon to a level of resolution never achieved before, and a spherical harmonic representation to degree and order 100 is available. When combined with the topography dataset produced by the Clementine mission, the resulting Bouguer anomaly map is interpreted to model the thickness of the lunar crust. Such models are crucial to understanding the lunar thermal history and the formation of geological features such as mascon basins, several more of which have been newly discovered from this dataset. A two-layer planetary model was used to compute the variations of the depth to the lunar Moho. The thickness values ranged from near 0 to 120 km. There is significant agreement with previous work using the Clementine gravitational field data with differences in specific locations such as South Pole-Aitken Basin, for example.

  18. Geology of Lunar Landing Sites and Origin of Basin Ejecta from a Clementine Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this research were to examine Clementine multispectral data covering the Apollo landing sites in order to: (1) provide ground truth for the remotely sensed observations, (2) extend our understanding of the Apollo landing sites to the surrounding regions using the empirically calibrated Clementine data, and (3) investigate the composition and distribution of impact-basin ejecta using constraints based upon the remotely sensed data and the Apollo samples. Our initial efforts (in collaboration with P. Lucey and coworkers) to use the Apollo soil compositions to "calibrate" information derived from the remotely sensed data resulted in two extremely useful algorithms for computing estimates of the concentrations of FeO and TiO2 from the UV-VIS 5-band data. In this effort, we used the average surface soil compositions from 37 individual Apollo and 3 Luna sample stations that could be resolved using the Clementine data. We followed this work with a detailed investigation of the Apollo 17 landing site, where the sampling traverses were extensive and the spectral and compositional contrast between different soils covers a wide range. We have begun to investigate the nature and composition of basin ejecta by comparing the thick deposits on the rim of Imbrium in the vicinity of the Apollo 15 site and those occurring southeast of the Serenitatis basin, in the Apollo 17 region. We continue this work under NAG5-6784, "Composition, Lithology, and Heterogeneity of the lunar crust using remote sensing of impact-basin uplift structures and ejecta as probes. The main results of our work are given in the following brief summaries of major tasks. Detailed accounts of these results are given in the attached papers, manuscripts, and extended abstracts.

  19. A 70th Degree Lunar Gravity Model (GLGM-2) from Clementine and other tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemonie, Frank G. R.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    1997-01-01

    A spherical harmonic model of the lunar gravity field complete to degree and order 70 has been developed from S band Doppler tracking data from the Clementine mission, as well as historical tracking data from Lunar Orbiters 1-5 and the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. The model combines 361,000 Doppler observations from Clementine with 347,000 historical observations. The historical data consist of mostly 60-s Doppler with a noise of 0.25 to several mm/s. The Clementine data consist of mostly 10-s Doppler data, with a data noise of 0.25 mm/s for the observations from the Deep Space Network, and 2.5 mm/s for the data from a naval tracking station at Pomonkey, Maryland. Observations provided Clementine, provide the strongest satellite constraint on the Moon's low-degree field. In contrast the historical data, collected by spacecraft that had lower periapsis altitudes, provide distributed regions of high-resolution coverage within +/- 29 deg of the nearside lunar equator. To obtain the solution for a high-degree field in the absence of a uniform distribution of observations, we applied an a priori power law constraint of the form 15 x 10(exp -5)/sq l which had the effect of limiting the gravitational power and noise at short wavelengths. Coefficients through degree and order 18 are not significantly affected by the constraint, and so the model permits geophysical analysis of effects of the major basins at degrees 10-12. The GLGM-2 model confirms major features of the lunar gravity field shown in previous gravitational field models but also reveals significantly more detail, particularly at intermediate wavelengths (10(exp 3) km). Free-air gravity anomaly maps derived from the new model show the nearside and farside highlands to be gravitationally smooth, reflecting a state of isostatic compensation. Mascon basins (including Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Smythii, and Humorum) are denoted by gravity highs first recognized from Lunar Orbiter tracking. All of the major mascons are bounded by annuli of negative anomalies representing significant subsurface mass deficiencies. Mare Orientale appears as a minor mascon surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped gravity low centered on the Inner and Outer Rook rings that is evidence of significant subsurface structural heterogeneity. Although direct tracking is not available over a significant part of the lunar farside, GLGM-2 resolves negative anomalies that correlate with many farside basins, including South Pole-Aitken, Hertzsprung, Korolev, Moscoviense, Tsiolkovsky, and Freundlich-Sharonov.

  20. A 70th Degree Lunar Gravity Model (GLGM-2) from Clementine and other tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank G. R.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rowlands, David D.

    1997-07-01

    A spherical harmonic model of the lunar gravity field complete to degree and order 70 has been developed from S band Doppler tracking data from the Clementine mission, as well as historical tracking data from Lunar Orbiters 1-5 and the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. The model combines 361,000 Doppler observations from Clementine with 347,000 historical observations. The historical data consist of mostly 60-s Doppler with a noise of 0.25 to several mm/s. The Clementine data consist of mostly 10-s Doppler data, with a data noise of 0.25 mm/s for the observations from the Deep Space Network, and 2.5 mm/s for the data from a naval tracking station at Pomonkey, Maryland. Observations provided Clementine, provide the strongest satellite constraint on the Moon's low-degree field. In contrast the historical data, collected by spacecraft that had lower periapsis altitudes, provide distributed regions of high-resolution coverage within +/- 29 deg of the nearside lunar equator. To obtain the solution for a high-degree field in the absence of a uniform distribution of observations, we applied an a priori power law constraint of the form 15 x 10-5/sq l which had the effect of limiting the gravitational power and noise at short wavelengths. Coefficients through degree and order 18 are not significantly affected by the constraint, and so the model permits geophysical analysis of effects of the major basins at degrees 10-12. The GLGM-2 model confirms major features of the lunar gravity field shown in previous gravitational field models but also reveals significantly more detail, particularly at intermediate wavelengths (103 km). Free-air gravity anomaly maps derived from the new model show the nearside and farside highlands to be gravitationally smooth, reflecting a state of isostatic compensation. Mascon basins (including Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Smythii, and Humorum) are denoted by gravity highs first recognized from Lunar Orbiter tracking. All of the major mascons are bounded by annuli of negative anomalies representing significant subsurface mass deficiencies. Mare Orientale appears as a minor mascon surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped gravity low centered on the Inner and Outer Rook rings that is evidence of significant subsurface structural heterogeneity. Although direct tracking is not available over a significant part of the lunar farside, GLGM-2 resolves negative anomalies that correlate with many farside basins, including South Pole-Aitken, Hertzsprung, Korolev, Moscoviense, Tsiolkovsky, and Freundlich-Sharonov.

  1. The south pole region of the moon as seen by Clementine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Eliason, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine mission has provided the first comprehensive set of high-resolution images of the south pole region of the moon. Within 5?? of latitude of the pole, an area of an estimated 30,000 square kilometers remained in shadow during a full lunar rotation and is a promising target for future exploration for ice deposits. The Schrodinger Basin (320 kilometers in diameter), centered at 75??S, is one of the two youngest, least modified, great multiring impact basins on the moon. A large maar-type volcano localized along a graben within the Schrodinger Basin probably erupted between 1 and 2 billion years ago.

  2. HiRes camera and LIDAR ranging system for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.

    1995-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a space-qualified High Resolution (HiRes) imaging LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for use on the DoD Clementine mission. The Clementine mission provided more than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth, and stars, including the first ever complete systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to near-infrared spectral regions. This article describes the Clementine HiRes/LIDAR system, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. The LIDAR receiver system consists of a High Resolution (HiRes) imaging channel which incorporates an intensified multi-spectral visible camera combined with a Laser ranging channel which uses an avalanche photo-diode for laser pulse detection and timing. The receiver was bore sighted to a light-weight McDonnell-Douglas diode-pumped ND:YAG laser transmitter that emmitted 1.06 {micro}m wavelength pulses of 200 mJ/pulse and 10 ns pulse-width, The LIDAR receiver uses a common F/9.5 Cassegrain telescope assembly. The optical path of the telescope is split using a color-separating beamsplitter. The imaging channel incorporates a filter wheel assembly which spectrally selects the light which is imaged onto a custom 12 mm gated image intensifier fiber-optically-coupled into a 384 x 276 pixel frame transfer CCD FPA. The image intensifier was spectrally sensitive over the 0.4 to 0.8 {micro}m wavelength region. The six-position filter wheel contained 4 narrow spectral filters, one broadband and one blocking filter. At periselene (400 km) the HiRes/LIDAR imaged a 2.8 km swath width at 20-meter resolution. The LIDAR function detected differential signal return with a 40-meter range accuracy, with a maximum range capability of 640 km, limited by the bit counter in the range return counting clock.

  3. Ricor K506B cryocooler performance during the Clementine mission and ground testing: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.; Clark, T.L.; Hadley, D.R.; Sewall, N.R.

    1994-09-01

    Two Ricor K506B Stirling cycle cryocoolers with H-10 control electronics were used on the Clementine spacecraft, one cooling a 256 x 256 InSb infrared detector for the near-infrared (NIR) camera and the other cooling a 128 x 128 HgCdTe focal plane array on the longwave infrared (LWIR) camera. This is the first use of these Ricor Stirling cryocoolers in a space environment. This mission has demonstrated the use of these Clementine lightweight imaging sensors in the demanding environment of space, and has space-qualified this Ricor cryocooler. Moreover, nearly the entire 38 million square kilometers of the Moon`s surface was mapped in 11 spectral bands, six in the near-infrared, during the 71 days of lunar mapping. The more than 1.6 million digital images collected are providing-mineral typing scientific data to the international civilian scientific community. The NIR cryocooler operated successfully for a total of 840 hours with 361 on/off cycles. The H-10 electronics provided good focal plane array (FPA) temperature control with a typical operating FPA temperature of 70.3 K and a one-sigma variation of 0.46 K. The thermal environment for the cooler ranged from -23.7{degrees}C to 38.2{degrees}C. The Ricor cryocooler used on the LWIR camera performed the same during the Clementine mission as it did on the ground. This cryocooler ran for a total of 670 hours with 359 on/off cycles. The H-10 electronics were not able to provide FPA temperature control. This inability to operate at a fixed set point is believed to be caused by a ground difference between the H-10 controller electronics and the FPA temperature sense diode. The FPA temperature varied in proportion to the cryocooler (heat reject) temperature. The FPA temperature during imaging varied from 66.9 K to > 85 K. The thermal environment for this cooler ranged from -22.1{degrees}C to 41.0{degrees}C.

  4. Mineralogy of the Moon by multiple endmember spectral unmixing of Clementine UVVIS and NIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, J.; Kramer, G.; Thomas, M. B.

    2007-12-01

    Global observations of the Moon have been made by the imaging spectrometers onboard the Clementine spacecraft in 1994 [1]. These data have 5 channels in the Ultra-Violet Visible (UVVIS) in the range 450-1000 nm and 6 in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) in the range 1100-2780 nm. UVVIS global mosaic has been widely used in spectral analysis (e.g. [2, 3]). Calibration issues in the NIR data did not favor spectral studies using the full wavelength range [4]. Only a few analyses have been made in the NIR using different calibration approaches (e.g. [5]), despite potential valuable information to discriminate more minerals. A new calibration has finally been applied on the NIR [6, 7] and a mosaic calibrated in Bidirectional Reflectance (BRDF) has been released [8]. Quantitative mapping of minerals is possible using Clementine data 1) by converting BRDF into single scattering albedo [9, 10] and 2) by performing spectral linear unmixing [11]. Multiple-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA, [12]) has been successfully applied with UVVIS data [11]. This method allows spectral unmixing to be calculated using a limited number of components, even if a lot more spectral endmembers are available in the reference spectral library. We have analyzed newly calibrated Clementine UVVIS and NIR data using a multiple-endmember linear spectral linear unmixing algorithm [13]. The model works either with spectra collected from the image or from laboratory measurements of pure minerals. Components are selected on spectral interpretation and knowledge of lunar soils and surface processes. Variation in the spectral slope varies with surface maturity and TiO2 content [14]. Including a slope endmember in the reference spectral library allows the mineralogy to be mapped independently of maturity effects. [1] Nozette S., et. al., 1994, Science, 266 [2] Lucey P. G., 2004, GRL 31. [3] Pieters C. M. et al., 2006, Icarus, 184. [4] Lucey P. G. et al., 1998, LPSC abstract 1576. [5] Le Mouelic et al., 1999, JGR 104. [6] Eliason E. M. et al., 2003, LPSC abstract 2093. [7] Cahill et al., 2004, LPSC abstract 1469. [8] Gaddis et al., 2007, PDS Volumes USA_NASA_PDS_CL_5001 through 5078. [9] Hapke B., 1981, JGR 86. [10] Johnson P. E., 1983, JGR 88. [11] Li L. and Mustard J. F., 2003, JGR 108. [12] Roberts D. A. et al., 1998, RSE 65. [13] Combe J.-Ph. et al., submitted to PSS. [14] Charette M. P. et al., 1974, JGR 79.

  5. Effect of X-ray irradiation on fruit quality of clementine mandarin cv. ‘Clemenules’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Miquel; Palou, Lluís; Ángel del Río, Miguel; Jacas, Josep-Anton

    2007-10-01

    The effects of a potential quarantine treatment consisting of exposure to X-ray irradiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on 'Clemenules' mandarin quality are presented and compared with those from the standard cold temperature quarantine treatment. X-ray irradiation doses of 0.195 and 0.395 kGy had no detrimental effects on fruit quality (rind color, firmness, juice yield, maturity index, internal volatiles, deterioration index and sensory evaluation). These results therefore indicate that X-ray irradiation is a harmless and highly effective quarantine technique for clementine mandarin and this technique could be as useful as the current cold treatment for 'Clemenules' mandarins.

  6. The clementine bistatic radar experiment: Evidence for ice on the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spudis, P.D.; Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E.

    1998-01-01

    Ice deposits, derived from comets and water-bearing meteorites hitting the Moon over geological times, have long been postulated to exist in dark areas near the poles of the Moon. The characteristics of radio waves beamed from the Clementine spacecraft into the polar areas, reflected from the Moon's surface, and received on the large dish antennas of the Deep Space Network here on Earth show that roughly the volume of a small lake (???0.9-1.8 km3) of water ice makes up part of the Moon's surface layer near the south pole. The discovery of ice near the lunar south pole has important ramifications for a permanent return to the Moon. These deposits could be used to manufacture rocket propellant and to support human life on the Moon. ?? 1998 MAHK Hayka/Interperiodica Publishing.

  7. East Limb View of Earth's Moon as Seen by the Clementine Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    About 50,000 Clementine images were processed to produce the four orthographic views of the Moon. Images PIA00302, PIA00303, PIA00304, and PIA00305 show albedo variations (normalized brightness or reflectivity) of the surface at a wavelength of 750 nm (just longward of visible red). The image projection is centered at 0 degree latitude and 90 degrees longitude. The dark albedo features Mare Smythii (image center) and Mare Marginis (above Smythii) are just visible from Earth on the extreme eastern edge of the lunar nearside. Maria Crisium (directly west of Marginis) and Mare Fecuditatis (southwest of Crisium) are familiar nearside features as seen from Earth. Maria regions are believed to be large basins formed by impacts from cosmic projectiles later filled by basaltic lava flows from volcanic eruptions. Basaltic lava flows on the basin floors give maria their dark albedo appearance.

  8. Topographic-Photometric Corrections Applied to Clementine Spectral Reflectance Data of the Apollo 17 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, great strides have been made in understanding the origin and evolution of the Moon through a synthesis of Apollo sample analyses, Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR) data, and Lunar Prospector remotely sensed geochemical data. These studies have generally investigated regional chemical and mineralogical variations at the scale of tens to hundreds of km. More detailed studies at the sub-kilometer scale utilizing derived spectral parameters such as FeO and TiO2 are hampered by inaccuracies in photometric corrections resulting from local slopes. Detailed analysis of spectral parameters of lunar highlands and craters requires topographic data at a scale comparable to the pixel resolution of the spectral measurements, for CSR approximately 125-250 m/p. Unfortunately global topographic data for the Moon exist only at the scale of tens of kilometers.

  9. A Near-Infrared (NIR) Global Multispectral Map of the Moon from Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, E. M.; Lee, E. M.; Becker, T. L.; Weller, L. A.; Isbell, C. E.; Staid, M. I.; Gaddis, L. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Robinson, M. S.; Duxbury, T.

    2003-01-01

    In May and June of 1994, the NASA/DoD Clementine Mission acquired global, 11- band, multispectral observations of the lunar surface using the ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) and near-infrared (NIR) camera systems. The global 5-band UVVIS Digital Image Model (DIM) of the Moon at 100 m/pixel was released to the Planetary Data System (PDS) in 2000. The corresponding NIR DIM has been compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for distribution to the lunar science community. The recently released NIR DIM has six spectral bands (1100, 1250, 1500, 2000, 2600, and 2780 nm) and is delivered in 996 quads at 100 m/pixel (303 pixels/degree). The NIR data were radiometrically corrected, geometrically controlled, and photometrically normalized to form seamless, uniformly illuminated mosaics of the lunar surface.

  10. Search for a high-altitude lunar dust exosphere using Clementine navigational star tracker measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenar, David A.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hahn, Joseph M.; Wang, Yongli

    2014-12-01

    During the 1994 Clementine lunar mapping mission, portions of 25 orbits were dedicated to a search for lunar horizon glow (LHG) using the spacecraft star tracker navigation cameras. Previous putative detections of LHG were believed to result from forward scattering of sunlight by exospheric dust grains with radii ≈ 0.1 µm, observable above the limb from within the shadow of the Moon near orbital sunrise or sunset. We have examined star tracker image sequences from five Clementine orbits in which the limb occulted the Sun, and was at least partially shadowed from earthshine, minimizing the chance of stray light contamination. No LHG appears in the image data, or in any of the net brightness images, after subtraction of a reference zodiacal light model. However, some of the images display faint excess limb brightness that appears to be solar streamer structure. Therefore, we derive upper limits for the amount of dust in the lunar exosphere that could be hidden by these brightness fluctuations using a dust-scattering simulation code and simple exponential dust profiles defined by surface concentration n0 and scale height H. Simulations using grains of radius 0.1 µm show that fluctuations in the observed excess brightness can be matched by a dust exosphere with a vertical column abundance n0H of 5-30 cm-2 and overlying mass <10-12 g cm-2. These dust upper limit estimates are highly dependent on assumed grain size due to the rapid increase in per-grain brightness with grain radius.

  11. Genetic structure of a phytophagous mite species affected by crop practices: the case of Tetranychus urticae in clementine mandarins.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ruiz, S; Gómez-Martinez, M A; Ansaloni, T; Segarra-Moragues, J G; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Jacas, J A; Hurtado-Ruiz, M A

    2014-04-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. This mite is a key pest of clementine mandarins in Eastern Spain, where Spanish clementine production concentrates. Crop management practices can affect the population dynamics of this mite and, consequently, its impact on the orchard. Microsatellite markers were used to study mite population genetics from two commercial orchards which had been managed differently following Integrated Pest Management (IPM) or Organic Pest Management (OPM) schemes during four consecutive years. A multiplex system including 20 microsatellite loci was designed specifically and allowed an efficient and inexpensive genotyping of individual mites. We found that the IPM population had a stronger fluctuation of population structure and higher genetic diversity compared to OPM population. Thus, our study concludes that crop management has an impact on the population genetics of T. urticae which may be related to the alternation of some acaricides under IPM. PMID:24233157

  12. Estimation of elemental abundances of the lunar regolith using clementine UVVIS+NIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, Christian; Berezhnoy, Alexey; Evans, Richard

    2011-01-01

    In this study we propose a regression model for the estimation of lunar elemental abundances from spectral features extracted from Clementine multispectral imagery in the visible and near-infrared domain. We extract a set of spectral features, including the continuum slope, the FWHM of the ferrous absorption trough near 1000 nm, and the wavelengths and relative depths of the absorption minima and inflection points present in the trough. As a "ground truth" for the elemental abundances we rely on the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer (LP GRS) data. With respect to the elemental abundances of the Apollo and Luna landing sites independently derived from returned samples, the best examined regression model is a second-order polynomial. The proposed regression-based approach allows an estimation of the elemental abundances of Ca, Al, Fe, Mg, and O at an accuracy of about 1 wt% and some tenths of a weight percent for Ti. We examine the influence of calibration of the Clementine UVVIS+NIR data and find that its effect on the results obtained with the regression approach is minor. Furthermore, we define a three-endmember model which allows the petrographic mapping of the lunar surface materials in terms of their Fe, Mg, and Al abundances. We examine the global distribution of Mg-rich rocks, the distribution of cryptomaria, and the occurrence of aluminous mare basalts in the Frigoris region. A possible regional compositional anomaly in northwestern Oceanus Procellarum is found, which corresponds to an extended area displaying spectral characteristics consistent with mare basalt containing significant amounts of olivine. On local scales, we examine in terms of our regression model the highland craters Proclus and Tycho, the compositionally anomalous central peaks of the craters Copernicus and Bullialdus, and the pyroclastic deposits on the floor of Alphonsus and on the northern rim of Petavius. As a general result, we show that the regression-based approach allows the detection of the main lunar terrain classes and rock types based on multispectral imagery in the visible and near-infrared domain.

  13. Lunar mare basalts in the Aristarchus region: Implications for the stratigraphic sequence from Clementine UVVIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Zou, Y. L.; Zheng, Y. C.; Fu, X. H.; Zhu, Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    The Aristarchus region of Oceanus Procellarum is an area concentrated with lunar basalts, which were mainly produced by the last major phase of lunar volcanism on the western nearside. A group of lunar sample and remote sensing scientists have carried out the extensive task of characterization of lunar mare soils with regard to their mineralogical and chemical makeup and regional geologic mapping. Spectral parameters of the high spatial resolution Clementine images are used to identify and define these basalts as different compositional and spectral units. This endeavor is aimed at deciphering the subtle spectral characteristics of mare soils and validating the mapping technique used in this study, together with making statistical analysis of the links between the basalt types with ages in order to provide a further understanding of material types and geologic evolution in the Aristarchus region of the Moon. From the new perspective of mining geologic information in multivariable image-spaces, spectrally distinct 9 high-Ti and 11 low-Ti basalt reference spectra have been distinguished and as a result, more than 70 spectrally and compositionally basaltic units, which range in age from 1.20 b.y. to 3.74 b.y., have been identified. To some extent, a potential relationship between composition and relative age exists in the statistical analysis of the links between spectral types (related with the Clementine ratio colors) of various basalts and ages in this study, which suggests that composition with different states of maturity correlate with age to some extent. The mineralogical characteristics and spectra-age relationship in the Marius Hills region indicate that the early basalts may still be exposed at the surface deposit after prolonged volcanic activity in this region. This may be a result of not being blanketed by later lava flows, or lava extrusions of underlying low-Ti basalts. In addition, stratigraphic analysis also reveals and confirms that TiO2 concentrations appear to vary independently with time, and generally eruptions of TiO2-rich and TiO2-poor basalts have occurred contemporaneously.

  14. Reanalysis of Clementine Bistatic Radar Data from the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. Leonard

    1998-01-01

    On 9 April 1994 the Clementine spacecraft high-gain antenna was aimed toward the Moon's surface and the resulting 13-cm wavelength radio echoes were received on Earth. Using these data, we have found that the lunar surface generally follows a Lambertian bistatic scattering function sigma(sub 0) = K(sub D)cos(theta(sub i) with K(sub D) approx. 0.003 for the opposite (expected) sense of circular polarization and K(sub D) approx. 0.001 for the same (unexpected) sense. But there are important deviations-of up to 50% in some parts of the echo spectrum-from this simple form. Based on an earlier analysis of these same data, Nozette et al. claimed detection of an enhancement in echoes with right circular polarization from regions near the South Pole in a near-backscatter geometry. Such behavior would be consistent with presence of perhaps large quantities of water ice near the Pole. We have been unable to reproduce that result. Although we find weak suggestions of enhanced echoes at the time of South Pole backscatter, similar features are present at earlier and later times, adjacent frequencies, and in left circular polarization. If enhanced backscatter is present, it is not unique to the South Pole; if not unique to the Pole, then ice is less likely as an explanation for the enhancement.

  15. Thermal design verification testing of the Clementine spacecraft: Quick, cheap, and useful

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Hyman, Nelson L.

    1994-01-01

    At this writing, Clementine had successfully fulfilled its moon-mapping mission; at this reading it will have also, with continued good fortune, taken a close look at the asteroid Geographos. The thermal design that made all this possible was indeed formidable in many respects, with very high ratios of requirements-to-available resources and performance-to-cost and mass. There was no question that a test verification of this quite unique and complex design was essential, but it had to be squeezed into an unyielding schedule and executed with bare-bones cost and manpower. After describing the thermal control subsystem's features, we report all the drama, close-calls, and cost-cutting, how objectives were achieved under severe handicap but (thankfully) with little management and documentation interference. Topics include the newly refurbished chamber (ready just in time), the reality level of the engineering model, using the analytical thermal model, the manner of environment simulation, the hand-scratched film heaters, functioning of all three types of heat pipes (but not all heat pipes), and the BMDO sensors' checkout through the chamber window. Test results revealed some surprises and much valuable data, resulting in thermal model and flight hardware refinements. We conclude with the level of correlation between predictions and both test temperatures and flight telemetry.

  16. Analysis of three classes of small lunar pyroclastic deposits with Clementine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, Lisa; Robinson, Mark; Hawke, B. R.

    1997-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Integrated Software for Imaging Spectrometers (ISIS) software was used to create and examine Clementine UV-VIS multispectral mosaics (about 100 m/pixel) of areas representative of the three major compositional classes of small lunar pyroclastic deposits. Compositional analyses of these deposits may provide clues to the nature of deep-source late-stage volcanism and eruption mechanisms on the moon. Small deposits of the Atlas Crater, east of Aristoteles, and J. Herschel Crater regions are studied. The goals are (1) to understand the full extent of interdeposit compositional variations among small lunar pyroclastic deposits, (2) to evaluate the possible effects of soil maturation and lateral mixing on the 'true' compositions of these deposits, (3) to determine the prevalence and nature of intradeposit compositional variations previously observed in deposits of Alphonsus Crater, (4) to identify and characterize the juvenile components of these deposits, and (5) to understand the implications of these results for studying lunar eruption mechanisms.

  17. Microtextured metals for stray-light suppression in the Clementine startracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.

    Anodized blacks for suppressing stray light in optical systems can now be replaced by microscopically textured metal surfaces. An application of these black surfaces to the Clementine star-tracker navigational system, which will be launched in early 1994 to examine the Moon, en route to intercept an asteroid, is detailed. Rugged black surfaces with Lambertian BRDF less than 10(exp -2) srad(sup -1) are critical for suppressing stray light in the star-tracker optical train. Previously available materials spall under launch vibrations to contaminate mirrors and lenses. Microtextured aluminum is nearly as dark, but much less fragile. It is made by differential ion beam sputtering, which generates light-trapping pores and cones slightly smaller than the wavelength to be absorbed. This leaves a sturdy but light-absorbing surface that can survive challenging conditions without generating debris or contaminants. Both seeded ion beams and plasma immersion (from ECR plasmas) extraction can produce these microscopic textures without fragile interfaces. Process parameters control feature size, spacing, and optical effects (THR, BRDF). Both broad and narrow absorption bands can be engineered with tuning for specific wavelengths and applications. Examples are presented characterized by FTIR in reflection librators (0.95 normal emissivity), heat rejection, and enhanced nucleate boiling.

  18. Lunar Prospector Neutron Measurements Compared to Clementine Iron and Titanium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Rick C.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Lawrence, David J.; Feldman, William C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Binder, Alan B.; Lucey, Paul G.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of Fe and Ti within the principal lunar terranes can help us understand the bulk composition of the Moon. Materials on the surface that carry information about the interior include: (1) the maria, with varying Fe and Ti concentrations, (2) deep impact basins that may have exposed material from the lower crust and upper mantle, and (3) regions rich in KREEP basalts. Consequently, data that provide a global and/or high-spatial resolution assessment of lunar Fe and Ti are especially valuable in studies of lunar geochemistry. The Clementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data have been used to derive maps of FeO and TiO2. Because CSR spatial resolution approaches 100 m, such maps are potentially invaluable in lunar studies. The CSR technique depends on mineralogy, and while it has been constrained by returned lunar sample geochemistry, the question remains whether the results are accurate far from the Apollo and Luna landing sites. In this paper we discuss some of the results of a comparison of the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) observations and the CSR Fe and Ti maps.

  19. Microtextured metals for stray-light suppression in the Clementine startracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Anodized blacks for suppressing stray light in optical systems can now be replaced by microscopically textured metal surfaces. An application of these black surfaces to the Clementine star-tracker navigational system, which will be launched in early 1994 to examine the Moon, en route to intercept an asteroid, is detailed. Rugged black surfaces with Lambertian BRDF less than 10(exp -2) srad(sup -1) are critical for suppressing stray light in the star-tracker optical train. Previously available materials spall under launch vibrations to contaminate mirrors and lenses. Microtextured aluminum is nearly as dark, but much less fragile. It is made by differential ion beam sputtering, which generates light-trapping pores and cones slightly smaller than the wavelength to be absorbed. This leaves a sturdy but light-absorbing surface that can survive challenging conditions without generating debris or contaminants. Both seeded ion beams and plasma immersion (from ECR plasmas) extraction can produce these microscopic textures without fragile interfaces. Process parameters control feature size, spacing, and optical effects (THR, BRDF). Both broad and narrow absorption bands can be engineered with tuning for specific wavelengths and applications. Examples are presented characterized by FTIR in reflection librators (0.95 normal emissivity), heat rejection, and enhanced nucleate boiling.

  20. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Robinson, Mark S.; Coombs, Cassandra

    2000-02-01

    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and small pyroclastic deposits, and they suggest that volcanic glasses or spheres may not be dominant juvenile components in all large pyroclastic deposits.

  1. Histological and molecular analysis of pollen-pistil interaction in clementine.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Gaetano; Caruso, Marco; La Malfa, Stefano; Gentile, Alessandra; Tribulato, Eugenio

    2009-09-01

    In contrast to model species, the self-incompatibility reaction in citrus has been poorly studied. It is assumed to be gametophytically determined and genetically controlled by the S-locus, which in other species encodes for glycoproteins (S-RNases) showing ribonuclease activity. To investigate pollen-pistil interaction, the pollen tube growth of two clementine varieties, 'Comune' (self-incompatible) and 'Monreal' (a 'Comune' self-compatible mutation) was analysed by histological assays in self- and cross-pollination conditions. Cross-pollination assays demonstrated that the mutation leading to self-compatibility in 'Monreal' occurred in the stylar tissues. Similar rates of pollen germination were observed in both genotypes. However, 'Comune' pollen tubes showed altered morphology and arrested growth in the upper style while in 'Monreal' they grew straight toward the ovary. Moreover, to identify genes putatively involved in pollen-pistil interaction and self-incompatibility, research based on the complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was carried out to compare the transcript profiles of unpollinated and self-pollinated styles and stigmas of the two cultivars. This analysis identified 96 unigenes such as receptor-like kinases, stress-induced genes, transcripts involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway, transcription factors and genes related to calcium and hormone signalling. Surprisingly, a high percentage of active long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposons were identified among the unigenes, indicating their activation in response to pollination and their possible role in the regulation of self-incompatibility genes. The quantitative reverse trascription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected gene tags showed transcriptional differences between the two genotypes during pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. PMID:19636563

  2. Subpixel Detection of Pyroclastic Materials in Clementine Ultra Violet-Visible Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Gaddis, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits represent a style of volcanism different from that responsible for the flood basalts that fill the mare basins. As volatile-coated, primitive materials originating deep (about 400 km) within the Moon, these products of explosive volcanic eruptions are also important as probes of mantle composition and as a potential resource for future settlers. While many of the lunar pyroclastic deposits are spatially restricted and relatively small in size, they are easily resolvable at the spatial scale (about 100 m/pixel) of the Clementine UV-VIS camera. Recent studies confirm previous results indicating that these deposits are not compositionally uniform, and suggest that further analyses can help to identify possible genetic relationships among lunar pyroclastic deposits, characterize their juvenile components, and clarify their relationships to nearby maria. Among the juvenile materials from sampled lunar pyroclastic deposits are the orange glass and devitrified black beads found in the Taurus-Littrow Valley and the green glass found by Apollo 15. Recent studies suggest that deposits dominated by materials such as these may represent end members in the observed compositional variations among the lunar pyroclastic deposits. Here we present preliminary results of analyses focused on the use of the Clementine UV-VIS data for characterizing the composition and distribution of juvenile pyroclastic materials. Our test case for detailed mapping of a lunar pyroclastic deposit is that of the Apollo 17 landing site in the Taurus-Littrow (TL) Valley. Although black beads dominate the observed spectral reflectance at this site, sample data show that the pyroclastic eruption changed character, producing first orange glass and then black beads. To assess the compositional variability of this deposit, especially our ability to distinguish the orange glasses, we apply techniques based on spectral mixture analysis to detect materials at subpixel scales. The low albedo and subdued absorption features of the Taurus-Littrow deposit make this a challenging task. In recent years, several subpixel detection techniques have been developed for use with terrestrial airborne imaging spectrometer data. A technique that is functionally equivalent to spectral mixture analysis, the orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) technique is used for the simulations presented here. In OSP, a target spectrum is projected onto a subspace that is orthogonal to a set of background spectra. In this process, the response from the background spectra are nulled and that of the target is maximized. For the TL site, the spectra used for the simulation included three laboratory-measured sample spectra convolved to the five UV/VIS bandpasses, and two spectra extracted from UV-VIS data over the TL Valley. The target spectrum was the orange soil sample 74220 from the Shorty Crater rim. "Background" spectra were from samples 74221 (a gray soil found near the orange soil) and 75111 (a dark mare soil). From the UV/VIS data, additional background spectra were obtained at the mare/highland interface and from the "crater cluster" area in the TL Valley. In the simulation, the background spectra were randomly mixed in each of 100 samples with 0.1% Gaussian noise added. For samples 20,40, 60, and 80, the orange soil target was added in abundances of 90, 80, 60, and 40%. The 100-sample set was then reduced via OSP. For this example, the orange soil was detectable only at the 90 and 80% abundance levels. It was found that the addition of higher noise levels (about 1%), made the orange glass undetectable even at the 90% level. However, using background materials more representative of the highlands made the orange soil detectable at lower abundances. These results suggest that we should be able to map the distribution of juvenile pyroclastic materials, such as the orange glasses, using the Clementine UV-VIS data and subpixel analysis techniques such as spectral mixture analysis and foreground background analysis. Given the low albedo of these materials, a high fill factor will be required on a per pixel basis in order to achieve that mapping; however, observations made by others, including orbital observations by the Apollo 17 astronauts, have indicated that these abundances are met for several pyroclastic deposits. The production of such maps will help to constrain the dynamics of pyroclastic eruptions on the Moon by providing information on die type, relative quantity, and distribution of juvenile volcanic materials. (Additional information is contained in original.)

  3. Role of the cultivar in choosing Clementine fruits with a high level of health-promoting compounds.

    PubMed

    Milella, Luigi; Caruso, Marisa; Galgano, Fernanda; Favati, Fabio; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe

    2011-05-25

    Thirteen cultivars and two hybrids of Clementine fruits (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex. Tan) cultivated in Italy were characterized according to pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, hesperidin, rutin, narirutin and naringin and radical scavenging activity. The presence of rutin in Clementine fruit juice is reported for the first time here. The results indicated that all chemical parameters statistically differentiated each cultivar (P < 0.001). In particular, principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of five cultivars from all the other varieties based on vitamin C and total polyphenols for the Caffin cultivar, which showed also the highest antioxidant activity; narirutin for the Etna hybrid cultivar; hesperidin, rutin and total soluble solids for the SRA 89 cultivar; and naringin, hesperidin and rutin for the Esbal cultivar. Moreover, the Mandalate hybrid cultivar showed the lowest antioxidant activity as well as vitamin C and total polyphenols content, while titratable acidity and naringin level were the highest. The antioxidant activity assessed in all the fruits was closely correlated with vitamin C and total polyphenols content, rather than with the flavonoid compounds. PMID:21504146

  4. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Follett, Peter A; Liquido, Nicanor J; Sylva, Charmaine D

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  5. (abstract) Observation by Clementine of a Hugh Opposition Surge on the Moon at Very Small Solar Phase Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Wang, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine mission enabled the first quantative observations of the Moon at very small solar phase angles. It is well established from Earth-based observations that the Moon exhibits a non-linear increase in brightness as its face becomes fully illuminated to a terrestrial observer. Because the models of the opposition effect are sensitive indicators of surfical compaction state and particle size, observations at small solar phase angles are important to obtain. A recent model for optical coherent backscatter seeks to explain a narrow opposition spike at very small phase angles (< 1 degree) seen on several icy satellites , including Europa, Icarus 90, and Oberon . Over 90 images of the Moon's surface at phase angles less than 0.5(deg) (the minimum phase angle observable from Earth due to the Moon's angular size) were obtained by the Clementine spacecraft. Our analysis of these images shows the moon exhibits a surge in brightness of approximately 20% below 0.25(deg), comparable to the values observed on icy satellites. No color dependence was detected in the lunar phase curve below 2 degrees.

  6. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Follett, Peter A.; Liquido, Nicanor J.; Sylva, Charmaine D.

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  7. A Hybrid Method for Calculating TiO2 Concentrations Using Clementine UVVIS Data, and Verified with Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for extracting TiO2 concentrations from Clementine UVVIS data, which accounts for soil darkness and UV/VIS ratio. The accuracy of these TiO2 estimates are examined with Lunar Prospector thermal/epithermal neutron flux data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaddis, L.R.; Hawke, B.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Coombs, C.

    2000-01-01

    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and small pyroclastic deposits, and they suggest that volcanic glasses or spheres may not be dominant juvenile components in all large pyroclastic deposits. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Clementine Observations of the Zodiacal Light and the Dust Content of the Inner Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Joseph M.; Zook, Herbert A.; Cooper, Bonnie; Sunkara, Bhaskar

    2002-01-01

    Using the Moon to occult the Sun, the Clementine spacecraft used its navigation cameras to map the inner zodiacal light at optical wavelengths over elongations of 3 approx. less than epsilon approx. less than 30 deg from the Sun. This surface brightness map is then used to infer the spatial distribution of interplanetary dust over heliocentric distances of about 10 solar radii to the orbit of Venus. The averaged ecliptic surface brightness of the zodiacal light falls off as Z(epsilon) is a member of epsilon(sup -2.45 +/- 0.05), which suggests that the dust cross-sectional density nominally falls off as sigma(r) is a member of r(sup - 1.45 +/- 0.05). The interplanetary dust also has an albedo of alpha approx. = 0.1 that is uncertain by a factor of approx. 2. Asymmetries of approx. 10% are seen in directions east-west and north-south of the Sun, and these may be due the giant planets' secular gravitational perturbations. We apply a simple model that attributes the zodiacal light as due to three dust populations having distinct inclination distributions, namely, dust from asteroids and Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) having characteristic inclinations of i approx. 7 deg, dust from Halley-type comets having i approx. 33 deg, and an isotropic cloud of dust from Oort Cloud comets. The best-fitting scenario indicates that asteroids + JFCs are the source of about 45% of the optical dust cross section seen in the ecliptic at 1 AU but that at least 89% of the dust cross section enclosed by a 1-AU-radius sphere is of a cometary origin. Each population's radial density variations can also deviate somewhat from the nominal sigma(r) is a member of r(sup -1.45). When these results are extrapolated out to the asteroid belt, we find an upper limit on the mass of the light-reflecting asteroidal dust that is equivalent to a 12-km asteroid, and a similar extrapolation of the isotropic dust cloud out to Oort Cloud distances yields a mass equivalent to a 30-km comet, although the latter mass is uncertain by orders of magnitude.

  10. Lighting Conditions for the Moon's Poles: Integrating Clementine, Kaguya, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, D. P.; Cahill, J.; Bussey, B.; McGovern, A.; Spudis, P.; Noda, H.; Ishihara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Lunar poles experience extreme variations in illumination. Areas of permanent shadow and near-permanent illumination are located in close proximity and are attractive candidates for a sustained presence, exploration, and resource exploitation. Here we use Kaguya and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) laser-altimeter (LALT and LOLA) digital topography models (DTMs) to simulate illumination conditions for both lunar poles using the software LunarShader. Previous comparisons between Clementine optical images and illumination maps derived from Kaguya LALT data suggest accurate and precise prediction of polar lighting conditions (Bussey et al. 2010). Here, maps predicting areas of illumination or shadow are generated at 12-hour intervals for the hypothetical year 2020. Average illumination maps computed from these data for time periods of one month to a year enable the identification and analysis of regions of both sustained illumination or permanent shadow and account for seasonal variations. Temporal illumination profiles are also generated for locations with more sustained illumination for more detailed analysis. Previous analyses focused on models derived from Kaguya DTM’s with high (64 pixels/degree) and low (128 pixels/degree) resolution data sets extending 5° and 10° from each pole (Bussey et al. 2010; Cahill et al. 2010). This work integrates LOLA data (~126 pixels/degree), which extends to 80° latitude. A comparison of average illumination for the three models prepared for the North pole predict similar durations of illumination during the year 2020. Kaguya low- and high-resolution models predict the region with the most sustained illumination will be lit 89% and 86% of the year, respectively. The illumination model computed from LRO’s LOLA data predicts this location will be lit 90% of year. At the South Pole, Kaguya high-resolution data simulations predict an illumination of 78%, 8-10% lower than the other data sets (86% for the Kaguya low-resolution and 90% for the LOLA). Although high-resolution Kaguya and LOLA data have similar spatial resolutions, noise in the Kaguya DTM require some smoothing to be performed as noted by Bussey et al. 2010. This smoothing, along with significant topographic relief changes at the South Pole, may be a contributing cause for the incongruous result from Kaguya high-res data product. Despite these discrepancies, all models suggest a similar set of locations with the highest sustained illuminations to previous studies (Bussey et al. 1999; Bussey et al. 2005). At the South Pole, these locations include four points (A, B, C, and D) on the rims of and near Shackleton and De Gerlache craters and a fifth location near summit of Malapert Mountain. For the North Pole, locations on the crater rims of Whipple and Aepinus have the most sustained illumination. These regions are studied in greater detail with LRO’s narrow-angle and wide-angle camera (NAC and WAC, respectively) images focusing on their geology and suitability for future exploration by robotic or manned missions.

  11. Lunar surface geochemistry: Global concentrations of Th, K, and FeO as derived from lunar prospector and Clementine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.

    Accurate estimates of global concentrations of Th, K, and FeO have an important bearing on understanding the bulk chemistry and geologic evolution of the Moon. We present empirical ground-truth calibrations (transformations) for Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer data (K and Th) and a modified algorithm for deriving FeO concentrations from Clementine spectral reflectance data that incorporates an adjustment for TiO 2 content. The average composition of soil samples for individual landing sites is used as ground-truth for remotely sensed data. Among the Apollo and Luna sites, Apollo 12 and 14 provide controls for the incompatible-element-rich compositions, Apollo 16 and Luna 20 provide controls for the feldspathic and incompatible-element-poor compositions, and Apollo 11, 15, and 17, and Luna 16 and 24 provide controls for Fe-rich compositions. In addition to these Apollo and Luna sample data we include the composition of the feldspathic lunar meteorites as a proxy for the northern farside highlands to extend the range of the calibration points, thus providing an additional anorthositic end-member composition. These empirical ground-truth calibrations for Lunar Prospector Th and K provide self consistency between the existing derived data and lunar-sample data. Clementine spectral-reflectance data are used to construct a TiO 2-sensitive FeO calibration that yields higher FeO concentrations in areas of high-Fe, low-Ti, mare-basalt-rich surfaces than previous FeO algorithms. The data set so derived is consistent with known sample compositions and regolith mixing relationships.

  12. Discrimination Between Maturity and Composition from Integrated Clementine UltraViolet-Visible and Near-Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Langevin, Y.; Erard, S.; Pinet, P.; Daydou, Y.; Chevrel, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Clementine UV-VIS dataset has greatly improved our understanding of the Moon. The UV-VIS camera was limited to five spectral channels from 415 to 1000 nm. The Clementine near-infrared (NIR) camera was designed to complement this spectral coverage. The NIR filter at 2000 run allows the discrimination between olivine and pyroxene within identified mare basalts. In addition, we will show that the integration of Clementine UV-VIS and NIR datasets allows a better evaluation of the ferrous 1-micron absorption band depth and gives access to the slope of the continuum. The discrimination between maturity and FeO composition can be achieved by a principal component analysis performed on spectral parameters. We selected 952 Clementine UV-VIS and NIR images to compute a multispectral cube covering the Aristarchus Plateau. Aristarchus Plateau is one of the most heterogeneous areas on the Moon. Highland-type materials, mare basalts, and dark mantle deposits have previously been mentioned. The mosaic represents a set of about 500 x 600 nine-channel spectra. UV-VIS filters at 415, 750, 900, 950, and 1000 run were calibrated using the ISIS software. We applied the reduction method described elsewhere to reduce the NIR filters at 1100, 1250, 1500 and 2000 nm. Absolute gain and offset values were refined for the NIR images by using eight telescopic spectra acquired as references. With this calibration test, we were able to reproduce the eight telescopic spectra with a maximum error of 1.8%. The integration of UV-VIS and NIR spectral channels allows the visualization of complete low-resolution spectra. In order to investigate the spectral effects of the space-weathering processes, we focused our analysis on a small mare crater and its immediate surroundings. According to the small size of the crater (about 2-km) and its location on an homogeneous mare area, we can reasonably assume that the content in FeO is homogeneous. The impact event has induced a variation of the maturity of the soil by excavating fresh material. Graphs displays five absolute reflectance spectra extracted from this area. One graph displays the same spectra divided by a continuum, which is considered to be a right line fitting the spectra at 0.75 and 1.5 micron. Spectrum 1 is extracted from the brightest part of the crater interior, and spectrum 5 is extracted from the surrounding mare material. Spectra 2, 3, and 4 are extracted from intermediate distances between the two areas. The 1-and-2 micron absorption band depths and the overall reflectance increase from spectrum 5 (corresponding to a mature area) to spectrum 1 (the most immature area). Conversely, the continuum slope decreases from spectrum 5 to spectrum 1. These three spectral effects of maturity have also been identified on laboratory spectra of lunar samples. Most of the lunar soils exhibit a signature near 1 micron. This absorption band is due to the presence of Fe2+ in mafic minerals such as orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and olivine. In the case of Clementine UV-VIS data alone, the depth of the 1-micron feature is evaluated by the 950/750-nm reflectance ratio. This ratio combined to the reflectance at 750nm has been used to evaluate the global content in FeO of the lunar surface. Near-infrared data makes a more precise evaluation of the 1 micron band depth possible by providing the right side of the band. The continuum in the vicinity of the band can be evaluated by an arithmetic mean or a geometric interpolation of both sides of the band, which are taken at 750 and 1500nm. The geometric interpolation is less sensitive to residual calibration uncertainties. With this method, the 1-micron absorption band depth for the Aristarchus; Plateau can be refined by as much as 10%. The difference is maximum on Fe-poor, highland-type materials. Similarly, the NIR data provide the possibility to investigate the continuum slope of the spectra. The continuum slope is a key parameter in any spectral analysis. The continuum slope variations seem to be mainly dominated by maturity effects, as suggested by the high corre

  13. Integration and Comparison of Clementine and Lunar Prospector Data: Global Scale Multielement Analysis1 (Fe, Ti, and Th) of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, S. D.; Pinet, P. C.; Daydou, Y.; Feldman, W. C.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, we present (1) a statistical analysis, based on a systematic clustering method, of a dataset integrating the global abundance maps of the three elements iron, titanium, and thorium derived from Clementine and Lunar Prospector and (2) a comparison of iron abundances between Clementine and Lunar Prospector. Homogeneous geologic units are compositionally characterized and spatially defined in relation to the major rock types sampled on the Moon. With the lowest abundances of Fe, Ti, and Th found on the Moon, the lunar highland terrains are quite homogeneous with two major large feldspathic units, one being slightly more mafic than the other. Two distinct regions with unique compositions are unambiguously identified: the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) and the South Pole-Aitken (SPA). The PKT, which includes all the units with Th abundances higher than 3.5 ppm (KREEP-rich materials), is delimited by an almost continuous ringlike unit. In particular, it includes the western nearside maria, except for Mare Humorum. With concentrations in Fe, Ti, and Th enhanced relative to the surrounding highlands, the South Pole-Aitken basin floor represents a large mafic anomaly on the far side, suggesting wide deposits of lower crust and possible mantle materials. However, due to indirect residual latitude effects in the CSR (Clementine spectral reflectance) measurements, iron abundances might have been overestimated in SPA, thus implying that crustal materials, rather than mantle materials, might represent the dominant contributor to the mafic component exposed on the basin floor.

  14. Overview of the fast reactors fuels program. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, E.A.; Cox, C.M.; Hayward, B.R.; Rice, L.H.; Yoshikawa, H.H.

    1980-04-01

    Each nation involved in LMFBR development has its unique energy strategies which consider energy growth projections, uranium resources, capital costs, and plant operational requirements. Common to all of these strategies is a history of fast reactor experience which dates back to the days of the Manhatten Project and includes the CLEMENTINE Reactor, which generated a few watts, LAMPRE, EBR-I, EBR-II, FERMI, SEFOR, FFTF, BR-1, -2, -5, -10, BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600, JOYO, RAPSODIE, Phenix, KNK-II, DFR, and PFR. Fast reactors under design or construction include PEC, CRBR, SuperPhenix, SNR-300, MONJU, and Madras (India). The parallel fuels and materials evolution has fully supported this reactor development. It has involved cermets, molten plutonium alloy, plutonium oxide, uranium metal or alloy, uranium oxide, and mixed uranium-plutonium oxides and carbides.

  15. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 5; CL 6005, 80 deg N to 80 deg S Latitude, 60 deg E to 90 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  16. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 14; CL 6014; 0 deg N to 80 deg N Latitude, 270 deg E to 300 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  17. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 2; CL 6002; 0 deg S to 80 deg S Latitude, 0 deg E to 30 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  18. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 15; CL 6015; 0 deg S to 80 deg S Latitude, 270 deg E to 300 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  19. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 7; CL 6007; 80 deg N to 80 deg S Latitude, 120 deg E to 150 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  20. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 13; CL 6013; 0 deg S to 80 deg S Latitude, 240 deg to 270 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  1. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 1; CL 6001; 0 deg N to 80 deg N Latitude, 0 deg E to 30 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  2. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 9; CL 6009; 80 deg N to 80 deg S Latitude, 180 deg to 210 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  3. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 16; CL 6016; 0 deg N to 80 deg N Latitude, 300 deg E to 330 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  4. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 4; CL 6004; 0 deg S to 80 deg S Latitude, 30 deg E to 60 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  5. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 18; CL 6018; 80 deg N to 80 deg S Latitude, 330 deg E to 360 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  6. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 17; CL 6017; 0 deg to 80 deg S Latitude, 330 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  7. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 10; CL 6010; 0 deg N to 80 deg N Latitude, 210 deg E to 240 deg E Longitude; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  8. Degradation of imazalil, orthophenylphenol and pyrimethanil in Clementine mandarins under conventional postharvest industrial conditions at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Besil, Natalia; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Cesio, Verónica; Varela, Pablo; Rivas, Fernando; Heinzen, Horacio

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of the postharvest fungicides imazalil, orthophenylphenol, and pyrimethanil was studied on Clementine mandarins during packinghouse storage for a 28day period at 4°C. Fruits to which orthophenylphenol was applied, were treated with imazalil and pyrimethanil at doses of 1000 and 2000mgL(-1), using cascade application for the later and cascade and wax for the former. The decay of the three fungicides was evaluated using an in-house validated analytical procedure that includes the extraction and dispersive clean up of the samples followed by the GC-MS determination of the pesticide residues. The impact of fruit storage time on pesticide residues concentration was assessed. The residues found for the different application technologies were always below the established Maximum Residue Limits by the Codex Alimentarius and the European Union (5mgkg(-1) for imazalil, 7 and 8mgkg(-1) for pyrimethanil, and 10mgkg(-1) and 5mgkg(-1) for orthophenylphenol). The fungicides dissipated differentially. Pyrimethanil showed little degradation, if any, at both tested concentrations, but the half-life of imazalil on the fruit was 15-18days, independent of the application technology. Orthophenylphenol dissipated with a half-life of 15days. The initial imazalil residue found after cascade treatment was not significantly different between the doses studied (p<0.5), whereas when the fungicide was included in wax as an emulsifiable concentrate the initial and final imazalil residues were significantly different. Final residue levels after 28days of storage were 0.12-0.24mgkg(-1) for imazalil, 0.68mgkg(-1) for 2-phenylphenol and 0.56mgkg(-1) for pyrimethanil for all the evaluated treatments. PMID:26471663

  9. Intraguild interactions between Euseius stipulatus and the candidate biocontrol agents of Tetranychus urticae in Spanish clementine orchards: Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus.

    PubMed

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Urbaneja, Alberto; Schausberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Spanish clementine orchards are frequently infested by the two-spotted spider mte Tetranychus urticae. Natural control of T. urticae is insufficient despite the presence of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis. The phytoseiid community is dominated by the generalist Euseius stipulatus which is poorly adapted to exploit T. urticae. Having the intention to promote biological control of T. urticae by augmentative releases we were interested whether P. persimilis and N. californicus are negatively affected by intraguild (IG) interactions with E. stipulatus. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, we assessed female aggressiveness (quantified as combination of attack probability and latency) in IG predation on larvae. Secondly, we measured mortality, escaping rate and developmental time of immature IG prey in presence and absence of an adult IG predator female. Euseius stipulatus appeared the strongest IG opponent but microhabitat structure modulated the IG interactions and the advantage of E. stipulatus was partially offset when spider mite webbing was present. Implications of these IG interactions for natural and biological control of T. urticae in clementine orchards are discussed. PMID:19517257

  10. Surface mineralogy and stratigraphy of the lunar South Pole-Aitken basin determined from Clementine UV/VIS and NIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, A. M.; Foing, B. H.; Davies, G. R.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-08-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, located on the lunar far side, is one of the oldest and largest recognised impact structures in the solar system. The basin is a proposed site for future sample return missions and human bases due to the unique geological environment and its potential for preservation of water ice in areas of near-permanent shadow. Here, we report surface mineralogy maps of the central and northern parts of the SPA basin, based on Clementine UV/VIS and NIR spectral data. Clementine LIDAR data and SMART-1 AMIE images provide additional geomorphological and stratigraphic information. A noritic mineralogical composition is identified as the deepest stratigraphic unit exposed on the basin floor. Norite is found in nearly all central peaks and in large topographical structures that have punched through an upper, often basaltic or gabbroic layer, including the Leibnitz and Apollo sub-basins. The thin layer of gabbroic/basaltic composition is distributed over large parts of the SPA basin floor and presumably overlays the noritic basement of apparent lower-crustal origin. Our data do not confirm the presence of olivine-rich material in the SPA basin, including at Olivine Hill, suggesting the mantle material was not excavated during the basin-forming impact.

  11. Physiological and molecular analysis of the maturation process in fruits of Clementine Mandarin and one of its late-ripening mutants.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; Caruso, Marco; Todaro, Aldo; Rapisarda, Paolo; La Malfa, Stefano; Gentile, Alessandra; Tribulato, Eugenio

    2009-09-01

    Peel color is one of the main features affecting citrus quality. Clementine is a widespread citrus species with several mutants showing a delay in pigmentation and harvesting. This work characterizes the fruit development and ripening of two clementine clones, 'Comune', a widespread variety, and one of its natural mutations, 'Tardivo', which differ by a delayed color-break and extended harvest period. Morphological, chemical, and molecular analyses were carried out on fruits of both genotypes during the whole maturation process. Analysis showed that mutation did not affect ripening characteristics such as juice acidity and TSS. However, biochemical and molecular analysis revealed marked differences in the flavedo regarding carotenogenesis and chlorophyllase gene expression. Carotenoid showed quantitative differences at biochemical and molecular levels. Results demonstrated that the mutation in 'Tardivo' influenced the transcriptional activation of PSY, a key step in carotenoid biosynthesis. The differential PSY expression led to a significant quantitative difference in phytoene accumulation between the two genotypes. Also, 'Tardivo' showed delayed accumulation of carotenes, lutein, and beta,beta-xanthophylls. The differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and perception suggested differing responses to ethylene signaling between the two genotypes. Moreover, exogenous application of ethylene revealed a different sensitivity of the two varieties to this hormone. The analysis added new information to better understand the complex process of ripening in citrus. PMID:19655798

  12. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 22; CL 6022; 80 deg S to 90 deg S Latitude, South Periapsis; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar image mosaics developed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS). These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. The geometric control is provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD are compiled from polar data (latitudes greater than 80 degrees), and are presented in the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel at the pole, a resolution 5 times greater than that (150 m/pixel) of the corresponding UV/Vis polar basemap. This 5:1 scale ratio is in keeping with the sub-polar mosaic, in which the HiRes and UV/Vis mosaics had scales of 20 m/pixel and 100 m/pixel, respectively. The equal-area property of the stereographic projection made this preferable for the HiRes polar mosaic rather than the basemap's orthographic projection. Thus, a necessary first step in constructing the mosaic was the reprojection of the UV/Vis basemap to the stereographic projection. The HiRes polar data can be naturally grouped according to the orbital periapsis, which was in the south during the first half of the mapping mission and in the north during the second half. Images in each group have generally uniform intrinsic resolution, illumination, exposure and gain. Rather than mingle data from the two periapsis epochs, separate mosaics are provided for each, a total of 4 polar mosaics. The mosaics are divided into 100 square tiles of 2250 pixels (approximately 2.2 deg near the pole) on a side. Not all squares of this grid contain HiRes mosaic data, some inevitably since a square is not a perfect representation of a (latitude) circle, others due to the lack of HiRes data. This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  13. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 19; CL 6019; 80 deg N to 90 deg N Latitude, North Periapsis; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar image mosaics developed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS). These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. The geometric control is provided by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD are compiled from polar data (latitudes greater than 80 degrees), and are presented in the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel at the pole, a resolution 5 times greater than that (150 m/pixel) of the corresponding UV/Vis polar basemap. This 5:1 scale ratio is in keeping with the sub-polar mosaic, in which the HiRes and UV/Vis mosaics had scales of 20 m/pixel and 100 m/pixel, respectively. The equal-area property of the stereographic projection made this preferable for the HiRes polar mosaic rather than the basemap's orthographic projection. Thus, a necessary first step in constructing the mosaic was the reprojection of the UV/Vis basemap to the stereographic projection. The HiRes polar data can be naturally grouped according to the orbital periapsis, which was in the south during the first half of the mapping mission and in the north during the second half. Images in each group have generally uniform intrinsic resolution, illumination, exposure and gain. Rather than mingle data from the two periapsis epochs, separate mosaics are provided for each, a total of 4 polar mosaics. The mosaics are divided into 100 square tiles of 2250 pixels (approximately 2.2 deg near the pole) on a side. Not all squares of this grid contain HiRes mosaic data, some inevitably since a square is not a perfect representation of a (latitude) circle, others due to the lack of HiRes data. This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  14. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 21; CL 6021; 80 deg S to 90 deg S Latitude, North Periapsis; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar image mosaics developed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS). These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. The geometric control is provided by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD are compiled from polar data (latitudes greater than 80 degrees), and are presented in the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel at the pole, a resolution 5 times greater than that (150 m/pixel) of the corresponding UV/Vis polar basemap. This 5:1 scale ratio is in keeping with the sub-polar mosaic, in which the HiRes and UV/Vis mosaics had scales of 20 m/pixel and 100 m/pixel, respectively. The equal-area property of the stereographic projection made this preferable for the HiRes polar mosaic rather than the basemap's orthographic projection. Thus, a necessary first step in constructing the mosaic was the reprojection of the UV/Vis basemap to the stereographic projection. The HiRes polar data can be naturally grouped according to the orbital periapsis, which was in the south during the first half of the mapping mission and in the north during the second half. Images in each group have generally uniform intrinsic resolution, illumination, exposure and gain. Rather than mingle data from the two periapsis epochs, separate mosaics are provided for each, a total of 4 polar mosaics. The mosaics are divided into 100 square tiles of 2250 pixels (approximately 2.2 deg near the pole) on a side. Not all squares of this grid contain HiRes mosaic data, some inevitably since a square is not a perfect representation of a (latitude) circle, others due to the lack of HiRes data. This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  15. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project. Volume 20; CL 6020; 80 deg N to 90 deg N Latitude, South Periapsis; 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar image mosaics developed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS). These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. The geometric control is provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD are compiled from polar data (latitudes greater than 80 degrees), and are presented in the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel at the pole, a resolution 5 times greater than that (150 m/pixel) of the corresponding UV/Vis polar basemap. This 5:1 scale ratio is in keeping with the sub-polar mosaic, in which the HiRes and UV/Vis mosaics had scales of 20 m/pixel and 100 m/pixel, respectively. The equal-area property of the stereographic projection made this preferable for the HiRes polar mosaic rather than the basemap's orthographic projection. Thus, a necessary first step in constructing the mosaic was the reprojection of the UV/Vis basemap to the stereographic projection. The HiRes polar data can be naturally grouped according to the orbital periapsis, which was in the south during the first half of the mapping mission and in the north during the second half. Images in each group have generally uniform intrinsic resolution, illumination, exposure and gain. Rather than mingle data from the two periapsis epochs, separate mosaics are provided for each, a total of 4 polar mosaics. The mosaics are divided into 100 square tiles of 2250 pixels (approximately 2.2 deg near the pole) on a side. Not all squares of this grid contain HiRes mosaic data, some inevitably since a square is not a perfect representation of a (latitude) circle, others due to the lack of HiRes data. This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  16. A revised algorithm for calculating TiO2 from Clementine UVVIS data: A synthesis of rock, soil, and remotely sensed TiO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Elphic, Rick C.

    2003-02-01

    Investigating mare basalt compositions, at both the sample and remote-sensing level for the Apollo and Luna mare sites, reveals the need for a more complex regression procedure than previously proposed in order to extract accurate TiO2 concentrations from Clementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data. The TiO2 algorithm of Lucey and coworkers is modified by using two different sets of regression parameters to relate measured regolith compositions from sampling locations to the CSR properties of these sites. One regression trend fits the majority of Apollo data, and the second regression is a fit to the Apollo 11, Luna 16, and Luna 24 data, which were considered to be anomalous in previous TiO2 calibrations. These three sites have unusually low albedo compared to other mare landing sites, and some 32% of nearside mare regions appear to share this characteristic. Possible reasons for these differences related to proximity of the other sites to mare-highland boundaries are discussed. Using the dual-regression method, we find (1) that TiO2 concentrations calculated for the basaltic landing sites faithfully reproduce a bimodal distribution as seen in the sample data, (2) that when coupled with the effects of other thermal neutron absorbers, Ti concentrations are more consistent with observed epithermal-to-thermal neutron-flux ratios than are previous Clementine-based derivations of TiO2 for basaltic regions, and (3) that basalts of intermediate-TiO2 concentrations occur most frequently in the Oceanus Procellarum region and that these intermediate concentrations appear to be inherent to the flows underlying the regolith and presumably to the basalt source regions.

  17. Clementine Sensor Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    The design of the DSPSE Satellite Controller (DSC) is baselined as a single-string satellite controller. The DSC performs two main functions: health and maintenance of the spacecraft; and image capture, storage, and playback. The DSC contains two processors: a radiation-hardened Mil-Std-1750, and a commercial R3000. The Mil-Std-1750 processor performs all housekeeping operations, while the R3000 is mainly used to perform the image processing functions associated with the navigation functions, as well as performing various experiments. The DSC also contains a data handling unit (DHU) used to interface to various spacecraft imaging sensors and to capture, compress, and store selected images onto the solid-state data recorder. The development of the DSC evolved from several key requirements; the DSPSE satellite was to do the following: (1) have a radiation-hardened spacecraft control system and be immune to single-event upsets (SEU's); (2) use an R3000-based processor to run the star tracker software that was developed by SDIO (due to schedule and cost constraints, there was no time to port the software to a radiation-hardened processor); and (3) fly a commercial processor to verify its suitability for use in a space environment. In order to enhance the DSC reliability, the system was designed with multiple processing paths. These multiple processing paths provide for greater tolerance to various component failures. The DSC was designed so that all housekeeping processing functions are performed by either the Mil-Std-1750 processor or the R3000 processor. The image capture and storage is performed either by the DHU or the R3000 processor.

  18. Minéralogie de la Lune étudiée par Spectro-imagerie visible et proche infrarouge. Apport des Données NIR de la Sonde Clementine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouélic, Stéphane

    2000-09-01

    Cette thèse est consacrée à l'analyse des données multi-spectrales de la caméra infrarouge NIR de la sonde Clementine. La lune est le seul corps planétaire pour lequel on dispose à la fois d'une vérité terrain (échantillons lunaires) et de données de télédétection globales non perturbées par une atmosphère. C'est donc le cas le plus favorable pour tester et valider des méthodes d'analyse de données de télédétection, ces méthodes pouvant ensuite être extrapolées à d'autres corps du système solaire. Les données NIR, bien que dans le domaine public depuis 1995, n'avaient jamais été exploitées auparavant du fait de problèmes majeurs d'étalonnage. La première partie de ce travail a consisté à s'affranchir des problèmes d'étalonnage, donnant ainsi accès à des observations inédites couvrant la totalité de la surface lunaire. Ces observations ont ensuite été mises à profit pour aborder les problèmes plus scientifiques de l'identification des minéraux et de l'extrapolation de la connaissance de quelques sites à l'ensemble du satellite. Des zones riches en olivine, minéral associé au manteau lunaire et rarement détecté en surface, ont été mises en évidence dans les régions des cratères Aristarchus et Copernicus. L'analyse systématique des propriétés spectrales et chimiques d'échantillons lunaires représentatifs, couplée aux données NIR, a ensuite permis de mettre en place une méthode de cartographie quantitative de la teneur en fer des sols observés, clarifiant ainsi le lien entre information spectrale et chimique. Cette méthode permet de discriminer entre les effets de composition et les effets d'altération de la surface suite aux impacts de micrométéorites et de particules du vent solaire. L'expérience acquise dans le cas lunaire est directement transposable à l'étude d'autres surfaces rocheuses sans atmosphère (cas de Mercure et des astéroïdes), et représente un premier pas vers le cas plus difficile de Mars (présence d'une atmosphère).

  19. Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan) to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping

    PubMed Central

    Luro, François L; Costantino, Gilles; Terol, Javier; Argout, Xavier; Allario, Thierry; Wincker, Patrick; Talon, Manuel; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Background During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated their polymorphism related to the type (di or trinucleotide) or their position in the coding sequences. Results Among 11000 unigenes from a Clementine EST library, we have found at least one microsatellite sequence (repeated units size ranged from 2 to 6 nucleotides) in 1500 unigenes (13.6%). More than 95% of these SSRs were di or trinucleotides. If trinucleotide microsatellites were encountered trough all part of EST sequences, dinucleotide microsatellites were preferentially (50%) concentrated in the 5' 100th nucleotides. We assessed the polymorphism of 41 EST-SSR, by PCR amplification droved with flanking primers among ten Citrus species plus 3 from other genera. More than 90% of EST-SSR markers were polymorphic. Furthermore, dinucleotide microsatellite markers were more polymorphic than trinucleotide ones, probably related to their distribution that was more often located in the 5' UnTranslated Region (UTR). We obtained a good agreement of diversity relationships between the citrus species and relatives assessed with EST-SSR markers with the established taxonomy and phylogeny. To end, the heterozygosity of each genotype and all dual combinations were studied to evaluate the percentage of mappable markers. Higher values (> 45%) were observed for putative Citrus inter-specific hybrids (lime lemon, or sour orange) than for Citrus basic true species (mandarin, pummelo and citron) (<30%). Most favorable combinations for genome mapping were observed in those involving interspecific hybrid genotypes. Those gave higher levels of mappable markers (>70%) with a significant proportion suitable for synteny analysis. Conclusion Fourty one new EST-SSR markers were produced and were available for citrus genetic studies. Whatever the position of the SSR in the ESTs the EST-SSR markers we developed are powerful to investigate genetic diversity and genome mapping in citrus. PMID:18558001

  20. New Algorithm for Mapping TiO2 Concentrations Using Clementine UVVIS Data Suggests a Non-uniform Global Distribution of Basalt Types.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2001-05-01

    In both sample and remote sensing analysis of mare basalts, TiO2 is the most useful discriminator in classification because of its substantial variation in concentration, from <1 to >14wt.%. A significant discrepancy arises when comparing mare basalt sample data, which shows a bimodal distribution of TiO2 (modes at 2.5 and 12.5wt.%), with the remote sensing data, which shows a continuum (mode 2.75wt.%). It is thus important to map TiO2 accurately in order to understand whether basalts of intermediate-Ti content exist as abundantly as observed in the remote sensing data, and to determine their mode of origin (e.g., impact mixing of high and low-Ti units or derivation from intermediate-Ti source regions). Building upon earlier methods for estimating TiO2, we integrate basaltic rock and soil TiO2 concentrations with Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR) data to produce a more accurate algorithm for estimating TiO2. Two checks are used to test the accuracy of the modified algorithm. First, applying the algorithm to CSR data of 2x2 km regions centered on individual landing sites, we find that the algorithm faithfully reproduces the bimodal distribution of TiO2 contents as seen in the sample collection. Second, the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer data provide an independent test of the global estimates of TiO2 concentrations. When TiO2 concentrations from the new algorithm are coupled with the effects of other thermal neutron absorbers (e.g., Fe, Ca, Sm, Gd), they match more closely the observed epithermal-to-thermal neutron flux ratio than do the TiO2 concentrations calculated previously. Examining the global distribution of TiO2, we find that a majority of basalt flows with intermediate TiO2 concentrations occur in the western nearside maria with a minor distribution of intermediate TiO2 basalts occurring in the eastern maria. The intermediate-Ti basalts in M. Tranquillitatis appear to be caused by impact mixing between high and low-Ti basalts, whereas the basalt flows in O. Procellarum appear to have inherent intermediate-Ti contents. The heterogeneity in TiO2 between the eastern and western nearside maria suggests that mantle source regions below these areas differ significantly and that differences in mantle composition may be coupled to the crustal terranes under which they occur.

  1. Clementine: Colorado School of Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is fielding a team comprised of undergraduates in Computer Science or Engineering who are enrolled in the Robotics and AI Minor. The intent is to provide a forum for the students to (a) transfer what they have learned in the classroom to a more realistic setting, (b) meet with top researchers in the field, (c) have an undergraduate research experience, and (d) have fun. The students work with the team advisor and graduate students at CSM to integrate and modify code developed for NSF, ARPA, and NASA funded research projects. This will be the fourth year CSM has participated in the competition.

  2. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  3. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  4. Nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, G.

    1988-08-02

    A liquid reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel having a core; (b) one or more satellite tanks; (c) pump means in the satellite tank; (d) heat exchanger means in the satellite tank; (e) an upper liquid metal conduit extending between the reactor vessel and the satellite tank; (f) a lower liquid metal duct extending between the reactor vessel and satellite tanks the upper liquid metal conduit and the lower liquid metal duct being arranged to permit free circulation of liquid metal between the reactor vessel core and the satellite tank by convective flow of liquid metal; (g) a separate sealed common containment vessel around the reactor vessel, conduits and satellite tanks; (h) the satellite tank having space for a volume of liquid metal that is sufficient to dampen temperature transients resulting from abnormal operating conditions.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  6. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  9. Reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  12. Catalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  14. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  15. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  16. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  17. Nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, G.

    1990-03-20

    This patent describes a satellite tank for use in conjunction with a liquid metal reactor. It comprises: an outer tank; a pump; a heat exchanger; inlet and outlet means for liquid metal; the heat exchanger being annularly disposed around the pump; a separate sealed containment vessel around the satellite vessel; and means for a self-contained secondary liquid metal loop contained within the satellite tank, wherein the secondary sodium is circulated by a combined primary and secondary pump.

  18. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1999-01-19

    A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

  19. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Fain, Douglas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stockdale, John A. D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A photocatalytic reactor for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane.

  20. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. The Solar Collector on Clementine Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stranix, Edward; Fleishman, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Listed are 12 energy activities, experiments, and projects which some eighth-grade students performed in their classroom and local community before they helped install a solar heating system on the roof of an old house during school time and on Saturdays. The building conversion project is described. (KC)

  4. Reactor and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  5. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J. (Clairton, PA)

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  6. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B. (Severna Park, MD)

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  7. Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Daugherty, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor is a reactor that eliminates the traditional safety concerns of nuclear fission reactors. The US reactor has an insignificant source term and no reasonable criticality accident. Furthermore, the negligible residual after-heat in the reactor renders its shutdown capability comparable or superior to conventional power sources. Fission products are continuously removed at the rate they are produced. The reactor is operated with no excess criticality, hence no criticality accident is reasonably possible. The reactor is controlled safely by its negative temperature coeffiient. The reactor maintains criticality by an internal breeding ratio that is trimmed to be exactly one. The US reactor requires a fluid fuel and on-line, continuous fuel processing. Molten salt fuel was selected for its low vapor pressure at high temperature; adequate solubility of uranium and thorium as fluorides; good compatibility with structural materials; absence of irradiation damage; high negative temperature coefficient and amply developed technology and experience.

  8. Tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features.

  9. Integration of the Ultraviolet-Visible Spectral Clementine Data and the Gamma-Ray Lunar Prospector Data: Preliminary Results Concerning FeO, TiO2, and Th Abundances of the Lunar Surface at Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, S. D.; Pinet, P. C.; Barreau, G.; Daydou, Y.; Richard, G.; Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Clementine mission (CLM) produced global multispectral data that resulted in a map of FeO and Ti02 concentrations of the lunar surface. The recent Lunar Prospector (LP) mission returned the first global data for the distribution of surface abundances of key elements in lunar rocks, using a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) and neutron spectrometer(NS). Integrating CLM mineralogical spectral reflectance and LP chemical data is important to enhance our view of lunar crust origin and evolution, lunar volcanism, and surface processes. Iron, Ti, and Th having relatively large compositional variation over the lunar surface, as well as strong isolated peaks in the GRS spectra, information concerning the distribution and concentration of these elements has been derived from maps of corrected (cosmic ray, nonsymmetric response of the instrument) counting rates only, without converting them into absolute abundances. Maps produced contain count rates in equal-area projection averaged into 5 x 5 degrees latitude/longitude bins, from -90 to +90 degrees latitude and -180 to +180 degrees longitude. In this work, we have used the CLM global FeO and Ti02 abundances (wt%) maps converted at the LP spatial resolution (about 150 km/pixel) to produce FeO and TiO2 GRS abundance maps, through a linear regression based on the analysis of the scatter distribution of both datasets. The regression coefficients have been determined from the data taken between -60 and +60 degrees latitude to avoid uncertainties in the CLM spectral data due to nonnominal conditions of observation at high latitudes. After a critical assessment of the validity of these coefficients for every class of absolute abundance, the LP data have been transformed into absolute abundances for the whole Moon. The Th LP data have been converted into abundances (ppm) using Th concentrations in average soils from the Apollo and Luna sites given. Values of Th abundances for these samples range between 0.5 and 13 ppm. A nonlinear regression has been applied to the LP data, except for low count rate values (corresponding to Th abundances below 1.27 ppm) for which a first-order linear regression has been applied. Statistical tests demonstrate that the Lunar Prospector FeO, TiO2, and Th abundances estimates we have produced through the regressions are reliable. For the LP maps, the uncertainty of absolute FeO and Ti02 estimates is on the same order as that for CLM, i.e., 2 and 1.5 wt% respectively. For the Th, abundance estimates, the uncertainty is about 1-2 ppm. At first order, our global FeO and Ti02 abundances maps from LP are in very good agreement with those obtained from CLM. The Th abundance map is also in good agreement with a recent global Th abundance map, although concentrations have a higher range (0-20 ppm) in our case, and may be slightly overestimated. However, a more detailed comparison between CLM and LP abundance maps of FeO and Ti02 reveals regional differences. Differences between the two datasets are expected because of instrumental and observational causes (spatial resolution, depth of observation), but also because they are sensitive to different types of information (mineralogy vs. chemistry). Maps of differences in abundances between LP and CLM data have been produced for both FeO and Ti02. In relation to the precision of the LP and CLM data, we consider that differences between the two datasets exceeding 2 wt% are significant. Concerning FeO contents, differences up to 4-5 wt% are observed in the South Pole Aitken Basin, and generally at high latitude (up to 70 degrees) in the southern hemisphere, as well as in the northern border (Iridum-Gruithuisen domes region) and the southern border (Sinus Aestum) of the Imbrium Basin. Most important differences, up to 6-7 wt%, are found in Mare Serenitatis, Crisium, and Fecunditatis. Concerning Ti02, most important differences (4-5 wt%) between LP and CLM abundances are located within Mare Tranquillitatis. Differences (about 2-3 wt%) also occur in the northern border of the Imbrium Basin (Ir-Gruithuisen domes region) and in

  10. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  11. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  12. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  14. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  16. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  17. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  19. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  20. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  1. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  2. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  3. Modelling of biofilm reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, A.; Grasmick, A.; Elmaleh, S.

    1982-10-01

    Comprehensive models of biofilm reactors are developed. Model I assumes a zero-order reaction of a limiting substrate and a diffusional mass transport through the biofilm; in the diffusion-controlled regime the model is fully characterized by one parameter alpha. From this model the conversion of substrate or reactor efficiency can be calculated, for continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and plug flow reactors respectively, as follows: EA = )alpha(alpha + 2)) 1/2 - alpha; and Ep = (2 alpha) 1/2 - alpha/2: Validation of the model is tested for different experimental systems. Model II includes liquid film mass transfer resistance. The conversion gap between plug flow reactors and CSTRs is always lower than 25% and, as a first approximation, the biofilm reactor design does not then require accurate residence time distribution measurements. (Refs. 23).

  4. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  5. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  6. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  7. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  8. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  9. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  10. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  11. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  13. REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING WATER PIPES, COOLING AIR DUCTS, AND SHIELDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 776. Unknown Photographer, 10/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  15. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, Ronald J. (Pensacola, FL); Land, John T. (Pensacola, FL); Misvel, Michael C. (Pensacola, FL)

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

  16. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Mitrovski, Svetlana M. (Urbana, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  17. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  18. Reactor safety assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSA is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category.

  19. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  20. Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    New Fixed-Bed Catalyst System Provides Significant Reduction in Energy and Hazard Exposure. Hydrogenation is an essential industrial reaction that is often performed using a slurry catalyst system in large stirred-tank reactors.

  1. Molten metal reactors

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  2. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  3. F Reactor Inspection

    ScienceCinema

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-11-24

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  4. F Reactor Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-10-29

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  5. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  6. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  7. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    SciTech Connect

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  8. EBT reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Santoro, R. T.; Spong, D. A.; Uckan, T.; Owen, L. W.; Barnes, J. M.; McBride, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with <..beta../sub core/> approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density.

  9. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOEpatents

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  10. Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described.

  11. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Lazarus, Jonathan D.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extends from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  12. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  13. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  14. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  15. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  16. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  17. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  18. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  19. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  20. ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.

    1990-07-01

    This is a status report on technical progress relative to the tasks identified for the fifth year of Grant No. FG02-85-ER52118. The ARIES tokamak reactor study is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of the tokamak as an attractive fusion reactor with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The ARIES study is being coordinated by UCLA and involves a number of institutions, including RPI. The RPI group has been pursuing the following areas of research in the context of the ARIES-I design effort: MHD equilibrium and stability analyses; plasma-edge modeling and blanket materials issues. Progress in these areas is summarized herein.

  1. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  2. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  3. Plug Flow Reactor Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-07-30

    PLUG is a computer program that solves the coupled steady state continuity, momentum, energy, and species balance equations for a plug flow reactor. Both homogeneous (gas-phase) and heterogenous (surface) reactions can be accommodated. The reactor may be either isothermal or adiabatic or may have a specified axial temperature or heat flux profile; alternatively, an ambient temperature and an overall heat-transfer coefficient can be specified. The crosssectional area and surface area may vary with axial position,more » and viscous drag is included. Ideal gas behavior and surface site conservation are assumed.« less

  4. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  5. THERMAL NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fenning, F.W.; Jackson, R.F.

    1957-09-24

    Nuclear reactors of the graphite moderated air cooled type in which canned slugs or rods of fissile material are employed are discussed. Such a reactor may be provided with a means for detecting dust particles in the exhausted air. The means employed are lengths of dust absorbent cord suspended in vertical holes in the shielding structure above each vertical coolant flow channel to hang in the path of the cooling air issuing from the channels, and associated spindles and drive motors for hauling the cords past detectors, such as Geiger counters, for inspecting the cords periodically. This design also enables detecting the individual channel in which a fault condition may have occurred.

  6. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  7. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  8. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  9. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  10. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Process for using fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.M. Jr.; Hager, J.P.; Stephens, F.A.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a process for the conversion of reactor feed to iron carbide. It comprises preheating the reactor feed; and converting the preheated reactor feed to iron carbide in a fluidized bed reactor.

  12. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  13. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  14. Transport reactor development status

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, R.E.; Fankhanel, M.O.; Campbell, W.M.

    1994-10-01

    This project is part of METC`s Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located at Wilsonville, Alabama. The primary objective of the Advanced Gasifier module is to produce vitiated gases for intermediate-term testing of Particulate Control Devices (PCDs). The Transport reactor potentially allows particle size distribution, solids loading, and particulate characteristics in the off-gas stream to be varied in a number of ways. Particulates in the hot gases from the Transport reactor will be removed in the PCDs. Two PCDs will be initially installed in the module; one a ceramic candle filter, the other a granular bed filter. After testing of the initial PCDs they will be removed and replaced with PCDs supplied by other vendors. A secondary objective is to verify the performance of a Transport reactor for use in advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IG-FC), and Pressurized Combustion Combined Cycle (PCCC) power generation units. This paper discusses the development of the Transport reactor design from bench-scale testing through pilot-scale testing to design of the Process Development Unit (PDU-scale) facility at Wilsonville.

  15. The First Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin Allardice…

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolitic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 10% of an alkall metal dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolytic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 5% of beryllium or magnesium dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  18. Neutronic reactor thermal shield

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-06-15

    1. The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40-60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator.

  19. NRC Targets University Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

  20. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

    1994-01-01

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

  1. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  2. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  3. Cermet fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomissen, J.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  5. Reactor monitoring with Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribier, Michel

    2011-12-01

    The fundamental knowledge on neutrinos acquired in the recent years open the possibility of applied neutrino physics. Among it the automatic and non intrusive monitoring of nuclear reactor by its antineutrino signal could be very valuable to IAEA in charge of the control of nuclear power plants. Several efforts worldwide have already started.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Stacy, J.T.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element having a core of molybdenum-uranium alloy jacketed in stainless steel is described. A barrier layer of tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, or silver is interposed between the core and jacket to prevent formation of a low melting eutectic between uranium and the varlous alloy constituents of the stainless steel.

  7. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  8. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-04-05

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed there above. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define there between an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin. 4 figures.

  9. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  10. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  11. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  12. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  13. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  14. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  15. Perspectives on research reactor utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Brian; Dolan, Thomas J.; Laraia, Michele; Ritchie, Iain

    2002-01-01

    The current state of research reactors around the world is summarized using information from the Research Reactor Database. Some current trends of research reactors in advanced and developing countries are described. The need for strategic planning is emphasized, and elements of a typical strategic plan are presented. The problems of reactor lifetime extension, nuclear fuel cycle issues, and decommissioning are briefly discussed. It is concluded that research reactors will continue to be vital elements of the nuclear infrastructures in many countries, and that the IAEA can help countries solve their problems of utilization, safety, lifetime extension, fuel cycle, and decommissioning.

  16. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

  17. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  18. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  19. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    DOEpatents

    Bhate, Suresh K. (Niskayuna, NY); Cooper, Martin H. (Monroeville, PA); Riffe, Delmar R. (Murrysville, PA); Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An inherent shutdown system for a nuclear reactor having neutron absorbing rods affixed to an armature which is held in an upper position by a magnetic flux flowing through a Curie temperature material. The Curie temperature material is fixedly positioned about the exterior of an inner duct in an annular region through which reactor coolant flows. Elongated fuel rods extending from within the core upwardly toward the Curie temperature material are preferably disposed within the annular region. Upon abnormal conditions which result in high neutron flux and coolant temperature, the Curie material loses its magnetic permeability, breaking the magnetic flux path and allowing the armature and absorber rods to drop into the core, thus shutting down the fissioning reaction. The armature and absorber rods are retrieved by lowering the housing for the electromagnet forming coils which create a magnetic flux path which includes the inner duct wall. The coil housing then is raised, resetting the armature.

  20. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.

    1959-02-17

    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  1. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  2. Integrated Microfluidic Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Wang, Yanju; Wang, Shutao; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microfluidic reactors exhibit intrinsic advantages of reduced chemical consumption, safety, high surface-area-to-volume ratios, and improved control over mass and heat transfer superior to the macroscopic reaction setting. In contract to a continuous-flow microfluidic system composed of only a microchannel network, an integrated microfluidic system represents a scalable integration of a microchannel network with functional microfluidic modules, thus enabling the execution and automation of complicated chemical reactions in a single device. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the development of integrated microfluidics-based chemical reactors for (i) parallel screening of in situ click chemistry libraries, (ii) multistep synthesis of radiolabeled imaging probes for positron emission tomography (PET), (iii) sequential preparation of individually addressable conducting polymer nanowire (CPNW), and (iv) solid-phase synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides. These proof-of-principle demonstrations validate the feasibility and set a solid foundation for exploring a broad application of the integrated microfluidic system. PMID:20209065

  3. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    De Boisblanc, D.R.; Thomas, M.E.; Jones, R.M.; Hanson, G.H.

    1958-10-21

    Heterogeneous reactors of the type which is both cooled and moderated by the same fluid, preferably water, and employs highly enriched fuel are reported. In this design, an inner pressure vessel is located within a main outer pressure vessel. The reactor core and its surrounding reflector are disposed in the inner pressure vessel which in turn is surrounded by a thermal shield, Coolant fluid enters the main pressure vessel, fiows downward into the inner vessel where it passes through the core containing tbe fissionable fuel assemblies and control rods, through the reflector, thence out through the bottom of the inner vessel and up past the thermal shield to the discharge port in the main vessel. The fuel assemblles are arranged in the core in the form of a cross having an opening extending therethrough to serve as a high fast flux test facility.

  4. Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, Dennis; Butler, Carey; West, Nicole; Cole, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) research program consist of: 1.Study core physics by adapting existing codes: MCNP4C - Monte Carlo code; COMBINE/VENTURE - diffusion theory; SCALE4 - Monte Carlo, with many utility codes. 2. Determine feasibility and study major design parameters: fuel selection, temperature and reflector sizing. 3. Study reactor kinetics: develop QCALC1 to model point kinetics; study dynamic behavior of the power release.

  5. In situ reactor

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey William; Blackwelder, David Bradley

    2004-01-27

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata, is described and which includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and which is placed in a borehole formed in the geological strata; and a sampling conduit is received within the passageway defined by the liner and which receives a geological specimen which is derived from the geological strata, and wherein the sampling conduit is in fluid communication with the passageway defined by the liner.

  6. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d-/sup 3/He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs.

  7. Nuclear Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Boshears, R.

    1996-02-01

    Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS), published monthly, is a collection of abstracts of worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of reactors, including accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are other U.S. information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRS and other citations to information on nuclear reactor safety dating from 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval in the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOEpatents

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  9. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    DOEpatents

    McEdwards, James A. (Calabasas, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  10. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full-core-height diodes. Moreover, placing the fuel on the outside of the diode makes possible reactors with much higher fuel volume fractions, which enable power-flattened fast reactors scalable to very low power levels without the need for life-limiting hydride moderators or the use of efficiency-limiting driver fuel. In addition, with the fuel on the outside its swelling does not increase the emitter diameter or reduce the interelectrode gap. This should permit long lifetimes even with closer spacings, which can significantly improve the system efficiences. This was confirmed by coupled neutronic, thermal, thermionic, and electrical system analyses - some of which are presented in this paper - and by subsequent experiments. A companion paper presented next describes the fabrication and testing of full-scale converter elements, both fueled and unfueled, and summarizes the test results obtained. There is a duplicate copy in the file.

  11. Designing Reactors to Facilitate Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Richard H. Meservey

    2006-06-01

    Critics of nuclear power often cite issues with tail-end-of-the-fuel-cycle activities as reasons to oppose the building of new reactors. In fact, waste disposal and the decommissioning of large nuclear reactors have proven more challenging than anticipated. In the early days of the nuclear power industry the design and operation of various reactor systems was given a great deal of attention. Little effort, however, was expended on end-of-the-cycle activities, such as decommissioning and disposal of wastes. As early power and test reactors have been decommissioned difficulties with end-of-the-fuel-cycle activities have become evident. Even the small test reactors common at the INEEL were not designed to facilitate their eventual decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantlement. The results are that decommissioning of these facilities is expensive, time consuming, relatively hazardous, and generates large volumes of waste. This situation clearly supports critics concerns about building a new generation of power reactors.

  12. Reactor Monitoring with Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casimiro Linares, Edgar

    2011-09-01

    The study of the use of neutrino detectors to monitor nuclear reactors is currently a very active field of research. While neutrino detectors located close to reactors have been used to provide information about the global performance of the reactors, a general improvement of the technique is needed in order to use it in a practical way to monitor the fissile contents of the fuel of the nuclear reactors or the thermal power delivered. I describe the current status of the Angra Neutrino Project, aimed to building a low-mass neutrino detector to monitor the Angra II reactor of the Brazilian nuclear power plant Almirante Alvaro Ramos in order to explore new approaches to reactor monitoring with neutrino detectors.

  13. Industrializing the liquid metal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, D.F.

    1984-08-01

    Commercial acceptance of the liquid metal reactor had its beginning with the Fermi reactor, over two decades ago. The pattern of industrialization since that time is discussed, contrasting domestic and foreign experience. The recent termination of the Clinch River reactor project marks a watershed in the U.S. approach towards commercialization. The increased emphasis on achieving cost competitive designs reflects an awareness that barriers to industrialization are institutional and financial, and not technological.

  14. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  15. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  16. Rotating reactor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1991-01-01

    Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is thicker and extends all the way around the reactor.

  17. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  18. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle ?13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  19. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle ?13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  20. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  1. Japan starts two more reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Hokuriku Electric Power Company's first operating reactor, Shika 1, reached initial criticality on November 20. Construction on the 513-MWe BWR began in 1987, when the plant originally was called the Noto reactor. The name was changed in December 1988 to Shika, a name more familiar to local residents. The unit is Japan's 44th operating reactor and is scheduled to begin commercial operation in July 1993. Japan's 45th reactor reached initial criticality on December 2. Chubu Electric Power Company's Hamaoka 4, a 1,045-MWe BWR, is scheduled for pre-trial operation in February 1993, and full commercial operation in September.

  2. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  3. High flux reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lake, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heath, Russell L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Liebenthal, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R. (Summit, NJ); Leyse, Carl F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parsons, Kent (Idaho Falls, ID); Ryskamp, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wadkins, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fillmore, Gary N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  4. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  5. Microwave polymerization reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, R.; Gonzalez, L.; Guerra, E.; Dougar, V.

    1996-12-31

    The application of microwave heating in chemical processes and research laboratories results in considerable energy savings compared with conventional heating methods. This work summarizes experimental results performed in a bench-scale microwave polymerization reactor. Polystyrene was prepared by emulsion polymerization using both microwave radiation and a conventional heating system. Microwave energy efficiency was increased by power programming. Microwave preparation occurred in about 140 seconds, and reaction time was further decreased by the addition of titanium dioxide. Using a conventional heating method, polymerization reaction time was approximately 70 times longer than for microwave irradiation. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  7. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  8. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  9. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  10. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  11. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  12. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  13. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E. (Elk Grove, IL); Crouthamel, Carl E. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  14. Reactor refueling containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes a method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

  15. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Meuschke, Robert E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

  16. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1995-05-02

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor is disclosed whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced. 2 figs.

  17. FUEL ASSAY REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, B.I.; Sandmeier, H.A.; Martens, F.H.

    1962-12-25

    A reactor having maximum sensitivity to perturbations is described comprising a core consisting of a horizontally disposed, rectangular, annular fuel zone containing enriched uranium dioxide dispersed in graphite, the concentration of uranium dioxide increasing from the outside to the inside of the fuel zone, an internal reflector of graphite containing an axial test opening disposed within the fuel zone, an external graphite reflector, means for changing the neutron spectrum in the test opening, and means for measuring perturbations in the neutron flux caused by the introduction of different fuel elements into the test opening. (AEC)

  18. Nuclear reactor exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doublet, P.; Jullien, G.

    1983-03-22

    Nuclear reactor exchanger which assures the transfer of heat between two streams of coolant sodium. It includes an outlet connector which channels coolant sodium leaving a bundle of exchanger tubes traversed on the inside by the sodium and immersed externally in coolant sodium, and an inner tubular jacket forming a surface of revolution about a vertical axis and an outer tubular jacket. The wall of the inner jacket has a folded portion distinguished by at least one flank in the form of a crown.

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Mediterranean fruit fly management program established by the Government of Spain. (c) Management program for Mediterranean fruit fly; monitoring. The Government of Spain's Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) management program must be approved by APHIS, and must contain the fruit fly trapping and...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mediterranean fruit fly management program established by the Government of Spain. (c) Management program for Mediterranean fruit fly; monitoring. The Government of Spain's Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) management program must be approved by APHIS, and must contain the fruit fly trapping and...

  1. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  2. Reactor closure design for a pool-type fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Kann, W.J.; Bump, T.R.; Schatmeier, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor closure is the topmost structural part of a reactor module. For a pool-type fast reactor it is an especially important structure because it provides the interface between the primary coolant system and the main access area above the closure. The reactor closure comprises a stationary deck, a rotatable plug, the boundary elements of primary system and containment penetrations for equipment and auxiliary systems. This paper evaluates two different reactor closure design concepts, referred to as ''warm'' deck and ''hot'' deck, for a pool-type fast reactor with respect to their design features, technical merits, and economic benefits. The evaluation also includes functional, structural, and thermal analyses of the two deck design concepts. Issues related to their fabrication and shipping to the plant site are also addressed. The warm deck is a thick solid steel plate with under-the-deck insulation consisting of many layers of steel plates. The hot deck is a box-type structure consisting of a bottom plate reinforced with vertical ribs and cylinders. For insulation and radiation shielding, the region of the hot deck above the bottom plate is filled with steel balls. Conventional insulation is added on the top to further reduce heat loss into area above the deck. The design choice of the closure deck is strongly dependent on design features of the reactor; especially on the reactor module support. While the warm deck is preferable with the top support, the hot deck is better suited for the bottom support design of the module.

  3. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and thermophysical properties of the fuel and their compatibility with the reactor coolant, with corresponding differences in the challenges presented to the reactor developers. Accident phenomena are discussed for the sodium-cooled fast reactor based on the mechanistic progression of conditions from accident initiation to accident termination, whether a benign state is achieved or more severe consequences are expected. General principles connecting accident phenomena and fuel properties are developed from the oxide and metal fuel safety analyses, providing guidelines that can be used as part of the evaluation for selection of fuel type for the sodium-cooled fast reactor.

  4. Cascade ICF power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

    1986-05-20

    The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO/sub 2/. The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor.

  5. Development of fast breeder reactors in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shounan

    1988-05-01

    The principle of a fusion-fission hybrid nuclear reactor is described. The nuclear physics foundation of the hybrid reactor is outlined. Two types of hybrid reactors--fission and retarded fission reactors--are described. The means by which hybrid reactors can advance the use of fusion energy are set forth. Two types of breeder reactors are described: fusion and fission breeder reactors. A case is made that hybrid reactor breeder energy is much greater than that of fast reactors, and that the hybrid reactor is not inhibited by industrial plutonium. It is further maintained that the price of electric energy of the hybrid reactor-pressure water reactor co-generation system is cheaper than that of the fast reactor-pressure water reactor co-generation system; that hybride reactor-LWR co-generation systems consume less uranium than fast reactor systems; that a Th/U system hybrid reactor-LWR co-generation system is economical in the use of thorium resources; and that hybrid reactors are safer than fast reactors.

  6. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  7. Radioactive wastes from fusion reactors.

    PubMed

    Parkfr, F L

    1968-01-01

    Calculation of the amount of tritium released from a hypothetical fusion reactor shows that it is 2 x 10(5) the amount released by generation of an equivalent amount of electricity by a fission reactor. Release of the tritium generated by a power economy, if the nuclear power were all fusion, would result in unacceptable worldwide dosages by the year 2000. PMID:17737473

  8. A model of reactor kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.

    1988-09-01

    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  9. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  10. Temperature effects on chemical reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, M.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we had to study some characteristics of the chemical reactors, from which we can understand the reactor operation in different circumstances; from these and the most important factor that has a great effect on the reactor operation is the temperature, it is a mathematical processing of a chemical problem that was already studied, but it may be developed by introducing new strategies of control; in our case we deal with the analysis of a liquid-gas reactor which can make the flotation of the benzene to produce the ethylene; this type of reactors can be used in vast domains of the chemical industry, especially in refinery plants where we find the oil separation and its extractions whether they are gases or liquids which become necessary for industrial technology, especially in our century.

  11. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, M.

    1983-05-10

    The nuclear boiler comprises at least one heat exchanger located externally of the reactor vessel in order to effect heat exchange between the liquid metal coolant in the form of liquid and water to be vaporized and superheated together with a main storage tank connected to the reactor vessel for receiving liquid metal and inert gas. A main storage tank pipe system fitted with valves consists of a first overflow pipe for connecting the top of the reactor vessel to the bottom of the storage tank, and at least one second pressure-equalizing pipe between the top of the reactor vessel and the top of the storage tank. Controlledatmosphere compartments forming the reactor containment structure and containing the unclear steam supply systems provide biological protection for operating personnel and guard against impacts of external origin.

  12. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  13. Fuel Reformation: Microchannel Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Davis, James M.; Fischer, Christopher M.; King, David L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rawlings, Gregg C.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2005-09-01

    Fuel processing is used to extract hydrogen from conventional vehicle fuel and allow fuel cell powered vehicles to use the existing petroleum fuel infrastructure. Kilowatt scale micro-channel steam reforming, water-gas shift and preferential oxida-tion reactors have been developed capable of achieving DOE required system performance metrics. Use of a microchannel design effectively supplies heat to the highly endothermic steam reforming reactor to maintain high conversions, controls the temperature profile for the exothermic water gas shift reactor, which optimizes the overall reaction conversion, and removes heat to prevent the unwanted hydrogen oxidation in the prefer-ential oxidation reactor. The reactors combined with micro-channel heat exchangers, when scaled to a full sized 50 kWe automotive system, will be less than 21 L in volume and 52 kg in weight.

  14. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  15. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-11-08

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream. 1 fig.

  16. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  17. Advanced Reactors Around the World

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Debu

    2003-09-01

    At the end of 2002, 441 nuclear power plants were operating around the globe and providing 17% of the world's electricity. Although the rate of population growth has slowed, recent United Nations data suggest that two billion more people will be added to the world by 2050. A special report commissioned by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that electricity demand would grow almost eight-fold from 2000 to 2050 in a high economic grown scenario and more than double in a low-growth scenario. There is also a global aspiration to keep the environment pristine. Because of these reasons, it is expected that a large number of new nuclear reactors may be operating by 2050. Realization of this has created an impetus for the development of a new generation of reactors in several countries. The goal is to make nuclear power cost-competitive with other resources and to enhance safety to a level that no evacuation outside a plant site would be necessary. It should also generate less waste, prevent materials diversion for weapons production, and be sustainable. This article discusses the status of next-generation reactors under development around the world. Specifically highlighted are efforts related to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and its six reactor concepts for research and development: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR); Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR); Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR); Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR); Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR); and Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). Also highlighted are nuclear activities specific to Russia and India.

  18. Reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haoqi

    2014-05-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive non-zero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference ∣ Δ m2ee∣ = (2.59+0.19-0.20)× 10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

  19. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  20. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

    1983-10-25

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

  1. GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

    1958-06-10

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

  2. Nuclear reactor control

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E. (Phoenix, AZ); Warnick, Robert F. (Pasco, WA)

    1982-01-01

    1. In a nuclear reactor incorporating a plurality of columns of tubular fuel elements disposed in horizontal tubes in a mass of graphite wherein water flows through the tubes to cool the fuel elements, the improvement comprising at least one control column disposed in a horizontal tube including fewer fuel elements than in a normal column of fuel elements and tubular control elements disposed at both ends of said control column, and means for varying the horizontal displacement of the control column comprising a winch at the upstream end of the control column and a cable extending through the fuel and control elements and attached to the element at the downstream end of the column.

  3. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  4. TU electric reactor model verification; Power reactor benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, C.E.; Killgore, M.R. )

    1989-11-01

    Power reactor benchmark calculations using the code package CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 have been performed for six cycles of Prairie Island Unit 1. The reload fuel designs for the selected cycles include gadolinia as a burnable absorber, natural uranium axial blankets, and increased water-to-fuel ratio. The calculated results for both low-power physics tests (boron end points, control rod worths, and isothermal temperature coefficients) and full-power operation (power distributions and boron letdown) are compared to measured plant data. These comparisons show that the TU Electric reactor physics models accurately predict important physics parameters for power reactors.

  5. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit

    2008-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  6. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  7. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  8. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  9. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F. ); Painter, S.L. )

    1992-12-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  10. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F.; Painter, S.L.

    1992-12-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R{sub 0} = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B{sup 0} = 4.8-7.5 T, B{sub max} (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  11. Advances in reactor physics education: Visualization of reactor parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Kromar, M.; Zerovnik, G.

    2012-07-01

    Modern computer codes allow detailed neutron transport calculations. In combination with advanced 3D visualization software capable of treating large amounts of data in real time they form a powerful tool that can be used as a convenient modern educational tool for reactor operators, nuclear engineers, students and specialists involved in reactor operation and design. Visualization is applicable not only in education and training, but also as a tool for fuel management, core analysis and irradiation planning. The paper treats the visualization of neutron transport in different moderators, neutron flux and power distributions in two nuclear reactors (TRIGA type research reactor and a typical PWR). The distributions are calculated with MCNP and CORD-2 computer codes and presented using Amira software. (authors)

  12. On reactor type comparisons for the next generation of reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Majumdar, K.C.

    1991-08-22

    In this paper, we present a broad comparison of studies for a selected set of parameters for different nuclear reactor types including the next generation. This serves as an overview of key parameters which provide a semi-quantitative decision basis for selecting nuclear strategies. Out of a number of advanced reactor designs of the LWR type, gas cooled type, and FBR type, currently on the drawing board, the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) seem to have some edge over other types of the next generation of reactors for the near-term application. This is based on a number of attributes related to the benefit of the vast operating experience with LWRs coupled with an estimated low risk profile, economics of scale, degree of utilization of passive systems, simplification in the plant design and layout, modular fabrication and manufacturing. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  14. Review of Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Bong

    New generation of reactor neutrino experiments, Daya Bay and RENO, have made definitive measurements of the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 in 2012, based on the disappearance of electron antineutrinos. More precise measurements of the mixing angle and reactor neutrino spectra have been made and presented. A rather large value of θ13 has opened a new window to find the CP violation phase and to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Future reactor experiments, JUNO and RENO-50, are proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make highly precise measurements of θ12, Δm212, and Δm312.

  15. Fueling of tandem mirror reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gorker, G.E.; Logan, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fueling requirements for experimental and demonstration tandem mirror reactors (TMRs), reviews the status of conventional pellet injectors, and identifies some candidate accelerators that may be needed for fueling tandem mirror reactors. Characteristics and limitations of three types of accelerators are described; neutral beam injectors, electromagnetic rail guns, and laser beam drivers. Based on these characteristics and limitations, a computer module was developed for the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (TMRSC) to select the pellet injector/accelerator combination which most nearly satisfies the fueling requirements for a given machine design.

  16. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Altman, David A.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  17. Directions for improved fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Delene, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10 to 15 years have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points towards smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. A generic fusion physics/engineering/costing model is used to provide a quantiative basis for these arguments for specific fusion concepts.

  18. Nuclear reactor I

    DOEpatents

    Ference, Edward W.; Houtman, John L.; Waldby, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor whose upper internals include provision for channeling the liquid metal flowing from the core-component assemblies to the outlet plenum in vertical paths in direction generally along the direction of the respective assemblies. The metal is channeled by chimneys, each secured to, and extending from, a grid through whose openings the metal emitted by a plurality of core-component assemblies encompassed by the grid flows. To reduce the stresses resulting from structural interaction, or the transmissive of thermal strains due to large temperature differences in the liquid metal emitted from neighboring core-component assemblies, throughout the chimneys and the other components of the upper internals, the grids and the chimneys are supported from the heat plate and the core barrel by support columns (double portal support) which are secured to the head plate at the top and to a member, which supports the grids and is keyed to the core barrel, at the bottom. In addition to being restrained from lateral flow by the chimneys, the liquid metal is also restrained from flowing laterally by a peripheral seal around the top of the core. This seal limits the flow rate of liquid metal, which may be sharply cooled during a scram, to the outlet nozzles. The chimneys and the grids are formed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant nickel-chromium-iron alloy which can withstand the stresses produced by temperature differences in the liquid metal. The chimneys are supported by pairs of plates, each pair held together by hollow stubs coaxial with, and encircling, the chimneys. The plates and stubs are a welded structure but, in the interest of economy, are composed of stainless steel which is not weld compatible with the refractory metal. The chimneys and stubs are secured together by shells of another nickel-chromium-iron alloy which is weld compatible with, and is welded to, the stubs and has about the same coefficient of expansion as the highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy.

  19. Conceptual design study of JSFR reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T.; Katoh, A.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ohya, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Hara, H.; Akiyama, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is planning to adopt the new concepts of reactor building. One is that the steel plate reinforced concrete is adopted for containment vessel and reactor building. The other is the advanced seismic isolation system. This paper describes the detail of new concepts for JSFR reactor building and engineering evaluation of the new concepts. (authors)

  20. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  1. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  2. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  3. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  4. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  5. Ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlik, E.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of this presentation is ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems. This paper describes two current programs underway at Savannah River Site which provide state-of-the-art ultrasonic inspections of weld heat-affected zones in the primary cooling loop of the Savannah River Site reactors. It also describes the automated remote inspection equipment being developed and employed; briefly describe the procedures being used; and give you a general idea of the future direction of two major programs: Moderator Piping Inspection Program and the Reactor Tank Wall Weld Inspection Program. The objective of these programs is to provide inspection techniques to more fully determine the condition of the reactor primary system and provide data for prediction of maintenance needs and remaining service life. Detection and sizing of intergranular stress corrosion cracking is the focus of these programs.

  6. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  7. Computational Modeling of Multiphase Reactors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, J B; Nandakumar, K

    2015-01-01

    Multiphase reactors are very common in chemical industry, and numerous review articles exist that are focused on types of reactors, such as bubble columns, trickle beds, fluid catalytic beds, etc. Currently, there is a high degree of empiricism in the design process of such reactors owing to the complexity of coupled flow and reaction mechanisms. Hence, we focus on synthesizing recent advances in computational and experimental techniques that will enable future designs of such reactors in a more rational manner by exploring a large design space with high-fidelity models (computational fluid dynamics and computational chemistry models) that are validated with high-fidelity measurements (tomography and other detailed spatial measurements) to provide a high degree of rigor. Understanding the spatial distributions of dispersed phases and their interaction during scale up are key challenges that were traditionally addressed through pilot scale experiments, but now can be addressed through advanced modeling. PMID:26134737

  8. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  9. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, Gary D. (Richland, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA); Kurosky, Randal P. (Maple Valley, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  10. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  11. University Reactor Matching Grants Program

    SciTech Connect

    John Valentine; Farzad Rahnema; Said Abdel-Khalik

    2003-02-14

    During the 2002 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE matching grant program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors, have been used to support research in the area of thermal-hydraulics. Both experimental and numerical research projects have been performed. Experimental research focused on two areas: (1) Identification of the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors under prototypical reactor conditions, and (2) Fluid dynamic aspects of thin liquid film protection schemes for inertial fusion reactor chambers. Numerical research focused on two areas: (1) Multi-fluid modeling of both two-phase and two-component flows for steam conditioning and mist cooling applications, and (2) Modeling of bounded Rayleigh-Taylor instability with interfacial mass transfer and fluid injection through a porous wall simulating the ''wetted wall'' protection scheme in inertial fusion reactor chambers. Details of activities in these areas are given.

  12. METHOD OF OPERATING NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for obtaining enhanced utilization of natural uranium in heavy water moderated nuclear reactors by charging the reactor with an equal number of fuel elements formed of natural uranium and of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction. The reactor is operated until the rate of burnup of plutonium equals its rate of production, the fuel elements are processed to recover plutonium, the depleted uranium is discarded, and the remaining uranium is formed into fuel elements. These fuel elements are charged into a reactor along with an equal number of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction, and reuse of the uranium is continued as aforesaid until it wlll no longer support a chain reaction when combined with an equal quantity of natural uranium.

  13. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Use of deuterium-tritium burning fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control, (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment, (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions, (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices, and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  14. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

    Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  15. Reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haoqi

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive nonzero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference \\vertΔ m2ee\\vert\\big (2.59+0.19-0.20\\big )×10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

  16. Reactor shroud joint

    DOEpatents

    Ballas, G.J.; Fife, A.B.; Ganz, I.

    1998-04-07

    A shroud for a nuclear reactor is described. In one embodiment, the shroud includes first and second shroud sections, and each shroud section includes a substantially cylindrical main body having a first end and a second end. With respect to each shroud section, a flange is located at the main body first end, and the flange has a plurality of bolt openings therein and a plurality of scalloped regions. The first shroud section is welded to the second shroud section, and at least some of the bolt openings in the first shroud section flange align with respective bolt openings in the second shroud section flange. In the event that the onset of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking is ever detected in the weld between the shroud section, bolts are inserted through bolt openings in the first shroud section flange and through aligned bolt openings the second shroud section flange. Each bolt, in one embodiment, has a shank section and first and second threaded end sections. Nuts are threadedly engaged to the threaded end sections and tightened against the respective flanges. 4 figs.

  17. Solar solids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  18. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  19. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Upton, Hubert A. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  20. Reactor shroud joint

    DOEpatents

    Ballas, Gary J. (San Jose, CA); Fife, Alex Blair (San Jose, CA); Ganz, Israel (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A shroud for a nuclear reactor is described. In one embodiment, the shroud includes first and second shroud sections, and each shroud section includes a substantially cylindrical main body having a first end and a second end. With respect to each shroud section, a flange is located at the main body first end, and the flange has a plurality of bolt openings therein and a plurality of scalloped regions. The first shroud section is welded to the second shroud section, and at least some of the bolt openings in the first shroud section flange align with respective bolt openings in the second shroud section flange. In the event that the onset of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking is ever detected in the weld between the shroud section, bolts are inserted through bolt openings in the first shroud section flange and through aligned bolt openings the second shroud section flange. Each bolt, in one embodiment, has a shank section and first and second threaded end sections. Nuts are threadedly engaged to the threaded end sections and tightened against the respective flanges.

  1. Solar solids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  2. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  3. ETF reactor design status

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of a tokamak Engineering Test Facility (ETF) are being carried out as a joint laboratory-industry effort at the ETF Design Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Designs are being developed for two reactors, one with a bundle divertor and one with a poloidal divertor. These machines, which are designed for ignition and a burn time of 100 s, both have a major radius of 5.4 m, a plasma minor radius of 1.3 m, and a D-shaped plasma elongation of 1.6. The plasma chamber must be conditioned at 10/sup -7/ torr. During the 35-s dwell between burns, the chamber must be pumped down from 5 x 10/sup -3/ torr to 3 x 10/sup -5/ torr. In the design with the bundle divertor four pairs of compound cryopumps, each pump with a 2-m/sup 2/ cryosorption pumping surface, are installed to pump down the plasma chamber. In the design with the poloidal divertor the plasma chamber is evacuated with the ten pairs of compound cryopumps, each pump with a cryosorption pumping surface of 4.32 m/sup 2/, installed to handle the divertor load. In both cases the pumps are installed in pairs so that one set can be regenerated while the other set is on-line.

  4. Reactor Simulator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  5. Reactor Simulator Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Test Objectives Summary: a) Verify operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation & control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. b) Examine cooling & heat regeneration performance of the cold trap purification. c) Test the ALIP pump at voltages beyond 120V to see if the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s can be obtained in the RxSim. Testing Highlights: a) Gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively for operations (NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain). b) Instrumentation & Control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings and ramped within prescribed constraints. It effectively interacted with reactor simulator control model and defaulted back to temperature control mode if the transient fluctuations didn't dampen. c) Cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the minimum temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. d) ALIP produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  6. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research were undertaken: (1) establishing the design and safety-related basis via neutronic and reactor control assessments with the graphite foam as heat transfer medium; (2) evaluating the thermal performance of the graphite foam for heat removal, reactor stability, reactor operations, and overall core thermal characteristics; (3) characterizing the physical properties of the graphite foam under normal and irradiated conditions to determine any effects on structure, dimensional stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion; and (4) developing a power conversion system design to match the reactor operating parameters.

  7. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1983-02-01

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

  8. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  9. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  10. (Gas-cooled reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, P.L.

    1988-06-30

    The meeting of the managers of the US/FRG/CH cooperative subprogram on materials for gas-cooled reactors is described and the status of each of the work packages comprising this cooperation is summarized. Four proposals for new areas of cooperative work were developed. Briefings by sponsoring organizations on the status of gas-cooled reactor programs in the FRG are discussed and experimental efforts being conducted at KFA on materials are reviewed.

  11. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  12. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  13. Fast quench reactor and method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  14. Reactor Application for Coaching Newbies

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-17

    RACCOON is a Moose based reactor physics application designed to engage undergraduate and first-year graduate students. The code contains capabilities to solve the multi group Neutron Diffusion equation in eigenvalue and fixed source form and will soon have a provision to provide simple thermal feedback. These capabilities are sufficient to solve example problems found in Duderstadt & Hamilton (the typical textbook of senior level reactor physics classes). RACCOON does not contain any advanced capabilities as found in YAK.

  15. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOEpatents

    Ehrke, Alan C.; Knepp, John B.; Skoda, George I.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  16. The nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors and advanced pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-11-01

    A nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) is being studied. The principal idea of this strategy is that the discharged plutonium from light water reactors (LWRs) provides the inventories of the FBRs and the high-converter APWRs, whereby the LWRs are installed according to the derivative of a logistical S curve. Special emphasis is given to the dynamics of reaching an asymptotic symbiosis between FBRs and APWRs. The main conclusion is that if a symbiotic APWR-FBR family with an asymptotic total power level in the terawatt range is to exist in about half a century from now, we need a large number of FBRs already in an early phase.

  17. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and selfdiffusion coefficient for lanthanum, cerium, and praseodymium were determined. The investigation of phase relationships in the plutonium-cerium-copper ternary system was continued on samples containing a high concentration of copper. These analyses indicate that complete solid solution exists between the binary compounds CeCu/sub 2/ and PuCu/sub 2/, thus forming a quasi-binary system. The study of high temperature ceramic fuel materials has continued with the homogenization and microspheroidization of binary mixtures of plutonium dioxide and zirconium dioxide. Sintering a die-pressed pellet of the mixed powders for one hour at 1450 deg C was not sufficient to completely react the constituents. Complete homogenization was obtained when the pellet was melted in the plasma flame. In addition to the plutonium dioxide-zirconium dioxide microspheres, pure beryllium oxide microspheres were produced in the plasma torch. The electronic distribution functions for the 10% by weight PuO/sub 2/ dissolved in a silicate glass were determined. The plutonium-oxygen interaction at about 2.2A is less than the plutonium-oxygen distance for the 5% PuO/sub 2/. The decrease in the interionic distance is indicative of a stronger plutonium-oxygen association for the more concentrated composition. Potassium plutonium sulfate is being evaluated as a reagent to quantitatively separate plutonium from aqueous solutions. The compound containing two waters of hydration was prepared for thermogravimetric studies using analytically pure plutonium-239. Because of the stability of this compound, it is being evaluated as a calorimetric standard for plutonium-238. (auth)

  18. Neutronic reactor thermal shield

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, Paul E.

    1976-06-15

    1. The combination with a plurality of parallel horizontal members arranged in horizontal and vertical rows, the spacing of the members in all horizontal rows being equal throughout, the spacing of the members in all vertical rows being equal throughout; of a shield for a nuclear reactor comprising two layers of rectangular blocks through which the members pass generally perpendicularly to the layers, each block in each layer having for one of the members an opening equally spaced from vertical sides of the block and located closer to the top of the block than the bottom thereof, whereby gravity tends to make each block rotate about the associated member to a position in which the vertical sides of the block are truly vertical, the openings in all the blocks of one layer having one equal spacing from the tops of the blocks, the openings in all the blocks of the other layer having one equal spacing from the tops of the blocks, which spacing is different from the corresponding spacing in the said one layer, all the blocks of both layers having the same vertical dimension or length, the blocks of both layers consisting of relatively wide blocks and relatively narrow blocks, all the narrow blocks having the same horizontal dimension or width which is less than the horizontal dimension or width of the wide blocks, which is the same throughout, each layer consisting of vertical rows of narrow blocks and wide blocks alternating with one another, each vertical row of narrow blocks of each layer being covered by a vertical row of wide blocks of the other layer which wide blocks receive the same vertical row of members as the said each vertical row of narrow blocks, whereby the rectangular perimeters of each block of each layer is completely out of register with that of each block in the other layer.

  19. FUSED REACTOR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.W.

    1962-11-13

    This invention relates to a nuciear reactor fuel composition comprising (1) from about 0.01 to about 50 wt.% based on the total weight of said composition of at least one element selected from the class consisting of uranium, thorium, and plutonium, wherein said eiement is present in the form of at least one component selected from the class consisting of oxides, halides, and salts of oxygenated anions, with components comprising (2) at least one member selected from the class consisting of (a) sulfur, wherein the sulfur is in the form of at least one entity selected irom the class consisting of oxides of sulfur, metal sulfates, metal sulfites, metal halosulfonates, and acids of sulfur, (b) halogen, wherein said halogen is in the form of at least one compound selected from the class of metal halides, metal halosulfonates, and metal halophosphates, (c) phosphorus, wherein said phosphorus is in the form of at least one constituent selected from the class consisting of oxides of phosphorus, metal phosphates, metal phosphites, and metal halophosphates, (d) at least one oxide of a member selected from the class consisting of a metal and a metalloid wherein said oxide is free from an oxide of said element in (1); wherein the amount of at least one member selected from the class consisting of halogen and sulfur is at least about one at.% based on the amount of the sum of said sulfur, halogen, and phosphorus atom in said composition; and wherein the amount of said 2(a), 2(b) and 2(c) components in said composition which are free from said elements of uranium, thorium, arid plutonium, is at least about 60 wt.% based on the combined weight of the components of said composition which are free from said elements of uranium, thorium, and plutonium. (AEC)

  20. Reactor Simulator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  1. 56. ARAII. View inside reactor building looking at SL1 reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. ARA-II. View inside reactor building looking at SL-1 reactor vessel. November 19, 1957. Ineel photo no. 57-5864. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Update on reactors and reactor instruments in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. R.

    1991-10-01

    The 1980s have seen the commissioning of several medium flux (?10 14 neutrons/cm 2s) research reactors in Asia. The reactors are based on indigenous design and development in India and China. At Dhruva reactor (India), a variety of neutron spectrometers have been established that have provided useful data related to the structure of high- Tc materials, phonon density of states, magnetic moment distributions and micellar aggregation during the last couple of years. Polarised neutron analysis, neutron interferometry and neutron spin echo methods are some of the new techniques under development. The spectrometers and associated automaton, detectors and neutron guides have all been indigenously developed. This paper summarises the developments and on-going activities in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand.

  3. ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) reactor building design study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.; Delisle, M.W.; Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Mississauga, ON )

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is at the midpoint of a two-year conceptual design. The ITER reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure that houses the tokamak and associated equipment and systems and forms a barrier between the tokamak and the external environment. It provides radiation shielding and controls the release of radioactive materials to the environment during both routine operations and accidents. The building protects the tokamak from external events, such as earthquakes or aircraft strikes. The reactor building requirements have been developed from the component designs and the preliminary safety analysis. The equipment requirements, tritium confinement, and biological shielding have been studied. The building design in progress requires continuous iteraction with the component and system designs and with the safety analysis. 8 figs.

  4. UCLA program in reactor studies: The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of tokamak reactors with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Four ARIES visions are currently planned for the ARIES program. The ARIES-1 design is a DT-burning reactor based on modest'' extrapolations from the present tokamak physics database and relies on either existing technology or technology for which trends are already in place, often in programs outside fusion. ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 are DT-burning reactors which will employ potential advances in physics. The ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs employ the same plasma core but have two distinct fusion power core designs; ARIES-2 utilize the lithium as the coolant and breeder and vanadium alloys as the structural material while ARIES-4 utilizes helium is the coolant, solid tritium breeders, and SiC composite as the structural material. Lastly, the ARIES-3 is a conceptual D-{sup 3}He reactor. During the period Dec. 1, 1990 to Nov. 31, 1991, most of the ARIES activity has been directed toward completing the technical work for the ARIES-3 design and documenting the results and findings. We have also completed the documentation for the ARIES-1 design and presented the results in various meetings and conferences. During the last quarter, we have initiated the scoping phase for ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs.

  5. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  6. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  7. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design

    PubMed Central

    Giddings, Cloelle G. S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R.; Butler, Caitlyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional ‘H-cell’ reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199

  8. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Cloelle G S; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R; Butler, Caitlyn S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional 'H-cell' reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199

  9. International Research Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leopando, Leonardo; Warnecke, Ernst

    2008-01-15

    Many research reactors have been or will be shut down and are candidates for decommissioning. Most of the respective countries neither have a decommissioning policy nor the required expertise and funds to effectively implement a decommissioning project. The IAEA established the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P) to help answer this need. It was agreed to involve the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) as model reactor to demonstrate 'hands-on' experience as it is just starting the decommissioning process. Other facilities may be included in the project as they fit into the scope of R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P and complement to the PRR-1 decommissioning activities. The key outcome of the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P will be the decommissioning of the PRR-1 reactor. On the way to this final goal the preparation of safety related documents (i.e., decommissioning plan, environmental impact assessment, safety analysis report, health and safety plan, cost estimate, etc.) and the licensing process as well as the actual dismantling activities could provide a model to other countries involved in the project. It is expected that the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P would initiate activities related to planning and funding of decommissioning activities in the participating countries if that has not yet been done.

  10. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Lukic, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-15

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  11. The Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hans D. Gougar; David A. Petti

    2011-06-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) and Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) are types of nuclear power plants that, as the names imply, operate at temperatures above those of the conventional nuclear power plants that currently generate electricity in the US and other countries. Like existing nuclear plants, heat generated from the fission of uranium or plutonium atoms is carried off by a working fluid and can be used generate electricity. The very hot working fluid also enables the VHTR to drive other industrial processes that require high temperatures not achievable by conventional nuclear plants (Figure 1). For this reason, the VHTR is being considered for non-electrical energy applications. The reactor and power conversion system are constructed using special materials that make a core meltdown virtually impossible.

  12. Space-nuclear-reactor questions

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.E.

    1983-08-01

    Mobile high-power versatility is a critical US space requirement. This capability can derive from the ranks of currently contending space nuclear reactors (SNR's). In the selection of appropriate SNR candidates the primary SPAR, SP-100 rationale provides an excellent goal: quick, economical SNR development based on proven technology. Such an achievement necessitates a substantial accumulation of positive fueled experience for the specific reactor configuration. That qualification characterizes in-core thermionic energy conversion (TEC), ROVER, to a much lesser degree gas-cooled particulate-bed reactors and to almost no extent at all SPAR and SP-100. Brayton cycles apparently lead the conversion race. But if liquid-dropradiator capabilities for these applications fall short of their projections, closed-cycle Brayton will yield to TEC, Rankine or MHD. Perhaps the best SNR value combines in-core TEC for near-term capability and ROVER evolutions for long-range goals.

  13. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  14. Optimization of Stellarator Reactor Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F.; Ku, L.P.; Garabedian, P.; El-Guebaly, L.; Bromberg, L.

    2005-04-15

    Four quasi-axisymmetric compact stellarator plasma and coil configurations are analyzed for their potential as reactors. A 0-D (volume-average) approach for optimizing the main reactor parameters allows study of the relationship between global parameters and the compatibility of different constraints for a given power output including plasma-coil spacing, coil-coil spacing, maximum field and coil current density, neutron wall loading, plasma beta value, etc. The result is reactor candidates with average major radii in the 6-7 m range, a factor of two smaller than those of previous studies. A 1-D power balance code is used to study the ignited operating point and the effect of different plasma and confinement assumptions including density and temperature profiles, alpha particle losses, and helium particle confinement time for the different plasma and coil configurations.

  15. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  16. Reactor vessel stud thread protector

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparro, M.R.

    1989-04-04

    This patent describes a stud thread protector for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The vessel has a removable closure head, the closure head being sealingly engaged with the pressure vessel by a plurality of stud bolts, an upper end thereof having a threaded section for threadingly engaging a nut and a vertical bore being disposed within the stud bolt. The stud thread protector encloses the exposed upper portion of the bolt and associated nut projecting above the closure head. The reactor vessel stud thread protector is comprised of: a tubular wall portion being opened at its lower end and substantially closed at its upper end; a drip pan associated with the outer surface of the protector, the drip pan being disposed radially inwardly with respect to the outer periphery of the vessel head, whereby the drip pan collects any fluid being emitted from the reactor vessel; and means for fastening the stud thread protector to an associated stud.

  17. Prospects for toroidal fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    Work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak has refined understanding of the realities of a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning magnetic fusion reactor. An ITER-like tokamak reactor using ITER costs and performance would lead to a cost of electricity (COE) of about 130 mills/kWh. Advanced tokamak physics to be tested in the Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX), coupled with moderate components in engineering, technology, and unit costs, should lead to a COE comparable with best existing fission systems around 60 mills/kWh. However, a larger unit size, {approximately}2000 MW(e), is favored for the fusion system. Alternative toroidal configurations to the conventional tokamak, such as the stellarator, reversed-field pinch, and field-reversed configuration, offer some potential advantage, but are less well developed, and have their own challenges.

  18. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  19. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  20. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  1. SP-100 space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

  2. DOE's way-out reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1986-03-21

    The SP-100 reactor, envisioned long before Star Wars, was to power civilian structures such as the space station and orbiting commercial labs. According to the SDI Organization, it will be the cornerstone for SDI, used as a no-maintenance, general source of energy for the military's infrastructure - weapons scale power will come later. DOE wants to spend $72 in FY 1977 to design and build these reactors. Funding problems with Congress, as well as some of the technology and timetables are discussed here.

  3. New liquid-metal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Doncals, R.A.; Andre, S.K.; Porter, C.A.; Kalinowski, J.E.; Gundy, L.M.; Coffield, R.D.; Markley, R.A.

    1985-11-01

    Two liquid-metal reactor (LMR) innovations that have been evolving in the US over the last decade have made possible a new reactor concept which incorporates both unsurpassed inherent safety and long core life capability. Individually, these innovations offer significant technical merit; however, their complementary nature makes the union of inherent safety and long-life technologies an even more attractive LMR precept. This paper describes the manner in which the Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division is approaching the integration of these two promising concepts and discusses some performance predictions and relative merits of this new LMR.

  4. Reactor Application for Coaching Newbies

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-06-17

    RACCOON is a Moose based reactor physics application designed to engage undergraduate and first-year graduate students. The code contains capabilities to solve the multi group Neutron Diffusion equation in eigenvalue and fixed source form and will soon have a provision to provide simple thermal feedback. These capabilities are sufficient to solve example problems found in Duderstadt & Hamilton (the typical textbook of senior level reactor physics classes). RACCOON does not contain any advanced capabilities asmore » found in YAK.« less

  5. From CANDLE reactor to pebble-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X. N.; Maschek, W.

    2006-07-01

    This paper attempts to reveal theoretically, by studying a diffusion-burn-up coupled neutronic model, that a so-called CANDLE reactor and a pebble-bed type reactor have a common burn-up feature. As already known, a solitary burn-up wave that can develop in the common U-Pu and Th-U conversion processes is the basic mechanism of the CANDLE reactor. In this paper it is demonstrated that a family of burn-up wave solution exists in the boundary value problem characterizing a pebble bed reactor, in which the fuel is loaded from above into the core and unloaded from bottom. Among this solution family there is a particular case, namely, a partial solitary wave solution, which begins from the fuel entrance side and extends into infinity on the exit side, and has a maximal bum-up rate in this family. An example dealing with the {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U conversion chain is studied and the solutions are presented in order to show the mechanism of the burn-up wave. (authors)

  6. (Safety related reactor physics calculation for HTGR type reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, J.C.

    1989-10-21

    To address certain needs for validation data for gas-cooled reactors, a series of criticals are being planned at the PROTEUS facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Wuerenlingen, Switzerland. The International Atomic Energy Agency is establishing a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) to provide a means for interested member countries to participate in the PROTEUS review.

  7. Challenges in the Development of Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M.C. Teague; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; M.W. Patterson

    2012-08-01

    Past generations of nuclear reactors have been successively developed and the next generation is currently being developed, demonstrating the constant progress and technical and industrial vitality of nuclear energy. In 2000 US Department of Energy launched Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is one of the main international frameworks for the development of future nuclear systems. The six systems that were selected were: sodium cooled fast reactor, lead cooled fast reactor, supercritical water cooled reactor, very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR), gas cooled fast reactor and molten salt reactor. This paper discusses some of the proposed advanced reactor concepts that are currently being researched to varying degrees in the United States, and highlights some of the major challenges these concepts must overcome to establish their feasibility and to satisfy licensing requirements.

  8. International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken a program to lay the groundwork for defining proactive actions to manage degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs). This article discusses the international forum for reactor aging management.

  9. RACEWAY REACTOR FOR MICROALGAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed mathematical model incorporating mass transfer, hydraulics, carbonate/aquatic chemistry, biokinetics, biology and reactor design will be calibrated and validated using the data to be generated from the experiments. The practical feasibility of the proposed reactor...

  10. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, Lawrence R. (Schenectady, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

  11. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  12. Biomass pyrolysis with an entrained flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M.S.; Benham, C.B.

    1984-02-01

    A tubular entrained flow reactor has been used to study the effect of process variables on biomass pyrolysis. In this type of reactor, finely ground biomass particles are entrained by carrier gas and transported through a reactor tube which is heated to about 900/sup 0/C. Biomass particles pyrolyze as a result of heat transfer from the reactor wall yielding a gas composed primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. In this experimental program three dependent variables, percent conversion to gas, gas composition, and process heat, have been measured as a function of several process control variables. These process variables include reactor temperature, carrier gas to biomass flow ratio, reactor residence time, biomass particle size, and reactor Reynolds number. The data allow one to design and predict the performance of large-scale reactors and also elucidate heat transfer mechanisms in biomass pyrolysis.

  13. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  14. Kinetics of downflow anaerobic attached growth reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.J.; Hamoda, M.F.; Droste, R.L.

    1987-04-01

    This study examines basic reactor operating parameters to be used in DSF reactor design with an optimum surface area to volume ratio, determines kinetic constants, and predicts reactor performance. It includes a comparison of two different substrates, a carbohydrate and a fatty acid. The model gave a good fit to the experimental data obtained and showed that the DSF reactor can successfully treat different wastewaters of various organic strengths at relatively high organic loading rates and short HRTs. (Refs. 27).

  15. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  16. Digital computer operation of a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Colley, Robert W. (Richland, WA)

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for the safe operation of a complex system such as a nuclear reactor using a digital computer. The computer is supplied with a data base containing a list of the safe state of the reactor and a list of operating instructions for achieving a safe state when the actual state of the reactor does not correspond to a listed safe state, the computer selects operating instructions to return the reactor to a safe state.

  17. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides. PMID:16604724

  18. Designing the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.

    1987-02-09

    The primary goal in designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors is to produce electrical power as inexpensively as possible, with minimum activation and without compromising safety. This paper discusses a method for designing the Cascade rotating ceramic-granule-blanket reactor (Pitts, 1985) and its associated power plant (Pitts and Maya, 1985). Although focus is on the cascade reactor, the design method and issues presented are applicable to most other ICF reactors.

  19. Digital computer operation of a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Colley, R.W.

    1982-06-29

    A method is described for the safe operation of a complex system such as a nuclear reactor using a digital computer. The computer is supplied with a data base containing a list of the safe state of the reactor and a list of operating instructions for achieving a safe state when the actual state of the reactor does not correspond to a listed safe state, the computer selects operating instructions to return the reactor to a safe state.

  20. Fission energy: The integral fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yoon I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory as a such next- generation reactor concept. The IFR concept has a number of specific technical advantages that collectively address the potential difficulties facing the expansion of nuclear power deployment. In particular, the IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next-generation reactor as discussed below. This document discusses these requirements.

  1. INVESTIGATIONS WITH MERCURY FLOW REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the research performed in the Mercury Flow Reactor is to investigate short residence-time (seconds) adsorption of mercury species using different sorbents. Emphasis is placed on the effects of mercury concentration, flow rates, reaction temperatures, exposure ti...

  2. SP-100 Reactor Subsystem Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Scott F.

    1994-07-01

    The SP-100 reactor subsystem consists of the pressure vessel, vessel internals, and fuel elements. Type A (standard) Nb-1Zr and rhenium materials development efforts related to fabrication of the vessel, vessel internals, and fuel cladding/liner have been completed. Type A and Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr loop fabrication has been successfully demonstrated by prototypic testing with flowing lithium at 1350 K for 1500 hr. Development of UN fuel has been completed, and the performance validated by irradiation testing to the full life (7 yr. full power) burnup of 6 atom %. Neutronic and hydraulic core performance have been validated by engineering mockup critical experiments in the Zero Power Physics Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, and detailed core hydraulic flow testing with water. Essentially all feasibility issues have been settled for the full life SP-100 reactor subsystem. Remaining SP-100 reactor subsystem development efforts are focused on further reducing mass by the use of Type C (PWC-11) Nb-1Zr rather than Type A, and demonstrating fuel life for beyond full life to perhaps 9 atom % burnup.

  3. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  4. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  5. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  6. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1998-04-14

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  7. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1996-04-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  8. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1995-11-07

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  9. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  10. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1998-06-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  11. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  12. Petascale algorithms for reactor hydrodynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.; Lottes, J.; Pointer, W. D.; Siegel, A.

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent algorithmic developments that have enabled large eddy simulations of reactor flows on up to P = 65, 000 processors on the IBM BG/P at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. Petascale computing is expected to play a pivotal role in the design and analysis of next-generation nuclear reactors. Argonne's SHARP project is focused on advanced reactor simulation, with a current emphasis on modeling coupled neutronics and thermal-hydraulics (TH). The TH modeling comprises a hierarchy of computational fluid dynamics approaches ranging from detailed turbulence computations, using DNS (direct numerical simulation) and LES (large eddy simulation), to full core analysis based on RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) and subchannel models. Our initial study is focused on LES of sodium-cooled fast reactor cores. The aim is to leverage petascale platforms at DOE's Leadership Computing Facilities (LCFs) to provide detailed information about heat transfer within the core and to provide baseline data for less expensive RANS and subchannel models.

  13. Turbulence may sink titanic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glanz, J.

    1996-12-06

    The $10 billion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project is meant to show that fusion is a practical energy source, but a new set of calculations says ITER will fizzle. This article describes the expectations and the projections about its future, as well as the challenges recently mounted using new calculations. 3 figs.

  14. High temperature catalytic membrane reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e. dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result, the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost of reactants and energy.

  15. Catalytic reactor with disposable cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Catalytic reactor, disposable cartridge enclosing iron catalyst, acts as container for solid carbon formed by decomposition of carbon monoxide. Deposition of carbon in other parts of oxygen recovery system does not occur because of lack of catalytic activity; filters trap carbon particles and prevent their being transported outside reaction zone.

  16. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  17. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  18. Advances by the Integral Fast Reactor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lineberry, M.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The advances by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, improved passive safety, and the development of a prototype fuel cycle facility. 14 refs.

  19. Irradiation Facilities at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the third generation and largest test reactor built in the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC – formerly known as the Test Reactor Area), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to study the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The RTC was established in the early 1950s with the development of the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), which operated until 1970. The second major reactor was the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), which operated from 1957 to 1981, and finally the ATR, which began operation in 1967 and will continue operation well into the future. These reactors have produced a significant portion of the world’s data on materials response to reactor environments. The wide range of experiment facilities in the ATR and the unique ability to vary the neutron flux in different areas of the core allow numerous experiment conditions to co-exist during the same reactor operating cycle. Simple experiments may involve a non-instrumented capsule containing test specimens with no real-time monitoring or control capabilities1. More sophisticated testing facilities include inert gas temperature control systems and pressurized water loops that have continuous chemistry, pressure, temperature, and flow control as well as numerous test specimen monitoring capabilities. There are also apparatus that allow for the simulation of reactor transients on test specimens.

  20. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  1. STEAM STIRRED HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-06-01

    A homogeneous nuclear reactor utilizing a selfcirculating liquid fuel is described. The reactor vessel is in the form of a vertically disposed tubular member having the lower end closed by the tube walls and the upper end closed by a removal fianged assembly. A spherical reaction shell is located in the lower end of the vessel and spaced from the inside walls. The reaction shell is perforated on its lower surface and is provided with a bundle of small-diameter tubes extending vertically upward from its top central portion. The reactor vessel is surrounded in the region of the reaction shell by a neutron reflector. The liquid fuel, which may be a solution of enriched uranyl sulfate in ordinary or heavy water, is mainiained at a level within the reactor vessel of approximately the top of the tubes. The heat of the reaction which is created in the critical region within the spherical reaction shell forms steam bubbles which more upwardly through the tubes. The upward movement of these bubbles results in the forcing of the liquid fuel out of the top of these tubes, from where the fuel passes downwardly in the space between the tubes and the vessel wall where it is cooled by heat exchangers. The fuel then re-enters the critical region in the reaction shell through the perforations in the bottom. The upper portion of the reactor vessel is provided with baffles to prevent the liquid fuel from splashing into this region which is also provided with a recombiner apparatus for recombining the radiolytically dissociated moderator vapor and a control means.

  2. Nuclear reactor containing connecting means for connecting a reactor vessel and at least one receiver vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, G.; De Luca, R.A.

    1988-04-12

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel containing a reactor core and means for employing a liquid metal for absorbing heat generated within the reactor core and an inlet entering the reactor core for receiving cool liquid metal; (b) at least one receiver vessel for receiving the hot liquid metal from the reactor vessel; (c) a hot leg connecting means removably connected to the reactor vessel and the at least one reveiver vessel providing a pathway for the flow of the hot liquid metal from the reactor vessel to the at least one receiver vessel; (d) a cold leg connecting means removably connected to the reactor vessel and the at least one receiver vessel and providing a pathway for the flow of cool liquid metal from the at least one receiver vessel to the reactor vessel, the cold leg connecting means.

  3. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  4. Savannah River Site production reactor technical specifications. K Production Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    These technical specifications are explicit restrictions on the operation of the Savannah River Site K Production Reactor. They are designed to preserve the validity of the plant safety analysis by ensuring that the plant is operated within the required conditions bounded by the analysis, and with the operable equipment that is assumed to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Technical specifications preserve the primary success path relied upon to detect and respond to accidents. This report describes requirements on thermal-hydraulic limits; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance for the reactor, power distribution control, instrumentation, process water system, emergency cooling and emergency shutdown systems, confinement systems, plant systems, electrical systems, components handling, and special test exceptions; design features; and administrative controls.

  5. (Severe accident technology of BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.

    1989-10-23

    The traveler attended the 1989 CORA Workshop at KfK, FRG. Participation included the presentation included the presentation of three papers on work performed by the Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident analyses. The Statement of Work (June 1989) for the BWRSAT Program provides for code analyses of the BWR CORA experiments performed at KfK. Additionally, it is intended that BWRSAT personnel participate in the planning process for future CORA BWR experiments. For these purposes, meetings were held with KfK staff to arrange for acquisition of detailed CORA facility drawings, experimental data, and related engineering. 17 refs.

  6. Decommissioning a nuclear reactor. [Water Boiler Reactor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The process of decommissioning a facility such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant presents many waste management options and concerns. Waste minimization is a primary consideration, along with protecting a personnel and the environment. Waste management is complicated in that both radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes must be dealt with. This paper presents the general decommissioning approach of a recent project at Los Alamos. Included are the following technical objectives: site characterization work that provided a thorough physical, chemical, and radiological assessment of the contamination at the site; demonstration of the safe and cost-effective dismantlement of a highly contaminated and activated nuclear-fuelded reactor; and techniques used in minimizing radioactive and hazardous waste. 12 figs.

  7. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Olson, A.P.; Wade, D.C.; Robinson, B.W.

    1984-06-05

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion. 8 figs.

  8. Self isolating high frequency saturable reactor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A. (Powell, TN)

    1998-06-23

    The present invention discloses a saturable reactor and a method for decoupling the interwinding capacitance from the frequency limitations of the reactor so that the equivalent electrical circuit of the saturable reactor comprises a variable inductor. The saturable reactor comprises a plurality of physically symmetrical magnetic cores with closed loop magnetic paths and a novel method of wiring a control winding and a RF winding. The present invention additionally discloses a matching network and method for matching the impedances of a RF generator to a load. The matching network comprises a matching transformer and a saturable reactor.

  9. Refurbishment of existing research reactors for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Jatuff, F.E.; Gessaghi, V.

    1997-12-01

    Some research reactors have been selected for the development of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the United States like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology research reactor, the University of Missouri research reactor 2 or the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, among others. These reactors have received excellent analyses and designs to accommodate extremely optimized beam shaping assemblies (BSAs) for the proper tuning of neutron spectra and absorption of undesired particles such as photons and fast neutrons. Due to the importance of BNCT in these facilities, the physicists and engineers have used many degrees of freedom for the optimization process.

  10. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, N S

    2008-09-07

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  11. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F. (Naperville, IL); Olson, Arne P. (Western Springs, IL); Wade, David C. (Naperville, IL); Robinson, Bryan W. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1984-01-01

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion.

  12. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, several configurational approaches and concept improvement schemes were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These configurations include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator-snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each of these configurations have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties. Results indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  13. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  14. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Idaho Falls, ID); West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a fety control rod to desired positions within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump/motor, an electric gear motor, and solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

  15. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  16. Fission fragment assisted reactor concept for space propulsion: Foil reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is to fabricate a reactor using thin films or foils of uranium, uranium oxide and then to coat them on substrates. These coatings would be made so thin as to allow the escaping fission fragments to directly heat a hydrogen propellant. The idea was studied of direct gas heating and direct gas pumping in a nuclear pumped laser program. Fission fragments were used to pump lasers. In this concept two substrates are placed opposite each other. The internal faces are coated with thin foil of uranium oxide. A few of the advantages of this technology are listed. In general, however, it is felt that if one look at all solid core nuclear thermal rockets or nuclear thermal propulsion methods, one is going to find that they all pretty much look the same. It is felt that this reactor has higher potential reliability. It has low structural operating temperatures, very short burn times, with graceful failure modes, and it has reduced potential for energetic accidents. Going to a design like this would take the NTP community part way to some of the very advanced engine designs, such as the gas core reactor, but with reduced risk because of the much lower temperatures.

  17. Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, K.R.; Trinh, T.Q.; Luker, S. M.

    2011-07-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

  18. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki; Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki; GOTO, Shoji

    2006-07-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)

  19. Safety control circuit for a neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Ellsworth, Howard C. (Richland, WA)

    2004-04-27

    A neutronic reactor comprising an active portion containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy, means to control a neutronic chain reaction within the reactor comprising a safety device and a regulating device, a safety device including means defining a vertical channel extending into the reactor from an aperture in the upper surface of the reactor, a rod containing neutron-absorbing materials slidably disposed within the channel, means for maintaining the safety rod in a withdrawn position relative to the active portion of the reactor including means for releasing said rod on actuation thereof, a hopper mounted above the active portion of the reactor having a door disposed at the bottom of the hopper opening into the vertical channel, a plurality of bodies of neutron-absorbing materials disposed within the hopper, and means responsive to the failure of the safety rod on actuation thereof to enter the active portion of the reactor for opening the door in the hopper.

  20. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOEpatents

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  1. Design analysis of the upgraded TREAT reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The TREAT reactor, fueled by a dilute dispersion of fully enriched UO/sub 2/ in graphite, has been a premier transient testing facility since 1959. A major Upgrade of the reactor is in progress to enhance its transient testing capability in support of the LMFBR safety program. The TREAT Upgrade (TU) reactor features a modified central zone of the core with higher fissile loadings of the same fuel, clad in Inconel to allow operation at higher temperatures. The demanding functional requirements on the reactor necessitated the use of unique features in the core design which, in turn, presented major calculational complexities in the analysis. Special design methods had to be used in many cases to treat these complexities. The addition of an improved Reactor Control System, a safety grade Plant Protection System and an enhanced Coolant/Filtration System produces a reactor that can meet the functional requirements on the reactor in a safe manner.

  2. Requirements for Reactor Physics Design

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond,D.J.

    2008-04-11

    It has been recognized that there is a need for requirements and guidance for design and operation of nuclear power plants. This is becoming more important as more reactors are being proposed to be built. In parallel with activities in individual countries are norms established by international organizations. This paper discusses requirements/guidance for neutronic design and operation as promulgated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). As an example, details are given for one reactor physics parameter, namely, the moderator temperature reactivity coefficient. The requirements/guidance from the NRC are discussed in the context of those generated for the International Atomic Energy Agency. The requirements/guidance are not identical from the two sources although they are compatible.

  3. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  4. Multigroup Reactor Lattice Cell Calculation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-03-01

    The Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS), is a general code for reactor lattice cell calculations on a wide range of reactor systems. In particular, the code will accept rod or plate fuel geometries in either regular arrays or in clusters, and the energy group structure has been chosen primarily for thermal calculations. The basic library has been compiled with 14 fast groups, 13 resonance groups and 42 thermal groups, but the user is offered themore » choice of accurate solutions in many groups or rapid calculations in few groups. Temperature dependent thermal scattering matrices for a variety of scattering laws are available in the library for the principal moderators which include hydrogen, deuterium, graphite, beryllium and oxygen. WIMSD5 is a succesor version of WIMS-D/4.« less

  5. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

  6. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  7. Advanced light water reactor requirements document: Chapter 3, Reactor coolant system and reactor non-safety auxiliary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this chapter of the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Plant Requirements Document is to establish utility requirements for the design of the Reactor Coolant System and the Reactor Non-safety Auxiliary Systems of Advanced LWR plants consistent with the objectives and principles of the ALWR program. The scope of this chapter covers the reactor coolant system and reactor non-safety auxiliary systems for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Non-safety auxiliaries include systems which are required for normal operation of the plant but are not required to operate for accident mitigation or to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition. For PWRs, the reactor coolant system, steam generator system, chemical and volume control system and boron recycle system are included. For BWRs, the reactor coolant system and reactor water cleanup system are included. The chapter also includes requirements for the above systems which are common to BWRs and PWRs and requirements for process sampling for BWRs and PWRs.

  8. International standards for reactor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J. M.; Londono, C.

    2006-07-01

    The role of normative standards is to enhance the economic competitiveness of a nation by facilitating the free exchange of goods and services. Approximately 80 percent of all globally traded products are affected by standards and regulations that embody standards. In the present paper we provide a general discussion about the role of normative standards both in the United States and globally, and conclude with a specific discussion of international standards in the area of reactor technology. (authors)

  9. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  10. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, M.

    1982-06-15

    A liquid metal reactor comprising a vessel containing the core and liquid metal, at least one heat exchanger ensuring a heat exchange between said liquid metal and a second fluid, a first duct connecting said vessel with the inlet of said exchanger and a second duct connecting said vessel with the outlet of said exchanger. Means are provided for restricting the movement of said exchanger in two directions perpendicular to the direction of said first duct.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR COMPENENT CLADDING MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Draley, J.E.; Ruther, W.E.

    1959-01-27

    Fuel elements and coolant tubes used in nuclear reactors of the heterogeneous, water-cooled type are described, wherein the coolant tubes extend through the moderator and are adapted to contain the fuel elements. The invention comprises forming the coolant tubes and the fuel element cladding material from an alloy of aluminum and nickel, or an alloy of aluminum, nickel, alloys are selected to prevent intergranular corrosion of these components by water at temperatures up to 35O deg C.

  12. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shawn; McAlpine, William; Lipinski, Ronald

    2006-01-20

    A nuclear reactor system could provide power to support long term human exploration of the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency. The goals of the shielding studies were to determine a material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX, a Monte Carlo transport code. Lithium hydride must be kept between 600 K and 700 K to prevent excessive swelling from large amounts of gamma or neutron irradiation. The issue is that radiation damage causes separation of the lithium and the hydrogen, resulting in lithium metal and hydrogen gas. The proposed design uses a layer of B4C to reduce the combined neutron and gamma dose to below 0.5Grads before the LiH is introduced. Below 0.5Grads the swelling in LiH is small (less than about 1%) for all temperatures. This approach causes the shield to be heavier than if the B4C were replaced by LiH, but it makes the shield much more robust and reliable.

  13. Assessment of stellarators as reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, J. F.

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors: no dangerous disruptions, no need for continuous current drive and power recirculated to the plasma, less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles, and access from the inboard side for easier maintenance. The U.S. is starting a multi-year multi-institutional stellarator reactor study whose purpose is to 'identify and assess the feasibility of critical issues and their consequences for development of the stellarator concept as a steady-state fusion reactor.' The activities during the first year are focusing on physics optimization and selection of one or more stellarator coil configurations for more detailed engineering design evaluation. The physics team is focusing on torsatron modularization, modular stellarators with lower aspect ratio, the divertor geometry, development of transport models, and overall system studies. The engineering team is studying design issues relating to minimizing the inboard thickness of the blanket and shields, the feasibility of the superconducting magnets, and maintenance schemes.

  14. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  15. The Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Shane; Robinson, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The 20-MW Australian Replacement Research Reactor represents possibly the greatest single research infrastructure investment in Australia's history. Construction of the facility has commenced, following award of the construction contract in July 2000, and the construction licence in April 2002. The project includes a large state-of-the-art liquid deuterium cold-neutron source and supermirror guides feeding a large modern guide hall, in which most of the instruments are placed. Alongside the guide hall, there is good provision of laboratory, office and space for support activities. While the facility has "space" for up to 18 instruments, the project has funding for an initial set of 8 instruments, which will be ready when the reactor is fully operational in July 2006. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere, and our goal is to be in the top 3 such facilities worldwide. Staff to lead the design effort and man these instruments have been hired on the international market from leading overseas facilities, and from within Australia, and 7 out of 8 instruments have been specified and costed. At present the instrumentation project carries 10contingency. An extensive dialogue has taken place with the domestic user community and our international peers, via various means including a series of workshops over the last 2 years covering all 8 instruments, emerging areas of application like biology and the earth sciences, and computing infrastructure for the instruments.

  16. Russian RBMK reactor design information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document concerns the systems, design, and operations of the graphite-moderated, boiling, water-cooled, channel-type (RBMK) reactors located in the former Soviet Union (FSU). The Russian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Safety Institute (NSI) in Moscow, Russia, researched specific technical questions that were formulated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and provided detailed technical answers to those questions. The Russian response was prepared in English by NSI in a question-and-answer format. This report presents the results of that technical exchange in the context they were received from the NSI organization. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is generating this document to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) community in responding to requests from FSU states, which are seeking Western technological and financial assistance to improve the safety systems of the Russian-designed reactors. This report expands upon information that was previously available to the United States through bilateral information exchanges, international nuclear society meetings, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reactor safety programs, and Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) reports. The response to the PNL questions have not been edited or reviewed for technical consistency or accuracy by PNL staff or other US organizations, but are provided for use by the DOE community in the form they were received.

  17. Launch of Russian reactor postponed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-05

    Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

  18. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  19. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  20. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Fiorentini, Giovanni; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara; Strati, Virginia; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-03-01

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework, we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO +), and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA, and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation, and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo-based approach, which provides an overall site-dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes, and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of ten years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.

  1. Jules Horowitz Reactor: a high performance material testing reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iracane, Daniel; Chaix, Pascal; Alamo, Ana

    2008-04-01

    The physical modelling of materials' behaviour under severe conditions is an indispensable element for developing future fission and fusion systems: screening, design, optimisation, processing, licensing, and lifetime assessment of a new generation of structure materials and fuels, which will withstand high fast neutron flux at high in-service temperatures with the production of elements like helium and hydrogen. JANNUS and other analytical experimental tools are developed for this objective. However, a purely analytical approach is not sufficient: there is a need for flexible experiments integrating higher scales and coupled phenomena and offering high quality measurements; these experiments are performed in material testing reactors (MTR). Moreover, complementary representative experiments are usually performed in prototypes or dedicated facilities such as IFMIF for fusion. Only such a consistent set of tools operating on a wide range of scales, can provide an actual prediction capability. A program such as the development of silicon carbide composites (600-1200 °C) illustrates this multiscale strategy. Facing the long term needs of experimental irradiations and the ageing of present MTRs, it was thought necessary to implement a new generation high performance MTR in Europe for supporting existing and future nuclear reactors. The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) project copes with this context. It is funded by an international consortium and will start operation in 2014. JHR will provide improved performances such as high neutron flux ( 10 n/cm/s above 0.1 MeV) in representative environments (coolant, pressure, temperature) with online monitoring of experimental parameters (including stress and strain control). Experimental devices designing, such as high dpa and small thermal gradients experiments, is now a key objective requiring a broad collaboration to put together present scientific state of art, end-users requirements and advanced instrumentation. To cite this article: D. Iracane et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  2. Evaluation of in-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling for integral reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R. J.; Lee, J. R.; Kim, S. B.; Jin, Y.; Kim, H. Y.

    2012-07-01

    In-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) for a small integral reactor has been evaluated to determine the thermal margin for the prevention of a reactor vessel failure. A thermal load analysis from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel wall in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel has been performed to determine the heat flux distribution. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the outer reactor vessel wall has been determined to fix the maximum heat removal rate through the external coolant between the outer reactor vessel and the insulation of the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal margin has been evaluated by comparison of the thermal load with the maximum heat removal rate of the CHF on the outer reactor vessel wall. The maximum heat flux from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel is estimated at approximately 0.25 MW/m{sup 2} in the metallic layer because of the focusing effect. The CHF of the outer reactor vessel is approximately 1.1 MW/m{sup 2} because of a two phase natural circulation mass flow. Since the thermal margin for the IVR-ERVC is sufficient, the reactor vessel integrity is maintained during a severe accident of a small integral reactor. (authors)

  3. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Weng, C.K. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lindsay, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  4. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Weng, C.K.; Lindsay, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  5. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homeyer, W. G.; Merrill, M. H.; Holland, J. W.; Fisher, C. R.; Allen, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic reactor designs for a variety of space power applications spanning the range from 5 kWe to 3 MWe are described. In all of these reactors, nuclear heat is converted directly to electrical energy in thermionic fuel elements (TFEs). A circulating reactor coolant carries heat from the core of TFEs directly to a heat rejection radiator system. The recent design of a thermionic reactor to meet the SP-100 requirements is emphasized. Design studies of reactors at other power levels show that the same TFE can be used over a broad range in power, and that design modifications can extend the range to many megawatts. The design of the SP-100 TFE is similar to that of TFEs operated successfully in test reactors, but with design improvements to extend the operating lifetime to seven years.

  6. PID Control Effectiveness for Surface Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, David D.; Marsh, Christopher L.; Poston, David I.

    2007-01-30

    Control of space and surface fission reactors should be kept as simple as possible, because of the need for high reliability and the difficulty to diagnose and adapt to control system failures. Fortunately, compact, fast-spectrum, externally controlled reactors are very simple in operation. In fact, for some applications it may be possible to design low-power surface reactors without the need for any reactor control after startup; however, a simple proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller can allow a higher performance concept and add more flexibility to system operation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of a PID control scheme for several anticipated transients that a surface reactor might experience. To perform these analyses, the surface reactor transient code FRINK was modified to simulate control drum movements based on bulk coolant temperature.

  7. Antineutrino Monitoring for Heavy Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Eric; Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas E.

    2014-07-01

    In this Letter we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a nonproliferation measure. An above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet IAEA verification goals for reactor plutonium inventories. While detectors with the needed spectral sensitivity have been demonstrated below ground, additional research and development is needed to demonstrate an above-ground detector with this same level of sensitivity. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shut down, provided very low detector backgrounds can be achieved. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to reestablish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary.

  8. Antineutrino monitoring for heavy water reactors.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Eric; Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas E

    2014-07-25

    In this Letter we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a nonproliferation measure. An above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet IAEA verification goals for reactor plutonium inventories. While detectors with the needed spectral sensitivity have been demonstrated below ground, additional research and development is needed to demonstrate an above-ground detector with this same level of sensitivity. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shut down, provided very low detector backgrounds can be achieved. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to reestablish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary. PMID:25105612

  9. Relicensing of the MIT Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin-Wen Hu; John A. Bernard; Susan Tucker

    2000-06-04

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Reactor (MITR) is owned and operated by MIT, a nonprofit university. The current reactor, MITR-II, is a 5-MW, light water-cooled and heavy water-moderated reactor that uses materials test reactor-type fuel. Documents supporting application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for relicensing of MITR were submitted in July 1999. A power upgrade from 5 to 6 MW was also requested. The relicensed reactor (MITR-III) will be the third reactor operated by MIT. This paper describes MITR-I and MITR-II, and design options considered for MITR-III. Selected problems addressed during the relicensing studies are also described, namely core tank aging evaluation, neutronic analysis, thermal-hydraulic analysis, and step reactivity insertion analysis.

  10. Silane-Pyrolysis Reactor With Nonuniform Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K.

    1991-01-01

    Improved reactor serves as last stage in system processing metallurgical-grade silicon feedstock into silicon powder of ultrahigh purity. Silane pyrolized to silicon powder and hydrogen gas via homogeneous decomposition reaction in free space. Features set of individually adjustable electrical heaters and purge flow of hydrogen to improve control of pyrolysis conditions. Power supplied to each heater set in conjunction with flow in reactor to obtain desired distribution of temperature as function of position along reactor.

  11. Neutron shielding panels for reactor pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-11-22

    In a nuclear reactor neutron panels varying in thickness in the circumferential direction are disposed at spaced circumferential locations around the reactor core so that the greatest radial thickness is at the point of highest fluence with lesser thicknesses at adjacent locations where the fluence level is lower. The neutron panels are disposed between the core barrel and the interior of the reactor vessel to maintain radiation exposure to the vessel within acceptable limits.

  12. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  13. D-D tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.E. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Finn, P.A.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A tokamak D-D reactor design, utilizing the advantages of a deuterium-fueled reactor but with parameters not unnecessarily extended from existing D-T designs, is presented. Studies leading to the choice of a design and initial studies of the design are described. The studies are in the areas of plasma engineering, first-wall/blanket/shield design, magnet design, and tritium/fuel/vacuum requirements. Conclusions concerning D-D tokamak reactors are stated.

  14. Fuel handling apparatus for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Basil C. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Fuel handling apparatus for transporting fuel elements into and out of a nuclear reactor and transporting them within the reactor vessel extends through a penetration in the side of the reactor vessel. A lateral transport device carries the fuel elements laterally within the vessel and through the opening in the side of the vessel, and a reversible lifting device raises and lowers the fuel elements. In the preferred embodiment, the lifting device is supported by a pair of pivot arms.

  15. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  16. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposes to build a nuclear research reactor which will be located in the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this report is to inform the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in regard to the design Lq of the reactor facility, the characteristics of the site, and the hazards of operation at this location. The purpose of this research reactor is to make pumped loop studies of aircraft reactor fuel elements and other reactor components, radiation effects studies on aircraft reactor materials and equipment, shielding studies, and nuclear and solid state physics experiments. The reactor is light water cooled and moderated of the MTR-type with a primary beryllium reflector and a secondary water reflector. The core initially will be a 3 by 9 array of MTR-type fuel elements and is designed for operation up to a power of 60 megawatts. The reactor facility is described in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the nuclear characteristics and performance of the reactor. Then details of the reactor control system are discussed. A summary of the site characteristics is then presented followed by a discussion of the larger type of experiments which may eventually be operated in this facility. The considerations for normal operation are concluded with a proposed method of handling fuel elements and radioactive wastes. The potential hazards involved with failures or malfunctions of this facility are considered in some detail. These are examined first from the standpoint of preventing them or minimizing their effects and second from the standpoint of what effect they might have on the reactor facility staff and the surrounding population. The most essential feature of the design for location at the proposed site is containment of the maximum credible accident.

  17. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    ScienceCinema

    none,

    2014-05-30

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  18. Energy deposition in STARFIRE reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Brooks, J.N.

    1985-04-01

    The energy deposition in the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor was calculated based on detailed models for the different reactor components. The heat deposition and the 14 MeV neutron flux poloidal distributions in the first wall were obtained. The poloidal surface heat load distribution in the first wall was calculated from the plasma radiation. The Monte Carlo method was used for the calculation to allow an accurate modeling for the reactor geometry.

  19. Fission control system for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Conley, G.H.; Estes, G.P.

    Control system for nuclear reactor comprises a first set of reactivity modifying rods fixed in a reactor core with their upper ends stepped in height across the core, and a second set of reactivity modifying rods movable vertically within the reactor core and having their lower ends stepped to correspond with the stepped arrangement of the first set of rods, pairs of the rods of the first and second sets being in coaxial alignment.

  20. Status of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) design

    SciTech Connect

    Tone, T.; Fujisawa, N.; Sugihara, M.

    1985-07-01

    Conceptual design studies of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) have been conducted at JAERI in line with a long-range plan for fusion reactor development laid out in the long-term program of the Atomic Energy Commission issued in 1982. The FER succeeding the tokamak device JT-60 is a tokamak reactor with a major mission of realizing a self-ignited long-burning DT plasma and demonstrating engineering feasibility. The paper describes recent developments of the FER design concept.

  1. Dynamics of heat-pipe reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederauer, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    A split-core heat pipe reactor, fueled with either U(233)C or U(235)C in a tungsten cermet and cooled by 7-Li-W heat pipes, was examined for the effects of the heat pipes on reactor while trying to safely absorb large reactivity inputs through inherent shutdown mechanisms. Limits on ramp reactivity inputs due to fuel melting temperature and heat pipe wall heat flux were mapped for the reactor in both startup and at-power operating modes.

  2. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-11-29

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  3. Probing Unparticle Physics in Reactor Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, A.

    2008-11-13

    Unparticle physics is studied by using reactor neutrino data. We obtain limits to the scalar unparticle couplings depending on different values for the parameter d. We found that, as has been already noticed, reactor neutrino data is a good tool to put constraints on unparticle physics. Thanks to a detailed analysis of the experimental characteristics of reactor data we find better constraints than the previously reported.

  4. SUPERHEATING IN A BOILING WATER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1960-05-31

    A boiling-water reactor is described in which the steam developed in the reactor is superheated in the reactor. This is accomplished by providing means for separating the steam from the water and passing the steam over a surface of the fissionable material which is not in contact with the water. Specifically water is boiled on the outside of tubular fuel elements and the steam is superheated on the inside of the fuel elements.

  5. Development of the reactor safety film

    SciTech Connect

    Sheheen, N.N.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the text and describes the processes followed to develop the first computer-generated film of LASL's Reactor Safety efforts. The 11-1/2 min film with narrative and musical background gives a brief overview of reactor components, of how LASL's Reactor Safety groups develop and verify computer codes to anticipate accidents, and of how these codes were applied to the Three Mile Island accident.

  6. LPT. EBOR (TAN646) reactor vault. Concrete blocks for reactor shielding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646) reactor vault. Concrete blocks for reactor shielding going into shield test facility pool. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: February 19, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-933 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor; The integral fast reactor (IFR) concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the integral fat reactor (IFR) concept. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel, the original choice in liquid metal reactor development. An IFR development program is detailed by the authors.

  8. Investigation of the basic reactor physics characteristics of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huy, N.Q.; Thong, H.V.; Khang, N.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Dalat nuclear research reactor was reconstructed from the TRIGA Mark II reactor, built in 1963 with a nominal power of 250 kW, and reached its planned nominal power of 500 kW for the first time in February 1984. The Dalat reactor has some characteristics distinct from the former TRIGA reactor. Investigation of its characteristics is carried out by the determination of the reactor physics parameters. This paper represents the experimental results obtained for the effective fraction of the delayed photoneutrons, the extraneous neutron source left after the reactor is shut down, the lowest power levels of reactor critical states, the relative axial and radial distributions of thermal neutrons, the safe positive reactivity inserted into the reactor at a deep subcritical state, the reactivity temperature coefficient of water, the temperature on the surface of the fuel elements, etc.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  10. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roland

    2011-08-03

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

  11. Utilization of reactor bays of decommissioned submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Lugavtsov, O.V.; Malakhov, A.G.; Popkov, K.K.

    1994-11-01

    Radiation concerns regarding dismantling and storage of decommissioned reactors and reactor bays from nuclear submarines are briefly summarized. Calculation results are presented for gamma dose rates, contamination density, and the expected location of maximum exposure dose rate on the submarine hull. However, it is noted that radiation measurements must be obtained for each ship due to differences in operating conditions. Long-term storage options for containerized reactors and reactor bays are very briefly outlined; these include placing them in concrete-lined trenches shielded from the atmosphere or in underground tunnels shielded from water. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Non-equilibrium radiation nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    An externally moderated thermal nuclear reactor is disclosed which is designed to provide output power in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The reactor is a gaseous fueled nuclear cavity reactor device which can operate over wide ranges of temperature and pressure, and which includes the capability of processing and recycling waste products such as long-lived transuranium actinides. The primary output of the device may be in the form of coherent radiation, so that the reactor may be utilized as a self-critical nuclear pumped laser.

  13. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner

    DOEpatents

    Gluekler, Emil L. (San Jose, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Lazarus, Jonathan D. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

  14. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-01

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  15. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-19

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  16. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner

    DOEpatents

    Gluekler, E.L.; Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    A nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel is described in this disclosure. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

  18. Thermomechanical analysis of fast-burst reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    Fast-burst reactors are designed to provide intense, short-duration pulses of neutrons. The fission reaction also produces extreme time-dependent heating of the nuclear fuel. An existing transient-dynamic finite element code was modified specifically to compute the time-dependent stresses and displacements due to thermal shock loads of reactors. Thermomechanical analysis was then applied to determine structural feasibility of various concepts for an EDNA-type reactor and to optimize the mechanical design of the new SPR III-M reactor.

  19. Structural materials for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria, M.; Baluc, N.; Spätig, P.

    2001-08-01

    In order to preserve the conditions for an environmentally safe machine, at present the selection of materials for the structural components of fusion reactors is made not only on the basis of adequate mechanical properties, behaviour under irradiation, and compatibility with other materials and cooling media, but also on their radiological properties, i.e. radioactivity, decay heat and radiotoxicity. These conditions strongly limit the number of suitable materials to a few families of alloys, generically known as low activation materials. The criteria for making decisions about such materials, the alloys resulting from the application of these ideas and the main issues and problems with their use in a fusion environment are discussed.

  20. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, S.

    1980-10-07

    The vault of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is lined with thermal insulation. The insulation is in two layers, a first layer cladding the vault surface is of solid ceramic material while a second layer cladding the first layer is of fibrous or metallic material. In the event of a breach of the vessel leakage of liquid metal is absorbed by the second layer providing a conduction path to the first layer thereby enhancing heat loss to the concrete of the vault and maintaining the internal temperature at a safe limit.